V

4-letter verb (

‫ ) ر‬Chapter 1 ُ

‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬‫، ﺇﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮ‬ ،‫ﹶﺃﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹺﻡ ﹾ ﹰ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
Common example for this chapter

:‫ﻧﻪ‬‫ﺯﻭ‬‫ﻳﻔﻌ ﹸ، ﺇﻓﹾﻌﺎﻻ ﻣﻮ‬ ،‫ﹶﺃﻓﻌﻞﹶ‬   ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ﹾ‬
‫رع‬ ‫َ ْ دَ ر‬ ُ

How is this chapter known?
1. It is known by the extra letter

‫ﺃ‬

(not the

‫ ﺃ‬of ‫ﺃﻧﻴﺖ‬

in the beginning of the

‫1 ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬

st

person)

Illustration:

‫ﻳﻔﻌ ﹸ، ﺇﻓﹾﻌﺎﻻ‬ ، ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﹾ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﻲ‬  ‫ﺭ‬

‫ﹶﺃﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﹾ‬
distinguishing mark

4-letter verb

3-letter verb

‫ﹸﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫ﺛ‬

‫ﹶﺃﺧﺮﺝ‬   ‫ﹶﺃﻭﺭﺙ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹾ‬
Remember! The

‫ﹶﺃ‬
‫ﹶﺃﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﹾ‬

‫ﺧﺮ ﺝ‬   ‫ﻭﺭﺙ‬ ‫ﹺ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻛ ﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹶ‬

‫ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬of a 4-letter verb
is on the scale of

My Notes in Sarf 2 – Bintu Jose as-Salafiyyah # 2

2. It is also known by the

‫ ﺿﻤﺔ‬in the first letter of the ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫، ﺇﻓﹾﻌﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬‫ﹾ‬

This

‫ ي‬is from ‫ﺃﻧﻴﺖ‬

،‫ﹶﺃﻓﻌﻞﹶ‬ ‫ﹾ‬

This is the only place where we put a

‫ﺔ‬ ‫ ﺿ‬on the ‫ ي‬of ‫ﺃﻧﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻤ‬
of 3-letter verb’s chapter 5, as there would

My observation: is used to avoid repetition with the ‫رع‬ be no change in meaning if was also used.

Compare:

4-letter verb

‫ﺑﺎﻋﻲ‬  ‫ﺭ‬

3-letter verb chapter 5

‫ـﺤﺴﺐ‬ – ‫ﺃﺣﺴﺐ‬  ِ  ‫ ﻳ‬ 
When do we give

‫ﻳﺤﺴﺐ‬ – ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬  ِ   ِ

‫ي‬a

?

• In a 3-letter verb, 5-letter verb and 6-letter verb.

Changing

to ‫رع‬

:

The principle in changing to ‫رع‬ is to add the appropriate letter from ‫ أ ت‬and nothing is dropped from any of the letter. Looking at the example below, we notice that the ‫ أ‬of the was dropped in the ‫. رع‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬‫، ﺇﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﹾ ﹰ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺮﻡ‬ ،‫ﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻛ‬ ‫ﹶ ﹾ ﹺ‬
My Notes in Sarf 2 – Bintu Jose as-Salafiyyah # 2

This is how it is supposed to be 3rd person: add ‫ي‬

‫ﻳﺄﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹶ ﹾ ﹺ‬
1st person: add ‫أ‬

‫ﻱ‬ ‫أ‬

‫ﹶﺃﻛﺮﻡ‬  ‫ﹾ‬

‫ﹸﺃﹶﺃﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹾ ﹺ‬
However,

‫ ھ زة‬in a row is heavy on the tongue and based on the major

principle of seeking lightness in speech, the scholars dropped the 2nd ‫ ھ زة‬in this form and in all possible forms so as to make a unified ruling . Hence we come up with the following:

‫ﹸﺃﹶﺃﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹾ ﹺ‬
Benefit:

‫ﹸﺃﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹾ ﹺ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹾ ﹺ‬

‫ﻳﺄﻛﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﹶ ﹾ ﹺ‬

A poet was heard saying: He is worthy of being generous to…

‫ﻣﺎ‬‫ـﺆﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻞ ﻷﻥ‬‫ﻧﻪ ﹶﺃﻫ‬‫ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ﹾ‬ ‫ﻳ‬ 
This is how it was known that the original word carried a kept in the poem, but is no longer in use.
My Notes in Sarf 2 – Bintu Jose as-Salafiyyah # 2

‫ ھ زة‬which was

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