RULERS OF EVIL

Useful Knowledge About Governing Bodies

F. TUPPER SAUSSY

OSPRAY BOOKMAKERS

Copyright © 1 9 9 9 by Frederick Tupper Saussy

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Published by Ospray Bookmakers, Reno, Nevada

Further information: Pastoral Business 1 2 2 3 Wilshire Boulevard, N o . 8 5 5 Santa Monica, California 90403

World rights inquiries: The Peter Fleming Agency peterfleming@earthlink.net 15200 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 204 Pacific Palisades, California 90272

ISBN

0-9673768-0-7

First Edition

O S P R A Y B O O K M A K E R S IS AN IMPRIMATUR OF T H E ORDER OF SIMON PETER, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA

“The worst thing you can do in life is underestimate your adversary.”
— P R E S I D E N T W I L L I A M J. C L I N T O N ,

C B S News, March 3 1 , 1 9 9 9

xx 1 6 8 11 12 14 18 21 26 34 36 42 46 54 62 96 114 116

T h e Capitol dome* Time Magazine Cover* Fasces* T h e Washington Nunciature* Emperor Constantine* Mithras & David† Pope Gregory IX Excommunicating the Holy Roman Emperor* Pope Clement VII & the Holy Roman Emperor* Martin Luther* Ignatius de Loyola* T h e Baphomet* Map of Troyes* Fingerstroke of G o d * Giulia Farnese* T h e Spirit of Trent (after Sebastiano Ricci)* Ignatius in Heaven† Lorenzo Ricci† Castel Sant’Angelo* Washington in Masonic Regalia*

ILLUSTRATIONS

124 128 134 146 154 166 186 202 204 226 228 232 234 246 248 252 257 258 259 261 293-5

Charles Thomson* Cardinal Robert Bellarmine* John Stuart, Lord Bute* Bishop John Carroll* Archbishop von Hontheim* King George III* East India Company Flag† American Graffiti† The Mosaic Seal† L’Enfant’s Plan of Washington* Congressional Medal of Honor† Seal of Georgetown University‡ Persephone, Goddess of the Capitol‡ “Apotheosis of Washington”§ Constantino Brumidi* Rev. Charles Chiniquy* T h e States§ / T h e Virgin pursues evildoers§ Young America§ Jehu worshiping Shalmaneser II† Mercury 6k Morris§ The A n n u Signature*, †, ‡
* † ‡ § sketch by the author author’s collection photographed by the author Architect of the Capitol

Introduction: Preface Foreword Orientation 1: Subliminal Rome
2: Missionary Adaptation 3: Marginalizing the Bible 4: Medici Learning 5: Appointment at Cyprus 6: T h e Epitome of Christian Values 7: T h e Fingerstroke of G o d 8: Moving In 9: Securing Confidence

ix ix xi xiii
1 9
15 19 27 35 43 55 63 77 85 97

10: Definitions 1 1 : T h e Thirteen Articles Concerning Military A r t 12: Lorenzo Ricci’s War 1 3 : T h e Secret Bridge 14: T h e Dogma of Independence

117 129

CONTENTS

1 5 : T h e Madness of King George III 1 6 : Tweaking the Religious Right 1 7 : A Timely Grand Tour 18: T h e Stimulating Effects of Tea 1 9 : Death and Resurrection of Lorenzo Ricci 20: American Grafitti 2 1 : Jupiter’s Earthly Abode 22: T h e Immaculate Conception 23: T h e Dome of the Great Sky 24: T h e Mark of Cain 2 5 : T h e Two Ministries Appendix A: Fifty Centuries of the A n n u Signature B: Superior Generals of the Society of Jesus c: Glossary D: Notes E: Bibliography F: Index

135 147 155 167 187 203 227 235 247 265 279 293 293 296 298 303 313 318

RULERS OF E V I L

Introduction

PREFACE

T

HE O N L Y P E O P L E in the world, it seems, w h o believe in the

conspiracy theory of history are those of us w h o h a v e studied it. W h i l e F r a n k l i n D . R o o s e v e l t m i g h t h a v e exaggerat-

ed w h e n he said “ N o t h i n g h a p p e n s in p o l i t i c s by a c c i d e n t ; if it

happens, it was planned that way,” C a r r o l l Q u i g l e y – Bill C l i n t o n ’ s favorite professor at G e o r g e t o w n U n i v e r s i t y – b o l d l y a d m i t t e d in his Tragedy & Hope ( 1 9 6 6 ) t h a t (a) t h e m u l t i t u d e s w e r e already u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l of a small b u t p o w e r f u l group b e n t on w o r l d d o m i n a t i o n and (b) Q u i g l e y himself was a part of that group. I n t e r n e t c o n s p i r a c y sites strive to identify t h e c o n s p i r a t o r i a l factions. We get pieces here and pieces there. T h e world is run by Freemasons, some say. O t h e r say S k u l l & B o n e s , and a loose c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f secret s o c i e t i e s . C I A gets lots o f v o t e s , a l o n g w i t h Mossad ( t h o u g h I suspect these f a c t i o n s are merely tools) a n d , of course, “ t h e British.” A major f r o n t r u n n e r is t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a n k i n g C a r t e l . W h e n V i c t o r M a r s d e n published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in 1 9 0 6 , w h i c h purported to be a Jewish p l a n to
ix

RULERS OF E V I L

take o v e r the world, Jewish writers d e n i e d responsibility, charging a C a t h o l i c plot to defame Jewry. W h o s e side was M a r s d e n on? You c a n get so deep into conspiracies t h a t t h e suspects start c a n c e l i n g e a c h other out. It c a n b e c o m e frustrating. I’m happy to report that F. Tupper Saussy has c o m e to our e m o t i o n a l rescue. D u r i n g his t e n years as a f u g i t i v e from t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Justice ( c o n v i c t e d of a c r i m e t h a t c a n n o t be found in t h e l a w b o o k s ) , Saussy o c c u p i e d himself w i t h an investigation into the powers that be. It was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n the likes of w h i c h , as far as I k n o w , has n e v e r before b e e n u n d e r t a k e n . T h e fruit of his amazing l e g w o r k is Rulers of Evil, a p o w e r f u l b o o k t h a t in less l o v i n g hands m i g h t h a v e b e e n angry and judgmental. Saussy’s thesis: T h e r e is i n d e e d a small group t h a t runs the w o r l d , but we c a n ’ t c a l l it a c o n s p i r a c y b e c a u s e it identifies itself w i t h signs, m o t t o e s , a n d m o n u m e n t s . S i g n s , m o t t o e s , a n d m o n u ments? y o u ask. Quick: w h a t o c c u p i e s t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o n t h e U . S . C a p i t o l b u i l d i n g ? It’s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t oft-published statue on earth, and you can’t n a m e it? As l o n g as y o u don’t k n o w whose feet are firmly p l a n t e d a t o p y o u r country’s l e g i s l a t i v e c e n t e r , or h o w she got t h e r e , o r w h e n c e she c a m e , t h e group t h a t c o n t r o l s A m e r i c a r e m a i n s i n v i s i b l e . O n c e y o u k n o w these t h i n g s , t h e fog begins lifting. Saussy has analyzed hundreds of signatory clues left by the true rulers of the world, clues t h a t we h a v e perhaps b e e n trained to ignore. He’s traced t h e m to their origins, and m a t c h e d t h e m to facts of history g o i n g b a c k six thousand years – all b a l a n c e d against the most reliable h u m a n reference work there is, the Bible. T h e result: an u n a v o i d a b l e t o u c h s t o n e for all future works on the subject. Rulers of Evil is an indispensable study b o o k t h a t you’ll probably d e f a c e from c o v e r t o c o v e r w i t h h i g h l i g h t i n g . B y all m e a n s k e e p i t o n your l o w e r library shelf, w i t h i n close r e a c h o f inquisitive children. — Pat Shannon
Journalist-at-Large, M E D I A BYPASS

X

Introduction

FOREWORD

W
us.”

H E T H E R O R N O T it’s appropriate for a literary a g e n t t o write his client’s Foreword, I don’t know. If I’m breaking t h e rules h e r e , w e l l , this is a rule-breaking b o o k . E x a m -

p l e . D u r i n g last spring’s B o o k e x p o in Los A n g e l e s , I a g e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d m y c l i e n t , T u p p e r Saussy, t o o n e o f N e w York’s most u n s h o c k a b l e p u b l i s h i n g e x e c u t i v e s . A s T u p p e r a r t i c u l a t e l y summarized Rulers of Evil for h i m , I p e r s o n a l l y w i t n e s s e d t h e b r o w of this fearless e x e c u t i v e d e v e l o p a t w i t c h . I saw h i m a c t u a l l y gulp. W i t h my o w n ears I h e a r d h i m say, “ T h i s is a little t o o extreme for T h e t w i t c h developed as Tupper was saying “the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h really does run t h e w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g t h e U n i t e d States g o v e r n m e n t , and this is o p e n l y declared in m o n u m e n t s and emblems and insignia as well as official d o c u m e n t s . . . ” By the time T u p p e r c a l m l y r e a c h e d his payoff – “ A n d this is good, because it’s divinely ordained” – the e x e c was staring into space.
xi

RULERS OF E V I L

A l l right, Rulers of Evil is e x t r e m e . ( D o e s that frighten you?) It was researched and w r i t t e n during a decade of flight that probably saved the author’s life from v i n d i c t i v e federal authorities. I w a n t e d to represent this b o o k from the m o m e n t I read t h e first draft b a c k i n 1 9 9 3 , c o m p l e t e l y u n a w a r e t h a t its author c o u l d c l a i m t h e classic Miracle On Main Street as his o w n . (Tupper Saussy’s identity was n o t r e v e a l e d t o m e u n t i l his c a p t u r e i n 1 9 9 7 . H e c a n k e e p a secret.) Like no b o o k I’ve seen in my thirty years of l i t e r a r y - a g e n t i n g , Rulers of Evil lays o u t who’s really w h o in w o r l d power, pegs t h e m as e v i l ( a b o u t as e v i l as t h e rest of us, more or less), a n d t h e n explains h o w spiritual wickedness in h i g h places works for the ultimate g o o d of m a n k i n d . It’s the b o o k about conspiracies that doesn’t a d v o c a t e t h r o w i n g the bums out. Rulers of Evil is almost a self-help p r o d u c t . T h e useful k n o w l edge it imparts reveals t h e w o r l d structure as it really is. O n c e we c a n see, our c h o i c e s i n c r e a s e , our p a t h w a y s w i d e n , a n d our lives improve. But d o n ’ t e x p e c t a breeze. Parts of t h e b o o k are so r i c h in historical detail that your brain m i g h t feel over-burdened. W h e n that happens, just flip to more readable parts. Or study the pictures. My c l i e n t d o e s n ’ t m i n d b e i n g read casually, b a c k t o front, front t o b a c k , m i d d l e o u t , a few pages at a t i m e . E n j o y f r e e d o m of m o v e m e n t . If a c h a p t e r doesn’t fit today’s m o o d , find a n o t h e r that does. U s e a bookmark, or the dustjacket flaps. U l t i m a t e l y , you’ll get it all. A n d w h e n y o u do, I p r e d i c t you’ll be a different person. You’ll h a v e a n e w worldview, o n e shaped by e v i d e n c e t h a t h a s n e v e r b e e n assembled q u i t e this w a y before. I c a n say this w i t h confidence because Rulers of Evil is still influencing my o w n life, h a v i n g b e g u n in me a process of answering m a n y of the heretofore unanswerable questions of our time. — Peter Fleming
T H E PETER FLEMING A G E N C Y

xii

Introduction

ORIENTATION

“The only new thing in this world is the history you don’t know.” — PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUMAN

O

N

FRESHMAN

ORIENTATION

day

at

the

University

of t h e

S o u t h in S e w a n e e , Tennessee, I t o o k a seat across the table

from my faculty advisor. He was a professor of b o t a n y

n a m e d E d m u n d B e r k e l e y . Dr. B e r k e l e y studied t h e tab o n m y m a n i l a file folder as t h o u g h it were some rare species of leaf. Sudd e n l y his eyes leapt i n t o my face. G i d d y e i g h t e e n - y e a r - o l d t h a t I

was, I gulped and tried to smile. ‘ “ S a u s s y , ” ’ h e mused calmly. “ G o o d H u g u e n o t name.” T h e word stumped me. “ H u g u e n o t ? ” “‘Saussy’ is a F r e n c h n a m e , ” he lectured. “ S e w a n e e is a Protestant university. Your people must h a v e b e e n Huguenots.” I silently forgave my father for n e v e r h a v i n g told me our n a m e was F r e n c h a n d t h a t our a n c e s t o r s m i g h t h a v e b e e n s o m e t h i n g called “Huguenots.” “ W h a t exactly are Huguenots?” I inquired. “ F r e n c h Protestants,” declared my advisor. “Massacred by soldiers o r d e r e d b y C a t h e r i n e d ’ M e d i c i i n c a h o o t s w i t h t h e Jesuits. xiii

RULERS OF E V I L

T h e survivors were e x i l e d . S o m e established in England, others in Prussia. S o m e c a m e to A m e r i c a , as your people obviously did.” “Jesuits.” N o w t h a t was a familiar w o r d . In T a m p a , my h o m e t o w n , there was a h i g h s c h o o l n a m e d Jesuit. Jesuit H i g h was greatly e s t e e m e d a c a d e m i c a l l y a n d a t h l e t i c a l l y . I was aware of a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the Jesuits and the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , but little else. “ W h a t are Jesuits?” I asked. “ O h , t h e Jesuits are m e m b e r s o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus,” h e replied. “ E x c e l l e n t m e n . I n t e l l e c t u a l s . T h e y w o r k e x c l u s i v e l y for the Pope, take an oath to h i m and h i m alone. S o m e people call t h e m the Pope’s private militia. K i n d of a swordless army. C o n t r o versial. T h e y ’ v e g o t t e n i n t o t r o u b l e m e d d l i n g w i t h c i v i l g o v e r n ments in the past, trying to bring t h e m under the Pope’s d o m i n i o n , y o u k n o w , but i n this century t h e y ’ v e b e e n t a m e d d o w n considerably. T h e y ’ r e wonderful educators.” T h a t n i g h t I called my father, w h o answered Dr. Berkeley’s surmise. Yes, our p e o p l e were H u g u e n o t s . T h e y arrived a t S a v a n n a h harbor in the latter half of the e i g h t e e n t h century, after a stopover of several generations in S c o t l a n d . T h e y h a d indeed b e e n run out of t h e i r b e l o v e d c o u n t r y , t h e same w a y t h e Jews w e r e r u n o u t of G e r m a n y . N a z i s c h a s e d t h e Jews, Jesuits c h a s e d us. A h , b u t t h a t was a l o n g time ago, my father said, a n d I agreed. Forgiveness is a great v i r t u e , a n d it’s best to let b y g o n e s be b y g o n e s . So I forgot about H u g u e n o t s a n d Jesuits and p l u n g e d i n t o my c o l l e g e career, my future, my life.

I

never had occasion to think about my conversation with E d m u n d B e r k e l e y u n t i l s o m e t h i r t y years later, i n A u g u s t o f

1 9 8 4 , during a brief but telling e n c o u n t e r w i t h an assistant U n i t e d

States attorney b y the n a m e o f J o h n M a c C o o n . W e were standing a few p a c e s apart in t h e m a r b l e h a l l w a y outside a federal c o u r t room in C h a t t a n o o g a , waiting for the m o r n i n g session to be called. I was on t h e d o c k e t , s c h e d u l e d to be arraigned on charges of willful failure to file i n c o m e tax returns for t h e years 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 8 , and
1979.

xiv

INTRODUCTION

ORIENTATION

I h a d no doubt that the charges w o u l d be dropped. T h e statute I h a d supposedly run afoul of applied to persons “required” to file returns. Y e t I possessed a letter signed by the I R S District Director stating t h a t a diligent search of I R S files h a d failed to disclose any t a x liability i n m y n a m e for t h o s e years. P e o p l e w h o h a v e n o t a x liability are n o t required to file returns. W h y was I there? T h e b o o m i n g v o i c e of a lawyer friend broke my c o n c e n t r a t i o n . “Tupper,” h e said, g u i d i n g m e o v e r t o J o h n M a c C o o n , “ h a v e y o u met your prosecutor?” He i n t r o d u c e d us in a j o v i a l f a s h i o n and t h e n rushed off to a huddle of other litigants. M a c C o o n and I s h o o k hands. “John,” I asked, feeling t h e n e e d to m a k e small talk, “are you from C h a t t a n o o g a ? ” “ N o , ” he replied, “I c a m e from W a s h i n g t o n . ” S o m e t h i n g inside told m e t o press. “ S o you’re o r i g i n a l l y from Washington?” “ N o , originally I’m from N e w Orleans.” “I h a v e lots of cousins in N e w O r l e a n s , ” I b e a m e d . He seemed to get a little edgy. “ W e l l , the n a m e Saussy is n o t u n k n o w n there,” he said. “ O n e of my favorite cousins lives in N e w O r l e a n s , ” I said, and n a m e d my cousin. “He’s your cousin? W h y , he and I were ordained together.” “ O r d a i n e d ? ” I asked. “ M y c o u s i n is a Jesuit priest. A r e y o u a Jesuit?” “Yes,” said my p r o s e c u t o r , n o w visibly a g i t a t e d . “ Y o u k n o w , I might h a v e to recuse m y s e l f . . . . ” “I’ve got a better idea, drop the charges.” “ O h n o , I couldn’t do that.” T h e dialogue e n d e d suddenly w i t h the hoarse drawl of a bailiff a n n o u n c i n g that court was n o w in session.

S

o J o h n M a c C o o n was a Jesuit! T h e m e d i a , s p o o n f e d by his offices, h a d already b r a n d e d me a “ t a x protestor.” W h a t was A c t u a l l y , I had n o t protested any taxes at all. I h a d merely dis-

going on? W e r e the Jesuits chasing Protestants again?

XV

RULERS OF E V I L

c o v e r e d some truths a b o u t t h e t a x a n d m o n e t a r y laws and h a d dared t o stand o n t h e m . A s w i t h t h e H u g u e n o t s a n d t h e truths t h e y ’ d d i s c o v e r e d a b o u t C h r i s t i a n i t y , a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e offended. W a s n ’ t it interesting that b o t h of us – my ancestors and me – were branded as antisocial, repugnant, as people w h o disturb good order by daring to “protest”? W a s this a religious p e r s e c u t i o n here? W a s m y stand o n T r u t h s o m e h o w s o offensive t h a t t h e P o p e h a d disp a t c h e d o n e of his swordless warriors to do me in? A n d t h e n there was the date. T h e charges against m e were filed o n July 3 1 s t . T h a t h a p p e n s t o b e t h e Feast D a y o f S t . Ignatius L o y o l a , t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o g m a o f t h e R o m a n L i t u r g i c a l C a l e n d a r , any cause i n i t i a t e d on a saint’s feast day is especially worthy of the saint’s a t t e n t i o n . A bizarre series of furtive p r o c e e d i n g s o c c u r r e d o v e r t h e n e x t e l e v e n m o n t h s . E x c u l p a t o r y e v i d e n c e was ignored o r suppressed. T h e r e were prosecutorial improprieties, w h i c h the court excused. W h e n I attempted to avoid the c o n s e q u e n c e s of the improprieties, I was p u n i s h e d . Few p r e c e d e n t s for s u c h j u d i c i a l s t e a m - r o l l i n g could be found outside the annals of the R o m a n Inquisition, w h i c h I l e a r n e d h a d b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d s i n c e 1 5 4 2 b y t h e Jesuits. W h a t was this – the A m e r i c a n Inquisition? A l l the w h i l e , the I R S , J o h n M a c C o o n , and t h e media k e p t labeling m e “tax protestor.” S o m e t i m e s t h e y w o u l d slip a n d c a l l me a “ t a x e v a d e r , ” e v e n t h o u g h I had n e v e r b e e n accused of the m u c h more serious crime of tax evasion. U l t i m a t e l y , a jury a c q u i t t e d me of willfully f a i l i n g to file inc o m e tax returns for 1 9 7 8 and 1 9 7 9 . B u t for 1 9 7 7 they found willfulness, and t h e h i g h e r courts u p h e l d t h e i r v e r d i c t . It was o n l y a misdemeanor. T h e last defendant in my district to be c o n v i c t e d on the same c o u n t h a d b e e n s e n t e n c e d t o six w e e k s . B u t t h e c o u r t sentenced me to a full year, the m a x i m u m allowed by statute. T h i s was due t o w h a t t h e p r o s e c u t o r c a l l e d m y “ u n r e p e n t a n c e . ” S o m e say I s h o u l d h a v e w e p t c r o c o d i l e tears a n d p r o m i s e d to m e n d my ways. But that w o u l d be gameplaying. H o w c a n you repent of willfully failing to do s o m e t h i n g t h a t was n e v e r required in t h e first place?

xvi

INTRODUCTION

ORIENTATION

W

H E N I soberly reviewed the long list of prosecutorial absurdities, I d e c i d e d t h a t I was b e i n g p u n i s h e d for s o m e t h i n g n o t

remotely c o n n e c t e d to willfulness in filing tax returns. I was b e i n g tional issue no court in the U n i t e d States will fully entertain – the m o n e y issue. B a c k in the late seventies, I discovered that constitutional gove r n m e n t was c o n t r a v e n i n g every A m e r i c a n ’ s right t o a n e c o n o m y

p u n i s h e d for m o b i l i z i n g w h a t t u r n e d o u t t o b e t h e o n l y c o n s t i t u -

free of fluctuating monetary values. I wrote a b o o k The Miracle On Main Street: Saving Yourself and America from Financial Ruin ( 1 9 8 0 ) , in w h i c h I compared A m e r i c a n money as mandated by the C o n stitution – gold and silver c o i n – w i t h A m e r i c a n m o n e y currently in use – notes, c o m p u t e r entries, and base-metal t o k e n s . N o t only was the m o n e y in use inferior to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l money, but also it had b e e n i n t r o d u c e d w i t h o u t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a m e n d m e n t . S i n c e our v a l u e s w e r e d e n o m i n a t e d i n units o f lawless m o n e y , w e h a d b e c o m e a lawless n a t i o n . Q u a l i t y of life follows quality of money. I urged the people to take the initiative in nudging g o v e r n m e n t officials to restore t h e k i n d of m o n e t a r y system e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . T h e u l t i m a t e payoff w o u l d be a w h o l e s o m e society. M a i n Street activism would h a v e worked a miracle. MOMS c a u g h t on very quickly. A c t i v i s t s b e g a n asserting e c o n o m i c rights in m a n y c r e a t i v e ways. To assist and d o c u m e n t their w o r k , I l a u n c h e d “ T h e M a i n S t r e e t Journal.” P u b l i s h e d m o r e o r less monthly, the MSJ reported in detail the interesting, sometimes frightening c o n s e q u e n c e s of e c o n o m i c rights activism. B y July 1 9 8 4 , m y b o o k a n d m y j o u r n a l h a d e x p a n d e d i n t o a g r o w i n g bibliography of historic and legal materials related to t h e m o n e y issue. I was speaking all over the country, and h o l d i n g wella t t e n d e d seminars i n T e n n e s s e e . W e h a d history o n our side. T h e Framers o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n h a d u n a n i m o u s l y v o t e d d o w n t h e k i n d of monetary system that was destroying modern A m e r i c a , and h a d u n a n i m o u s l y v o t e d for t h e system w e w e r e a d v o c a t i n g . W e had the law o n our side. T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t h a d n e v e r ruled t h a t A m e r i c a ’ s lawless m o n e t a r y system was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . W h a t w e d i d n ’ t h a v e o n our side was t h e e n t i t y h a v i n g most t o g a i n from

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lawless m o n e y – t h e g o v e r n i n g bodies. We were deeply offending t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e o f l e g i t i m a c y . A s o n e T e n n e s s e e v i l l a g e lawyer said, in r e t u r n i n g Miracle On Main Street to t h e friend w h o ’ d loaned it to h i m , “ T h i s b o o k w o n ’ t get Saussy killed, but they’ll figure out a h u m a n e way of shutting h i m up.”

T

H E R E was a n i n t e r v a l o f t w o years b e t w e e n m y trial a n d t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ’ s d e c i s i o n o n it. A b o u t m i d w a y d u r i n g t h a t

i n t e r v a l , I r e c e i v e d a p o s t c a r d from t h e m o s t famous p r i s o n e r in

T e n n e s s e e , James Earl Ray. Mr. Ray, t h e s e l f - c o n v i c t e d assassin of Dr. M a r t i n L u t h e r K i n g , w a n t e d m e t o h e l p h i m write his autobiography. I i n t e r v i e w e d h i m personally, e x a m i n e d his m a n u s c r i p t , and c o n d u c t e d some research o f m y o w n . T h e e v i d e n c e persuaded m e t h a t Mr. R a y did n o t d e s e r v e t o b e c a l l e d , i n Life M a g a z i n e ’ s w o r d s , “ t h e world’s m o s t h a t e d m a n . ” H e h a d b e e n t o r t u r e d i n t o p l e a d i n g guilty. Far from p u n i s h m e n t for murder, his c o n f i n e m e n t was t h e g o v e r n m e n t ’ s w a y of c o n c e a l i n g t h e true assassins, and at t h e T e n n e s s e e t a x p a y e r s ’ e x p e n s e . I felt t h a t h e , like myself, was b e i n g m a l i c i o u s l y used by g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s for t h e purpose of d e c e i v i n g the public. I w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h Mr. Ray, p u b l i s h i n g his a u t o b i o g r a p h y under t h e title Tennessee Waltz: The Making of A Political Prisoner. I included an epilogue of my o w n , “ T h e Politics of W i t c h c r a f t , ” in w h i c h I discussed h o w Dr. K i n g ’ s m u r d e r b e n e f i t t e d no o n e as m u c h as it did t h e e c o n o m i c p o w e r s of g o v e r n m e n t . A b o u t a m o n t h before Tennessee Waltz w o u l d be c o m i n g off the press, I was notified that the U . S . Supreme C o u r t had denied m y appeal. T h e n the District Judge ordered me to surrender myself to A t l a n t a Federal Prison C a m p o n o r before A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 8 7 . A friend h a p p e n e d to say, “ Y o u k n o w , if your previous writings b r o u g h t about t h e tax p r o s e c u t i o n , t h i n k w h a t Tennessee Waltz m i g h t p r o v o k e t h e m to, with you in custody....” A n d so, w h e n t h e m o m e n t c a m e for m e t o pass t h r o u g h t h e Prison C a m p gates, s o m e t h i n g got in t h e way. I c a n o n l y c a l l it a spirit, an irresistible spirit. It was the same spirit that h a d directed m e t o stand o n t h e t r u t h i n m y w r i t i n g a n d s p e a k i n g . I t was t h e

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same spirit t h a t h a d led m e t o i n t e r r o g a t e J o h n M a c C o o n a t our first e n c o u n t e r in that marble hallway b a c k in 1 9 8 4 , the same spirit that h a d m o v e d h i m to tell me he was a Jesuit. T h i s spirit turned me away from the prison gate and led me into a fugitive lifestyle. I felt an o v e r w h e l m i n g obligation to love my enemies by studying t h e m in intricate detail. I w a n t e d to k n o w t h e e x t e n t of Jesuit i n v o l v e m e n t i n U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t , presently and historically. W h a t I discovered was a vast R o m a n C a t h o l i c substratum to A m e r i c a n history, e s p e c i a l l y t h e R e v o l u t i o n t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e p u b l i c . I f o u n d t h a t Jesuits p l a y e d e m i n e n t a n d u n d e r - a p p r e c i a t e d roles i n m o v i n g t h e c o m p l a c e n t N e w E n g l a n ders to rebel against t h e i r m o t h e r country. I d i s c o v e r e d facts a n d m o t i v e s strongly suggesting t h a t e v e n t s t h a t m a d e G r e a t B r i t a i n d i v i d e in 1 7 7 6 were t h e o u t w o r k i n g s of an ingenious Jesuit strategy. T h i s strategy appears t o h a v e b e e n s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y d e s i g n e d and supervised by a true f o u n d i n g father few A m e r i c a n s h a v e ever h e a r d of – L o r e n z o R i c c i ( k n o w n to B r i t i s h Jesuits as L a u r e n c e R i c h e y ) . In fact, investigating Jesuit i n v o l v e m e n t in the formation of the U n i t e d States turned up a whole host of hitherto littlek n o w n n a m e s , s u c h a s R o b e r t B e l l a r m i n e , Joseph A m i o t , t h e D u k e s o f N o r f o l k , D a n i e l C o x e , S u n - T z u , L o r d B u t e , Francis Thorpe, Nikolaus von Hontheim, and the Carrolls, Daniel, C h a r l e s , and John. In their way, these m e n were as essential to our c o n s t i t u t i o n a l origins a s Jefferson, P a i n e , A d a m s , W a s h i n g t o n , L o c k e , and G e o r g e III. M y i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e g a n i n 1 9 8 7 . I t coursed t e n years, a n d r a n g e d – w i t h t h e h e l p of our L o r d and m a n y c o u r a g e o u s friends, to w h o m this b o o k is d e d i c a t e d – from t h e Florida K e y s to P u g e t S o u n d , from the District o f C o l u m b i a t o s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . T h e mounting evidence inexorably changed the way I perceived constituted authority, a n d my r e l a t i o n s h i p to it. Finally, on t h e thirt e e n t h m i n u t e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h h o u r o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h day o f N o v e m b e r , 1 9 9 7 , t h e j o u r n e y t h a t h a d b e g u n w i t h t h e filing o f charges against me t h i r t e e n years earlier r e a c h e d its d e s t i n a t i o n . I was captured w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e by three U . S . Marshals outside my office on the canals in V e n i c e , C a l i f o r n i a . A v a l u a b l e p e r s o n h o o d

