Microbial Genetics

Gene Transfer
Chapter 8
Genetic Recombination
‡ Vertical gene
t ransfer: Occurs
during reproduction
between generations
of cells.
‡ Horizontal gene
t ransfer: The transfer
of genes between cells
of the same
generation.
Horizontal Gene Transfer
1. Transformation
2. Transduction
3. Conj ugation
1. TRANSF ORMATI ON
Genes are t ransfer red f rom one
bacterium to another as ~naked¨ DNA
in solution.
a. naturally occurs in a few bacteria
.bacteria must be Competent
b. bacteria made competent artificially
c. approx 20 genes
Figure 8.24
Genetic Transformation
Transformation
2. Transduction
Transport of DNA f rom one bacterium to
another bacterium by a vi rus
a. Generalized vs specialized transduction
b. Phage can ~accidentally¨ pick up host DNA
during assembly: defective phage
c. Defective phage can now transfer DNA
f rom host (the Donor) to another
bacterium (Recipient)
Figure 8.28
Generalized Transduction by a Bacteriophage
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 13.13
Specialized Transduction
Transduction
3. CONJUGATI ON
Di rect t ransfer of DNA f rom bacterial
donor cell to a recipient.
a. Mediated by plasmid
b. requi res cell to cell contact: established
by pili in most Gram negative cells
c. Spread of Antibiotic resistance
d. Plasmid or Chromosome moves as
single strand of DNA..two types
Conj ugation: Transfer of a plasmid
1. Donor cell has F plasmid and hence is
refer red to as F+ . synthesis of pili
2. Recipient cell lacks F plasmid, hence
F ¯
3. Only one st rand of plasmid
t ransfer red
4. After conj ugation, both donor and
recipient become F+
Figure 8.27a
Conjugation in E. coli
Conj ugation
Plasmids
1. One/ Many types of plasmids in a single cell
eg. F, R, Ti.
2. A few or several copies of a plasmid
(high/low copy number plasmid)
3. Nar row/broad range plasmids
4. Nonessential functions car ried on
plasmids-spontaneous deletion
5. All plasmids..must be able to
replicate
Conj ugation: Transfer of a plasmid
and chromosomal DNA
1. Donor cell is Hf r : has F plasmid. How
is it different f rom F+?
2. Recipient cell lacks F plasmid, hence F ¯
3. Hfr cell conj ugates with F ¯ cell
4. End result: Hfr cell and recombinant
F ¯ cell
Figure 8.27b
Conjugation in E. coli
Figure 8.27c
Conjugation in E. coli
Conj ugation: Chromosomal transfer
Figure 8.30a, b
Transposons
‡ Segments of DNA that can move f rom one
region of DNA to another
‡ Contain insertion sequences for cutting and
resealing DNA (t ransposase)
‡ Complex t ransposons car ry other genes
TRANSPOSONS
‡ all t ransposons contain info needed to
insert selves in genetic material
‡ f requency similar to spontaneous
mutations
‡ involvement in evolution of organisms
--can car ry genes with them;
e.g. antibiotic resistance
Transposons

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