Functional Anatomy of

Prokaryotic Cells
Chapter 4
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
‡ Prokaryote comes from the Greek words
for prenucleus.
‡ Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for
true nucleus.
‡ One ci rcular
chromosome, not in
a membrane
‡ No histones
‡ No organelles
‡ Peptidoglycan cell
‡ Binary fission
‡ Pai red chromosomes,
in nuclear membrane
‡ Histones present
‡ Organelles
‡ Polysaccharide cell
‡ Mitosis
Figures 4.1a, 4.2a, 4.2d, 4.4a, 4.4b, 4.4c
Basic Shapes/ Morphology
‡ Bacillus (rod-shaped)
‡ Coccus (spherical)
‡ Spi ral
± Spirillum
± Vibrio
± Spirochete
Scientific name: Bacillus
Shape: Bacillus
Unusual Shapes of Bacteria
Hyphal/ Filamentous bacteria
Figures 4.1a, 4.1d, 4.2b, 4.2c
‡ Pai rs: Diplococci,
‡ Chains:
St reptococci,
st reptobacilli
‡ Clusters:
Bacterial Ar rangement
‡ Clusters:
Tet rads
Rhizobium, Corynebacterium
Significance of Size
1. Typical size of prokaryote vs. typical
1-2 Pm vs. 10-100 Pm
1 Pm = 10
2. Largest bacterium known...SU 08
Epulopiscium sp.
3. Observing a bacterium vs. a colony
4. Advantage of small size
Figure 4.6
Functional Anatomy of
Prokaryotic Cells
A. Glycocalyx
‡ Outside cell wall
‡ Usually sticky
‡ Composition
‡ Two types
of Glycocalyx:
Capsule vs. Slime layer
A. Glycocalyx
‡ Functions of Glycocalyx:
Slime layer allows cell to attach
Capsules prevent phagocytosis
B. Cell Wall
1. Function
Prevents osmotic lysis, rigidity, shape
2. Composition and St ructure
Peptidoglycan (PG)
Peptidoglycan (PG)
1. Disaccharide polymer (NAG and NAM)
2. Tet rapeptide side chains
3. Peptide cross bridges
Polymer of disaccharide:
N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
Figure 4.13a
Two types of cell walls
‡ Differentiation based on amount of
PG and other components
‡ Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative
1) Gram-positive (Gm+) cell walls
a. Thick layers of PG
b. Presence of
teichoic acids
(Alcohol/ Glycerol
plus phosphate)
-May regulate movement of cations
-Provide antigenic variation
2) Gram-negative (Gm) cell walls
a. Thin layer of PG + outer membrane
b. No teichoic acids
c. Outer membrane: made up of
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
LPS = O polysaccharide + Lipid A
Gram-negative (Gm) cell walls
Lipid A is an endotoxin
O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7
‡ Thick peptidoglycan
‡ Teichoic acids
Cell Wall
Figure 4.13b±c
‡ Thin peptidoglycan
‡ Outer membrane
Cell Wall
How penicillin affects bacterial
cell wall.
Effect on
Gram-positive vs. Gram- negative
Atypical Cell Walls
a. Acid Fast cell wall
Waxy lipid (Mycolic acid) bound to
peptidoglycan in acid-fast cell walls.
Atypical Cell Walls
b. Mycoplasmas
‡ Lack cell walls
‡ Sterols in plasma membrane
c. Archaea
‡ Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and
D-amino acids)
Figure 4.14a
C. The Plasma Membrane or
Cytoplasmic membrane
C. The Plasma Membrane
1. Phospholipid bilayer and Proteins
2. Fluid Mosaic Model
C. The Plasma Membrane
3. Functions of plasma membrane
‡ Selective permeability allows passage of
some molecules
‡ Enzymes for ATP production
‡ Photosynthetic pigments
‡ Damage to the membrane by alcohols,
quaternary ammonium (detergents), and
polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell
4. Movement Across Plasma Membrane
1. Passive Transport
a. Simple diffusion: CO2, O2
b. Facilitated diffusion: Glycerol
c. Osmosis: water
2. Active t ransport
a. Active Transport
b. Group Translocation
Figure 4.17a
Passive Transport
a. Simple diffusion:
Movement of a
solute f rom an area
of high
concent ration to an
area of low
concent ration
Figure 4.17b-c
Passive Transport
b. Facilitated diffusion: Solute combines
with a transporter protein in the membrane
Figure 4.18a
Passive Transport
c. Osmosis:
The movement of
water across a
membrane f rom an
area of high water
to an area of lower
water concent ration
Figure 4.18c±e
Osmolarity of the solution outside
bacterial cells and its significance
Active t ransport
a. Active Transport
Using either PMF or ATP
b. Group Translocation
Endocytosis and Exocytosis????
Group Translocation
D. Flagella
1. Function
2. Made up of 3 parts
a. filament: Flagellin
b. Attached to a
protein hook
c. anchored to the
wall and membrane
through basal body
Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
a. Monot richous b. amphit richous
c. Lophot richous d. perit richous
3. Flagellar ar rangement on a bacterial cell
4. Run and tumble
5. chemotaxis and
6. Helicobacter pylorii
7. other types of
bacterial motility
1. Who has them?
2. Fimbriae
3. Pili
- Facilitate transfer of DNA f rom one cell
to another
-Gliding motility
-Twitching motility
E. Fimbriae and Pili
No Cytoskeleton
No membrane
bound organelles
F. Cytoplasm
1. bacterial chromosome characteristics
No nuclear membrane
No Histones
Ci rcular DNA
2. size and packaging: Supercoiling
G. Nucleoid
1. What are they?
2. Advantages to bacteria
3. Transfer
H. Plasmids
I. Ribosomes
1. Function
2. Composition/st ructure
3. Antibiotic effect on ribosomes
J. Inclusions/storage granules
1. Metachromatic/volutin/polyphosphate granules
diagnostic use: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
2. Polysaccharide Granules
3. Lipid Inclusions
PHB:poly-ȕ-hydroxy butyric acid
4. Sulfur Granules
K. Endospores
1. Who produces?
2. NOT reproductive! Resting st ructures
3. When are they produced?
4. How long can they survive?
Formation of Endospores by Sporulation
Figure 4.21a
5. St ructure of a free endopsore (DPA)
6. Germination
7. I mportance of endospores medically and in
food processing
8. Dest roying endospores
a. John Tyndall and tyndallization
b. autoclave and pressure cooker

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