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I was prepared to d e n y forever was g i v e n b a c k to m e . For s i x t e e n m o n t h s , the Bureau of Prisons afforded me the opportunity to discuss the fruits of my investigation w i t h intelligent prisoners in C a l ifornia, G e o r g i a , T e n n e s s e e , O k l a h o m a , a n d Mississippi. T h e i r straightforward q u e s t i o n s , c o m m e n t s , insights, and c r i t i c i s m s h e l p e d further prepare my manuscript for a general audience. N o w t h a t my liberties are fully restored, I am able finally to relate my findings to y o u in my o w n true v o i c e , tried in adversity, seasoned by time. F. Tupper Saussy

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RULERS OF E V I L

Chapter 1

SUBLIMINAL ROME

“The Roman Catholic Church is a State.” — BISHOP MANDELL CREIGHTON, LETTERS

W

H E N A P U L I T Z E R P R I Z E - w i n n i n g reporter a n n o u n c e d i n his 1 9 9 2 T i m e M a g a z i n e c o v e r story t h a t a “conspiracy”
1

b i n d i n g President R o n a l d R e a g a n and Pope J o h n Paul II

into a “secret, h o l y alliance” h a d brought about the demise of c o m Professor C a r o l A . B r o w n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s

munism, at least o n e reader saw t h r o u g h the h y p e . fired off a letter to Time’s editors saying, Last week I taught my students about the separation of church and state. This week I learned that the Pope is running U . S . foreign policy. No wonder our young people are cynical about American ideals. W h a t B r o w n h a d learned from C a r l Bernstein I h a d discovered for m y s e l f o v e r s e v e r a l years o f p r i v a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n : t h e p a p a c y really does run U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r e i g n policy, and always has. Yes,

1

RULERS OF E V I L

B e r n s t e i n n o t e d t h a t t h e l e a d i n g A m e r i c a n players b e h i n d t h e R e a g a n / V a t i c a n conspiracy, C a t h o l i c s ” – namely,
William Casey
Director, CIA

to a man, were “devout R o m a n

Alexander Haig
Secretary of State

Richard A l l e n
National Security Advisor

Vernon Walters
Ambassador-at-Large

Judge William Clark
National Security Advisor

William Wilson
Ambassador to the Vatican State

B u t t h e reporter n e g l e c t e d t o m e n t i o n t h a t t h e e n t i r e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e was g o v e r n e d b y R o m a n C a t h o l i c s , as well. Specifically, Senators
Joseph Biden
Subcommittee on European Affairs

John Kerry
Terrorism, Narcotics, and tional Communications Interna-

Paul Sarbanes
International Economic Policy, Trade, Oceans, and Environment

and... Christopher Dodd
Western Hemisphere Corps Affairs and Peace

Daniel P. Moynihan
Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs

B e r n s t e i n w o u l d h a v e b e e n w a n d e r i n g o f f - p o i n t t o list t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c leaders o f A m e r i c a n d o m e s t i c policy, s u c h a s S e n a t e majority leader G e o r g e M i t c h e l l and S p e a k e r of the House T o m Foley. In fact, w h e n t h e h o l y a l l i a n c e story h i t t h e stands, there was v i r t u a l l y no arena of federal legislative activity, a c c o r d i n g to The 1992 World Almanac of US Politics, that was n o t directly controlled b y a R o m a n C a t h o l i c senator o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h e c o m m i t t e e s and subcommittees of the U n i t e d States S e n a t e and House of R e p resentatives g o v e r n i n g c o m m e r c e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , energy, m e d i c i n e , h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a n d w e l f a r e , h u m a n services, c o n s u m e r p r o t e c t i o n , finance and financial institutions, transportation, labor and u n e m p l o y m e n t , hazardous materials, t a x a t i o n , b a n k r e g u l a t i o n , c u r r e n c y a n d m o n e t a r y policy,

2

CHAPTER I

SUBLIMINAL ROME

o v e r s i g h t of t h e Federal R e s e r v e S y s t e m , c o m m o d i t y prices, rents s e r v i c e s , small business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u r b a n affairs, E u r o p e a n affairs, N e a r E a s t e r n 6 k S o u t h A s i a n affairs, terrorism/narcotics/ international communications, international economic/trade/ o c e a n s / e n v i r o n m e n t a l policy, insurance, housing, community

d e v e l o p m e n t , federal l o a n g u a r a n t e e s , e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i z a t i o n measures ( i n c l u d i n g w a g e a n d price c o n t r o l s ) , gold and p r e c i o u s m e t a l s t r a n s a c t i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r e , a n i m a l and forestry industries, rural issues, n u t r i t i o n , price supports, F o o d for P e a c e , agricultural exports, soil conservation, irrigation, stream channelization, floodc o n t r o l , m i n o r i t y enterprise, e n v i r o n m e n t a n d p o l l u t i o n , appropriations, defense, foreign operations, v a c c i n e s , drug labeling and p a c k a g i n g , drug and a l c o h o l abuse, i n s p e c t i o n and certification of fish a n d processed f o o d , use of v i t a m i n s and s a c c h a r i n , n a t i o n a l h e a l t h insurance proposals, h u m a n services, legal services, family r e l a t i o n s , t h e arts and h u m a n i t i e s , t h e h a n d i c a p p e d , and a g i n g – in o t h e r words, v i r t u a l l y every aspect of secular life in A m e r i c a – c a m e u n d e r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f o n e o f these R o m a n C a t h o l i c laypersons:
Frank Annunzio Joseph Biden Silvio C o n t e Kika De la Garza John Dingell Christopher Dodd Vic Fazio James Florio Henry Gonzalez Thomas Harkin Edward Kennedy John Kerry John LaFalce Patrick Leahy Charles Luken Edward Madigan Edward Markey Joseph McDade Barbara Mikulski George Miller Daniel Moynihan John Murtha Mary Rose Oakar David Obey Claiborne Pell Charles Rangel Dan Rostenkowski or Edward Roybal.

2

V a t i c a n C o u n c i l IPs Constitution on the Church ( 1 9 6 4 ) instructs p o l i t i c i a n s to use t h e i r secular offices to a d v a n c e t h e cause of R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . C a t h o l i c laypersons, “ w h o e v e r they are, are c a l l e d u p o n t o e x p e n d all t h e i r e n e r g y for t h e g r o w t h o f the C h u r c h and its c o n t i n u o u s s a n c t i f i c a t i o n , ” a n d “ t o m a k e t h e C h u r c h present and o p e r a t i v e i n those p l a c e s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e r e only t h r o u g h t h e m c a n it b e c o m e t h e salt of the earth” (IV, 3 3 ) . V a t i c a n II further instructs all C a t h o l i c s “by their c o m p e t e n c e

3

RULERS OF E V I L

in secular d i s c i p l i n e s and by t h e i r a c t i v i t y [to] v i g o r o u s l y c o n tribute their effort so that ... t h e goods of this w o r l d may be more e q u i t a b l y distributed a m o n g all m e n , a n d m a y i n t h e i r o w n w a y b e c o n d u c i v e t o u n i v e r s a l progress i n h u m a n a n d C h r i s t i a n freed o m ... and [to] remedy t h e customs and c o n d i t i o n s of t h e world, if they are an i n d u c e m e n t to sin, so that they all may be conformed to t h e norms of justice and may favor t h e practice of virtue rather t h a n h i n d e r it” (IV, 3 6 ) . V a t i c a n II affirms C a t h o l i c doctrine dating back to 1 3 0 2 , w h e n Pope B o n i f a c e V I I I asserted that “it is absolutely necessary for t h e s a l v a t i o n o f e v e r y h u m a n c r e a t u r e t o b e subject t o t h e R o m a n P o n t i f f . ” T h i s was t h e i n s p i r a t i o n for t h e p a p a c y t o c r e a t e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a t h a t materialized i n 1 7 7 6 , b y a process just as secret as the R e a g a n - V a t i c a n p r o d u c t i o n of Eastern Europe i n 1 9 8 9 . W h a t ? A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t R o m a n C a t h o l i c from the beginning? Consider: the land k n o w n today as the District of C o l u m b i a bore t h e n a m e “ R o m e ” i n 1 6 6 3 property records; a n d t h e b r a n c h o f t h e P o t o m a c R i v e r t h a t b o r d e r e d “ R o m e ” o n t h e s o u t h was called “Tiber.” T h i s information was reported i n the 1 9 0 2 e d i t i o n
3

of t h e Catholic Encyclopedia’s a r t i c l e on D a n i e l C a r r o l l . T h e artic l e , specifically d e c l a r i n g itself “ o f interest t o C a t h o l i c s ” i n the 1902 e d i t i o n , was d e l e t e d from t h e New Catholic Encyclopedia ( 1 9 6 7 ) . O t h e r facts were reported i n 1 9 0 2 and deleted from 1 9 6 7 . For e x a m p l e , w h e n C o n g r e s s m e t in W a s h i n g t o n for the first time, i n N o v e m b e r , 1 8 0 0 , “ t h e o n l y t w o really c o m f o r t a b l e a n d imposing h o u s e s w i t h i n t h e b o u n d s o f t h e c i t y ” b e l o n g e d t o R o m a n C a t h o l i c s . O n e was W a s h i n g t o n ’ s first mayor, R o b e r t B r e n t . T h e other was Brent’s brother-in-law, N o t l e y Young, a Jesuit priest. D a n i e l C a r r o l l was a R o m a n C a t h o l i c congressman from Maryland w h o signed t w o o f A m e r i c a ’ s f u n d a m e n t a l d o c u m e n t s , t h e Articles of Confederation and the U n i t e d States Constitution. C a r r o l l was a direct d e s c e n d a n t of the C a l v e r t s , a C a t h o l i c family to w h o m K i n g C h a r l e s I of England had granted M a r y l a n d as a feudal barony. C a r r o l l h a d r e c e i v e d his e d u c a t i o n at St. Omer’s Jesuit C o l l e g e in Flanders, where y o u n g English-speaking C a t h o l i c s were

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CHAPTER I

SUBLIMINAL ROME

trained in a variety of guerrilla t e c h n i q u e s for a d v a n c i n g t h e cause o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m a m o n g hostile Protestants. In 1 7 9 0 , President G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n , a Protestant, appointed C o n g r e s s m a n Carroll to head a commission of three m e n to select land for the “federal city” called for in the C o n s t i t u t i o n . Of all places, t h e c o m m i s s i o n c h o s e “ R o m e , ” w h i c h a t t h e t i m e c o n sisted of four farms, o n e of w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o . . . D a n i e l C a r r o l l . It was u p o n C a r r o l l ’ s farm t h a t t h e n e w g o v e r n m e n t c h o s e t o e r e c t its most important building, the C a p i t o l .

T

HE A m e r i c a n C a p i t o l abounds w i t h clues of its R o m a n origins. “ F r e e d o m , ” t h e R o m a n goddess w h o s e statue c r o w n s t h e

d o m e , was c r e a t e d i n R o m e a t t h e studio o f A m e r i c a n sculptor T h o m a s Crawford. We find a w h o l e p a n t h e o n of R o m a n deities in the great fresco c o v e r i n g the dome’s interior rotunda: Persephone, C e r e s , Freedom, V u l c a n , Mercury, e v e n a deified G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n . T h e s e figures were t h e c r e a t i o n of V a t i c a n artist C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi. T h e fact t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l S t a t e h o u s e e v o l v e d a s a “ c a p i t o l ” bespeaks R o m a n influence. No building can rightly be called a capitol unless it’s a temple of Jupiter, the great father-god of R o m e w h o ruled h e a v e n w i t h his t h u n d e r b o l t s a n d n o u r i s h e d t h e e a r t h w i t h his fertilizing rains. If it was a capitolium, it b e l o n g e d to Jupiter and his priests. Jupiter’s m a s c o t was t h e e a g l e , w h i c h t h e f o u n d i n g fathers made their mascot as well. A R o m a n eagle tops the g o v e r n i n g idol of t h e H o u s e of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a f o r t y - s i x - i n c h sterling silverand-ebony w a n d called a “mace.” T h e mace is “the symbol of a u t h o r i t y i n t h e H o u s e . ” W h e n t h e S e r g e a n t - a t - a r m s displays i t
4

before an unruly m e m b e r of C o n g r e s s , t h e m a c e restores order. Its position at t h e rostrum tells w h e t h e r the H o u s e is in “ c o m m i t t e e ” or in “session.” A m e r i c a ’ s n a t i o n a l m o t t o “Annuit Coeptis” c a m e from a prayer to Jupiter. It appears in B o o k IX of Virgil’s e p i c p r o p a g a n d a , the Aeneid, a p o e m c o m m i s s i o n e d just before t h e b i r t h of C h r i s t by Caius Maecenas, the multi-billionaire power behind Augustus

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Caesar. T h e poem’s o b j e c t i v e was to fashion R o m e into an imperial m o n a r c h y for w h i c h its citizens would gladly sacrifice their lives. Fascism may be an ugly word to many, but its stately e m b l e m is a p p a r e n t l y offensive t o n o o n e . T h e e m b l e m o f fascism, a pair o f t h e m , c o m m a n d s the wall a b o v e and b e h i n d the speaker’s rostrum in the C h a m b e r of the House of Representatives. They’re called fasces, and I c a n t h i n k of no reason for t h e m to be there other t h a n to declare the fascistic nature of A m e r i c a n republican democracy. A fasces is a R o m a n d e v i c e . A c t u a l l y , it origi n a t e d w i t h t h e a n c i e n t Etruscans, from w h o m t h e earliest R o m a n s d e r i v e d t h e i r religious jurisprudence nearly three thousand years ago. It’s an a x e - h e a d w h o s e h a n d l e is a b u n d l e of rods t i g h t l y strapped t o g e t h e r by a red sinew. It symbolizes t h e o r d e r i n g of priestly f u n c t i o n s i n t o a single infallible sovereign, an autocrat w h o could require life and l i m b of his subjects. If t h e fasces is e n t w i n e d w i t h laurel, like t h e pair o n t h e H o u s e w a l l , i t signifies C a e s a r e a n military power. T h e R o m a n s c a l l e d this infallible sovereign Pontifex Maximus, “Supreme Bridgebuilder.” No R o m a n was c a l l e d Pontifex Maximus u n t i l t h e title was g i v e n to Julius C a e s a r in 48 B C . Today’s Pontifex Maximus is Pope John Paul II. As we shall discover in a f o r t h c o m i n g chapter, J o h n Paul does n o t h o l d that title a l o n e . He shares it w i t h a mysterious partner, a military m a n , a m a n h o l d i n g a n office t h a t has b e e n k n o w n for more t h a n four c e n t u r i e s as “Papa Nero,” t h e B l a c k P o p e . I shall present e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e H o u s e fasces represent the B l a c k P o p e , w h o indeed rules the world. Later, I w i l l d e v e l o p w h a t is sure to b e c o m e a c o n t r o v e r s i a l hypothesis: that the B l a c k Pope rules by d i v i n e a p p o i n t m e n t , and for the ultimate good of m a n k i n d .

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APOSTOLIC NUNCIATURE, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 3 3 3 9 Massachusetts Avenue N W Washington, D . C .

Chapter 2

MISSIONARY ADAPTATION

F

EW PEOPLE SEEM to be aware t h a t t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c this c a m e about makes interesting reading.

C h u r c h in A m e r i c a is officially r e c o g n i z e d as a S t a t e . H o w

Early i n his a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P r e s i d e n t R o n a l d R e a g a n i n v i t e d

t h e V a t i c a n C i t y , w h o s e r u l i n g h e a d is t h e P o p e , to o p e n its first and the embassy, or A p o s t o l i c N u n c i a t u r e of the H o l y S e e , o p e n e d officially o n January 1 0 , 1 9 8 4 . Shortly thereafter, a c o m p l a i n t was filed against President Rea-

embassy i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . H i s H o l i n e s s r e s p o n d e d positively,

g a n a t U . S . D i s t r i c t C o u r t i n P h i l a d e l p h i a b y t h e A m e r i c a n Jewish C o n g r e s s , t h e B a p t i s t Joint C o m m i t t e e o n P u b l i c A f f a i r s , S e v e n t h Day Adventists, the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Churches, the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f E v a n g e l i c a l s , and A m e r i c a n s U n i t e d for S e p a r a t i o n o f C h u r c h and S t a t e . T h e plaintiffs sought t o h a v e the C o u r t declare that the administration had unconstitutionally

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granted to the R o m a n C a t h o l i c faith privileges that were being denied to other establishments of religion. O n M a y 7 , 1 9 8 5 t h e suit was t h r o w n out b y C h i e f Judge J o h n F u l l a m . Judge F u l l a m ruled t h a t district courts d o n o t h a v e jurisd i c t i o n to i n t e r v e n e in “foreign policy decisions” of the e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h . B i s h o p James W . M a l o n e , President o f t h e U . S . C a t h o l i c C o n f e r e n c e , praised Judge Fullam’s decision, n o t i n g t h a t it settled “ n o t a religious issue but a public p o l i c y q u e s t i o n . ” T h e plaintiffs
1

appealed. T h e T h i r d C i r c u i t d e n i e d the appeal, n o t i c i n g that “ t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ’ s unique position of control over a sovereign territory gives it advantages that other religious organizations do not enjoy.” T h e A p o s t o l i c Nunciature at 3 3 3 9 Massachusetts
1

A v e n u e N . W . enables Pontifex Maximus to supervise more closely A m e r i c a n c i v i l g o v e r n m e n t – “ p u b l i c p o l i c y ” – as a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h R o m a n C a t h o l i c laypersons. ( O n e s u c h l a y p e r s o n was C h i e f Judge F u l l a m , w h o s e R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m a p p a r e n t l y escaped the a t t e n t i o n of the plaintiffs.) T h i s same i m p e r i u m ran p a g a n R o m e i n essentially t h e same way. T h e public servants were priests of the various gods and goddesses. M o n e t a r y affairs, for e x a m p l e , were g o v e r n e d by priests of the goddess M o n e t a . Priests of Dionysus managed architecture and c e m e t e r i e s , w h i l e priests o f Justitia, w i t h h e r sword, a n d L i b e r a , b l i n d f o l d e d , h o l d i n g h e r scales aloft, ruled t h e c o u r t s . H u n d r e d s
2

of priestly orders, k n o w n as the Sacred C o l l e g e , managed hundreds o f g o v e r n m e n t bureaus, from t h e j u s t i c e system t o t h e c o n s t r u c tion, cleaning, and repair of bridges ( n o bridge could be built w i t h out the approval of Pontifex Maximus), buildings, temples, castles, baths, sewers, ports, highways, walls and ramparts of cities and the boundaries of lands.
3

Priests d i r e c t e d t h e p a v i n g a n d repairing of streets a n d roads, supervised t h e c a l e n d a r and t h e e d u c a t i o n o f y o u t h . Priests regulated w e i g h t s , measures, and t h e v a l u e of m o n e y . Priests sole m n i z e d and certified births, baptisms, puberty, purification, c o n fession, adolescence, marriage, divorce, death, burial, e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c a n o n i z a t i o n , deification, a d o p t i o n into families, a d o p t i o n i n t o tribes a n d orders of n o b i l i t y . Priests ran t h e libraries, t h e

10

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m u s e u m s , t h e c o n s e c r a t e d lands a n d treasures. Priests registered t h e trademarks and symbols. Priests were in charge of p u b l i c worship, directing the festivals, plays, e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , games and ceremonies. Priests wrote and h e l d custody over wills, testaments, and legal c o n v e y a n c e s . By t h e fourth century, o n e h a l f of t h e lands and o n e fourth of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the R o m a n Empire were o w n e d by the priests. W h e n t h e E m p e r o r C o n s t a n t i n e
4

and his S e n a t e f o r m a l l y a d o p t e d C h r i s tianity as the Empire’s official religion, the e x e r c i s e was more of a merger or acquisit i o n t h a n a r e v o l u t i o n . T h e w e a l t h o f the priests merely b e c a m e the i m m e d i a t e possession of the C h r i s t i a n churches, and the priests merely declared t h e m s e l v e s C h r i s Constantine tians. Government continued without i n t e r r u p t i o n . T h e p a g a n gods a n d g o d desses were artfully outfitted w i t h n a m e s appropriate to C h r i s t i a n ity.
1

T h e sign o v e r t h e P a n t h e o n i n d i c a t i n g “ T o [the fertility

goddess] C y b e l e a n d A l l t h e G o d s ” was r e - w r i t t e n “ T o M a r y and A l l t h e S a i n t s . ” T h e T e m p l e o f A p o l l o b e c a m e t h e C h u r c h o f St. Apollinaris. T h e Temple of Mars was reconsecrated C h u r c h of Santa Martina, with the inscription “Mars h e n c e ejected, Martina, m a r t y r e d maid/ C l a i m s n o w t h e w o r s h i p w h i c h t o h i m was paid.” H a l o e d icons of A p o l l o were identified as Jesus, and the crosses of B a c c h u s and T a m m u z w e r e a c c e p t e d as t h e official symbol of t h e C r u c i f i x i o n . P o p e L e o I d e c r e e d t h a t “ S t . Peter a n d S t . Paul h a v e replaced R o m u l u s and R e m u s as Rome’s protecting patrons.”
2

Pagan feasts, too, were Christianized. D e c e m b e r 25 – the celebrated birthday of a n u m b e r of gods, a m o n g t h e m Saturn, Jupiter, T a m muz, B a c c h u s , Osiris, and Mithras – was claimed to h a v e b e e n that of Jesus as w e l l , and the traditional S a t u r n a l i a , season of d r u n k e n merriment and gift-giving, e v o l v e d into C h r i s t m a s . B a c c h u s was popular in a n c i e n t France under his G r e e k n a m e

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S k e t c h of Mithras (left), from a stone carving. Mithras was “Sol Invictus” the “unconquerable Sun,” an imperial Roman god since the third century BC Under Constantinian Christianity, artisans re-consecrated him Jesus and other biblical names. In the silver dish made on Cyprus in the eighth century A D , Mithras (note the peculiar stance) slaying the Cosmic Bull became David killing a lion.

Dionysus – or, as the F r e n c h rendered it, Denis. His feast, t h e Festurn Dionysi, was h e l d every s e v e n t h day of O c t o b e r , at t h e e n d of t h e v i n t a g e season. A f t e r t w o days of w i l d partying, a n o t h e r feast was h e l d , the Festum Dionysi Eleutherei Rusticum ( “ C o u n t r y Festival of Merry Dionysus”). T h e papacy cleverly brought the worshippers of D i o n y s u s i n t o its j u r i s d i c t i o n by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e words D i o n y s o s , B a c c h u s , E l e u t h e r e i , a n d R u s t i c u m i n t o . . . a group of C h r i s t i a n martyrs. O c t o b e r s e v e n t h was e n t e r e d o n t h e Liturgical C a l e n d a r as the feast day of “St. B a c c h u s the Martyr,” w h i l e O c t o ber n i n t h was i n s t i t u t e d a s t h e “ F e s t i v a l o f S t . D e n i s , a n d o f his c o m p a n i o n s S t . E l e u t h e r e a n d S t . R u s t i c . ” The Catholic Almanac ( 1 9 9 2 e t seq) sustains t h e f a b r i c a t i o n b y d e s i g n a t i n g O c t o b e r n i n t h as the Feast Day of Denis, bishop of Paris, and two companions identified by early writers as Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, a deacon martyred near Paris. Denis is popularly regarded as the apostle and patron saint of France.

12

CHAPTER

MISSIONARY A D A P T A T I O N

P

L A Y I N G loose w i t h t r u t h a n d S c r i p t u r e i n order t o b r i n g every

h u m a n creature into subjection to the R o m a n Pontiff is a tech-

n i q u e c a l l e d “ m i s s i o n a r y a d a p t a t i o n . ” T h i s is e x p l a i n e d as “ t h e adjustment of the mission subject to t h e cultural r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e mission o b j e c t ” so t h a t the papacy’s needs will be b r o u g h t “as m u c h as possible in a c c o r d w i t h e x i s t i n g socially shared p a t t e r n s of t h o u g h t , e v a l u a t i o n , and a c t i o n , so as to a v o i d unnecessary and serious disorganization.”
1

R o m e has so seamlessly adapted its mission to A m e r i c a n secularism that we do n o t t h i n k of the U n i t e d States as a C a t h o l i c syst e m . Y e t t h e rosters o f g o v e r n m e n t r a t h e r d e c i s i v e l y s h o w this t o be the case. By far the greatest c h a l l e n g e to missionary adaptation has b e e n S c r i p t u r e – t h a t is, t h e O l d a n d N e w T e s t a m e n t s , c o m m o n l y k n o w n as the H o l y Bible. A l m o s t for as long as R o m e has b e e n the seat of Pontifex Maximus, there has b e e n a curious e n m i t y b e t w e e n b e t w e e n t h e p o p e s a n d t h e B i b l e w h o s e b e l i e v e r s t h e y are presumed to head. In the n e x t chapter, we shall begin our examination of that enmity.

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ROME vs. SCRIPTURE Pope Gregory IX ( 1 2 2 7 - 4 1 ) , founder of the Inquisition and champion of Aristotle, excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, upside down with Bible. (From the painting by Vasari.)

Chapter 3

MARGINALIZING THE BIBLE

E

V E R Y R U L E D S O C I E T Y has s o m e form o f h o l y scripture. T h e

h o l y scriptures o f C a e s a r e a n R o m e were t h e p r o p h e c i e s and ritual d i r e c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n the t e n S i b y l l i n e gospels a n d Aeneid.

Virgil’s

T h e Aeneid i m p l i e d t h a t e v e r y R o m a n ’ s duty was to sacrifice his individuality, as h e r o i c A e n e a s h a d d o n e , to t h e greater glory of R o m e a n d Pontifex Maximus. T h e S i b y l l i n e s , b o r r o w i n g from Isaiah’s m u c h earlier p r o p h e c y o f Jesus C h r i s t , p r o p h e s i e d t h a t w h e n C a e s a r A u g u s t u s s u c c e e d e d his u n c l e Julius as Pontifex Maximus h e w o u l d rule t h e w o r l d a s “ P r i n c e o f P e a c e , S o n o f G o d . ” A u g u s t u s would issue in a “ n e w world order,” as indeed he did. T h e S i b y l l i n e s and t h e Aeneid were so b e l o v e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t priests t h a t they were c o n s i d e r e d part of the R o m a n constit u t i o n . T h e same scriptures were m a d e part o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
Constitution w h e n the mottoes “ANNUIT COEPTIS” and “NOVUS

ORDO

SECLORUM,”

taken

from

the

Aeneid

and

the

Sibyllines

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respectively, were i n c o r p o r a t e d , b y t h e A c t o f July 2 8 , 1 7 8 2 , into the G r e a t Seal of the U n i t e d States.
1

T h e S i b y l l i n e s a n d t h e Aeneid w e r e o p e n o n l y t o priests and c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e d persons. T h e p e o p l e l e a r n e d t h e i r sacred c o n t e n t b y t h e t r i c k l e - d o w n o f priestly r e t e l l i n g . W h e n t h e O l d and N e w Testaments were adopted as the Empire’s official sacred writings they, too, were g i v e n to the e x c l u s i v e care of the priests. A n d i n a c c o r d w i t h R o m a n t r a d i t i o n , t h e p e o p l e l e a r n e d sacred c o n tent from discretionary retelling. T h i s had to be, for the sake of the H o l y E m p i r e . For s h o u l d t h e p e o p l e a c q u i r e b i b l i c a l k n o w l e d g e , t h e y w o u l d k n o w t h a t Pontifex Maximus was n o t a l e g i t i m a t e C h r i s t i a n e n t i t l e m e n t . K n o w i n g t h i s , t h e y w o u l d n o t b o w t o his supremacy. T h e E m p i r e c o u l d c o l l a p s e . A n d s o t h e m o n a r c h i a l R o m a n C h u r c h forcibly suppressed the Bible’s intelligent reading. T h i s i s w h y the m i l l e n n i u m b e t w e e n C o n s t a n t i n e and G u t e n b e r g is k n o w n as “the Dark A g e s . ” S p r i n k l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e , h o w e v e r , w e r e isolated C h r i s t i a n assemblies w h o had preserved Scripture from the days of the early C h u r c h . For t h e m the Bible invited an o n g o i n g , personal c o m m u n i o n w i t h t h e C r e a t o r o f t h e u n i v e r s e . T h e y l i v e d b y the writings of w h i c h R o m e was so jealous. By the t h i r t e e n t h century, these assemblies h a d g r o w n s o v i b r a n t t h a t P o p e G r e g o r y I X d e c l a r e d u n a u t h o r i z e d B i b l e study a heresy. He further d e c r e e d
2

t h a t “it i s t h e duty o f e v e r y C a t h o l i c t o p e r s e c u t e h e r e t i c s . ” T o m a n a g e the persecution, G r e g o r y established the Pontifical Inquisition. T h e Inquisition treated the slightest departure from t h e life of the c o m m u n i t y as proof of direct c o m m u n i o n with the Bible or S a t a n . Either instance was a sin worthy of d e a t h . C a s e s were pros3

e c u t e d a c c o r d i n g to a strict r o u t i n e . First, t h e inquisitors w o u l d enter a t o w n and present their credentials to the c i v i l authorities. In the pope’s n a m e , they would require the governor’s cooperation. N e x t , t h e l o c a l priest w o u l d b e ordered t o s u m m o n his c o n g r e g a t i o n t o h e a r t h e inquisitors p r e a c h against heresy, w h i c h was d e f i n e d as a n y t h i n g t h e least b i t o p p o s e d to t h e p a p a l system. A brief grace p e r i o d f o l l o w e d t h e s e r m o n , w h e r e i n t h e p e o p l e w e r e

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g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o step forward and a c c u s e t h e m s e l v e s o f c r i m e s . T h o s e w h o did w e r e usually p u n i s h e d mildly. Later, t h e inquisitors w o u l d r e c e i v e at their lodgings unverified accusations, g u a r a n t e e i n g i n t h e pope’s n a m e t h e a n o n y m i t y o f i n f o r m a n t s . M a n y i n n o c e n t lives were ruined by false testimony. Trials were c o n d u c t e d arbitrarily and secretly by tribunals c o n sisting of t h e inquisitors, t h e i r staffs, and their witnesses, all c o n cealed under hoods. T h e accused were never told the charges against t h e m , and they were forbidden to ask. No defense witnesse s w e r e p e r m i t t e d . T h e a c c u s e d h a d b u t o n e o p t i o n : t o confess g u i l t a n d die. T h o s e w h o refused t o confess ( a n d witnesses w h o b a l k e d at testifying) w e r e carried to t h e d u n g e o n for torture sessions (boys u n d e r f o u r t e e n a n d girls u n d e r t w e l v e e x e m p t e d ) . Inquisitors a n d e x e c u t i o n e r s w e r e c o m m a n d e d b y p a p a l e d i c t t o show no mercy. No acquittal was ever recorded. Every fully prosec u t e d case e n d e d in t h e d e a t h of the d e f e n d a n t and t h e forfeiture of his or her property, since it was assumed (as in A m e r i c a n forfeiture cases since 1 9 8 4 ) t h a t t h e property was g a i n e d i n sin. S o m e times the property of family members for generations to c o m e was forfeited. T h e s e forfeitures were paid out in expenses to the scribes and executioners, half of the remainder going into the papal treasury and h a l f t o t h e inquisitors. A l t h o u g h p o p e s a n d inquisitors amassed great fortunes from t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , its greatest b e n e f i c i ary was, and has been, the R o m a n system.
4

T h e I n q u i s i t i o n was most effective against t h e isolated truthseeker i n a n i g n o r a n t c o m m u n i t y . A s c o m m u n i t i e s b e c a m e more literate, t h e I n q u i s i t i o n grew subtler. W h a t b r o u g h t l i t e r a c y t o c o m m u n i t i e s was t h e e p i d e m i c of B i b l e - r e a d i n g m a d e possible by the perfection of Johannes Gutenberg’s i n v e n t i o n of m o v a b l e type.

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NOMINATION Charles Habsburg (right, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor) confides to Pope C l e m e n t VII (Giulio d’Medici) his choice of the man to stop defections to Protestantism. (After the painting by Vasari.)

Chapter 4

LEARNING

G

U T E N B E R G C H O S E t h e Bible t o d e m o n s t r a t e m o v a b l e type not so much that the c o m m o n man might be brought n e a r e r t o G o d , b u t t h a t h e a n d h i s b a c k e r , Dr. J o h a n n e s

Faust, m i g h t make a killing in the b o o k trade. Prior to 1 4 5 0 , Bibles were so rare t h e y were c o n v e y e d by deed, like parcels of real estate. A Bible t o o k nearly a year to m a k e , c o m m a n d i n g a p r i c e e q u a l to t e n t i m e s t h e a n n u a l i n c o m e of a prosperous m a n . J o h a n n e s G u t e n b e r g i n t e n d e d his first p r o d u c t i o n , a folio edition of the 6 t h - c e n t u r y Latin Bible ( k n o w n as the V u l g a t e ) , to f e t c h m a n u s c r i p t p r i c e s . Dr. Faust d i s c r e e t l y sold it as a o n e - o f - a - k i n d to kings, n o b l e s , and c h u r c h e s . A second e d i t i o n in 1 4 6 2 sold for as m u c h as 6 0 0 c r o w n s e a c h in Paris, but sales were t o o sluggish t o suit Faust, s o h e slashed p r i c e s t o 6 0 c r o w n s and then to 30. T h i s p u t e n o u g h c o p i e s i n t o c i r c u l a t i o n for C h u r c h a u t h o r ities to n o t i c e t h a t several were identical. S u c h extraordinary uniformity b e i n g regarded a s h u m a n l y i m p o s s i b l e , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s
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charged that Faust had produced the Bibles by magic. On this pretext, the A r c h b i s h o p of M a i n z h a d G u t e n b e r g ’ s shop raided and a fortune i n c o u n t e r f e i t Bibles seized. T h e red ink w i t h w h i c h they were embellished was alleged to be h u m a n blood. Faust was arrested for conspiring w i t h S a t a n , but there is no record of any trial. M e a n w h i l e , the pressmen, w h o h a d b e e n sworn n o t t o disclose G u t e n b e r g ’ s secrets w h i l e in his s e r v i c e , fled t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of M a i n z a n d set u p shops o f t h e i r o w n . A s paper m a n u f a c t u r e improved, along w i t h t e c h n i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s i n matrix c u t t i n g and type-casting, books b e g a n to proliferate. M o s t were editions of the V u l g a t e . I n t h e d e c a d e f o l l o w i n g t h e M a i n z raid, five L a t i n and t w o G e r m a n Bibles were published. Translators busied t h e m s e l v e s i n other countries. A n Italian version appeared i n 1 4 7 1 , a B o h e m i an in 1 4 7 5 , a D u t c h and a F r e n c h in 1 4 7 7 , and a S p a n i s h in 1 4 7 8 . As quickly as our generation has b e c o m e computer-literate, the G u t e n b e r g g e n e r a t i o n l e a r n e d t o read b o o k s , a n d careful readers found s h o c k i n g discrepancies b e t w e e n t h e papacy’s interpretation of G o d ’ s W o r d and the W o r d itself. I n 1 4 8 5 , t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f M a i n z issued a n e d i c t p u n i s h i n g unauthorized Bible-reading with excommunication, confiscation o f b o o k s , a n d h e a v y fines. T h e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e t h e o l o g i a n Desiderius Erasmus c h a l l e n g e d t h e A r c h b i s h o p b y p u b l i s h i n g , i n 1 5 1 6 , t h e first p r i n t e d e d i t i o n o f t h e G r e e k N e w T e s t a m e n t . H e addressed the anti-Bible mentality in his preface w i t h these words: I vehemently dissent from those who would not have private persons read the Holy Scriptures nor have them translated into the vulgar tongues, as though either Christ taught such difficult doctrines that they can only be understood by a few theologians, or the safety of the Christian religion lay in ignorance of it. I should like all women to read the Gospel and the Epistles of Paul. Would that they were translated into all languages so that not only the Scotch and Irish, but Turks and Saracens might be able to read and know them. A C a t h o l i c m o n k n a m e d M a r t i n Luther, against t h e a d v i c e of his superiors, plunged into the N e w T e s t a m e n t of Erasmus. He was

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s h o c k e d by the absence of scriptural authority for s o m a n y C h u r c h traditions. O f the s e v e n C h u r c h S a c r a m e n t s o n l y t w o , Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, were grounded in S c r i p t u r e . T h e r e m a i n i n g five – C o n f i r mation, Absolution, Ordination, Marriage, a n d E x t r e m e U n c t i o n – w e r e t h e inventions of post-biblical councils and d e c r e e s . L u t h e r f o u n d n o scriptural m a n date for c e l i b a c y of m o n k s and n u n s , or for pilgrimages and the v e n e r a t i o n o f sacred
Martin Luther

relics. T h e C h u r c h t a u g h t t h a t prayer, g o o d w o r k s , a n d regular p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S a c r a -

m e n t s m i g h t save m a n from eternal d a m n a t i o n . L u t h e r found this to be opposed to the t e a c h i n g of Scripture. A c c o r d i n g to Scripture, o n l y o n e t h i n g c a n s a v e m a n from t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f his sins: G o d ’ s grace, and t h a t alone. T h e most explosive result of Luther’s Bible-reading was its attitude t o w a r d t h e papacy. N o w h e r e i n S c r i p t u r e c o u l d the passionate m o n k f i n d that G o d h a d ordained a n imperious R o m a n “ V i c a r of C h r i s t ” to rule o v e r a vast e c o n o m y based on selling rights to do e v i l . T h e s e rights w e r e c a l l e d i n d u l g e n c e s . T h e y h a d b e e n a C h u r c h t r a d i t i o n s i n c e P o p e L e o III h a d b e g u n g r a n t i n g t h e m i n the year 8 0 0 , p a y a b l e i n t h e m o n e y c o i n e d b y P o p e A d r i a n I i n
780.

I n d u l g e n c e s w e r e f l o a t e d o n t h e C h u r c h ’ s credibility, r a t h e r like g o v e r n m e n t bonds are issued on the credibility of states today. I n 1 4 9 1 , for e x a m p l e , I n n o c e n t V I I g r a n t e d t h e 2 0 - y e a r Butterbriefe i n d u l g e n c e , by w h i c h G e r m a n s c o u l d pay /20th of a guilder
1

for the a n n u a l privilege of eating dairy products e v e n w h i l e meriting from fasting. T h e p r o c e e d s of t h e Butterbriefe w e n t to b u i l d a bridge at Torgau. Rome’s i n d u l g e n c e e c o n o m y was as e x t e n s i v e as
1

A m e r i c a ’ s i n c o m e tax system today. A n d it was every bit as fueled by t h e people’s t r e m b l i n g c o m p l i a n c e , v o l u n t a r i l y , to a p r e s u m p tion of liability. In 1 5 1 5 Pope L e o X issued a Bull of Indulgence authorizing let-

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ters of safe c o n d u c t to Paradise and p a r d o n s for e v e r y e v i l imagin a b l e , from a 2 5 - c e n t purgatory release ( t h e d e a d left purgatory
2

the instant one’s coins hit the b o t t o m of the indulgence-salesman’s b u c k e t ) to a l i c e n s e so p o t e n t t h a t it w o u l d e x c u s e s o m e o n e w h o h a d raped t h e V i r g i n Mary. For t h e p a y m e n t o f four d u c a t s , o n e could be forgiven for murdering one’s father. Sorcery was pardoned for 6 d u c a t s . For r o b b i n g a c h u r c h , t h e law c o u l d be r e l a x e d for o n l y 9 d u c a t s . S o d o m y was p a r d o n e d for 1 2 d u c a t s . H a l f t h e revenues from Leo’s i n d u l g e n c e w e n t to a fund for the b u i l d i n g of S t . Peter’s C a t h e d r a l , and the o t h e r h a l f t o p a y i n g 4 0 % interest rates on b a n k loans subsidizing t h e m a g n i f i c e n t works of art and architecture w i t h w h i c h His Holiness was establishing R o m e as the cultural c a p i t a l o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . H i s t o r i a n s h a v e glorified L e o , w h o s e father h a p p e n e d to be t h e great F l o r e n t i n e b a n k e r L o r e n z o d ’ M e d i c i , by marking the s i x t e e n t h century as “the C e n t u r y of L e o X.” In early 1 5 2 1 , M a r t i n Luther formally protested the indulgence racket by nailing his famous Ninety-five Theses Upon Indulgences to the d o o r o f the castle c h u r c h o f W i t t e n b u r g . T h e c h u r c h was said to o w n a l o c k of t h e H o l y Virgin’s hair w o r t h t w o m i l l i o n years of indulgences. Luther’s Theses e x h o r t e d Christians “to follow C h r i s t , their H e a d , t h r o u g h penalties, deaths, and hells,” rather t h a n purc h a s e “a false assurance of p e a c e ” from C h u r c h i n d u l g e n c e - s a l e s men. L e o h a d L u t h e r arrested and d e t a i n e d for t e n m o n t h s in W a r t burg C a s t l e . W h i l e i n custody, L u t h e r m a n a g e d t o t r a n s l a t e t h e G r e e k N e w T e s t a m e n t o f Erasmus i n t o G e r m a n . Its p u b l i c a t i o n alarmed t h e broadest r e a c h e s o f R o m a n authority. D ’ A u b i g n e , i n his History of the Reformation, tells us t h a t “ I g n o r a n t priests shuddered a t the t h o u g h t t h a t e v e r y c i t i z e n , nay e v e r y p e a s a n t , w o u l d n o w be able to dispute w i t h t h e m on the precepts of our Lord.” M e a n w h i l e , Leo X died. T h e new pope, A d r i a n V I , hardly eulogized L e o w h e n confessing t o t h e D i e t o f N u r e m b e r g t h a t “for m a n y years, a b o m i n a b l e t h i n g s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e C h a i r o f Peter, abuses in spiritual matters, transgressions of the C o m m a n d ments, so that everything here has been wickedly perverted.”
3

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A d r i a n died shortly after speaking these lines, to be s u c c e e d e d by t h e C a r d i n a l w h o h a d b e e n h a n d l i n g M a r t i n Luther’s case all along, another M e d i c i , L e o X’s first cousin, G i u l i o d ’ M e d i c i . G i u l i o t o o k the papal n a m e C l e m e n t V I I . Just as L e o X’s c o r r u p t i o n h a d i g n i t e d L u t h e r , C l e m e n t VII’s shrewdness d e t e r m i n e d h o w t h e C h u r c h w o u l d deal w i t h t h e proliferation of Bibles. C l e m e n t was personally advised by t h e cagey N i c c o l o M a c h i a v e l l i , inventor of modern political science, and C a r d i n a l T h o m a s Wolsey, C h a n c e l l o r o f England. M a c h i a v e l l i and Wolsey opined that b o t h printing and Protestantism could be t u r n e d t o R o m e ’ s a d v a n t a g e b y e m p l o y i n g m o v a b l e type t o p r o duce a literature that would confuse, diminish, and ultimately marginalize t h e Bible. C a r d i n a l Wolsey, w h o w o u l d later found C h r i s t C h u r c h C o l l e g e at O x f o r d , c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e p r o j e c t as “to put learning against learning.”
4

A g a i n s t t h e Bible’s l e a r n i n g , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w m a n c o u l d h a v e e t e r n a l life simply by b e l i e v i n g in t h e facts of Christ’s d e a t h and resurrection, w o u l d be put t h e learning of the gnostics. G n o s t i c i s m h e l d out the h o p e that m a n c o u l d a c h i e v e everlasting life by d o i n g g o o d works himself. To put it succinctly, Bible-learning was Christ-centered; gnostic learning was m a n - c e n t e r e d . A n e n o r m o u s trove o f gnostic learning h a d b e e n brought from the eastern M e d i t e r r a n e a n by agents of C l e m e n t VII’s great-grandfather, C o s i m o d ’ M e d i c i . Suppressed since t h e E m p e r o r Justinian h a d piously shut d o w n t h e p a g a n c o l l e g e s o f A t h e n s b a c k i n 5 2 9 , these c e l e b r a t e d m y s t i c a l , scientific a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l scrolls and manuscripts flattered h u m a n i t y . T h e y t a u g h t t h a t h u m a n intellig e n c e was c o m p e t e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t r u t h from f a l s e h o o d w i t h o u t g u i d a n c e or assistance from any g o d . S i n c e , as Protagoras put it, “ m a n is t h e measure of all t h i n g s , ” m a n c o u l d c o n t r o l all t h e living powers of the u n i v e r s e . If e l e c t e d and initiated into t h e secret k n o w l e d g e , or gnosis, m a n could master the cabalah – the “royal scie n c e ” of n a m e s , n u m b e r s , a n d s y m b o l s – to c r e a t e his v e r y o w n divinity. C o s i m o had stored huge quantities of this pagan material in his library in F l o r e n c e . T h e M e d i c i Library, w h o s e final a r c h i t e c t was

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M i c h a e l a n g e l o , w e l c o m e d scholars f a v o r e d b y t h e papacy. T h e s e s c h o l a r s , n o t surprisingly, s o o n b e g a n e m u l a t i n g t h e p a p a c y i n focusing more u p o n h u m a n i t y t h a n u p o n the O l d and N e w Testam e n t s . So e x t e n s i v e was the M e d i c i Library’s p h i l o s o p h i c a l influe n c e t h a t e v e n scholars t o d a y c o n s i d e r i t t h e cradle o f W e s t e r n civilization. M a r t i n L u t h e r , s e e i n g t h a t learning against learning was t h e future o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , v o i c e d a n “ A p p e a l t o t h e R u l i n g C l a s s e s ” ( 1 5 2 0 ) , i n w h i c h h e wrote, rather prophetically: Though our children live in the midst of a Christian world, they faint and perish in misery because they lack the Gospel in which we should be training and exercising them all the time. I advise no one to place his child where the Scriptures do not reign paramount. Schools will become wide-open gates of hell if they do not diligently engrave the Holy Scriptures on young hearts. Every institution where men are not increasingly occupied with the word of G o d must become corrupt. It was o n e t h i n g to r e c o m m e n d learning against learning, a n d quite a n o t h e r to m a n a g e its m u l t i p l e d i m e n s i o n s . Learning against learning a m o u n t e d t o n o less t h a n m a k i n g war o n t h e B i b l e . T o w a g e s u c h a war, t h e p a p a c y n e e d e d a n e w priestly order of pious soldiers c o n d i t i o n e d to w i e l d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e a p o n s on a b a t t l e field of... human thought. B u t first, t h e r e h a d to be a g e n e r a l . T h e m a n c h o s e n to lead t h e assault on t h e B i b l e was a s w a s h b u c k l i n g adventurer from the proud Basque country of n o r t h e r n S p a i n .

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I G N A T I U S OF L O Y O L A

Chapter 5

APPOINTMENT AT CYPRUS

H

IS N A M E W A S

Iñigo de L o y o l a . H e was born in 1 4 9 1 to a

r i c h family, y o u n g e s t o f e i g h t b o y s , o n e o f t h i r t e e n c h i l -

dren. His older b r o t h e r h a d sailed t o the N e w W o r l d w i t h

Christopher Columbus. Iñigo served as a page in t h e c o u r t of K i n g F e r d i n a n d and Q u e e n Isabella o f S p a i n . H e b e c a m e friends w i t h Ferdinand’s Belg i a n g r a n d s o n , C h a r l e s H a b s b u r g , w h o s e o t h e r g r a n d f a t h e r was Holy R o m a n Emperor Maximilian. ( T h e Holy R o m a n Emperor was a k i n d of secular p o p e w h o presided o v e r t h e C h r i s t i a n k i n g doms of the western world.) C h a r l e s was propelled to great authority before his t w e n t y - f i r s t b i r t h d a y by t h e d e a t h s of his t w o grandfathers w i t h i n a space of t w o years. From Ferdinand, C h a r l e s i n h e r i t e d S p a i n . From M a x i m i l i a n , h e inherited the H o l y R o m a n E m p i r e . C h a r l e s H a b s b u r g was K i n g C h a r l e s I of S p a i n , E m p e r o r C h a r l e s V of R o m e . He was the most powerful secular figure in Europe. A n d h e was I ñ i g o ’ s friend.

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In 1 5 1 8 , Iñigo was part of a l e g a t i o n n e g o t i a t i n g for C h a r l e s w i t h Spain’s t r a d i t i o n a l rival, F r a n c e , at t h e c o u r t of t h e D u k e of N a j e r a in Valladolid. W h i l e the summit was in session, C a t h e r i n a , t h e Emperor’s sister, was p r e s e n t e d to t h e N a j e r a c o u r t . Iñigo fell i n l o v e w i t h her. H e was t w e n t y - s e v e n and she was e l e v e n . ( T h e Emperor was eighteen.) T h e m a t c h , h o w e v e r , was n o t to be. O n M o n d a y , M a y 20, 1 5 2 1 , w h i l e c o m m a n d i n g a garrison a t the Duke’s fortress in P a m p l o n a , Iñigo was struck by a F r e n c h cann o n b a l l . H i s right leg was s h a t t e r e d , a n d w i t h it – s i n c e a w e l l shaped leg was a m o n g a courtier’s most prized assets – the prospects for a romantic life w i t h C a t h e r i n a , or any other w o m a n . An h o n o r guard of F r e n c h soldiers bore the w o u n d e d c h a m p i o n on a stretcher to his family’s c a s t l e in t h e S p a n i s h P y r e n e e s . Surgeons b u t c h e r e d h i s leg a n d reset t h e b o n e s . H e lost a p p e t i t e a n d was told he might die. He made confession and was g i v e n last rites. But a few days after the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, he was p r o n o u n c e d o u t o f death’s i m m e d i a t e grasp. H e c r e d i t e d this r e c o v e r y t o his d e v o t i o n to St. Peter. Iñigo r e m a i n e d b e d r i d d e n for n e a r l y a year. U n d e r t h e c o n c e r n e d if d i s t a n t eye of t h e y o u t h f u l Emperor, he s p e n t his t i m e “ s e a r c h i n g for substitutes for t h e s h a t t e r e d ideals, a m b i t i o n s , and values t h a t h a d b e e n so c e n t r a l to his sense of h i m s e l f . ” He gazed
2

obsessively at a small i c o n of S a i n t C a t h e r i n e , a gift from Q u e e n Isabella t o his sister-in-law. T h e i c o n sparked dreams o f C a t h e r i na, w h i c h o n l y t h r o t t l e d his h e a r t w i t h d e s o l a t i o n . H e t u r n e d t o books, L u d o l p h of Saxony’s Life of Christ and Voragine’s Lives of the Saints – the only t w o v o l u m e s in t h e family library despite the fact that a Spanish Bible had b e e n available for forty years. T h e i c o n and the books gave h i m visions. T h e visions, i n turn, led h i m to d e v e l o p a process of “preparing and disposing t h e soul to rid itself of all inordinate a t t a c h m e n t s , and, after their r e m o v a l , o f s e e k i n g and f i n d i n g t h e w i l l o f G o d . ” I ñ i g o called this process
3

“the Spiritual Exercises.” In t h e Exercises, a D i r e c t o r leads a R e t r e a t a n t t h r o u g h Four W e e k s of intense prayer, meditation, and dialogue w i t h the Blessed V i r g i n Mary, Jesus, a n d G o d t h e Father. F r e q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n o f

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“Anima Christi,” L o y o l a ’ s o w n h a b i t u a l prayer for d i s o r i e n t a t i o n a n d sensory d e p r i v a t i o n ( “ B l o o d o f C h r i s t , i n e b r i a t e m e ” ) , i s advised. T h e First W e e k i s s p e n t c o n s i d e r i n g a n d c o n t e m p l a t i n g sins, c r e a t i n g v i v i d m e n t a l p i c t u r e s of “ h e l l in all its d e p t h and b r e a d t h , p u t t i n g y o u r five senses at t h e s e r v i c e of your i m a g i n a t i o n . ” T h e S e c o n d W e e k e x p l o r e s t h e life o f C h r i s t u p t o P a l m Sunday inclusively; the Third W e e k undertakes the Crucifixion, i n w h i c h t h e R e t r e a t a n t i s d i r e c t e d t o “ i m a g i n e C h r i s t our Lord present before y o u o n t h e C r o s s , a n d b e g i n t o speak w i t h h i m ... and ask ‘What h a v e I d o n e for Christ? W h a t am I doing for Christ? W h a t o u g h t I t o d o for C h r i s t ? ’ ” T h e F o u r t h W e e k i s o c c u p i e d
4

w i t h t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n a n d A s c e n s i o n , after w h i c h t h e R e t r e a t a n t prays “for a k n o w l e d g e of the deceits of t h e rebel c h i e f and h e l p to guard myself against t h e m ; and also to ask for a k n o w l e d g e of the true life e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e s o v e r e i g n a n d true C o m m a n d e r , and the grace to imitate h i m . ” By the time the Exercises h a v e run their course, the Retreatant’s purified i m a g i n a t i o n is totally d o m i n a t e d by m e n t a l pictures o f Jesus resurrected, Jesus t h e K i n g M i l i t a n t . O n e c a n n o w answer the King’s call to c o n q u e r Protestantism and its rebel c h i e f ( “ t h e e n e m y of h u m a n n a t u r e ” ) w i t h t h e selfless fidelity of a c h i v a l r o u s k n i g h t . O n e ’ s c o n s c i o u s n e s s has b e e n altered. O n e ’ s soul and brain h a v e b e e n washed. O n e ’ s liberty has b e e n sacrificed t o authority. O n e ’ s i n d i v i d u a l i t y has b e e n surrendered t o t h e C h r i s t o f R o m e . O n e n o l o n g e r has a w i l l o f one’s o w n . O n e v o l unteers for any assigned task no matter h o w adverse. M a r t i n L u t h e r s p e n t L o y o l a ’ s year o f r e c o v e r y i m p r i s o n e d a t Wartburg C a s t l e for insulting the papacy w i t h his Ninety-Five Theses. R e m a r k a b l y , w h i l e o n e prisoner e x p e r i e n c e d m y s t i c a l v i s i o n s that urged h i m t o defend t h e C h u r c h ’ s h o n o r i n t h e r o m a n t i c a l l y chivalrous m a n n e r of the K n i g h t s Templar, the other was translating ( w i t h t h e miraculous permission of his keepers) t h e N e w Test a m e n t i n t o G e r m a n s o t h a t ordinary p e o p l e m i g h t learn t h e will o f G o d directly. T h e s e p a r a l l e l , s i m u l t a n e o u s quests for h o l i n e s s would define m o d e r n life’s underlying conflict: W h i c h Master Do I S e r v e , R o m e or the W o r d of G o d ?

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P

U R I F I E D b y t h e Spiritual Exercises, I ñ i g o ’ s sensual a t t a c h m e n t t o Princess C a t h e r i n a was transformed t h r o u g h S a i n t C a t h e r -

ine i n t o a higher, spiritual a t t a c h m e n t to a h i g h e r f e m i n i n i t y – to

Mary, the Q u e e n o f H e a v e n . A n apparition o f the V i r g i n appeared to h i m o n e n i g h t and validated that he was free of fleshly lusts and was n o w w o r t h y of a p i l g r i m a g e to Jerusalem. In M a r t i n Luther’s o p i n i o n , “as far as G o d is c o n c e r n e d , Jerusalem a n d all t h e H o l y L a n d are n o t o n e w h i t m o r e , or less, interesting t h a n t h e c o w s in Switzerland.”
5

B u t to a spiritual warrior p r e p a r i n g to lead t h e

C h u r c h to war against S c r i p t u r e , a t o u c h d o w n in Jerusalem was absolutely necessary. Jerusalem was t h e d o m a i n of K i n g S o l o m o n ’ s T e m p l e , t h e geo-spiritual c e n t e r of t h e K n i g h t s Templar. If Iñigo was to r e v i v e t h e Templars, as t h e Emperor desired, it was liturgically i m p e r a t i v e t h a t his n e w l y - w a s h e d spirit present itself in t h e Sacred C i t y for initiation into the mysteries of h o l y warfare. A l l pilgrims to the H o l y L a n d were required by law to apply to the p o p e at Easter for permission to proceed. In early M a r c h 1 5 2 2 , more t h a n a year in a d v a n c e , Iñigo set out for R o m e in all his arist o c r a t i c finery, r i d i n g o n t h e b a c k o f a m u l e . T h e c o r r u p t L e o X h a d d i e d s u d d e n l y o f m a l a r i a i n D e c e m b e r 1 5 2 1 , and o n January 9, 1522, Charles Habsburg (King and Emperor) had engineered the nearly u n a n i m o u s e l e c t i o n o f his former tutor, A d r i a n D e d a l , to succeed L e o as A d r i a n V I . Iñigo h e a d e d for R o m e c o i n c i d e n t a l l y w i t h A d r i a n ’ s j o u r n e y across S p a i n t o B a r c e l o n a , t h e p o i n t o f e m b a r c a t i o n for v o y a g e s t o Italy. T h e n e w p o p e s t o p p e d i n N a v a r r e , in n o r t h e r n S p a i n , for an official r e c e p t i o n by the D u k e of Najera’s successor. Iñigo, t o o , s t o p p e d at N a v a r r e to do some undescribed business at the Duke’s residence at N a v a r e t t e . Perhaps A d r i a n gave h i m a discreet audience. Further on, the pilgrim kept an all-night vigil at a c h a p e l of the V i r g i n of Aranzazu, Protectress of the Basques, v o w i n g his chastity t o h e r small, dark statue. H e c o n t i n u e d o n t o M o n t s e r r a t , w h e r e he l o d g e d in a B e n e d i c t i n e abbey. T h e r e , he r e d e d i c a t e d h i m s e l f t o G o d ’ s s e r v i c e before a n o t h e r statue o f t h e V i r g i n , t h e B l a c k M a d o n n a o f M o n t s e r r a t , Protectress o f C a t a l o n i a , Patroness o f C h r i s t i a n C o n q u e s t . T h e spiritual e x e r c i s e h e r e must h a v e b e e n

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i n t e n s e , for in t h e late a f t e r n o o n of t h e third day, Iñigo traded c l o t h e s w i t h a beggar, h u n g his sword a n d dagger o n t h e M a d o n na’s shrine, and gave his mule to the abbey. W h i l e A d r i a n VI proceeded on to Barcelona, Iñigo detoured on foot to the village of M a n r e s a for ten m o n t h s of p e n a n c e s , spiritual p r e p a r a t i o n , a n d n o t e - t a k i n g . S t r i p p e d o f e v e r y t h i n g but s a c k c l o t h , a gourd for d r i n k i n g , a n d a pilgrim’s staff, he a d o p t e d t h e lifestyle of t h e early K n i g h t s Templar, b e g g i n g food a n d alms. He was i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e Illuminati, t h e “ E n l i g h t e n e d O n e s , ” a secret s o c i e t y o f g n o s t i c f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s w h o p r e a c h e d t h a t all matter is absolutely and eternally evil. T h e g n o s t i c s t a u g h t t h a t h u m a n i t y itself i s o f S a t a n i c o r i g i n . A d a m and E v e were the offspring o f devils. H u m a n i t y c a n a c h i e v e s a l v a t i o n from d e a t h and eternal p u n i s h m e n t , h o w e v e r , by freeing soul from b o d y for a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e pure l i g h t of G o d l i n e s s . T h i s is d o n e by w i t h d r a w i n g from sensual pleasure and i n t u i t i v e l y discovering h i d d e n truths as c o n v e y e d by t h e c a b a l a h . ( T h e gnostics’ c o n t e m p t for a n y t h i n g h a v i n g to do w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l side of e x i s t e n c e translated i n t o w i l d l y i r o n i c b e h a v i o r . S o m e p r a c t i c e d radical c e l i b a c y b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e result o f s e x u a l interc o u r s e , c o n c e p t i o n , w o u l d o n l y i m p r i s o n m o r e souls i n p h y s i c a l b o d i e s . O t h e r s p r a c t i c e d u n b r i d l e d s e x u a l l i b e r t i n i s m i n order t o p r o v e they were c o m p l e t e l y free from all physical i n h i b i t i o n . S t i l l o t h e r s c o m b i n e d t h e t w o , p u r s u i n g h y p o c r i t i c a l lives o f c e l i b a t e fornication, of w h i c h “safe sex” is the m o d e r n institution. Loyola’s particular c u l t apparently c h o s e the asceticism of self-flagellation, for I ñ i g o w a n d e r e d m a n y n i g h t s a b o u t t h e M a n r e s a c o u n t r y s i d e w h i p p i n g himself w i t h a scourge studded w i t h iron barbs. Later in life, h e w o u l d d e c i d e t h a t t h e w h i p s a n d barbs “sapped one’s strength,” that t h e G o d h e a d c o u l d as adequately be sought by the more h u m a n e self-mortification of the Spiritual Exercises.) W h i l e I ñ i g o was o u t l i n i n g t h e Exercises i n M a n r e s a , Luther’s translation of the N e w T e s t a m e n t was i n t r o d u c i n g readers and listeners in G e r m a n y , Switzerland, France, B o h e m i a , and England to a different form of spiritual e x e r c i s e , o n e in w h i c h G o d ’ s w i l l , a n c i e n t a n d i m m u t a b l e , was expressed n o t w i t h i n t h e p r i v a t e

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i m a g i n a t i o n but publicly, in the printed W o r d , for all to see. P e o ple d e v o u r e d t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t e v e n before i t r e a c h e d t h e bindery. I n o n e c o n t e m p o r a r y ’ s w o r d s , “ T h e s h e e t , y e t w e t , was b r o u g h t from t h e press u n d e r s o m e o n e ’ s c l o a k , a n d passed from shop to shop.”
6

T

H E p i l g r i m sailed from B a r c e l o n a t o t h e I t a l i a n p o r t city o f

G a e t a , and w a l k e d t h e r e m a i n i n g d i s t a n c e t o R o m e , arriving

there o n P a l m Sunday, M a r c h 29, 1 5 2 3 . T w o days later, a c c o r d i n g

to V a t i c a n archives, “Iñigo de Loyola, cleric of the diocese of Pamp l o n a ” received permission from Pope A d r i a n VI to visit Jerusalem. From R o m e , I ñ i g o p r o c e e d e d t o V e n i c e , w h e r e o n e o f C h a r l e s Habsburg’s agents r e c e i v e d h i m graciously and i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o the D o g e , A n d r e a G r i t t i , the highest official in V e n e t i a n c i v i l gove r n m e n t . A famed d i p l o m a t and linguist, G r i t t i arranged free passage for Iñigo aboard a small ship w h o s e n a m e – the “Negrona” – was appropriate for an e v a n g e l i s t d e d i c a t e d to the B l a c k V i r g i n of Christian Conquest. On July 1 4 , 1 5 2 3 , t h e Negrona left V e n i c e , a r r i v i n g a m o n t h later at the island of C y p r u s . At C y p r u s , o n e D i e g o M a n e s and his s e r v a n t , a l o n g w i t h several C y p r i o t officials, boarded ship for the rest of the voyage to Haifa. D i e g o M a n e s was a C o m m a n d e r of the K n i g h t s H o s p i t a l l e r s o f S t . J o h n o f Jerusalem. S i n c e 1 3 1 2 , t h e
7

Hospitallers had h e l d title to the vast w e a l t h of the K n i g h t s T e m plar. T h e y h a d b e e n d r a w i n g u p o n t h e s e assets t o d e f e n d t h e R o m a n e c o n o m y against Islamic marauders i n the east. B u t w h e n the Turks attacked the Hospitallers’ headquarters on the Island of R h o d e s , t h e assets were frozen by t h e p o p e a n d his former p u p i l , the H o l y R o m a n Emperor C h a r l e s . N o assistance i n any form was f o r t h c o m i n g from e i t h e r party. C o n s e q u e n t l y , in D e c e m b e r 1 5 2 2 , the Hospitallers had no c h o i c e but to surrender R h o d e s and retreat t o w h a t w o u l d b e c o m e t h e i r final d o m i c i l e , M a l t a . T h e message was clear. N o w t h a t Luther’s G e r m a n - l a n g u a g e N e w T e s t a m e n t was in print, Protestantism l o o m e d a greater m e n a c e to R o m e t h a n Islam ever did. It is possible t h a t in a J e r u s a l e m - b o u n d ship n a m e d Negrona,

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C o m m a n d e r D i e g o M a n e s t u r n e d o v e r t h e litanies, lists, secret codes, formulae, c a b a l a h , and other portable assets comprising the K n i g h t s T e m p l a r resources to Iñigo. If this i n d e e d h a p p e n e d , t h e western world’s secret infrastructure was n o w Loyola’s to p o p u l a t e and m a n i p u l a t e in the cause of learning against learning. T h a t is my h y p o t h e s i s . W h a t is n o t h y p o t h e s i s is t h a t as s o o n as t h e p i l g r i m r e t u r n e d from Jerusalem h e b e g a n v e s t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h M e d i c i learning. T h e idea of uniting the Templars w i t h the Hospitallers was first argued p u b l i c l y in a b o o k p u b l i s h e d in 1305 by R a i m o n L l u l l , a r e n o w n e d illuminatus from M a j o r c a . Llull’s b o o k , Libre de Fine, (“Free A t L a s t ” ) a p p e a r e d i n t h e midst o f a raging c o n t r o v e r s y between the French monarchy and the R o m a n papacy over w h o held jurisdiction over the Templars. T h a t is the subject of our n e x t chapter.

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THE BAPHOMET

Chapter 6

THE EPITOME OF CHRISTIAN VALUES

S

INCE THEIR FOUNDING

o n F r e n c h soil i n 1 1 1 8 , t h e K n i g h t s

T e m p l a r h a d g r o w n from a pair of self-impoverished k n i g h t s h o p i n g to k e e p M u s l i m terrorists from m o l e s t i n g pilgrims in

the H o l y Land to a m a m m o t h organization controlling internat i o n a l f i n a n c e a n d p o l i t i c s . T h e f o u n d e r s , H u g h d e P a y e n and

G o d f r o i de S t . O m e r , o r g a n i z e d a group of e x c o m m u n i c a t e d k n i g h t - c r u s a d e r s and secured t h e i r a b s o l u t i o n by a b i s h o p . A f t e r placing the restored knights under oaths of poverty, chastity, secrecy, a n d o b e d i e n c e , t h e y p l e d g e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o r e b u i l d i n g S o l o m o n ’ s T e m p l e . G i v e n space adjacent to an Islamic mosque situated u p o n t h e T e m p l e ’ s supposed ruins, t h e y t o o k t h e c o r p o r a t e n a m e “Poor K n i g h t s of C h r i s t and of the T e m p l e of S o l o m o n . ” Bernard, A b b o t o f C l a i r v a u x , t h e l e a d i n g propagandist o f the day, e x t o l l e d t h e T e m p l a r s as “ t h e e p i t o m e a n d a p o t h e o s i s of Christian values.” Bolstered by such unprecedented promotion, the P o o r K n i g h t s a t t r a c t e d t h e best and t h e brightest y o u n g m e n
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o f Europe t o b e c o m e C r u s a d e r s , t o v o w c e l i b a c y and l e a v e t h e i r families in defense of Christ’s t o m b against M u s l i m terrorists. T h e m i s s i o n failed w i t h i n n i n e years. E v e n so, Bernard’s p r o p a g a n d a caused the T e m p l a r s to be r e c e i v e d as c o n q u e r i n g h e r o e s w h e n t h e y returned t o F r a n c e . T h e y set u p t h e i r p e r m a n e n t l o d g e a t Troyes under the patronage of the court of C h a m p a g n e . (For n e a r l y a century, T r o y e s had b e e n Europe’s leading s c h o o l for the study of the cabalah, w h i c h may explain why the city is laid out in the shape of a c h a m p a g n e cork.) For m a k i n g t h e Templars a world power, Bernard shares credit w i t h C a r d i n a l A i m e r i c o f S a n t a M a r i a N u o v a . A i m e r i c was the C h u r c h ’ s h i g h e s t j u d i c i a l officer. It was his unlawful c o n n i v a n c e
1

t h a t c r e a t e d H o n o r i u s II, t h e p o p e w h o o r d a i n e d t h e T e m p l a r s as t h e C h u r c h ’ s most h i g h l y - e s t e e m e d religious order. It was A i m e r ic, t o o , w h o d e v i s e d a radical “ i n n e r r e n e w a l o f t h e C h u r c h , ” w h i c h inspired n o b l e m e n t h r o u g h o u t England, S c o t l a n d , Flanders, S p a i n , and Portugal to shower the Templars w i t h d o n a t i o n s of land and m o n e y – over and above the properties required of all initiates u p o n joining the Order. W h e n Honorius died in 1 1 3 0 , A i m e r i c led a minority of cardinals i n a n o t h e r c o n n i v a n c e resulting i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f I n n o c e n t II, w h o was c o n s e c r a t e d pope in A i m e r i c ’ s titular c h u r c h of S a n t a Maria N u o v a . In 1 1 3 9 , I n n o c e n t issued a bull placing the Templars under an e x c l u s i v e v o w of papal o b e d i e n c e – a measure by w h i c h A i m e r i c effectively put all Templar resources at the disposal of the papacy. W i t h i n a n o t h e r d e c a d e , the K n i g h t s were g i v e n e x c l u s i v e rights by Pope Eugenius III to wear the rose croix, the rosy cross, on t h e i r w h i t e t u n i c s . A s t h e i r list o f properties l e n g t h e n e d w i t h d o n a t i o n s from Italy, A u s t r i a , G e r m a n y , Hungary, a n d t h e H o l y L a n d , the Templars built hundreds of great stone castles. W e a l t h y travelers lodged in these castles because of their u n m a t c h e d security. C o n v i n c e d t h e y w e r e b u i l d i n g a n e w w o r l d , t h e T e m p l a r s c a l l e d e a c h o t h e r frère maçon ( “ b r o t h e r m a s o n ” ) . Later, this t e r m would be anglicized into “Freemason.”
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T h e Templars i n v e n t e d m o d e r n b a n k i n g b y applying a n oriental i n v e n t i o n t o their c o m m e r c e . A g e n t s o f t h e C h i n e s e e m p e r o r Kao-tsung, i n v e n t o r of p a p e r c u r r e n c y c a l l e d fei-chi’en, “flying
2

m o n e y , ” s o u g h t trade w i t h t h e m i d d l e east d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f Templar occupation. K a o - t s u n g ’ s was t h e first g o v e r n m e n t o n earth to enforce c i r c u l a t i o n of drafts as legal tender for debts. Evidently, K a o - t s u n g ’ s a g e n t s i n t r o d u c e d t h e K n i g h t s t o this n e w m e d i u m of e x c h a n g e created out of m e r c h a n t drafts. T h e Templars e n h a n c e d their already b o o m i n g business o f ( i ) a c c e p t i n g current a c c o u n t s , deposit a c c o u n t s , deposits of j e w e l s , v a l u a b l e s and title deeds, (2) m a k i n g loans and advances (charging “fees” because the C h u r c h forbade i n t e r e s t ) , a n d (3) a c t i n g as agents for t h e secure t r a n s m i s s i o n of s u c h t h i n g s by (4) a d d i n g c i r c u l a t i n g letters of c r e d i t – flying m o n e y – to serve as p a p e r currency. To supply t h e T e m p l a r s ’ c u r r e n c y n e e d s may e x p l a i n w h y p a p e r i n F r a n c e was first manufactured in the Poor Knights’ h o m e t o w n of Troyes. B y 1 3 0 0 , presiding o v e r t h e w o r l d e c o n o m y from t h e i r Paris office,
3

the Templars had become an international power unto

t h e m s e l v e s . E n g a g e d i n d i p l o m a c y a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f state from t h e H o l y L a n d w e s t w a r d , t h e y set t h e tastes, t h e goals, the morality, the rules of the civilized world. Kings did their bidding – w h e n H e n r y III of England t h r e a t e n e d to confiscate certain of the Order’s properties, he was upbraided by the Master Templar in the city of L o n d o n : “ W h a t sayest thou, O King? So long as thou dost exercise justice, thou wilt reign. But if thou infringe it, thou wilt cease to be King.”
4

But suddenly, at their very z e n i t h , t h e P o o r K n i g h t s suffered a strange reversal o f f o r t u n e s . I n 1 3 0 2 , K i n g P h i l i p I V o f F r a n c e dared t o c h a l l e n g e t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y o n his o w n soil. H e asserted t h a t i n France e v e r y o n e , K n i g h t s T e m p l a r s i n c l u d e d , was subject t o t h e K i n g . P o p e B o n i f a c e V I I I j u m p e d i n and d e c l a r e d t h a t France, the K i n g , t h e Templars, all of t h e m , and e v e r y b o d y else as well, b e l o n g e d to Pontifex Maximus – “It is absolutely necessary for the s a l v a t i o n of every h u m a n creature to be subject to the R o m a n
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Pontiff.” P h i l i p t h e n accused the p o p e of illegitimacy, sexual misc o n d u c t , and heresy. B o n i f a c e prepared a b u l l e x c o m m u n i c a t i n g Philip, but before it could be published, a band of the Philip’s merc e n a r i e s s t o r m e d t h e V a t i c a n a n d d e m a n d e d t h e pope’s resignat i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e intruders w e r e d r i v e n off, t h e s h o c k t o b o d y and soul was t o o m u c h for Boniface, and he died a m o n t h later. T w o successor popes h e l d firm against Philip, until Bertrand de G o t , A r c h b i s h o p o f B o r d e a u x , was e l e c t e d i n 1 3 0 5 . C r o w n e d i n Lyons w i t h the papal n a m e C l e m e n t V , d e G o t m o v e d t h e papacy to A v i g n o n , and b e g a n a long train of concessions to Philip’s royal p r e r o g a t i v e . Finally, o n Friday, O c t o b e r 1 3 , 1 3 0 7 , P h i l i p arrested all b u t t h i r t e e n o f t h e T e m p l a r s i n F r a n c e , tried t h e m a n d , u p o n e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f t h e c a b a l a h , f o u n d t h e m guilty o f b l a s p h e m y a n d m a g i c . A t least fifty k n i g h t s w e r e b u r n e d a t t h e stake. F r o m c a p t u r e d d o c u m e n t s i t was l e a r n e d t h a t t h e T e m p l a r s , from the very b e g i n n i n g , h a d r e n o u n c e d w h a t R o m a n theologians c a l l e d “ t h e r e l i g i o n o f S t . Peter.” T h e y h a d b e e n i n i t i a t e d i n t o a secret gnostic b r a n c h of the Eastern C h u r c h k n o w n as “the Primit i v e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h . ” B e c a u s e t h e P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n s ’ apost o l i c s u c c e s s i o n c l a i m e d t o flow from J o h n t h e B a p t i s t a n d the apostle John they were called “Johannites.”
5

T h e Johannites believed that a l t h o u g h Jesus was “imbued w i t h a spirit w h o l l y divine and e n d o w e d w i t h the most astounding qualities,” he was n o t the true G o d . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h gnostic logic, the true J o h a n n i t e G o d w o u l d n e v e r l o w e r H i m s e l f t o b e c o m e v i l e h u m a n matter. Jesus was in fact a false M e s s i a h sent by t h e powers of darkness. He was justly crucified – a l t h o u g h w h e n his side was pierced he did repent of his pretensions and receive divine forgiveness. T h a n k s to his r e p e n t a n c e , Jesus n o w enjoys e v e r l a s t i n g life in the celestial c o m p a n y of the saints. R e g a r d i n g miracles, t h e J o h a n n i t e s b e l i e v e d t h a t Jesus “did or may h a v e d o n e e x t r a o r d i n a r y o r m i r a c u l o u s things,” and t h a t “since G o d can do things incomprehensible to h u m a n intellig e n c e , all t h e acts of C h r i s t as t h e y are d e s c r i b e d in t h e G o s p e l , w h e t h e r acts o f h u m a n s c i e n c e o r w h e t h e r acts o f d i v i n e p o w e r ”

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c a n be a c c e p t e d as true – e x c e p t for t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n , w h i c h is o m i t t e d from the Templars’ copy of the G o s p e l of St. J o h n . T h e r e 6

fore, for all his w o n d e r f u l attributes, C h r i s t “was n o t h i n g , a false prophet and of no value.” O n l y the Higher G o d of H e a v e n had power to save m a n k i n d .
7

B u t t h e H i g h e r G o d a v o i d e d h u m a n matter, and s o lordship o v e r the material w o r l d b e l o n g e d t o S a t a n a e l , t h e e v i l b r o t h e r o f Jesus. S a t a n a e l alone c o u l d e n r i c h m a n k i n d . Templar c a b a l a h repr e s e n t e d S a t a n a e l as t h e h e a d of a g o a t e m b l a z o n e d w i t h , s o m e times c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n , a p e n t a g r a m .
8

T h i s s y m b o l is d e e p l y

r o o t e d i n O l d T e s t a m e n t c a b a l a h , i n w h i c h t h e g o a t i s identified w i t h power i n the world and separation from G o d . O n the greatest Israelite feastday, Yom Kippur, the Day of A t o n e m e n t , one goat was spared t h e sacrificial k n i f e , a n d was s p r i n k l e d w i t h t h e b l o o d o f a n o t h e r g o a t k i l l e d for t h e sins o f Israel. T h e spared g o a t , t h e scapegoat, was t h e n banished from the c o n g r e g a t i o n to bear Israel’s sins into the wilderness, w h i c h typified the w o r l d . T h e scapegoat
9

escaped w i t h his life, his freedom. King S o l o m o n conferred with evil spirits,
10

but Scripture

describes t h e spirits o n l y generally. H o w e v e r , the Zohar, or “ B o o k o f S p l e n d o r , ” o n e o f t h e m a i n w o r k s o f a n c i e n t c a b a l i s t i c literature, tells us e v i l spirits appeared to the Israelites “under the form of he-goats and made k n o w n to t h e m all t h a t they w i s h e d to l e a r n . ”
11

T h e T e m p l a r s c a l l e d this g o a t - i d o l “ B a p h o m e t , ” from baphe- and – m e t i s , G r e e k wor B a p h o m e t encapsulates the career of S o l o m o n , w h o Scripture says was absorbed into the w i s d o m of G o d more t h a n any other h u m a n being,
12

yet finished out his life in c o m m u n i o n w i t h he-goatish evil
13

spirits.

By the Templars’ Johannite standard, c o m m u n i n g w i t h

the e v i l spirits was the secret to c o n t r o l l i n g the world. By t h e biblical standard, h o w e v e r , S o l o m o n represents t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f h u m a n perfectibility. Perfectibility is indeed attainable, a c c o r d i n g t o S c r i p t u r e , b u t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e r e d e m p t i v e process s h o w n i n the N e w Testament w h i c h R o m e kept the Templars from reading.

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O

N M a r c h 22, 1 3 1 2 , C l e m e n t V dissolved the K n i g h t s Templar

w i t h his d e c r e e Vox clamantis ( “ W a r C r y ” ) . B u t t h e dissolu-

t i o n p r o v e d a mere formality to further appease P h i l i p . M o r e importantly, it permitted the Templars, in other manifestations, to

c o n t i n u e e n r i c h i n g t h e papacy. For G r a n d M a s t e r Jacques d e Molay, just prior to his e x e c u t i o n in 1 3 1 3 , sent the surviving thirt e e n F r e n c h T e m p l a r s t o establish four n e w M e t r o p o l i t a n lodges: o n e at S t o c k h o l m for the n o r t h , o n e at N a p l e s for t h e east, o n e at Paris for t h e s o u t h , and o n e at E d i n b u r g h for t h e west. T h u s , t h e K n i g h t s remained the militant arm of the papacy. E x c e p t that their w e a l t h , t h e i r secrecy, t h e i r g n o s t i c c a b a l i s m , a n d t h e i r o a t h o f papal o b e d i e n c e were obscurely dispersed under a variety of corporate names. A subtle p r o v i s i o n in Vox clamantis transferred m o s t T e m p l a r estates t o t h e K n i g h t s o f S t . J o h n o f Jerusalem, w h o t o o k possession after K i n g Philip’s d e a t h . In G e r m a n y and A u s t r i a , t h e T e m plars b e c a m e “Rosicrucians” and “ T e u t o n i c Knights.” T h e T e u t o n ic K n i g h t s grew strong in M a i n z , b i r t h p l a c e of G u t e n b e r g ’ s press. S i x c e n t u r i e s later, a s t h e “ T e u t o n i c O r d e r , ” t h e K n i g h t s w o u l d p r o v i d e the n u c l e u s o f A d o l f Hitler’s p o l i t i c a l support i n M u n i c h and V i e n n a . T h e Edinburgh lodge w o u l d b e c o m e the headquarters o f S c o t tish R i t e Freemasonry, w h i c h M a s o n i c historians c a l l “ A m e r i c a n Freemasonry” because all but five of the signers of the D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e are said to h a v e p r a c t i c e d its craft. In S p a i n and Portugal the Templars b e c a m e the “llluminati” in w h o m Iñigo had t a k e n m e m b e r s h i p at M a n r e s a , and “ K n i g h t s of C h r i s t . ” It was under the red pattée cross of t h e K n i g h t s of C h r i s t that C o l u m b u s had t a k e n possession of w h a t he called “las Indias” for K i n g Ferdin a n d V of S p a i n , grandfather of Iñigo’s discreet p a t r o n , C h a r l e s I and V, the H o l y R o m a n Emperor. As early as A u g u s t of 1 5 2 3 , as I h y p o t h e s i z e d in t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , this v a s t y e t f r a g m e n t e d s u b t e r r a n e a n e m p i r e – R o m a n Catholicism’s unseen root-system binding together the world – b e l o n g e d t o Iñigo d e L o y o l a . H i s spiritual dynasty, w h i c h c o n t i n ues to this day, w o u l d use this system to cause G o d - f e a r i n g m e n

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w h o h a t e d the papacy to perform, w i t h o u t realizing it, exactly h o w the papacy w a n t e d t h e m to. But w h a t of Iñigo’s e d u c a t i o n ? His rise in a c a d e m e is t h e subject of t h e n e x t chapter.

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“Hoc E S T D I G I T U S D E I ! ” Pope Paul III declares Loyola’s plan for the Company of Jesus an Act of God. (From a Jesuit altar)

Chapter 7

THE FINGERSTROKE OF GOD

D

ETERMINED ON

a priestly life, I ñ i g o de L o y o l a r e t u r n e d to

B a r c e l o n a from Jerusalem i n t h e spring o f 1 5 2 4 . H e spent t h e n e x t t h r e e years i n S p a i n g e t t i n g t h e requisite L a t i n .

S i n c e direct c o n t a c t w i t h the Bible was prohibited by law, his reading coursed the humanities. W i t h t h e esoteric e x p e r i e n c e o f his S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , h e charmed the wives of important men. He received frequent invitations to dine at e l e g a n t tables, but preferred to beg food door to door and distribute t h e c h o i c e p i c k i n g s t o t h e p o o r a n d sick. H e lived in an attic and slept on the floorboards, trying desperately to

persuade G o d of his worthiness. He prayed for six hours e a c h day, a t t e n d e d mass t h r e e t i m e s a w e e k , c o n f e s s e d e v e r y S u n d a y , and c o n t i n u e d w h i p p i n g himself. He devised secret p e n a n c e s , s u c h as boring holes in his shoes and going barefoot in winter. S o m e t i m e s t h e Exercises aroused in his followers instances of bizarre c o n d u c t – s w o o n i n g , long spells of fainting or m e l a n c h o l i a ,
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r o l l i n g a b o u t the g r o u n d , b e i n g gripped w i t h c o r p s e - l i k e rigidity. T h e S p a n i s h Inquisition investigated h i m o n suspicion o f preaching g n o s t i c i l l u m i n i s m . W h e n I ñ i g o insisted t h a t h e was n o t preaching at all, but was merely talking about the things of G o d in a familiar way, the Inquisitor released h i m . In successive frays, the I n q u i s i t i o n ordered I ñ i g o ( 1 ) t o get rid o f his e c c e n t r i c c l o t h i n g and dress like o t h e r students, (2) to refrain from h o l d i n g meetings until he h a d c o m p l e t e d four years of study, and (3) to refrain from defining w h a t constituted a grave sin. W e a r y i n g of the harassment, he d e c i d e d to seek his four years of e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d t h e Inquisition’s reach. He set o u t for t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Paris w i t h a p a c k m u l e carrying his b e l o n g i n g s . H e arrived a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o n February 2 , 1 5 2 8 , a n d s o o n afterward registered i n t h e r u n - d o w n old C o l l e g e o f M o n t a i g u . J o h n C a l v i n , w h o w o u l d b e c o m e Protestantism’s great t h e o l o g i c a l systems designer, was l e a v i n g M o n t a i g u just as L o y o l a arrived. Erasmus, t h e C o l l e g e ’ s m o s t famous a l u m n u s , r e m e m b e r e d g r a d u a t i n g from M o n t a i g u “ w i t h n o t h i n g e x c e p t a n infected body and a vast array of lice.” T h e student body consisted mostly of wayward Parisian boys kept under harsh discipline; Iñigo was thirty-seven. Paris was e x p e n s i v e , e v e n for students. M u c h of the funds Iñigo had raised in B a r c e l o n a h a d b e e n stolen by o n e of his disciples. In early 1 5 2 9 he w e n t i n t o B e l g i u m , w h e r e it is b e l i e v e d he r e c e i v e d m o n e y from p e o p l e close t o t h e H o l y R o m a n Emperor. O n e o f t h e s e was Juan d e C u e l l a r , Treasurer o f t h e K i n g d o m o f S p a i n . A n o t h e r was Luis V i v e s , personal secretary to the Emperor’s aunt, Q u e e n C a t h e r i n e o f E n g l a n d , a n d p r i v a t e tutor t o h e r daughter, Princess M a r y (afterward t h e “ B l o o d y ” Q u e e n ) . I ñ i g o returned t o Paris m u c h better off. He upgraded his lodgings. I n O c t o b e r , h e left M o n t a i g u and e n r o l l e d a t t h e C o l l e g e o f S t e . Barbe across t h e street. He pursued a course in arts a n d p h i l o s o p h y t h a t w o u l d last t h r e e a n d a h a l f years. H i s n a m e appears on t h e S t e . Barbe registry as “Ignatius de L o y o l a . ” S o m e Jesuit historians h a v e guessed h e a d o p t e d t h e n a m e i n v e n e r a t i o n o f Ignatius of A n t i o c h , an early C h r i s t i a n martyr. It was at S t e . Barbe

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that Iñigo b e g a n earnestly organizing his army, but n o t before trave l i n g a g a i n to B e l g i u m to ask Juan de C u e l l a r and Luis V i v e s for yet more money. A r m e d w i t h his c o m m a n d o f t h e T e m p l a r secrets and w i t h int r o d u c t i o n s p r o v i d e d b y t h e E m p e r o r a n d V i v e s , Ignatius crossed to E n g l a n d . T h i s significant v o y a g e is m e n t i o n e d only o n c e in his autobiography. H e admits t h a t h e “returned w i t h more alms t h a n he usually did in o t h e r years.” Perhaps Q u e e n C a t h e r i n e , the Emperor’s a u n t , i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o t h e H o w a r d s a n d t h e Petres, k n o w n to be a m o n g the first families to receive and nourish Jesuits sent to England. S t a r t i n g w i t h his t w o S t e . Barbe r o o m m a t e s , Ignatius s o o n g a t h e r e d a c i r c l e of six close friends r a n g i n g in age from t e e n s to early twenties. S o m e w h a t like himself, they were adventurous, impressionable, i n t e l l i g e n t , and u n p e r s u a d e d of t h e Bible’s supreme authority. T h e i r fondest dream was to save the H o l y L a n d from the Muslims b y performing h e r o i c Templaresque exploits. O n e b y o n e Ignatius g a v e t h e m t h e S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , and o n e b y o n e t h e y b e c a m e disciples. W i t h i n a few years they were calling t h e m s e l v e s La Compañìa de Iesus, the C o m p a n y of Jesus. O n A u g u s t 1 5 , 1 5 3 4 , Feast D a y o f the A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n i n t o h e a v e n , t h e c o m p a n i o n s swore o a t h s o f s e r v i c e t o t h e Blessed V i r g i n i n S t e . Marie’s C h u r c h a t M o n t m a r t r e , and t o S t . D e n i s , p a t r o n saint o f F r a n c e , i n his c h a p e l . ( T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the M o n t m a r t r e O a t h s must h a v e b e e n intense, for Francis Xavier, w h o would b e c o m e St. Francis, A p o s t l e to the East, made the Spiritual Exercises w i t h “a p e n i t e n t i a l fervor,” says Broderick in Origin of the Jesuits, “ t h a t n e a r l y cost h i m t h e use of his l i m b s . ” ) T h e y v o w e d poverty, chastity, and to rescue Jerusalem from the Muslims. H o w e v e r , s h o u l d t h e rescue p r o v e infeasible w i t h i n a year, t h e y v o w e d t o u n d e r t a k e w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n w h a t e v e r o t h e r task t h e pope m i g h t require of t h e m . W e l l before a year h a d passed, C l e m e n t V I I d i e d a n d t h e Jerusalem d r e a m was o v e r w h e l m e d b y more p r e s e n t dangers. Luther’s B i b l e i n G e r m a n was c r e a t i n g d e f e c t i o n i n r e c o r d n u m bers t h r o u g h o u t G e r m a n y , N o r w a y , S w e d e n , a n d D e n m a r k . I n

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F r a n c e , t h e response to LeFevre’s B i b l e was so d e c i s i v e t h a t K i n g Francis I e x c l a i m e d t h a t he w o u l d b e h e a d his o w n c h i l d r e n if he found them harboring the blasphemous heresies acquirable t h r o u g h direct c o n t a c t w i t h scripture. E n g l a n d was lost in its entirety, due n o t t o B i b l e r e a d i n g , w h i c h H e n r y V I I I p r o s e c u t e d a s avidly as any pope, but to the royal love life. Henry had d e m a n d e d t h a t C l e m e n t V I I g r a n t h i m a d i v o r c e from t h e Emperor’s a u n t C a t h e r i n e , and t h e n recognize the P r o t e s t a n t - o r i e n t e d A n n e B o l e y n a s his n e w Q u e e n . W h e n C l e m e n t s t o o d m u t e , H e n r y t o o k all o f E n g l a n d a w a y from R o m e a n d m a d e h i m s e l f “ c o m p l e t e o w n e r of the lands and t e n e m e n t s [of England], as w e l l at law as in equity.”
1

C l e m e n t V I I was s u c c e e d e d b y t h e oldest c a r d i n a l , an erudite h u m a n i s t w i t h formidable diplomatic skills, 66-year-old A l e s s a n d r o Farnese. C a r d i n a l Farnese h a d b e e n privately educated in the h o u s e h o l d of L o r e n z o d ’ M e d i c i and h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d Treasurer o f t h e V a t i c a n i n 1 4 9 2 . H e was c r o w n e d P o p e Paul III. V a t i c a n wags c a l l e d Farnese “ C a r d i n a l P e t t i c o a t ” b e c a u s e his strikingly b e a u t i f u l sister G i u l i a h a d b e e n Giulia Farnese, with metal blouse mistress to t h e l i c e n t i o u s P o p e A l e x a n d e r V I , for w h i c h the same wags n i c k n a m e d her “Bride of C h r i s t . ” G i u l i a posed undraped for the statue of the G o d d e s s Justice that still reclines voluptuously on Paul Ill’s t o m b in S t . Peter’s B a s i l i c a . T w o c e n t u r i e s later, at t h e c o m m a n d , in t h e interests of d e c e n c y , of Pius IX, the first pope to be officially declared infallible, Giulia’s exposed breasts were fitted w i t h a metal blouse.
2

Paul III is a major figure in t h e history of the S o c i e t y of Jesus, and c o n s e q u e n t l y of the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a , since it was he w h o a p p r o v e d , i n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 5 3 9 , Ignatius d e L o y o l a ’ s business p l a n . Ignatius p r o p o s e d a “ m i n i m a l s o c i e t y ” t h a t w o u l d “ d o battle in the Lord God’s service under the banner of the Cross.” T h e militia would be very small, no more t h a n sixty members, and

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e a c h w o u l d h a v e to t a k e four v o w s – of poverty, chastity, o b e d i e n c e to the C h u r c h , a n d a v o w of special o b e d i e n c e to t h e p o p e . T h e y w o u l d n o t b e c o n f i n e d t o a n y specific parish b u t w o u l d b e dispersed t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e papacy’s n e e d s . T h e y would wear no particular habit, but would dress according to the e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h they found themselves. T h e y would infiltrate the world in an unpredictable variety of pursuits – as doctors, lawyers, authors, reforming theologians, financiers, statesmen, courtiers, diplomats, explorers, tradesmen, merchants, poets, scholars, scientists, architects, engineers, artists, printers, philosophers, and w h a t e v e r else the world m i g h t d e m a n d and the C h u r c h require. T h e i r h e a d w o u l d be a S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . In t h e Constitutions w h i c h Ignatius was w r i t i n g , t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l w o u l d b e “obeyed and r e v e r e n c e d at all times as the o n e w h o holds the place of C h r i s t our Lord.” T h e phrase “holds the place of C h r i s t ” means
3

t h a t t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l w o u l d share w i t h t h e P o p e , a t a l e v e l u n p e r c e i v e d b y t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t h e d i v i n e title o f “ V i c a r o f C h r i s t ” first c l a i m e d by G e l a s i u s I on M a y 1 3 , 4 9 5 . Loyola’s c o m pleted Constitutions w o u l d repeat five h u n d r e d times that o n e is to see C h r i s t i n t h e p e r s o n o f t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . T h e G e n e r a l ’ s
4

e q u a l status w i t h t h e P o p e , a d v a n t a g e d b y a n obscurity t h a t renders h i m virtually invisible, is w h y the c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f of the S o c i e t y of Jesus has always b e e n called Papa Nero, the B l a c k Pope. T h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l ’ s small army w o u l d b e t r a i n e d b y t h e Spiritual Exercises to practice a brand of o b e d i e n c e L o y o l a termed contemplativus in actione, active c o n t e m p l a t i o n , instantaneous obed i e n c e w i t h all c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t suppressed. A s stated i n S e c t i o n 3 5 3 . 1 o f t h e E x e r c i s e s , “ W e must p u t aside all j u d g m e n t o f our o w n , a n d k e e p t h e m i n d e v e r ready a n d p r o m p t t o o b e y i n all t h i n g s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l C h u r c h . ” B u t Jesuit o b e d i e n c e w o u l d b e more t h a n mere o b e d i e n c e o f the will. A n o b e d i e n t will suppresses w h a t it w o u l d do in order to o b e y w h a t a superior w a n t s d o n e . Ignatius d e m a n d e d o b e d i e n c e o f t h e understanding. A n o b e d i e n t understanding alters its p e r c e p t i o n of reality according to the superior’s dictates. S e c t i o n 3 6 5 . 1 3 declares, “ W e must h o l d fast to the

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following principle: What seems to me white, 1 will believe black if the hierarchical Church so defines.” Francis X a v i e r w o u l d later describe this q u a l i t y of s u b m i s s i o n in a v o w t h a t u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y s u m m a rized t h e Jesuit mission: “I w o u l d n o t e v e n b e l i e v e in t h e Gospels were the H o l y C h u r c h to forbid it.” T h e S o c i e t y d o e s n o t o p e n its e x t r e m e o a t h o f o b e d i e n c e t o p u b l i c i n s p e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , a script alleged to be a true facsimile was translated by E d w i n A. S h e r m a n and deposited in the Library of C o n g r e s s w i t h the n u m b e r BX3705.S56. A c c o r d i n g to this document, when a Jesuit of the minor rank is to be elevated to command, he is conducted into the C h a p e l of the C o n v e n t of the Order, where there are only three others present, the principal or Superior standing in front of the altar. On either side stands a monk, one of whom holds a banner of yellow and white, which are the Papal colors, and the other a black banner with a dagger and red cross above a skull and crossbones, with the initials ’I.N.R.I.,’
and below them the words ’ICSTUM NACAR REGES IMIOS,’ the

meaning of which is ’It is just to annihilate impious rulers.’ [Biblically, these initials represent the Roman inscription above Christ’s head on the cross: ’Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews.’] On the floor is a red cross upon which the postulant or candidate kneels. T h e Superior hands him a small black crucifix, which he takes in his left hand and presses to his heart and the Superior at the same time presents to him a dagger, which he grasps by the blade and holds the point against his heart, the Superior still holding it by the hilt.... T h e Superior gives a preamble, and then administers the oath: I, , now, in the presence of Almighty God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed Michael the Archangel, the blessed St. Paul and all the Saints and sacred Hosts of Heaven, and to you, my Ghostly Father, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, in the Pontificate of Paul the Third, and continued to the present, do by the Womb of the Virgin, the Matrix of G o d , and the Rod of Jesus Christ, declare and swear, that His Holiness the Pope is Christ’s

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Vice-Regent and is the true and only Head of the Catholic and Universal C h u r c h throughout the earth; and that by virtue of the keys of binding and loosing, given to His Holiness by my Saviour, Jesus Christ, he hath power to depose heretical kings, princes, states, commonwealths and governments, all being illegal without his sacred confirmation, and that they may safely be destroyed. Therefore, to the utmost of my power, I shall and will defend this doctrine and His Holiness’ right and custom against all usurpers of the heretical or Protestant authority whatever, especially the Lutheran C h u r c h of Germany, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and the now pretended authority and churches of England and Scotland, and branches of the same now established in Ireland and on the C o n t i n e n t of America and elsewhere; and all adherents in regard that they be usurped and heretical, opposing the sacred Mother Church of Rome. I do now renounce and disown any allegiance as due to any heretical king, prince, or state named Protestants or Liberals, or obedience to any of their laws, magistrates or officers. I do further declare that the doctrines of the churches of England and Scotland, of the Calvinists, Huguenots and others of the name Protestants or Liberals to be damnable, and they themselves damned and to be damned who will not forsake the same. I do further declare that I will help, assist and advise all or any of His Holiness’ agents in any place wherever I shall be, in Switzerland, German, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, Ireland, or America, or in any other kingdom or territory I shall come to, and do my uttermost to extirpate the heretical Protestants or Liberals’ doctrines and to destroy all their pretended powers, regal or otherwise. I do further promise and declare that, notwithstanding I am dispensed with, to assume any religion heretical, for the propagating of the Mother Church’s interest, to keep secret and private all her agents’ counsels from time to time, as they may entrust me, and not to divulge, directly or indirectly, by word, writing, or circumstance whatever; but to execute all that shall be proposed, given in charge or discovered unto me, by you, my Ghostly Father, or any of this sacred convent.

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I do further promise and declare that I will have no opinion or will of my own, or any mental reservation whatever, even as a corpse or cadaver, but will unhesitatingly obey each and every command that I may receive from my superiors in the Militia of the Pope and of Jesus Christ. That I will go to any part of the world whithersoever I may be sent, to the frozen regions of the North, the burning sands of the desert of Africa, or the jungles of India, to the centres of civilization of Europe, or to the wild haunts of the barbarous savages of America, without murmuring or repining, and will be submissive in all things whatsoever communicated to me. I furthermore promise and declare that I will, when opportunity presents, make and wage relentless war, secretly or openly, against all heretics, Protestants and Liberals, as I am directed to do, to extirpate and exterminate them from the face of the whole earth; and that I will spare neither age, sex, or condition; and that I will hang, burn, waste, boil, flay, strangle and bury alive these infamous heretics, rip up the stomachs and wombs of their women and crush their infants’ heads against the walls, in order to annihilate forever their execrable race. T h a t when the same cannot be done openly, I will secretly use the poisoned cup, the strangulating cord, the steel of the poinard or the leaden bullet, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity, or authority of the person or persons, whatever may be their condition in life, either public or private, as I at any time may be directed so to do by any agent of the Pope or Superior of the Brotherhood of the Holy Faith, of the Society of Jesus. In confirmation of which, I hereby dedicate my life, my soul, and all my corporeal powers, and with this dagger which I now receive, I will subscribe my name written in my own blood, in testimony thereof; and should I prove false or weaken in my determination, may my brethren and fellow soldiers of the Militia of the Pope cut off my hands and my feet, and my throat from ear to ear, my belly opened and sulphur burned therein, with all the punishment that can be inflicted upon me on earth and my soul be tortured by demons in an eternal hell forever! A l l of which I, , do swear by the blessed Trinity and blessed Sacrament, which I am now to receive, to perform and on my part to keep inviolably; and do

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call all the heavenly and glorious host of heaven to witness these my real intentions to keep this my oath. In testimony hereof I take this most holy and blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist, and witness the same further, with my name written with the point of this dagger dipped in my own blood and sealed in the face of this holy Convent. He receives the wafer from the Superior and writes his name with the point of his dagger dipped in his own blood taken from over the heart....

W

H E N Ignatius c o n c l u d e d his p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e P o p e reportedly cried o u t “ H o c est digitus Dei!” – “ T h i s is t h e finger1 5 4 0 , Paul III sealed his

stroke o f G o d ! ” O n S e p t e m b e r 27,

a p p r o v a l w i t h t h e h i g h e s t and most s o l e m n form o f p a p a l pron o u n c e m e n t , a d o c u m e n t k n o w n as a “bull” (from the L a t i n bulla, m e a n i n g “ b u b b l e , ” d e n o t i n g t h e a t t a c h e d o v o i d o r c i r c u l a r seal bearing the pope’s n a m e ) . Paul’s bull o r d a i n i n g the Jesuits is entitled Regimini militantis ecclesiae, “ O n the S u p r e m a c y of the C h u r c h M i l i t a n t . ” T h e title forms a c a b a l i s t i c d e v i c e c o m m o n t o p a g a n R o m a n d i v i n i n g . K n o w n as notariqon, this d e v i c e is an a c r o n y m t h a t e n h a n c e s t h e m e a n i n g o f its initialized w o r d s , i n t h e w a y “ M A D D ” tells u s t h a t M o t h e r s A g a i n s t D r u n k D r i v e r s are more t h a n “against” d r u n k e n drivers, they’re very angry. “Regimini militantis ecclesiae” p r o d u c e s t h e n o t a r i q o n “ R [ O ] M E , ” t h e empire w h o s e s a l v a t i o n t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus was o r d a i n e d by this b u l l to secure through the arts of war. T h e f o l l o w i n g A p r i l , the original six and a few other members e l e c t e d Ignatius d e L o y o l a their first S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . W h a t h a d b e e n approved as a m i n i m a l society soon multiplied to a thousand strong. Ignatius did this by administering to only sixty the extreme oath of obedience to the pope, while admitting hundreds more u n d e r lesser o a t h s . E v e r s i n c e , t h e e x a c t size o f t h e S o c i e t y has been k n o w n only to the Superior G e n e r a l . As the world gained increasing numbers of doctors, lawyers, authors, reforming t h e o l o gians, financiers, statesmen, courtiers, diplomats, explorers, tradesm e n , m e r c h a n t s , poets, scholars, scientists, a r c h i t e c t s , e n g i n e e r s , artists, printers, and philosophers, it was e x t r e m e l y difficult for an

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ordinary citizen to tell w h i c h were Jesuits and w h i c h were not. N o t e v e n Jesuits c o u l d say for sure, because of a p r o v i s i o n in the C o n stitutions ( S e c t i o n s 8 1 - 8 6 of Part I) w h i c h authorizes the Superio r G e n e r a l t o “ r e c e i v e a g e n t s , b o t h priestly a g e n t s t o h e l p i n spiritual matters and lay agents to give aid in temporal and domestic functions.” C a l l e d “coadjutors,” these lay agents could be of any religious d e n o m i n a t i o n , race, n a t i o n a l i t y , o r sex. T h e y t o o k a n o a t h w h i c h b o u n d t h e m “for w h a t e v e r time the Superior G e n e r a l of t h e S o c i e t y should see fit to e m p l o y t h e m in spiritual or t e m p o ral s e r v i c e s . ” T h i s p r o v i s i o n was a v a i l e d b y s o m a n y b l a c k p o p e s t h a t t h e F r e n c h h a d a n a m e for p e o p l e s u s p e c t e d of b e i n g Jesuit a g e n t s : les robes-petites ( “ s h o r t - r o b e s ” ) . T h e E n g l i s h c a l l e d t h e m “short-coats” or “Ignatians.” Within two years of Regimini militantis ecclesiae, Paul III appointed the Society to administer the R o m a n Inquisition (not t o b e confused w i t h t h e S p a n i s h Inquisition, w h i c h reported o n l y t o t h e S p a n i s h c r o w n ) . W h e n t h e Jesuits w e r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , P a u l m a d e his m o v e t o “ r e c o n c i l e ” w i t h t h e Protestants.

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T H E SPIRIT O F T R E N T

Sketch from the Sebastiano painting of the Psychopomp directing Paul III (left center) and his cardinals to the Council of Trent.

Chapter 8

MOVING IN

T

H E T E R M “ P R O T E S T A N T ” was c o i n e d i n 1 5 2 9 t o describe the

large n u m b e r o f p r i n c e s and d e l e g a t e s o f f o u r t e e n c i t i e s , largely G e r m a n , w h o protested Emperor C h a r l e s Habsburg’s

attempt to enforce the Edict of Worms. T h i s edict bound the

Empire’s t h r e e h u n d r e d p r i n c e l y states and free cities t o R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . T h e P r o t e s t a n t s p r o p o s e d a c o m p r o m i s e formula – basically a s t a t e m e n t of t h e L u t h e r a n faith – k n o w n as t h e A u g s burg C o n f e s s i o n . For fifteen years the Edict of W o r m s and the A u g s b u r g C o n f e s sion k e p t C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t rulers in a M e x i c a n standoff. T h e n , o n D e c e m b e r 1 3 , 1 5 4 5 , Paul III c a l l e d b o t h factions t o the small G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g n o r t h e r n I t a l i a n c a t h e d r a l city o f T r e n t . T h e promise was to resolve differences peacefully in an e c u m e n i cal c o u n c i l . T h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t h a d n o t b e e n seated four m o n t h s before it d e c r e e d t h a t t h e b o o k s and b i b l i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n s of Luther,
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L e F e v r e , Z w i n g l i , C a l v i n , a n d o t h e r “ u n a p p r o v e d persons” w e r e “ a l t o g e t h e r forbidden [and] a l l o w e d to no o n e , since little a d v a n tage, but m u c h danger, generally arises from reading t h e m . ”
1

T h e n t h e Jesuits m o v e d in. D i e g o L a i n e z , A l f o n s o S a l m e r o n , t w o o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o m p a n i o n s , a n d C l a u d e LeJay, all t h r e e i n their early thirties, d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s at T r e n t early on by spurning the grand style of the other delegates. T h e y set up housek e e p i n g in a “narrow, s m o k e - b l a c k e n e d baker’s o v e n ” a n d w o r e c l o t h i n g s o h e a v i l y p a t c h e d a n d greasy t h a t o t h e r priests w e r e embarrassed to associate w i t h t h e m . T h e y carried w i t h t h e m intri2

c a t e advisories from Ignatius himself, w r i t t e n from t h e delegates’ p o i n t of view, as for e x a m p l e : W h e n the matter that is being debated seems so manifestly just and right that I can no longer keep silent, then I should speak my mind with the greatest composure and conclude what I have said with the words ’subject of course to the judgment of a wiser head than mine.’ If the leaders of the opposing party should try to befriend me, I must cultivate these men, who have influence over the heretics and lukewarm Catholics, and try to win them away from their errors with holy wisdom and love.... M o s t of the eighteen-year lifetime of the C o u n c i l of Trent c o n sisted o f t w o i n t e r m i s s i o n s s p a n n i n g four a n d t e n years e a c h . A t the b e g i n n i n g of t h e s e c o n d intermission, Ignatius f o u n d e d a special c o l l e g e i n R o m e for G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g Jesuits called t h e G e r m a n i c u m . T h r e e years later, the Peace of A u g s b u r g established the p r i n c i p l e cuius regio, eius religio, “ w h o s e t h e r e g i o n , his t h e relig i o n . ” T h e P e a c e o f A u g s b u r g was Jesuit paydirt. T h e y c o u l d n o w b r i n g w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n s t o R o m e simply b y w i n n i n g o v e r a few princes. A n d so they did. By 1560, the S o c i e t y had returned virtually all of S o u t h G e r m a n y and A u s t r i a to the C h u r c h . T h e fruits of the G e r m a n i c u m were so successful that w h e n the C o u n c i l o f T r e n t finally a d j o u r n e d o n D e c e m b e r 4 , 1 5 6 3 , its decrees and c a n o n s c o n c e d e d n o t h i n g to the Protestant reformers. I n d e e d , u n d e r t h e spiritual d i r e c t i o n o f S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l D i e g o L a i n e z – Ignatius h a d d i e d in 1 5 5 6 – t h e C o u n c i l d e n i e d e v e r y

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Protestant doctrine point by point. A n a t h e m a t i z e d (eternally d a m n e d ) was a n y o n e w h o b e l i e v e d that salvation is G o d ’ s free gift t o His faithful and d o e s n o t d e p e n d u p o n p a r t a k i n g o f C h u r c h s a c r a m e n t s . A n a t h e m a t i z e d was a n y o n e w h o l o o k e d t o t h e Bible for t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y o n “ d o c t r i n e , reproof, c o r r e c t i o n , and instruction in righteousness” rather t h a n to the t e a c h i n g C h u r c h .
3

A n a t h e m a t i z e d was a n y o n e w h o regarded a s u n w o r t h y o f b e l i e f such unscriptural doctrines as (1) the efficacy of papal indulgences, (2) of confession a l o n e to a priest as necessary to s a l v a t i o n , (3) of the mass as a true and real sacrifice of the body of C h r i s t necessary to s a l v a t i o n , (4) t h e l e g i t i m a c y of t e a c h i n g s on purgatory, (5) the celibate priesthood, (6) i n v o k i n g saints by prayer to intercede w i t h G o d , ( 7 ) t h e v e n e r a t i o n o f relics, and (8) t h e use o f images and symbols. T h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t hurled one h u n d r e d twenty-five a n a t h e mas – e t e r n a l d a m n a t i o n s – against P r o t e s t a n t i s m . T h e n , as an a d d e n d u m t o its c l o s i n g s t a t e m e n t s , t h e C o u n c i l r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e Jesuits “ s h o u l d b e g i v e n pride o f p l a c e o v e r m e m b e r s o f o t h e r orders as preachers a n d professors.” It was at T r e n t t h a t t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h b e g a n m a r c h i n g t o the beat o f the B l a c k Papacy. A g e n e r a t i o n later, t h e g u i d e l i n e s of t h e R o m a n I n q u i s i t i o n under Jesuit d i r e c t i o n were published at t h e c o m m a n d of the C a r dinals Inquisitors G e n e r a l . T h i s Directorium Inquisitorum ( 1 5 8 4 ) was d e d i c a t e d t o G r e g o r y X I I I , t h e p o p e w h o b e s t o w e d u p o n Jesuits t h e right t o d e a l i n c o m m e r c e and b a n k i n g , a n d w h o also decreed that every papal legate should h a v e a Jesuit advisor on his personal staff. H e r e follows a summary of t h e Directorium Inquisi4

torum (translated by J. P. Callender, 1838): He is a heretic who does not believe what the Roman Hierarchy t e a c h e s — A heretic merits the pains of fire By the Gospel, the canons, civil law, and custom, heretics must be burned.... For the suspicion alone of heresy, purgation is demanded.... Magistrates who refuse to take the oath for defense of the faith shall be suspected of heresy Wars may be commenced by the authority of the C h u r c h . . . . Indulgences for the

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remission of all sin belong to those who signed with the cross for the persecution of heretics Every individual may kill a heretic. Persons who betray heretics shall be rewarded.... Heretics may be forced to profess the Roman faith.... A heretic, as he sins in all places, may everywhere be judged.... Heretics must be sought after, and be corrected or exterminated.... Heretics enjoy no privileges in law or equity.... T h e goods of heretics are to be considered as confiscated from the perpetration of the crime... T h e pope can enact new articles of faith.... Definitions of popes and councils are to be received as infallible.... Inquisitors may torture witnesses to obtain the truth.... It is laudable to torture those of every class who are guilty of heresy T h e Pope has power over infidels.... T h e Church may make war with i n f i d e l s — Those who are strongly suspected are to be reputed as heretics He who does not inform against heretics shall be deemed as s u s p e c t e d — Inquisitors may allow heretics to witness against heretics, but not for them.... Inquisitors must not publish the names of informers, witnesses, and accusers.... Penitent heretics may be condemned to perpetual imprisonment Inquisitors may provide for their own expenditures, and the salaries of their officers, from the property of heretics.... Inquisitors enjoy the benefits of a plenary indulgence [a full papal forgiveness of sin] at all times in life, and in death. T h e Inquisition’s effect, o f c o u r s e , was t o send t h e more resourceful of the “heretics, Protestants and Liberals” w h o escaped torture or e x e c u t i o n scurrying u n d e r g r o u n d , or into t h e b u r g e o n ing w o r l d o f c o m m e r c e , o r i n t o regions w h e r e P r o t e s t a n t c i v i l authorities kept Inquisitors at bay. Yearning for a less intrusive religious e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y j o i n e d a t t r a c t i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l fraternities where they could speak freely against R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . For this ostensible reason, these fraternities or cults or lodges o p e r a t e d in secrecy. In fact, they were the r e m n a n t s of the T e m p l a r n e t w o r k – Rosicrucians, T e u t o n i c K n i g h t s , the numerous and various rites of Freemasonry. Like the Templars and the Jesuits, they were religious h i e r a r c h i e s o f strict o b e d i e n c e . T h e y differed from t h e Jesuits, h o w e v e r , in that their pyramid c u l m i n a t e d in an ultimate authority no brother c o u l d identify w i t h certainty. T h e h i g h e s t master of

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a L o d g e r e c e i v e d c o m m a n d m e n t s from an “ U n k n o w n Superior,” a Superior whose will the master’s w h o l e struggle up the degrees had trained h i m t o o b e y w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . W h a t t h e masters n e v e r realized was that this mysterious personage, as we shall e x a m i n e in more detail later, was in fact n o n e other t h a n the Black Pope.

A

c e n t u r y after T r e n t , a d e s c e n d a n t of Paul III, R a n u c c i o Farnese, c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e great V e n e t i a n p a i n t e r S e b a s t i a n o

R i c c i t o c o m m e m o r a t e t h e genesis o f this d e f i n i t i v e C o u n c i l . S e b a s t i a n o p r o d u c e d his famous “ P a u l III and t h e c a r d i n a l s en route to T r e n t . ” T h e w o r k is b r e a t h t a k i n g l y c a n d i d . In t h e air, a b o v e t h e pope’s h e a d , h o v e r s a deity, d i r e c t i n g t h e e n t o u r a g e o n w a r d . T h e deity i s n o t Jesus o r M a r y o r Y a h w e h , G o d o f t h e B i b l e . It is M e r c u r y of t h e S i b y l l i n e a n d V i r g i l i a n gospels – t h e

holy scripture of C a e s a r e a n R o m e . M e r c u r y i s t h e c e l e b r a t e d g o d o f c o m m e r c e . T h e m e t a l most essential to c o m m e r c i a l fluidity is n a m e d for h i m . M e t a l l i c mercury is k n o w n to scientists as the e l e m e n t Hg (derived from the L a t i n hydrargyrum, “liquid silver”). It is Hg’s unique c h e m i c a l nature that produces refined gold, t h e f u n d a m e n t a l substance i n w h i c h c o m mercial value is denominated. Liquid at room temperature, Hg draws impurities out of gold ore and binds t h e m into an amalgam. W h e n t h e a m a l g a m i s h e a t e d , t h e h e a t drives away b o t h H g a n d the impurities. W h a t is left is pure gold suitable for further a m a l g a m a t i o n into coin. Mercury’s t h e o l o g i c a l life b e g a n in a n c i e n t B a b y l o n , w h e r e he was k n o w n a s M a r d u k . T h e B i b l e calls h i m M e r o d a c h , t h e H e b r e w s c a l l e d h i m E n o c h , the E g y p t i a n s c a l l e d h i m T h o t h , t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n s worshiped h i m as O d i n , the Teutons as W o t a n , and t h e O r i e n t a l s as B u d d h a . L i v y says he was i n t r o d u c e d to t h e R o m a n s in 495 BC as a Latinate version of the G r e e k god H e r m e s .
5

By w h a t e v e r n a m e , in w h a t e v e r culture, Mercury is considered the god of the U n i v e r s a l M i n d , of W r i t i n g , N u m b e r , and T h o u g h t . Just as M e r c u r y t h e m e t a l draws o u t impurities and b i n d s t h e m i n t o a mass t h a t is b u r n e d a n d discarded, M e r c u r y t h e d e i t y uses his i n t e l l e c t u a l b r i l l i a n c e to play Pied Piper to impure h u m a n i t y .

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He attracts followers and leads their souls to Hades, for w h i c h the G r e e k s g a v e h i m t h e title Psychopompas (from psycho- “soul” and pompous, “ d i r e c t o r ” ) . B e c a u s e H a d e s is n o t t h e m o s t desirable of destinations, the P s y c h o p o m p h a d to construct elegant missionary a d a p t a t i o n s . H e h a d t o c h a r m souls, deceive t h e m i n t o f o l l o w i n g h i m any way he c o u l d – w h e t h e r by words, sights, or sounds. Like H g , his m e t a l l i c form, M e r c u r y c o u l d c h a n g e his shape i n s t a n t a neously. D i d y o u see t h e v i l l a i n in t h e m o v i e Terminator II? W i t h his e v e r - c h a n g i n g v o i c e s , p h y s i o g n o m i e s , and i d e n t i t i e s , he is state-of-the-art P s y c h o p o m p . I n m a n y cultures, Mercury’s i n g e n ious d e c e p t i o n s e a r n e d h i m t h e title o f “ T h e Trickster.” H e was patron deity of deceivers. A n d of thieves – e v e n as a baby, Mercury couldn’t resist stealing A p o l l o ’ s c a t t l e . . . . W a s Sebastiano R i c c i telling us that Mercury was the d o m i n a t ing spirit of the C o u n c i l of Trent? C e r t a i n l y the C o u n c i l required, and still requires, R o m a n C a t h o l i c s t o h o n o r m a n y t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h t h e B i b l e e i t h e r c o n d e m n s o r does n o t a u t h o r i z e . Y e t t h e C o u n c i l also required, and still requires, that the Bible be h o n o r e d as d i v i n e l y inspired. H o n o r i n g the B i b l e by a d v o c a t i n g u n b i b l i c a l norms? T h i s calls for a skill w o r t h y of the P s y c h o p o m p , a skill that m a k e s o n e b e l i e v e t h a t b l a c k i s w h i t e . A s w e ’ v e s e e n , this i s t h e Jesuit skill – securing o b e d i e n c e of t h e subject’s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . If i n d e e d the S o c i e t y of Jesus performs the f u n c t i o n of Mercury, it is p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a n a t u r a l process k n o w n t o p a g a n a n d b i b l i c a l scriptures alike, a process by w h i c h impure h u m a n i t y is attracted t o o b l i v i o n , l e a v i n g b e h i n d o n l y t h e pure. T h e t h e o l o g i c a l implications of this process we shall discuss toward the end of this book. W i t h the Inquisition and the C o u n c i l of Trent to pave their way, the S o c i e t y of Jesus quickly b e c a m e w h a t Loyola had dreamed i t w o u l d b e c o m e : t h e resurrected K n i g h t s T e m p l a r . I n t h e n e x t chapter, we shall e x a m i n e the c o n t i n u a t i o n of their m e t e o r i c rise as developers of the m o d e r n world.

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IGNATIUS IN H E A V E N

Padre Pozzo’s spectacular ceiling at the Church of St. Ignatius in Rome. Note how the light emanates from Ignatius rather than Jesus Christ, who still bears His cross.

Chapter 9

SECURING CONFIDENCE

S

T R E N G T H E N E D B Y Trent’s u n q u a l i f i e d e n d o r s e m e n t , t h e Ignatius d i r e c t e d t h a t “ a Jesuit s h o u l d n o t a l l o w a n y o n e t o

Jesuits quickly b e c a m e the C h u r c h ’ s most popular confessors.

leave t h e confessional entirely w i t h o u t c o m f o r t . ” If a confessant’s Ignatius said, “ h e should be p e r m i t t e d to adhere to it, e v e n w h e n the contrary o p i n i o n c a n be said to be more correct.” People relished confessing to Jesuits. “ A l w a y s go to the Jesuits

o p i n i o n on any m a t t e r c o u l d be found in the least bit defensible,

for c o n f e s s i o n , ” it was said in G e r m a n y , “for t h e y put c u s h i o n s under your knees and under your elbows, too.” M e r c h a n t s , aristocrats, courtiers, and c r o w n e d heads insisted that Jesuit confessional d i r e c t i o n was the best in all C h r i s t e n d o m . T h e y c o n s i d e r e d the Jesuits to be t h e greatest c o n v e r t e r s of harde n e d sinners, t h e surest m o r a l guides t h r o u g h life’s b e w i l d e r i n g c o m p l e x i t i e s . Indeed, for t w o centuries, all the F r e n c h kings, from H e n r y III t o Louis XV, w o u l d confess t o Jesuits. A l l G e r m a n
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e m p e r o r s after t h e early s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o u l d confess t o Jesuits, t o o . Jesuits w o u l d t a k e t h e c o n f e s s i o n s of all D u k e s of Bavaria after 1 5 7 9 , most rulers of P o l a n d and Portugal, t h e S p a n ish kings in the e i g h t e e n t h century, and James II of England. T h e sacrament o f confession k e p t Jesuit i n f o r m a t i o n c h a n n e l s l o a d e d w i t h v i t a l state secrets. It also furnished t h e S o c i e t y an ideal v e h i c l e for influencing political a c t i o n . O n e of the most dram a t i c i n s t a n c e s is f o u n d in t h e f a m o u s m e m o i r of F r a n ç o i s de la C h a i z e , Jesuit c o n f e s s o r t o t h e p a i n f u l l y diseased K i n g o f F r a n c e from 1 6 7 5 until 1709. “ M a n y a time since,” wrote La C h a i z e , when I have had him [Louis XIV] at confession, I have shook hell about his ears, and made him sigh, fear, and tremble, before I would give him absolution. By this I saw that he had still an inclination to me, and was willing to be under my government; so I set the baseness of the action before him by telling the whole story, and how wicked it was, and that it could not be forgiven till he had done some good action to balance that, and expiate the crime. Whereupon he at last asked me what he must do. I told him that he must root out all heretics from his kingdom.
1

Louis o b e y e d h i s confessor b y r e v o k i n g t h e E d i c t o f N a n t e s ( O c t o b e r 1 6 8 5 ) , w h i c h immediately resulted in: the demolition of all the remaining Protestant temples throughout France, and the entire prohibition of even private worship under penalty of confiscation of body and property; the banishment of all Protestant pastors from France within fifteen days; the closing of all Protestant schools; the prohibition of parents to instruct their children in the Protestant faith; the injunction upon them, under a penalty of five hundred livres in each case, to have their children baptized by the parish priest, and brought up in the Roman Catholic religion; the confiscation of the property and goods of all Protestant refugees who failed to return to France within four months; the penalty of the galleys for life to all men, and of imprisonment for life to all women, detected in the act of attempting to escape from France.
2

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It was inevitable that the C o u n c i l of T r e n t would establish the Jesuits as t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r s of Europe. W i t h m o n e y from royalty and c o m m e r c e ( a n d n o t so m u c h as a p f e n n i g from t h e C h u r c h ) , t h e S o c i e t y built a n e x t e n s i v e system o f s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . N o t u i t i o n was charged, but e a c h p r o s p e c t i v e student was t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n e d t o see i f h e h a d a p t i t u d e s t h e S o c i e t y c o u l d use. W i t h the f o u n d i n g of the first Jesuit s c h o o l at C o i m b r a , Portugal, by the Emperor’s youngest sister C a t h e r i n a (Iñigo’s r o m a n t i c interest w h o h a d since married t h e K i n g of Portugal), the principal Jesuit o c c u pation became teaching. By 1556, three-fourths of the Society’s m e m b e r s h i p w e r e d e d i c a t e d i n 4 6 Jesuit c o l l e g e s t o “ l e a r n i n g against l e a r n i n g , ” t o i n d o c t r i n a t i n g m i n d s w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g o f illuminated humanism as opposed to the learning of Scripture. T h i s n e t w o r k would e x p a n d by 1 7 4 9 to 669 colleges, 1 7 6 seminaries, 61 houses of study, and 24 universities partly or w h o l l y under Jesuit direction. M a n y P r o t e s t a n t families sent t h e i r sons t o Jesuit s c h o o l s , despite M a r t i n Luther’s early w a r n i n g in An Appeal to the Ruling Class ( 1 5 2 0 ) t h a t “unless t h e y d i l i g e n t l y train a n d impress S c r i p ture u p o n y o u n g students, schools will p r o v e to be w i d e n i n g gates of h e l l . ” T h e Jesuit c u r r i c u l u m , or ratio studiorum ( “ m e t h o d of s t u d y ” ) , g a v e S c r i p t u r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n a t t e n t i o n . Part IV, S e c t i o n 3 5 1 o f L o y o l a ’ s C o n s t i t u t i o n s prescribes courses i n “ t h e h u m a n e letters of different languages, logic, natural and moral philosophy, metaphysics, scholastic and positive theology,” w i t h “Sacred Scripture” b r i n g i n g up t h e rear. H o w rigorously any o n e of these subjects was t o b e studied d e p e n d e d u p o n “ c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t i m e s , p l a c e s , p e r s o n s , and o t h e r s u c h factors, a c c o r d i n g t o w h a t seems e x p e d i e n t i n our Lord t o h i m w h o h o l d s t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r g e . ” S e c t i o n 3 6 6 puts S c r i p t u r e a t t h e m e r c y o f these factors: “ T h e scholastics should acquire a g o o d f o u n d a t i o n in L a t i n before they a t t e n d lectures on t h e arts, a n d in t h e arts before t h e y pass on to s c h o l a s t i c t h e o l o g y ; and in it before t h e y study p o s i t i v e theology. S c r i p t u r e m a y be studied e i t h e r c o n c o m i t a n t l y or later o n . ” If S c r i p t u r e s h o u l d b e studied a t all, t h e c o m m e n t a r y a n d c r i t i c a l interpretation of Protestant scholastics were to be ignored: “In the

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case of C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r s , e v e n t h o u g h a w o r k may be g o o d it should n o t be lectured on w h e n the author is bad, lest a t t a c h m e n t to h i m be acquired.” “ T h e curriculum of the Jesuit colleges c a m e to be adopted to a great e x t e n t as t h e basis of the curricula in the E u r o p e a n colleges generally,” wrote Dr. James J. W a l s h , D e a n of F o r d h a m U n i v e r s i t y M e d i c a l S c h o o l . Moreover, according to Dr. W a l s h ,
3

T h e Founding Fathers of our American Republic, that is to say the groups of men who drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence, who were the leaders in the American Revolution, and who formulated the Constitution of the United States ... were, the majority of them, educated in the colonial colleges or in corresponding colleges abroad ... which followed ... almost exactly the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum. T h e fact has been missed to a great extent in our histories of American education.... E m b e d d e d in t h e ratio studiorum w e r e t h e e l e m e n t s of e n t e r t a i n m e n t , of dramatic p r o d u c t i o n – composition, rhetoric, and eloq u e n c e . T h e s e courses i n t e r l i n k e d w i t h the Spiritual Exercises t o intensify t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l i t y o f C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e o v e r S c r i p t u r e a n d P r o t e s t a n t i s m . T h e y resulted in a g e n r e of s p e c t a c u l a r plays that w o n distinction as “Jesuit theatre.” T h e first Jesuit theatre was performed in V i e n n a in 1 5 5 5 , nearly forty years before the emergence of Shakespeare. It was instantly popular and quickly spread to other parts of Europe. B e t w e e n 1597 and 1 7 7 3 more t h a n five h u n d r e d Jesuit theatricals were staged in the lower R h i n e regions alone. Jacob Bidermann’s play Cenodoxus ( “ N e w f a n g l e d B e l i e f s ” ) , a p o i n t - b y - p o i n t r e b u t t a l of Luther’s teachings, p r o v e d the p o w e r of e n t e r t a i n m e n t to a c h i e v e political reform. “ S u c h a w h o l e s o m e impression was m a d e , ” w r o t e Father B i d e r m a n n r e c a l l i n g t h e 1609 o p e n i n g of Cenodoxus in M u n i c h , “ t h a t a full f o u r t e e n persons of t h e h i g h e s t rank of t h e B a v a r i a n court retired into solitude during the days that followed, to perform the Spiritual Exercises and to reform their m a n n e r of living. Truly a hundred sermons would n o t h a v e done so m u c h g o o d . ”
4

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A n e x e m p l a r y Jesuit drama, performed i n 1625 a t t h e C o l l e g e o f S t . O m e r i n h o n o r o f B e l g i a n royalty, allegorized t h e glorious e n d t o c i v i l war i n B e l g i u m b r o u g h t b y t h e a d v e n t o f Princess Isabella and her h u s b a n d , A l b e r t . T h e play, as r e v i e w e d by a c o n temporary official, represented a country, long heavily oppressed under the Iron A g e , supplicating the help of Jupiter, who, after having summoned a council of the gods, sent down Saturn, lately married to Astraea. These visitors were received with much pomp by twelve zodiacs or princes sent by Mercury. They then dispatched four most potent heroes, Hercules, Jason, Theseus and Perseus from the Elysian Fields, with commands to conquer Iron A g e , War, Error, and Discord. T h e heroes expelled those terrible monsters from the country and substituted in their stead G o l d e n A g e , Peace, Truth, and Concord. T h e Princess with the whole assembly were highly delighred.
5

T h e faculty o f M u n i c h C o l l e g e praised t h e w a y Jesuit theatre captivated Protestants, especially the parents of school-aged youngsters: “ T h e r e is no better means of m a k i n g friends out of the heretics and the e n e m i e s of t h e C h u r c h , and filling up the enrollm e n t o f the s c h o o l t h a n g o o d high-spirited p l a y a c t i n g . ” Moliere’s Jesuit t h e a t r i c a l s in Paris w e r e so p o p u l a r t h a t e v e n t h e dress rehearsals were sold out. Mozart, at the age of e l e v e n , was c o m m i s sioned to write music for a play at t h e Jesuit c o l l e g e in Salzburg, w h e r e h i s f a t h e r was m u s i c a l d i r e c t o r t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p . E v e n from t h e W e s t Indies a Jesuit missionary reported t h a t “ n o t h i n g has made a more forceful impression on the Indians t h a n our play.” In E n g l a n d , Jesuit t h e a t r e was n o t k n o w n as s u c h b e c a u s e of Q u e e n Elizabeth’s statute m a k i n g it a c a p i t a l crime to be, or e v e n to assist, a Jesuit w i t h i n h e r orbit. B u t if the purpose of Jesuit theatre was t o capture t h a t share o f man’s spiritual a t t e n t i o n w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e B i b l e , t h e n England certainly p r o d u c e d the greatest Jesuit playwright of t h e m all. Shakespeare occupies us w i t h the h u m a n process in a way that subtly marginalizes the Bible – exactly pursuant to the Jesuit mission.

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S h a k e s p e a r i a n c h a r a c t e r s do p r e a c h , a n d t h e y p r e a c h a r e l i g i o n , but it is n o t t h e G o s p e l of Jesus C h r i s t . It is t h e g n o s t i c illuminat i o n o f M e d i c i l e a r n i n g t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e p r e a c h e s , t h e stuff o f Jesuit schools. N o t surprisingly, the secret tradition of Templarism claims S h a k e s p e a r e , at least the writer of his plays, to h a v e b e e n a Rosicrucian steeped in M e d i c i learning: The philosophic ideals promulgated throughout Shakespearian plays distinctly demonstrate their author to have been thoroughly familiar with certain doctrines and tenets peculiar to Rosicrucianism; in fact, the profundity of the Shakespearian productions stamps their creator as one of the illuminati of the ages.... W h o but a Platonist, a Qabbalist, or a Pythagorean could have written The Tempest, Macbeth, Hamlet, or The Tragedy of Cymbeline? W h o but one deeply versed in Paracelsian lore could have conceived A Midsummer Night’s Dream? Y e t , as G a r r y W i l l s in his b o o k Witches & Jesuits p o i n t s out, Macbeth is an e l a b o r a t e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e Jesuits as satanists, murderers, w i t c h e s . Macbeth is o n e of m a n y of its period’s “ p o w d e r plays,” a g e n r e in w h i c h c e r t a i n buzz w o r d s , w e l l u n d e r s t o o d by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , m e m o r i a l i z e t h e g u i l t and e x e c u t i o n o f e i g h t Jesuits for h a v i n g s c h e m e d t h e G u n p o w d e r P l o t o f N o v e m b e r 5 , 1 6 0 5 . T h e P l o t aimed t o b l o w u p t h e entire g o v e r n m e n t o f G r e a t Britain, i n c l u d i n g the royal family, in a single c a t a s t r o p h i c e x p l o sion under the Houses of Parliament. H o w c o u l d a play d e f a m i n g Jesuits be of s e r v i c e to t h e Jesuit agenda? As we shall see, warfare in defense of the p a p a c y requires e x t r a v a g a n t measures. I n fact, b o t h t h e G u n p o w d e r P l o t , w h i c h failed, and the c e l e b r a t i o n of its d e t e c t i o n , w h i c h lives on in Macbeth, served R o m e abundantly. K i n g James I, w h o declared himself t h e Plot’s d i v i n e l y - i l l u m i n a t e d d i s c o v e r e r , b l a m e d t h e P l o t o n “Jesuits and papists.” B u t at the same time, James e x o n e r a t e d “less f a n a t i c a l C a t h o l i c s . ” A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l s , “ t h e P l o t g a v e [James]
6

his best opportunity to separate loyal and moderate C a t h o l i c s from the mad extremists of the Plot.” In short, the Plot secured England

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for “loyal and m o d e r a t e ” R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . In t h e reasoning of a Superior G e n e r a l , particularly the G e n e r a l of the G u n p o w d e r Plot and S h a k e s p e a r i a n theatre, C l a u d i o A c q u a v i v a , t h e sacrifice of e i g h t Jesuits was a small t a c t i c a l price to pay for m o v i n g the K i n g o f E n g l a n d t o express c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e pope’s B r i t i s h subjects, estimated at half t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the realm.

C

ERTAINLY the most elaborate single Jesuit theatrical e v e n t was

p r o d u c e d by G r e g o r y XV, t h e first Jesuit pupil to be e l e c t e d

Pope. T h i s was the c a n o n i z a t i o n of Ignatius de L o y o l a , the c l i m a x

o f G r e g o r y ’ s brief p o n t i f i c a t e ( h e r e i g n e d o n l y three years). C a n onization is authorized n o w h e r e in the Bible. Rather, it is a process a d a p t e d from t h e p a g a n t r a d i t i o n o f “ a p o t h e o s i s , ” w h e r e b y t h e priestly college declared a particularly effective mortal to be a god. In R o m a n Catholicism, the Sacred Congregation of Rites conducts a l e n g t h y inquisition into the works of a deceased candidate. T h e inquisition c a n take dozens, e v e n hundreds o f years. T h e c a n didate’s w o r k s are d e f e n d e d before a t r i b u n a l of t h r e e judges against a “devil’s a d v o c a t e . ” A final j u d g m e n t is d e c l a r e d by t h e Pope, w h o orders t h e C h u r c h t o b e l i e v e t h a t the candidate’s soul is in H e a v e n , and to v e n e r a t e the person w i t h the title of “ S a i n t . ” ( T h e Bible teaches that a n y o n e w h o hears and does the c o m m a n d m e n t s of Jesus is a saint. W i t h o u t any h i e r a r c h i c a l red tape, he or she a v o i d s j u d g m e n t and goes to h e a v e n i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n physical death.) Loyola’s c a n o n i z a t i o n was c e l e b r a t e d o n M a r c h 1 2 , 1 6 2 2 i n a c e r e m o n y t h a t was “ a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d display o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o m p , pageantry, and e x t r a v a g a n c e . ” O n e e y e w i t n e s s d e s c r i b e d
7

t h e e v e n t a s “ a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e b o r n spirit o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , o f t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e Blessed V i r g i n o v e r L u t h e r a n d Calvin.”
8

R

I D I N G t h e crest o f h u m a n i s t e x u b e r a n c e f o l l o w i n g Loyola’s c a n o n i z a t i o n , Jesuit priest A t h e n a s i u s K i r c h e r ( 1 6 0 2 - 1 6 8 0 )

c o n t r i b u t e d p o w e r f u l l y to Jesuit t h e a t r e as sensory e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h his m e g a p h o n e , w h i c h enabled the voice of one to reach

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thousands, K i r c h e r i n v e n t e d broadcasting. H e also fathered m o d ern c a m e r a theory w i t h his p e r f e c t i o n of the lanterna magica. T h e magic lantern projected sharp images through a lens u p o n a screen, g i v i n g audiences the illusion of b u r n i n g cities and conflagrations. Kircher’s w o r k i n f l u e n c e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p h e n a k i s t o s c o p e ( 1 8 3 2 ) , the zoetrope (1860), the kinematoscope ( 1 8 6 1 ) , the k i n e o g r a p h ( 1 8 6 8 ) , the p r a x i n o s c o p e ( 1 8 7 7 ) , and finally, T h o m a s A l v a Edison’s k i n e t o g r a p h for filming a c t i o n t o b e projected o n t o a s c r e e n t h r o u g h his k i n e t o s c o p e ( 1 8 9 4 ) . E d i s o n h a d a p e t n a m e for t h e tar-papered studio i n W e s t O r a n g e , N e w Jersey, w h e r e all his p r o t o t y p i c a l films w e r e m a d e . He c a l l e d it “ B l a c k M a r i a , ” a term that aptly described the image to w h o m Iñigo de L o y o l a dedicated his life in 1522 – the B l a c k M a d o n n a of Montserrat. T h e A m e r i c a n cinema’s earliest subject m a t t e r t o capture t h e popular i m a g i n a t i o n – the “ c o w b o y ” – was a Jesuit c o n t r i b u t i o n as w e l l . E u s e b i o K i n o , w h o s e statue i s o n e o f t w o r e p r e s e n t i n g A r i zona in t h e U . S . C a p i t o l b u i l d i n g , was a Jesuit professor from Ingolstadt C o l l e g e in Bavaria. B e t w e e n 1687 and 1 7 1 1 K i n o introd u c e d c a t t l e and their m a n a g e m e n t to s o u t h e r n A r i z o n a . For this he is gratefully r e m e m b e r e d as “ F a t h e r of t h e C a t t l e Business.” P o n d e r i n g t h e w o r k s o f K i r c h e r and K i n o , w e c o m e t o a rather a s t o n i s h i n g awareness: K i n o ’ s c o w b o y s , as p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h Kircher’s m a g i c l a n t e r n , i n d o c t r i n a t e d A m e r i c a ’ s earliest m o v i e a u d i e n c e s w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g message o f Jesuit t h e a t r e and R o m a n C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y – t h a t k n o w i n g and o b e y i n g S c r i p t u r e is n o t necessary in c o m p r e h e n d i n g the ways of good and evil, or in doing justice under natural law. U s i n g c i n e m a and radio to unite C a t h o l i c laypersons w i t h the R o m a n h i e r a r c h y was a m a i n purpose o f “ C a t h o l i c A c t i o n . ” C a t h o l i c A c t i o n was i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1 9 2 2 b y Pius X I , w h o s e t w o confessors, Fathers Alissiardi and C e l e b r a n o , were Jesuits. T h e first p o p e to install a radio station at the V a t i c a n ( 1 9 3 1 ) and to establish n a t i o n a l film r e v i e w offices ( 1 9 2 2 ) , Pius XI ordered C a t h o l i c s into politics. In the letter Peculari quadam ( “ C o n t a i n i n g the flock”) h e w a r n e d t h a t “ t h e m e n o f C a t h o l i c A c t i o n w o u l d fail i n t h e i r duty if, as opportunities allow it, they did n o t try to direct the pol-

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itics of their p r o v i n c e and of their country.” T h e m e n o f C a t h o l i c A c t i o n did try. T h e i r first major effort was t o e m p l o y B l a c k P o p e V l a d i m i r L e d o c h o w s k i ’ s strategy o f b r i n g i n g t h e C a t h o l i c n a t i o n s o f c e n t r a l and eastern Europe together into a p a n - G e r m a n federation. To head the federation, L e d o c h o w s k i required a charismatic leader charged w i t h subduing the c o m m u n i s t i c S o v i e t U n i o n o n t h e east, P r o t e s t a n t Prussia, P r o t e s t a n t G r e a t B r i t a i n , and r e p u b l i c a n F r a n c e o n t h e w e s t . Bishop Bernind of O s n a b r u c h in 1936 that there was no fundamental difference between National Socialism and the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . Had not the church, he argued, looked on Jews as parasites and shut them in ghettos? ’I am only doing,’ he boasted, ’what the church has done for fifteen hundred years, only more effectively.’ Being a Catholic himself, he told Berning, he ’admired and wanted to promote Christianity.’
9

L e d o c h o w s k i c h o s e the C a t h o l i c militarist A d o l f Hitler, w h o told

10

To promote C h r i s t i a n i t y as taught h i m by R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m , H i t l e r a p p o i n t e d L e n i R i e f e n s t a h l t o c r e a t e t h e greatest fascist films ever produced. H e r deification of H i t l e r and r o m a n t i c i z a t i o n of a u t o c r a c y in s p e c t a c l e s like Triumph of the Will are, in t h e m selves, the history of G e r m a n c i n e m a in the thirties and early forties. In print, Ledochowski’s p a n - G e r m a n manifesto took the form of Hitler’s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Mein Kampf ( “ M y S t r u g g l e ” ) , g h o s t w r i t t e n b y t h e Jesuit F a t h e r S t a e m p f l e Bible on the altars of G e r m a n c h u r c h e s .
12 11

a n d p l a c e d beside t h e

A f t e r W o r l d W a r II, during S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 7 , Pope J o h n XXIII g a v e Jesuit t h e a t r e e v e n b r o a d e r h o r i z o n s w i t h his e n c y c l i c a l Miranda prorsus ( “ L o o k i n g a h e a d ” ) , saying, M e n must be brought into closer communion with one another. T h e y must become socially minded. These technical arts (cinema, sound broadcasting, and television) can achieve this aim far more easily than the printed word. [Italics mine] T h e Catholic Church is keenly desirous that these means be converted to the spreading and advancement of everything that can be

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truly called good. Embracing, as she does, the whole of human society within the orbit of her divinely appointed mission, she is directly concerned with the fostering of civilization among all peoples. To C a t h o l i c film p r o d u c e r s a n d d i r e c t o r s , Miranda prorsus delivered a paternal injunction not to allow films to be made which are at variance with the faith and Christian moral standards. Should this happen – which G o d forbid – then it is for the Bishops to rebuke them and, if necessary, to impose upon them appropriate sanctions. J o h n XXIII urged that Pius XI’s national film r e v i e w i n g offices be entrusted to men who are experienced in cinema, sound broadcasting, and television, under the guidance of a priest specially chosen by the Bishops.... At the same time We urge that the faithful, and particularly those who are militant in the cause of C a t h o l i c A c t i o n [Jesuits and their protégés], be suitably instructed, so that they may appreciate the need for giving to these offices their willing, united, and effective support. I n 1 9 6 4 , P o p e Paul V I a m p l i f i e d Miranda prorsus w i t h t h e d e c r e e Inter mirifica ( “ A m o n g t h e W o n d e r s ” ) , s a y i n g “it is t h e C h u r c h ’ s birthright to use and o w n ... the press, the c i n e m a , radio, television and others of a like nature.” Paul cited a special responsibility for the proper use of the means of social communication [which] rests on journalists, writers, actors, designers, producers, exhibitors, distributors, operators, sellers, critics – all those, in a word, who are involved in the making and transmission of communications in any way whatever.... They have power to direct mankind along a good path or an evil path by the information they impart and the pressure they exert. It will be for them to regulate the economic, political, and artistic values in a way that will not conflict with the common good....

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T h e q u a l i t y of e n t e r t a i n m e n t ’ s c o n t e n t was d e c r e e d in a section of Inter mirifica e n c o u r a g i n g ” t h e c h r o n i c l i n g , the description o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m o r a l e v i l [which] c a n , w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e m e a n s o f social c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d w i t h suitable dramatization, lead to a deeper k n o w l e d g e and analysis of m a n and to a m a n ifestation of the true and the g o o d in all their splendor.” E m b o l d e n e d b y this papal d e c r e e , social c o m m u n i c a t o r s since 1 9 6 5 h a v e pushed t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guarantees of “free s p e e c h ” to t h e limit by c h r o n i c l i n g , describing, and representing moral e v i l w i t h s u c h progressively v i v i d , repulsive, prurient, yet often a p p e a l i n g detail that e n t e r t a i n m e n t has b e c o m e , in the o p i n i o n of many, a veritable technological “how to” of m o r a l e v i l . It c l e a r l y does n o t lead a u d i e n c e s t o a d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f H o l y S c r i p t u r e . T h i s fact identifies e n t e r t a i n m e n t today as a successful Jesuit theatrical mission.

D

URING

its four c e n t u r i e s of e x i s t e n c e ,

t h e Jesuit e d u c a t -

ional/theatrical enterprise has p r o d u c e d a proud, poised, and

i m a g i n a t i v e graduate. H e o r she i s e n l i g h t e n e d b y t h e M e d i c i

Library’s h u m a n i t i e s , facile in w o r l d l y matters, m o v e d by t h e a t r i cality, a n d indifferent t o w a r d H o l y S c r i p t u r e . P r o d u c i n g Jesuitic graduates has b e c o m e the aim of m o d e r n public e d u c a t i o n , despite t h e h e a v y price o f i g n o r i n g S c r i p t u r e ( w h i c h , a s L u t h e r w a r n e d and t h e C o l u m b i n e murders attest, has i n d e e d t u r n e d t h e p u b l i c schools into “ w i d e n i n g gates of h e l l ” ) . Jesuit theatre and the Spiritual Exercises, w h o s e original purpose was to bring h u m a n understanding into papal subservience through esoteric emotional e x p e r i e n c e s , h a v e e v o l v e d i n t o t h e full p a n o p l y o f c o n t e m p o r a r y social c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e great o b j e c t i v e of obscuring Scripture has operated to discourage the formal study of the basics of w h i c h the Bible is t h e cornerstone – literature, science, and history. Research by the N a t i o n al A s s o c i a t i o n of Scholars ( N A S ) of U . S . N e w s & W o r l d Report’s annual listing of “ A m e r i c a ’ s Best C o l l e g e s ” (including b o t h private and public) disclosed startling figures.
15

In 1 9 1 4 , nearly all of these

institutions h a d required courses in English c o m p o s i t i o n ; by 1 9 6 4

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t h e figure was 8 6 % ; i n 1 9 9 6 , 3 6 % . I n 1 9 1 4 , 8 2 % o f t h e best c o l leges and universities had t r a d i t i o n a l m a t h e m a t i c s r e q u i r e m e n t s ; b y 1 9 6 4 o n l y 3 6 % did; b y 1 9 9 6 , 1 2 % . I n 1 9 1 4 , 1 9 3 9 a n d 1 9 6 4 , more t h a n 7 0 % o f t h e institutions required a t least o n e course i n t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ; t h a t figure fell t o 3 4 % i n 1 9 9 6 . Literature courses w e r e required a t 7 5 % o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1 9 1 4 , a n d a t 5 0 % i n 1 9 3 9 and 1 9 6 4 . Today, n o t o n e o f t h e “ b e s t ” i n s t i t u t i o n s has a literature r e q u i r e m e n t . M o s t c o l l e g e s today are t u r n i n g out graduates w h o h a v e studied little o r n o history. I n 1 9 1 4 , 9 0 % o f A m e r i c a ' s elite c o l l e g e s required history; i n 1 9 3 9 and 1 9 6 4 more t h a n 5 0 % did; b y 1 9 9 6 o n l y o n e o f t h e 5 0 best s c h o o l s offered a required history course. T h e day is approaching, perhaps, w h e n the only historians will be amateurs w h o study history as self-help, w h o e x a m i n e the past in order to m a k e sense of the present and n o t be caught unprepared by the future. A m e r i c a ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g has b e e n systematically b e n t t o the will of the C h u r c h M i l i t a n t , w h i l e the intellectual means for sensing t h e c a p t u r e h a v e b e e n d i s c o n n e c t e d . M o s t o f t h e c o n t e n t o f m o d e r n media, w h e t h e r television, radio, print, film, stage, or w e b , is s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t Jesuit ratio studiorum. T h e Jesuit c o l l e g e is no longer just a c h a r t e r e d institution; it has b e c o m e our entire social e n v i r o n m e n t - t h e m o v i e s , t h e m a l l , t h e s c h o o l , t h e h o m e , the mind. H u m a n experience has b e c o m e a Spiritual Exercise managed b y c h a r i s m a t i c spiritual directors w h o k n o w h o w t o m a n i p u late a democracy's e m o t i o n s . Logic, perspective, n a t i o n a l memory, and self-discipline are purged t o t h e p o i n t t h a t “ u n b r i d l e d e m o t i o n a l responses,” as e c o n o m i s t T h o m a s S o w e l l put it, “are all we h a v e left.” D e s p i t e its a s c e n d a n c y o v e r A m e r i c a n life, few A m e r i c a n s understand the term “Jesuit.” In our n e x t chapter, we shall e x a m ine h o w this t e r m is d e f i n e d in our basic r e f e r e n c e w o r k s . T h e s e definitions will h e l p us to better understand t h e k i n d of c h a r a c t e r produced by Ignatian psychological t e c h n i q u e .

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Chapter

10

DEFINITIONS

T

HE T E R M “Jesuit” was first used to describe a m e m b e r of the S o c i e t y o f Jesus i n 1 5 5 9 . I t did n o t o r i g i n a t e from w i t h i n the Society, but from outsiders. W h e t h e r intended derisive-

ly or respectfully, “Jesuit” does appear to h a v e b e e n inspired. W e find i n t h e B i b l e ( N u m b e r s 2 6 : 4 4 ) t h e m e n t i o n o f “Jesuites.” T h e s e Jesuites w e r e t h e p r o g e n y o f Jesui, w h o s e n a m e i n H e b r e w , Yishviy, m e a n s “ l e v e l . ” T h e Jesuits c e r t a i n l y l e v e l l e d the Protestant m e n a c e . Jesui was a g r e a t - g r a n d s o n of A b r a h a m . H i s f a t h e r was t h e Israelite tribal c h i e f t a n A s h e r (Asher, “ h a p p y ” ) . A t G e n e s i s 4 9 : 2 0 , A s h e r ' s posterity is d i v i n e l y p r o p h e s i e d to “ y i e l d r o y a l d a i n t i e s (ma-adanim, ' d e l i g h t s ' ) . ” T h e i r u n i q u e l y p r i v i l e g e d access to the minds and wills of kings has c e r t a i n l y e n a b l e d t h e Jesuits to yield copious harvests of royal delights. B u t in fulfilling t h e i r scriptural p r o p h e c y , t h e Jesuits s e e m to h a v e a l i e n a t e d t h e m s e l v e s from p e o p l e w h o use t h e E n g l i s h lan77

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g u a g e . T h i s does n o t d i s a p p o i n t S t . Ignatius. “ L e t u s h o p e , ” h e o n c e wrote, “ t h a t the S o c i e t y may n e v e r be left u n t r o u b l e d by the hostility of the world for very long.” A m e r i c a ' s first i n d i g e n o u s d i c t i o n a r y was c o m p i l e d b y N o a h W e b s t e r and published in 1 8 2 8 . His American Dictionary of the English Language reflects t h e p l a c e h e l d by Jesuits in t h e o p i n i o n of a public w h o s e senior citizens h a d b r o u g h t forth t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ( W e b s t e r h i m s e l f was fortyo n e w h e n the C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified): Jesuit. One of the society of Jesus, so called, founded by Ignatius Loyola; a society remarkable for their cunning in propagating their principles. Jesuited. Conforming to the principles of the Jesuits. Jesuitess. A female Jesuit in principle. Jesuitic, jesuitical. Pertaining to the Jesuits or their principles and arts. 2. Designing; cunning; deceitful; prevaricating. Jesuitically. Craftily. Jesuitism. T h e arts, principles and practices of the Jesuits. 2. Cunning; deceit; hypocrisy; prevarication; deceptive practices to effect a purpose. O n e h u n d r e d s e v e n t y - e i g h t years later, W e b s t e r ' s Third New International Dictionary ( 1 9 8 6 ) informs us t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e has n o t repented: Jesuit: 1: a member of a religious society for men founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1 5 3 4 . 2: one given to intrigue or equivocation: a crafty person: C A S U I S T
Jesuited: jesuitic

Jesuitic or jesuitical: 1: of or relating to the Jesuits, Jesuitism, or Jesuitry. 2: having qualities thought to resemble those of a Jesuit - usu. used disparagingly Jesuitize: to act or teach in the actual or ascribed manner of a Jesuit: to indoctrinate with actual or ascribed Jesuit principles Jesuitry: principles or practices ascribed to the Jesuits, as the practice of mental reservation, casuistry, and equivocation

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1O

DEFINITIONS

Webster's o n l i n e dictionary, WWWebster ( 1 9 9 9 ) , is particularl y r e v e a l i n g . H e r e w e read t h a t “Jesuit” m e a n s “ a m e m b e r o f t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c S o c i e t y of Jesus founded by S a i n t Ignatius L o y o l a i n 1 5 3 4 and d e v o t e d t o m i s s i o n a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k , ” and t h a t a Jesuit is “ o n e g i v e n to intrigue or e q u i v o c a t i o n . ” WWWebster defines “ t o i n t r i g u e ” as m e a n i n g “ t o c h e a t , trick, p l o t , and s c h e m e , ” and “ t o e q u i v o c a t e ” as “ t o use e q u i v o c a l l a n g u a g e especially w i t h i n t e n t to d e c e i v e ; to avoid c o m m i t t i n g oneself in w h a t o n e says.” “ E q u i v o c a l ” l a n g u a g e , a c c o r d i n g to t h e same source, is language “subject to t w o or m o r e interpretations and usually used to mislead or confuse; of u n c e r t a i n nature or disposition toward a person or t h i n g ; of doubtful a d v a n t a g e , g e n u i n e n e s s , or moral rectitude.” T h e Jesuit discipline has e l e v a t e d m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n , casuistry, and e q u i v o c a t i o n to h i g h arts - you will n o t find a more hilarious d e f e n s e of t h e s e arts t h a n B l a i s e Pascal's classic “ P a s t o r a l L e t t e r s ” ( 1 6 5 7 ) , freely a v a i l a b l e o n the i n t e r n e t . Purportedly written to a friend, the “Letters” report c o n v e r s a t i o n s Pascal is h a v i n g w i t h a Jesuit casuist. T h e Jesuit defends his arts thusly: M e n have arrived at such a pitch of corruption nowadays that, unable to make them come to us, we must e'en go to them, otherwise they would cast us off altogether; and, what is worse, they would become perfect castaways. It is to retain such characters as these that our casuists have taken under consideration the vices to which people of various conditions are most addicted, with the view of laying down maxims which, while they cannot be said to violate the truth, are so gentle that he must be a very impracticable subject indeed who is not pleased with them. T h e grand project of our Society, for the good of religion, is never to repulse any one, let him be what he may, and so avoid driving people to despair. Jesuit m o r a l t h e o l o g y hardly needs a satirist. Its h u m o r is selfcontained. Consider Hermann Busenbaum, one of the Society's most v e n e r a t e d m o r a l t h e o l o g i a n s . B u s e n b a u m literally w r o t e the b o o k on self-serving logic. His celebrated Medulla theologiae moralis

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( “ T h e M a r r o w o f M o r a l T h e o l o g y , ” 1645) e n j o y e d more t h a n t w o h u n d r e d printings and was required ethics reading in all the Jesuit c o l l e g e s . A m a n of stout a p p e t i t e s , B u s e n b a u m c o n s t r u c t e d an e q u i v o c a t i o n to relieve himself of the obligation to eat fish on Fridays: “ O n Fridays every good C a t h o l i c must eat only creatures that live in the water, w h i c h justifies ordering a nice roast d u c k ! ” Busenbaum demonstrated h o w mental reservation could enable a criminal to escape a charge of breaking and entering: “Did you force the window to gain felonious entry into these premises?” asks the judge. “Certainly not!” replies the accused, qualifying his denial with the mental reservation “I entered through the skylight.” Father Gury, w h o taught moral theology at the R o m a n C o l l e g e from his b o o k Casus Conscientire ( 1 8 7 5 ) , a p p r o v e d of t h e w a y an adulterous wife, h a v i n g just r e c e i v e d a b s o l u t i o n for h e r sin from a priest, used m e n t a l reservation to mislead her husband: To the entreaties of her husband, she absolutely denied the fault: “I have not committed it,” she said; meaning “adultery such as I am obliged to reveal;” in other words, “I have not committed an adultery.” She could deny her sin as a culprit may say to a judge who does not question him legitimately: “I have not committed any crime,” adding mentally, “in such a manner that I should reveal it.” This is the opinion of St. Liguori, and of many others. T h e “ S t . L i g u o r i ” t o w h o m G u r y refers i s A l p h o n s e L i g u o r i , d e c l a r e d P a t r o n S a i n t o f C o n f e s s o r s a n d M o r a l i s t s b y P o p e Pius X I I . S t . L i g u o r i was n o t a Jesuit himself, b u t he was d e v o t e d to t h e m . H e f a c i l i t a t e d adultery b y m e a n s o f a n e q u i v o c a t i o n : “ A n adulteress q u e s t i o n e d by h e r h u s b a n d , may d e n y h e r guilt by d e c l a r i n g t h a t she has n o t c o m m i t t e d 'adultery,' m e a n i n g 'idolatry,' for w h i c h the term 'adultery' is often e m p l o y e d in the O l d Testament.” Casuistry is t h e process of a p p l y i n g moral principles falsely in d e c i d i n g t h e rights or w r o n g s of a case - t h e w o r d “casuistry”
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c o m e s from “cases.” WWWebster equates casuistry w i t h rationalization, “ t o cause s o m e t h i n g to seem reasonable; to p r o v i d e plausible b u t u n t r u e reasons for c o n d u c t . ” (In early 1 9 9 9 , P r e s i d e n t C l i n t o n ' s biographer, D a v i d Maraniss, could be seen remarking on talkshows that the President o w e d his formidable skills as a criminal d e f e n d a n t to “his training in casuistry at G e o r g e t o w n U n i v e r sity.”) T h e great Jesuit casuist A n t o n i o Escobar p a r d o n e d e v i l d o ing as long as it was c o m m i t t e d in pursuit of a lofty goal. “Purity of i n t e n t i o n , ” h e d e c l a r e d i n 1 6 2 7 , “ m a y justify a c t i o n s w h i c h are contrary t o t h e moral c o d e and t o h u m a n laws.” H e r m a n n Busenb a u m ratified Escobar w i t h his o w n f a m o u s m a x i m “ C u m finis est licitus, etiam media sunt licita,” “If t h e e n d is legal, t h e m e a n s are legal.” Escobar and Busenbaum boil d o w n to the essential doctrine of terrorism: “ T h e end justifies the means.” C a s u i s t r y s o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m o f usury. A l t h o u g h t h e v o i c e o f Jesus c o m m a n d e d “ l e n d , h o p i n g for n o t h i n g again; a n d your reward w i l l b e great” ( L u k e 6 : 3 5 ) , Jesuit lenders o f t e n c h a r g e d exorbitant interest. Father G u r y explained the principle: If lending one hundred francs you are losing ten francs by it, you lend really one hundred and ten francs. T h e n you shall receive one hundred and ten francs. Indeed, casuistry has set the moral t o n e of world e c o n o m i c s . In his Universae theologiae moralis (“Catholic Moral Theology”, 1 6 5 2 - 6 6 ) , A n t o n i o Escobar rendered t h e o p i n i o n t h a t “ T h e giving of short w e i g h t is n o t to be r e c k o n e d as a sin w h e n the official price for certain goods is so low that the m e r c h a n t would be ruined thereby.” B y this r e a s o n i n g , the i n t e r n a t i o n a l n e t w o r k o f c e n t r a l banks ( b e g i n n i n g w i t h the K n i g h t s Templars and sustained by the S o c i e t y of Jesus) has b e e n absolved of m a n i p u l a t i n g m o n e t a r y values if d o i n g so h e l p s i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n - s t a t e s m a n a g e t h e i r subjects. S u b j e c t s are c y c l i c a l l y required to part w i t h true value - that is, hard-earned gold and silver c o i n a g e - in e x c h a n g e for i n t a n g i b l e c r e d i t d e n o m i n a t e d i n p a p e r n o t e s w h o s e official promises t o repay i n precious c o i n a g e . . . are c y c l i c a l l y b r o k e n . A s the most powerful office in R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m , the b l a c k papacy
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m i g h t h a v e p r o m o t e d stable n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i e s b y m e a n s o f the d i v i n e l y fair m o n e t a r y system c o m m a n d e d in the Bible at L e v i t i cus 1 9 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in measure. Just balances, just weights, shall ye have: I am the Lord your G o d , which brought you out of the land of Egypt. Instead, it has p r o m o t e d Escobar's casuistry, w h i c h directs merc h a n t s to survive official value manipulations by c h e a t i n g o n e another. T h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s . W h e n g i v i n g short w e i g h t b e c o m e s policy, a moral paradigm is set. T h a t p a r a d i g m g o v e r n s m o r e t h a n just c o m m e r c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . It affects h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as w e l l . Partners in f r i e n d s h i p s , marriages, and families b e g i n g i v i n g short w e i g h t - g i v i n g less t h a n r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s results i n o n e - s i d e d , frustrating, d y s f u n c t i o n a l e m o t i o n a l transactions, and ultimately an aberrant society. T h e ultimate beneficiary of aberrant societies, of course, is Pontifex Maximus, w h o s e profession is their regulation. I f w e d e p e n d solely o n d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , w e l e a r n t h a t Jesuits are c h u r c h m e n and t e a c h e r s of a doubtful m o r a l r e c t i t u d e w h o are likely t o c h e a t , trick, p l o t , s c h e m e , d e c e i v e , and confuse us w h i l e a v o i d i n g to c o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s verbally. W h e n we study t h e i r p u b l i s h e d moralists, we sense a rather v i b r a n t p r e s e n c e of T h e Trickster. B u t in t h e S o c i e t y ' s d e f e n s e , it must be said these are legitimate character traits for a militia e m p o w e r e d by a declarat i o n o f war, a n d w e must r e m e m b e r t h a t P a u l Ill's b u l l o r d a i n i n g t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus, Regimini militantis ecclesiae, is just s u c h a declaration. H u m a n life in a declared war b e c o m e s subject to t h e first great rule of war, belli legum dormit, “ i n war the law sleeps.” W h e n t h e law sleeps, the u n a r m e d priest's only w e a p o n s are the intrigue, deceit, e q u i v o c a t i o n , casuistry, and m e n t a l reservation w i t h w h i c h t h e Jesuits h a v e m a d e t h e m s e l v e s so n o t o r i o u s a n d so o f t e n despised. In f o r t h c o m i n g chapters, we shall be e x a m i n i n g h o w the S o c i ety of Jesus m a d e war against G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e British c o l o n i e s d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century, and
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t h e n against t h e s o v e r e i g n A m e r i c a n S t a t e s a c e n t u r y later. In e a c h instance, the warfare was of the highest sophistication. It was so subtly c o n c e i v e d a n d so masterfully e x e c u t e d , t h a t n e i t h e r of the major c o m b a t a n t s c o u l d discern t h e presence of Jesuits in the e q u a t i o n . T h e a m a z i n g t e c h n o l o g y of Jesuit warfare - t h a t is t h e subject of our n e x t chapter.

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Chapter

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THE THIRTEEN ARTICLES CONCERNING MILITARY ART

B

E F O R E T H E A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , R o m a n C a t h o l i c s were barred from v o t i n g or h o l d i n g p u b l i c office t h r o u g h o u t the British colonies. T h e y were a persecuted minority every-

where but in the proprietary d o m a i n of W i l l i a m P e n n (Pennsylvan i a a n d D e l a w a r e ) . S o m e o f t h e i r most e n e r g e t i c p e r s e c u t o r s , i n fact, were the very H u g u e n o t s w h o m the C a t h o l i c s had chased out of F r a n c e in t h e w a k e of Louis X I V ' s r e v o c a t i o n of t h e E d i c t of Nantes. T h e basis o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c p e r s e c u t i o n was p o l i t i c a l . C a t h o l i c s o w e d a l l e g i a n c e to Pontifex Maximus, t h e B i s h o p of R o m e . T h e Bishop of R o m e was a foreign ruler w h o , as a matter of public policy, regarded the British k i n g and his Protestant C h u r c h as h e r e t i c s to be d e s t r o y e d . F r o m t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i s t s ' standp o i n t , to allow C a t h o l i c s to v o t e or h o l d office was t a n t a m o u n t to surrendering t h e i r c o l o n i e s to a foreign conqueror. A crucial part of m a i n t a i n i n g personal liberty in Protestant c o l o n i a l A m e r i c a was

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k e e p i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c s o u t o f g o v e r n m e n t . B u t t h e n c a m e the R e v o l u t i o n . T h e c o l o n i a l citizenry fought for and w o n their indep e n d e n c e from G r e a t B r i t a i n . T h e y e s t a b l i s h e d a C o n s t i t u t i o n that a m o u n t e d t o . . . surrendering their country to a foreign conqueror. C o n s i d e r t h e l e g a l i t i e s . Before t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified, A m e r i c a n C a t h o l i c s h a d few c i v i l rights; after r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h e y had t h e m all. A r t i c l e V I , s e c t i o n 3 provides that “ n o religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the authority of the U n i t e d States,” w h i l e the First A m e n d m e n t d e n i e s C o n g r e s s t h e p o w e r “ t o m a k e any law r e s p e c t i n g a n establishment of religion, or p r o h i b i t i n g the free exercise thereof.” W i t h A r t i c l e I V S e c t i o n 3 and the First A m e n d m e n t , t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w e l c o m e d a g e n t s of Pontifex Maximus, t h e world's c h i e f e n e m y of Protestantism, into the ranks of g o v e r n m e n t . Of the 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 enumerated inhabitants in 1 7 8 7 America, the R o m a n C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n consisted o f n o more t h a n 1 6 , 0 0 0 i n M a r y l a n d , 7 , 0 0 0 i n P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1 , 5 0 0 i n N e w York, and 2 0 0 in Virginia. O n c e the C o n s t i t u t i o n was in place, a steady influx of
1

European

immigrants

transformed

Roman

Catholicism

from

A m e r i c a ' s smallest to largest religious d e n o m i n a t i o n . By 1 8 5 0 , the higher powers at R o m e could view the U n i t e d States as a viable tributary, if n o t a n o t h e r papal state. T h i s a w e s o m e result did n o t just h a p p e n . I submit t h a t it was b r i l l i a n t l y d e s i g n e d and c o m m a n d e d by a m a n I am pleased to h o n o r a s t h e A m e r i c a n republic's least k n o w n f o u n d i n g father, L o r e n z o R i c c i ( p r o n o u n c e d “ R i c h e y . ” ) R i c c i was a T u s c a n aristocrat by b i r t h , a s t o i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r by r e p u t a t i o n , a n d a Jesuit father b y profession. H e was S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus during the formative years of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , from 1 7 5 8 until 1 7 7 5 . H e also may b e credited w i t h h a v i n g w r i t t e n the most celebrated treatise on war ever published, a work entitled The Thirteen Articles Concerning Military Art. T h e r e p u t e d a u t h o r of this w o r k is a q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l C h i n e s e general b e l i e v e d t o h a v e lived i n the s i x t h century B C n a m e d S u n tzu. Sun-tzu was u n k n o w n to western languages until Joseph-Marie A m i o t , astronomer to the Emperor of C h i n a , brought forth a

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F r e n c h e d i t i o n of the Thirteen Articles in 1 7 7 2 . A m i o t was a Jesuit priest under o b e d i e n c e to G e n e r a l R i c c i . I base my inference t h a t R i c c i is t h e a u t h o r of A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u on a r e m a r k from today's premier Jesuit spokesman, M a l a c h i M a r t i n , retired professor at the Pontifical Institute in R o m e , to the effect that a b o o k w r i t t e n by a Jesuit, due to t h e o b e d i e n c e factor, c a n be presumed “ i n e s s e n c e ” t o b e t h e w o r k o f his S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u , t h e n ,
2

c a n be presumed to h a v e b e e n “written” by Lorenzo R i c c i . T h e b l a c k pope's d e c i s i o n t o publish S u n - t z u prior t o the outbreak of t h e R e v o l u t i o n he h a d e n g i n e e r e d d e m o n s t r a t e s , I b e l i e v e , his confidence t h a t d i v i n e authority h a d already delivered victory to him. Ricci knew that circumstances had reached the p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g w h i c h his enemy, t h e forces o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m o n b o t h sides o f the A t l a n t i c , c o u l d d o t o alter the o u t c o m e . He was like a chess master w h o sees t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of c h e c k m a t e four m o v e s a h e a d and reveals his w i n n i n g m e t h o d out o f c o u r t e s y t o t h e i m m i n e n t loser. H i s m e t h o d was s o s u b l i m e l y S u n - t z u a n that his o p p o n e n t s n e v e r e v e n p e r c e i v e d his army to be an o p p o n e n t - just as Protestants today are unaware that extirpating their credo is still the unrelenting Jesuit mission. The Thirteen Articles w e r e i g n o r e d by A m e r i c a n s u n t i l t h e n i n e t e e n - s e v e n t i e s , w h e n our corporate e x e c u t i v e s discovered that their o r i e n t a l counterparts were d o i n g business a c c o r d i n g to S u n tzuan strategies. A s U . S . c o r p o r a t i o n s increased their p r e s e n c e i n t h e Pacific R i m , S u n - t z u b e c a m e a major s u r v i v a l t o o l . S i n c e t h e middle eighties, more t h a n fifty editions of the Articles h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d in this c o u n t r y , m o s t l y u n d e r t h e “Art of War” t i t l e . T h e s e e d i t i o n s represent S u n - t z u w e l l e n o u g h , but n o n e o f t h e m are d e r i v e d from t h e 1 7 7 2 A m i o t t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o F r e n c h ( w h i c h itself was based on a T a r t a r - M a n c h u r i a n v e r s i o n of t h e older C h i nese m a n u s c r i p t s ) . A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u appears n e v e r t o h a v e b e e n published in English, although a 1 9 9 6 commission by La Belle Église produced a very fine manuscript English translation by Hermine F. G a r c i a . T h a t manuscript is the source of my citations here. O n l y the A m i o t e d i t i o n reflects i n virtually t h e Jesuit G e n e r al's o w n words h o w h e f o r m e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a b y
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d i v i d i n g the British E m p i r e against itself, w h i l e at t h e same time d i v i d i n g the rest of Europe against Britain, against e v e n the G e n eral's o w n army! T h e A m i o t is all the more remarkable for appearing in the very midst of the unfolding of this extraordinary process.

A

M I O T begins The Thirteen Articles by n o t i n g h o w odd it is that the b e n i g n C h i n e s e morality should spawn a warrior of S u n -

tzu's magnitude: If we are to judge the Chinese by their morals ... and in general by everything one can currently observe of them, we would instantly conclude that this must be the most pacifist Nation in the world, far from having the brilliant qualities necessary for Warriors. Yet, surprisingly, this very Nation, which has subsisted for nearly four thousand years in approximately the same state we see it in today, has always, or almost always, triumphed over its enemies; and when it had the misfortune of being conquered, it gave its laws to the conquerors themselves. W e k n o w t h i s , A m i o t says, from t h e A n n a l s , w h i c h c o n t a i n “admirable accounts of prodigious bravery,” and lists of actions and military c o n d u c t of various founders of dynasties. He exclaims W h a t Heroes! W h a t Politicians! W h a t Warriors! No Alexander or Caesar could surpass them. W h y shouldn't these great men, these powerful geniuses, who made such fine political and civil Laws, have made military laws which were just as fine? T h e r e f e r e n c e t o C a e s a r i s s i g n i f i c a n t . D e c l a r i n g C h i n a ' s dynastic heroes t o b e Caesar's equals, A m i o t equates L o r e n z o R i c c i , the r e i g n i n g bearer of C a e s a r e a n authority, w i t h t h e greatest orie n t a l W a r r i o r s . W e r e t h e o r i e n t a l m i l i t a r y laws “just as f i n e ” as Caesar's? “It is n o t up to me to judge this,” A m i o t answers. “ O u r Warriors must p r o n o u n c e themselves in this regard.” If t h e t e r m “ O u r W a r r i o r s ” m e a n s “our Jesuit b r e t h r e n , ” as I b e l i e v e it does, t h e n we h a v e before us R i c c i ' s c l a n d e s t i n e order that the b o o k be r e c e i v e d by the scattered members of the S o c i e t y

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as the latest statement of the General's military Law. ( C l a n d e s t i n e generals order clandestinely.) A m i o t admits that translating a war m a n u a l was “ c o n t r a r y to my taste, & so far from t h e o b j e c t of my profession.” He says that he only undertook the work in hopes that t h e reader m i g h t h a v e “ s o m e pleasure c o n v e r s i n g w i t h these foreign H e r o e s and r e c e i v i n g some of their instructions and [finding] s o m e t h i n g useful.” W h a t c a n n o t b e d e n i e d i s t h a t R o m e was served by critical e v e n t s in A m e r i c a and E n g l a n d during the years of Ricci's reign in ways that flow quite discernably from t h e strategies, laws, and m a x i m s set f o r t h in t h e Thirteen Articles. I b e l i e v e t h a t a n y o n e r e a d i n g A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u i n 1 7 7 2 , k n o w i n g t h a t its translator was a Jesuit, k n o w i n g t h e Jesuit m i s s i o n , and k n o w i n g the nature of Jesuitic o b e d i e n c e , c o u l d observe world e v e n t s w i t h this k n o w l e d g e , a n d p r e d i c t t h a t t h e dispute b e t w e e n t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i s t s and t h e British E m p i r e w o u l d e n d - as it a c t u a l l y did - in R o m a n d o m i n a n c e over a new, i n d e p e n d e n t republic. Before p r e s e n t i n g t h e w o r k s o f S u n - t z u , A m i o t r e c o u n t s a n important legend demonstrating the severity of S u n - t z u a n authority. It is a severity t h a t e m p o w e r s t h e G e n e r a l to overrule e v e n his S o v e r e i g n in order to secure the army's perfect o b e d i e n c e . H e a r i n g t h a t t h e K i n g o f O o was p r e p a r i n g for war a n d n o t w i s h i n g t o remain idle, Sun-tzu offered his services to the K i n g . T h e K i n g had read Sun-tzu's b o o k and liked it, but doubted its practicability. “Prince,” replied Sun-tzu, “I said nothing in my Writings that I had not already practiced in the army. W h a t I have not yet said, but of which I presume to assure Your Majesty today, is that I am capable of transmitting these practices to anyone whomsoever & training them in military exercises when I am authorized to do so.” “I understand,” replied the King. “You wish to say that you will easily teach your maxims to intelligent men who are already both prudent and valorous; that you will have no difficulty giving training in military exercises to men accustomed to hard work who are docile & full of good will. But the majority is not of that nature.” “It matters not,” replied Sun-tzu. “I said anyone whomsoever

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and I exclude no one from my offer, including the most mutinous, the most cowardly and the weakest of men.” “To hear you speak,” said the King, “you would even inspire women to have the feelings of Warriors; you would train them to bear arms.” “Yes, Prince,” replied Sun-tzu in a firm voice, “and I beg Your Majesty to be assured of it.” T h e King, who in the circumstances in which he found himself was no longer entertained by the customary amusements of Court, took advantage of this opportunity to find a new sort of amusement. He said, “Bring me one hundred eighty of my wives.” He was obeyed, & the Princesses a p p e a r e d . A m o n g them were two in particular whom the King loved tenderly; they were placed ahead of the others. “We will see,” said the King, smiling. “We will see, Sun-tzu, if you will be true to your word. I make you General of these new troops. A l l throughout my palace you need only choose the place which seems the most comfortable to give them military training. W h e n they are sufficiently instructed you will let me know, & I will come myself to render justice to them & to your talent.” T h e General sensed the ridicule of the role he was asked to play. But he did not back down, and instead appeared quite satisfied by the honor bestowed on him by the King, not only by allowing him to see his wives but also by putting them under his direction. “I will do well with them, Sire,” he said in an assured tone, “and I hope that soon Your Majesty will have cause to be satisfied with my services. At the very least, Your Majesty will be convinced that Sun-tzu is not a man who takes risks.” O n c e the King had retired to his apartments, the Warrior thought only of executing his commission. He asked for weapons & all the military equipment needed for his newly created soldiers. While waiting for everything to be ready, he led his troop into one of the courtyards of the palace which seemed the best suited for his work. S o o n the items he had requested were brought to him. Sun-tzu then spoke to the Princesses. “Here you are,” he said, “under my direction and my orders. You must listen to me attentively and obey me in whatever I command you to do. T h a t is the first & most essential military law: make sure you don't break it. By tomorrow I want you to perform exercises

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before the King, & I intend for them to be done perfectly.” After those words he strapped on their swords, put spears in their hands, divided them into two groups, and put one of the favorite Princesses at the head of each. O n c e that arrangement was made, he began his instructions in these terms: “Can you tell the difference between your chest and your back, & your right hand from your left hand? Answer me.” At first the only response he received was some bursts of laughter. But he remained silent and very serious. “Yes, of course,” the Ladies then replied in one voice. “If that is so,” resumed Sun-tzu, “then listen carefully to what I am going to say. W h e n the drum strikes only one beat, you will remain as you are now, only paying attention to what is before your chest. W h e n the drum strikes two beats, you must turn so that your chest is in the place where your right hand was before. If instead of two beats you hear three, you must turn so that your chest is precisely where your left hand was before. But when the drum strikes four beats, you must turn so that your chest is where your back was, & your back will be where your chest was. “ W h a t I just said may not be clear enough; let me explain. A single drum beat means that you must not change your position & you must be on guard. Two beats means you must turn right. Three beats means you must turn left. A n d four beats means you make a half turn. I will explain even more. “This is the order I shall follow. First I will strike one beat: at that signal you will be ready to receive my orders. A few moments later I will strike two beats: then, all together, you will turn to the right with gravity, after which I will not strike three beats but four, & you will make a half-turn. I will then have you return to your first position and, as before, I will strike one beat. At the first signal, be ready. T h e n I will strike, not two beats but three, & you will turn left; at four beats you will complete the half-turn. Have you well understood what I am saying? If you have any difficulties, you have but to speak to me of them and I shall attempt to explain the matter.” “We have understood,” replied the Ladies. “If that is so,” responded Sun-tzu, “I will begin. Do not forget that the sound of the drum takes the place of the General's voice, but he is the one who is giving you these orders.”

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After repeating his instructions three times, Sun-tzu again aligned his small army, after which he had the drum strike one beat. At that sound, all the Ladies began to laugh. At two drum beats, they laughed even louder. Ever serious, the General spoke to them thus: “It is possible that I did not explain clearly enough the instructions I gave you. If that is so, it is my fault. I will attempt to remedy it by speaking to you in a way that is more accessible to you (& at once he repeated the lesson three times in other terms), and then we will see,” he added, “if you obey me any better.” He had the drum strike one beat, and then two. Seeing him look so serious, and given the strange situation they found themselves in, the Ladies forgot to obey him. After attempting in vain to stop the laughter that was choking them, they finally let it burst forth loudly. Sun-tzu was in no way disconcerted, but in the same tone he had used when speaking to them before, he said: “If I had not explained myself clearly, or if you had not assured me, in unison, that you understood what I said, you would in no way be guilty. But I spoke to you clearly, as you admitted yourselves. W h y did you not obey? You deserve punishment, and military punishment. A m o n g the Makers of War, whoever does not obey the orders of his General deserves death. Therefore you will die.” After that short preamble, Sun-tzu ordered the women who formed the two lines to kill the two who were leading them. Just then, one of the men whose job it was to guard the women, seeing that the Warrior was not joking, ran to warn the King of what was happening. T h e King sent someone to Sun-tzu to forbid him from going any farther, & in particular from mistreating the two women he loved the best & without whom he could not live. T h e General listened with respect to the words that were spoken on behalf of the King, but he refused to bow to his wishes. “ G o tell the King,” he replied, “that Sun-tzu believes him to be too reasonable & too just to think he might have changed his mind so soon, & that he truly wishes to be obeyed in what you have just told me on his behalf. T h e Prince is the lawmaker; he would not give orders which would sully the dignity he vested in me. He asked me to train one hundred and eighty of his Wives as soldiers, he made me their General. T h e rest is up to me. They

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disobeyed me, they will die.” So saying, he pulled out his sword and with the same calmness he had displayed until then, he cut off the heads of the two who were leading the others. He immediately put two others in their place, and had the drum strike the various beats he had explained to his troops. A n d it was as if those women had been professional soldiers all their lives; they made their turns silently and impeccably. Sun-tzu spoke thus to the Envoy: “ G o tell the King,” he said, “that his wives know how to drill. N o w I can lead them to war, make them affront all sorts of perils, & even make them pass through water & fire.” W h e n the King learned what had happened, he was penetrated by the deepest sorrow. W i t h a great sigh he said, “Thus have I lost what was dearest to me in this world.... Have that Foreigner return to his country. I do not want him, nor his servi c e s — What have you done, barbarian?... How can I go on living?” ... and so on. As unconsolable as the King was, time and the circumstances soon made him forget his loss. His enemies were ready to descend upon him. He asked Sun-tzu to return, made him General of his armies, & with his help he destroyed the C h o u Kingdom. Those of his neighbors who had formerly been the most worrisome were now penetrated by fear at the mere mention of the glorious acts of Sun-tzu, and thought only of living peacefully under the protection of a Prince who had such a man at his service. T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n confirms that Paul Ill's war declaration Regimini militantis ecclesiae is a b o u t p r o t e c t i n g t h e life of t h e n a t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e R o m a n C h u r c h . P r o t e c t i n g the C h u r c h may require the S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l to sacrifice his soldiers, his c i t i z e n s , and if n e e d b e , his s o v e r e i g n , t h e p o p e . In a v e r y real sense, t h e great G e n e r a l is so i n s c r u t a b l y a l o n e , so o m n i p o t e n t , t h a t he is at war w i t h . . . everyone. S a c r i f i c i n g his o w n (just as S a t u r n , t h e grandfather-god of R o m e devoured his o w n children) in order to defeat an e n e m y short of c o m i n g to blows, this is a great General's legitimate obligation. Sun-tzu writes:

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Without giving battle, without spilling a drop of [the enemy's] blood, without even drawing a sword, the clever General succeeds in capturing cities. Without setting foot in a foreign Kingdom, he finds the means to conquer them. He acts in such a way that those who are inferior to him can never guess his intentions. He has them change location, even taking them to rather difficult places where they must work and suffer. W h e n a clever General goes into action, the enemy is already defeated. W h e n he fights, he alone must do more than his entire army, not through the strength of his arm but through his prudence, his manner of commanding, & above all his ruses. L o r e n z o R i c c i ' s m o s t c o m p e l l i n g ruse was d i s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus, a c a m p a i g n t h a t m i m i c k e d t h e c o l l a p s e of t h e K n i g h t s Templar four centuries earlier. W i t h astonishing precision, t h e D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t ran c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the e s c a l a t i o n of hostilities b e t w e e n the A m e r i c a n colonies and the British C r o w n . It was an amazing juggle t h a t s p a n n e d s e v e n t e e n years. It saw Ricci's secret liaisons in and around the British Parliament buy legislation that inflamed his secret liasons in and around t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t s to f o r m u l a t e a c u l t u r e of r e b e l l i o n . It saw his o w n v i s i b l e army, m u t e a n d defenseless, s y s t e m a t i c a l l y assaulted by the E u r o p e a n powers and e v e n t u a l l y suppressed “for all e t e r n i t y ” by a 1 7 7 3 papal brief. O n c e t h e stage was set and the a c t i o n scripted, it saw the G e n e r a l slip into deeper c o v e r to let the Protestant powers e x h a u s t t h e m s e l v e s in wars that w i t h i n a single generation resulted in a glorious R o m a n presence where o n c e England had reigned. C l a n d e s t i n e military o p e r a t i o n s inspired b y t h e i n g e n u i t y o f S u n - t z u are v i r t u a l l y impossible to d o c u m e n t . If strategic n o t e s w e r e t a k e n , i f w r i t t e n c o m m a n d s w e r e g i v e n , t h e y w e r e carefully destroyed. S u c h that survive may h a v e b e e n spared in order to misinform. T h e m o u t h s o f c o v e r t o p e r a t i v e s are k e p t shut o u t o f a simple desire to stay alive. Sensational disclosures, too, we c a n presume to be misinformational. To determine that Lorenzo R i c c i did in f a c t m o u n t a n y c l a n d e s t i n e o p e r a t i o n at all requires a careful e v a l u a t i o n of circumstantial e v i d e n c e . W a s there an o u t c o m e that

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b e n e f i t t e d h i m and his S o v e r e i g n ? D i d h e h a v e t h e authority, the m o t i v e , t h e resources, the ability, and the o p p o r t u n i t y to do w h a t created the outcome? As to outcome: English-speaking Protestantism did in fact violently divide, and the victorious party moreo v e r i n v i t e d R o m a n C a t h o l i c religionists t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n its p o l i t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t . A s t o a u t h o r i t y for w a g i n g war against P r o t e s t a n t i s m , Regimini militantis ecclesiae authorized t h e G e n e r a l t o prosecute e n e m i e s o f the R o m a n faith. A s t o m o t i v e : t h e Jesuit o a t h spiritually obligated the e x t i r p a t i o n of Protestantism in b o t h A m e r i c a and G r e a t B r i t a i n . A s t o resources, t h e b l a c k papacy, e v e n as its martial strategy b r o u g h t its o w n organization to appare n t o b l i v i o n , h a d i n s t a n t c a l l o n t h e v a s t reserve o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c w e a l t h - as the old S p a n i s h proverb goes, “Don Dinero es muy Catolico.” R i c c i ' s ability to d i r e c t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o v e r t operation was stated and defined by the m o m e n t o u s p u b l i c a t i o n of The Thirteen Articles in w h a t was t h e n the language of international d i p l o m a c y . Finally, a m a n c o m m a n d i n g u n l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources and u n l i m i t e d o b e d i e n c e of an u n l i m i t e d supply of w e l l t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l enjoys u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o a n y t h i n g possible, and some things d e e m e d impossible. To deny that Lorenz o R i c c i o r c h e s t r a t e d A m e r i c a n I n d e p e n d e n c e may b e t o ignore his talent and d e m e a n his office. L e t u s m o v e n o w t o t h e n e x t chapter, a n d b e g i n our e x a m i n a t i o n of h o w the G e n e r a l did it.

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LORENZO RICCI A/K/A LAURENCE RICHEY.

(From a painting believed contemporaneous.)

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L

O R E N Z O R I C C I ’ S strategy of d i v i d i n g the British imperial syst e m c a n be discerned in events occurring as early as 1 7 5 2 . In t h a t year, C a t h o l i c interests i n A m e r i c a w e r e rather p o o r l y

m a n a g e d b y t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n for t h e P r o p a g a n d a a t R o m e , dearies i n M a d r i d , Paris, L o n d o n , a n d Brussels. T h e Jesuit m i s s i o n was to consolidate these often adversarial parts into a d y n a m i c and i n d e p e n d e n t w h o l e g o v e r n e d directly from the m i n d of the b l a c k papacy. In 1 7 5 2 , the S o c i e t y of Jesus was brilliantly powerful, and had b e e n so for nearly a century. “ M o s t statesmen,” a fine Jesuit historian has w r i t t e n , “ r e c k o n e d t h a t the S o c i e t y was a major force in politics, an international G r e a t Power, acting primarily for its o w n i n t e t e s t s . ” L o r e n z o R i c c i h a d b e e n S p i r i t u a l F a t h e r o f this great
1

p e n d i n g u p o n a tangle of ambassadors (or n u n c i o s ) and intermedi-

p o w e r for nearly a year. A l t h o u g h t h a t title assured h i m of u n a n i mous e l e c t i o n a s S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l u p o n t h e d e m i s e o f G e n e r a l

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Luigi C e n t u r i o n i , it presently e n d o w e d h i m w i t h d i p l o m a t i c oversight e m b r a c i n g t h e w h o l e w o r l d . R i c c i ’ s p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c interests included France and its possessions in N e w France - the w h o l e Mississippi valley, from C a n a d a and t h e G r e a t Lakes d o w n t o t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o ; and E n g l a n d and its c o l o n i e s i n N e w England - all t h e lands to t h e s o u t h of F r e n c h C a n a d a a n d n o r t h of Spanish Florida stretching from the A t l a n t i c to the Pacific coasts. B o t h empires w e r e t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t J e s u i t - d r i v e n . G r e a t B r i t a i n was run by t h e C a t h o l i c - l o a t h i n g system of Freemasonry, w h o s e h i g h e s t adepts o b e y e d t h e r e v e r e d “ u n k n o w n superior.” F r a n c e was run b y L o u i s XV, w h o o b e y e d t h e same superior t h r o u g h his Jesuit confessor, Père de Sacy. De Sacy’s g o o d - n a t u r e d ministry reduced t h e King’s dinner, on a strict fast day, from eight courses to five, and limited his w i n e c o n s u m p t i o n to three glasses per sitting. Sun-tzu wrote; I demand the art of making enemies move as one wishes. Those who possess that admirable art know how to arrange their men & the army they command in such a way that they make the enemy come toward them whenever they judge it appropriate. They know how to make generous gifts when appropriate, even to those they wish to conquer. They give to the enemy & the enemy receives; they abandon things to him & he comes to take them. They are ready for anything, they take advantage of any circumstance. T h e y do not fully trust those whom they employ but choose others to be their overseers. T h e y do not count on their own strength alone but use other means which they believe can be useful to them. T h e y consider the men against whom they must fight to be stones or pieces of wood which they have been asked to roll down a slope. You, therefore, who are commanding an army must act in such a way that the enemy is in your hands like a round stone that you have caused to roll down a mountain a thousand paces high. Thus it will be recognized that you have power & authority, and that you are truly worthy of the position you occupy. Lorenzo R i c c i transformed British and F r e n c h c o l o n i a l person98

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nel into round stones by creating a crisis b e t w e e n their conflicting imperial claims t o d o m i n i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n 1 7 5 2 his spiritual f a t h e r h o o d directed F r e n c h soldiers and their Indian allies to destroy the important British c o l o n i a l trading center on the upper G r e a t M i a m i river. T h e n f o l l o w e d t h e p l u n d e r i n g , c a p t u r e o r k i l l i n g – n o t m u r d e r i n g , but p a p a l l y - a b s o l v e d e x t i r p a t i n g – of e v e r y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g trader i n t h e upper O h i o v a l l e y t h a t t h e F r e n c h and Indians could locate. A l t h o u g h these lands were legally British, dating from a grant to Virginia by K i n g James I in 1 6 0 9 , the i m p o r t a n t V i r g i n i a families failed t o e m p a t h i z e w i t h t h e misfortunes of e x p l o r e r - i n h a b i t a n t s in s u c h r e m o t e and u n d e v e l o p e d w i l d e r n e s s . B u t w h e n , t o w a r d the e n d o f 1 7 5 2 , t h e V i r g i n i a g o v e r n m e n t g r a n t e d a n a d d i t i o n a l 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 acres o f O h i o v a l l e y l a n d , e m p a t h i e s burst i n t o b l o o m . S u d d e n l y t h e V i r g i n i a n s h a d s o m e t h i n g to lose, a n d it was b e i n g lost to a b a n d of R o m a n C a t h o l i c s and their Indian converts. I n 1 7 5 3 , F r e n c h e n g i n e e r s c o n s t r u c t e d a c h a i n o f forts c o n n e c t i n g L a k e Erie w i t h t h e O h i o R i v e r . T h e g o v e r n o r o f V i r g i n i a d i s p a t c h e d a small m i l i t i a to c o n f r o n t these C a t h o l i c trespassers. L e a d i n g t h e m i l i t i a was a r e c e n t i n i t i a t e i n t o t h e F r e d e r i c k s b u r g Masonic Lodge, twenty-one-year-old Major George Washington. W a s h i n g t o n w a r n e d t h e garrison at Fort L e B o e u f t h a t it was illegally o c c u p y i n g V i r g i n i a real estate “so n o t o r i o u s l y k n o w n t o b e t h e property o f t h e C r o w n o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . ” H e read a l o u d t h e governor’s d e m a n d that they depart. T h e F r e n c h ignored h i m and he returned h o m e . Despite the clear indication that the French intended not to c o n c e d e t o the governor’s demands, Virginia encouraged the O h i o C o m p a n y to build a palisaded fort at t h e fork w h e r e t h e A l l e g h e ny and M o n o n g a h e l a Rivers j o i n to create the O h i o R i v e r – where Pittsburgh n o w stands. T h e g o v e r n m e n t pledged V i r g i n i a n troops to support the venture. C o n s t r u c t i o n b e g a n i n the spring o f 1 7 5 4 . A l m o s t immediately, F r e n c h and Indians d e s c e n d e d u p o n t h e tiny crew of w o o d c u t ters and carpenters and o v e r w h e l m e d t h e m . By the time W a s h i n g t o n , n o w a L i e u t e n a n t C o l o n e l , c o u l d r e a c h t h e s c e n e , h e was

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forced by C a t h o l i c fire-power to fall b a c k to Fort N e c e s s i t y . H e r e W a s h i n g t o n surrendered o n July 4 . I t was this c l a s h b e t w e e n B r i t i s h a n d F r e n c h armies t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d w h a t was c a l l e d b y c o n t e m p o r a r y writers “ T h e M a r i t i m e W a r , ” o r “ G r e a t W a r , ” o r “ G r e a t W a r for the Empire,” or “ S e v e n Years’ War,” or “ F r e n c h and Indian Wars.” It could more appropriately be called “Lorenzo Ricci’s War.”

A

s t h e s e r o u n d e d stones b e g a n r o l l i n g , m o r e s u c c u m b e d to Ricci’s gentle t o u c h . T h e c o l o n y most affected by the fighting

was m e e k P e n n s y l v a n i a , t h e c o l o n y originally settled by adherents o f t h e r e n o w n e d Q u a k e r leader, W i l l i a m P e n n . P e n n h a d b e e n d e a d a w h o l e g e n e r a t i o n , and o w n e r s h i p of his c o l o n y h a d dev o l v e d u p o n a British c o r p o r a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e d some of Penn’s d e s c e n d a n t s and was k n o w n austerely a s “ t h e P r o p r i e t o r s . ” T h e Proprietors w a n t e d wars in P e n n s y l v a n i a to be fought by Pennsylvanians. T h e Q u a k e r s , w h o controlled the Assembly, abhorred the n o t i o n o f P e n s y l v a n i a n s bearing arms. W h e n t h e A s s e m b l y v o t e d to raise a war c h e s t , t h e Q u a k e r s stepped d o w n and o u t of power. First, h o w e v e r , t h e y a p p o i n t e d their most c e l e b r a t e d member, Dr. B e n j a m i n Franklin, official printer of Pennsylvania’s paper currency, to sail to L o n d o n and represent t h e m against the Proprietors. Dr. Franklin, w h o h a p p e n e d to be G r a n d Master of Pennsylvan i a Freemasonry, arrived i n L o n d o n t o find t h a t K i n g G e o r g e II, h a v i n g made peace with France as recently as 1 7 4 8 , favored the Proprietors. T h e king’s attitude was “ L e t A m e r i c a n s fight A m e r i cans.” Franklin e x p l a i n e d that Virginia’s undisciplined m i l i t i a m e n a n d t h e pacifists o f P e n n s y l v a n i a w e r e n o m a t c h for seasoned F r e n c h regulars and savage Indian braves. France was jeopardizing British i m p e r i a l interests. T h e k i n g a c q u i e s c e d t o Franklin’s reasoning and ordered G e n e r a l Edward Braddock to take a small army t o c l e a r t h e forks o f t h e O h i o o f t h e F r e n c h trespassers. H e also sent A d m i r a l Edward Boscawen’s fleet to t h e G u l f of S t . L a w r e n c e t o p r e v e n t t h e arrival o f m o r e F r e n c h r e i n f o r c e m e n t s i n C a n a d a . A l l this was i n p e r f e c t o b e d i e n c e t o L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s strategy o f establishing a British military presence in A m e r i c a . T h e C r o w n u l t i m a t e l y w o u l d require t h e A m e r i c a n s t o pay for this p r e s e n c e ,

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w h i c h w o u l d e x p o s e t h e c o l o n i s t s t o t a x a t i o n from afar, w h i c h they c o u l d readily be f o m e n t e d to resist. T h e resistance w o u l d be m e t w i t h harassment, w h i c h w o u l d incite rebellion and, ultimately, division. T h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l similarities b e t w e e n Q u a k e r s a n d L o y o l a n g n o s t i c i s m should n o t escape our n o t i c e . “ Q u a k e r , ” the term, was first used by an English judge in 1 6 5 0 to ridicule h o w the leader of that denomination, G e o r g e Fox, admonished h i m to “tremble at t h e W o r d o f t h e L o r d ! ” F o x s u m m o n e d all w h o s o u g h t spiritual truth and peace to c o m e out of the c h u r c h e s and seek an intimate, “ p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h r i s t . ” Jesus o f t h e Q u a k e r s spoke t h r o u g h i n n e r i l l u m i n a t i o n , a l i g h t a v a i l a b l e to all, h a v i n g n o t h ing to do w i t h outward forms of ceremony, ritual, or creed. To t h e Quaker, every person was a w a l k i n g c h u r c h ; every heart was G o d ’ s altar and shrine. T h e r e was no n e e d , therefore, to a t t e n d “steeple houses,” or pay taxes to support a state c h u r c h clergy, or doff a h a t to k i n g or c o m m o n e r , or fight wars, or distinguish b e t w e e n sex or social class. S u c h d o c t r i n e , of course, was h i g h l y offensive to t h e C h u r c h of England, and so the Q u a k e r s were mercilessly persecuted as treasonous criminals. T h e y found a h a v e n across the A t l a n t i c i n t h e c o l o n y c o n v e niently granted by King Charles II to W i l l i a m Penn, one of the more o u t s p o k e n English Q u a k e r s . C h a r l e s granted the land to settle a d e b t t h e C r o w n o w e d Penn’s d e c e a s e d father, A d m i r a l Sir William Penn. Knowledgeable contemporaries publicly charged t h e y o u n g e r P e n n w i t h b e i n g “ a Jesuit i n disguise.” A c t u a l l y , all C a t h o l i c clergy in E n g l a n d were to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t “in disguise,” t h a n k s to a law p r o h i b i t i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c s from w e a r i n g clerical garb. P r o m u l g a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f h a n d i c a p p i n g “Popery,” the law m i g h t as w e l l h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n by Jesuits, as its effect reduced the Jesuit profile to n o t h i n g – the level preferred by c o v e r t militias. E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y L o n d o n was t e e m i n g w i t h disguised Jesuit missioners trained at places like St. Omer’s in moral t h e o l o gy (casuistry, e q u i v o c a t i o n , m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n ) , as w e l l as espio n a g e , c l o a k - a n d - d a g g e r d i p l o m a c y , guerrilla t a c t i c s , a n d the m a n i p u l a t i o n of public o p i n i o n .

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W i l l i a m Perm’s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n b e g a n a t C a r d i n a l W o l s e y ’ s e n d o w m e n t for the furtherance of papal supremacy, C h r i s t C h u r c h C o l l e g e a t O x f o r d . Before c o m p l e t i n g O x f o r d , P e n n was sent b y his f a t h e r t o t h e small U n i v e r s i t y o f S a u m e r , F r a n c e . P e n n left S a u m e r an a c c o m p l i s h e d propagandist less interested in a c h i e v i n g specific biblical o b j e c t i v e s ( “ M u c h reading is an oppression of the m i n d , ” h e w o u l d later advise his c h i l d r e n ) t h a n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i l l u m i n a t e d social justice t h r o u g h reason and natural understanding. H i s most i n f l u e n t i a l w o r k , t h e p a m p h l e t “ N o C r o s s , N o C r o w n , ” published in 1 6 6 9 , a g i t a t e d for Q u a k e r separatism. C h a r l e s II readily a c c o m m o d a t e d P e n n ’ s a g i t a t i o n s by l a u n c h i n g t h e G r e a t P e r s e c u t i o n o f 1 6 8 2 , w h i c h c r e a t e d e n o r m o u s migrations o f diehard Protestants and C a t h o l i c s alike t o t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s . If P e n n was n o t t h e Jesuit he was b e l i e v e d to be, he was at least a rather superior Jesuit p r o d u c t , a n o t h e r in a l o n g train of P r i n c e s ( d e s i g n a t e d “ P r o p r i e t o r ” i n P e n n ’ s c a s e , deferring t o t h e Q u a k e r s ’ dislike for titles o f n o b i l i t y ) w e l l - t r a i n e d t o p o p u l a t e , a d m i n i s t e r and d e f e n d t h e i r l a n d - g r a n t s i n o b e d i e n c e t o t h e w i l l of the G r a n t o r . Penn’s e x a m p l e , and Franklin’s after h i m , inspired Franklin’s esteemed m a s o n i c brother Jean-François A r o u e t , better k n o w n as V o l t a i r e , a founder of the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , to m e m o r i a l ize Q u a k e r s as the noblest k i n d of born-again European. Y e t w e l l - i n f o r m e d E n g l i s h m e n saw n e i t h e r Q u a k e r n o r regeneration in Penn’s curiously c o m p r o m i s i n g friendship w i t h James II, w h o s u c c e e d e d C h a r l e s I I i n 1 6 8 5 . W h a t possible league c o u l d a Quaker have with a King? Worse, a K i n g converted to R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m by Jesuits? C e r t a i n l y no true Q u a k e r c o u l d h a v e writt e n Penn’s C h a r t e r for the C i t y o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , w h i c h a m o u n t e d to his gift of that estate to the C h u r c h of England. In the Charter’s P r e a m b l e , P e n n stated: “I h a v e , by v i r t u e of t h e king’s letters patent, under the great seal of England, erected the said t o w n into a b o r o u g h , and do, by these presents, erect the said t o w n and boro u g h i n t o a C i t y . ” T h e n a m e “city,” i n e v e r y case, signifies t h e
2

l o c a t i o n of a bishop’s see, the seat of his authority (from t h e L a t i n sedes), and t h e territory u n d e r his s u p e r v i s i o n . N o p l a c e i n Eng3

land was called a C i t y unless g o v e r n e d by a bishop – as in the S e e

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o r C i t y o f Canterbury, S e e o r C i t y o f York, S e e o r C i t y o f L o n d o n , o f B a t h and W e l l s , o f Bristol, o f Salisbury, etc. W i t h t h e Philadelp h i a charter, P e n n erected for the persecuting C h u r c h of E n g l a n d a nearly invisible m e c h a n i s m for r e c y c l i n g t h e very v i c t i m s of its persecutions. Indeed, Penn’s last w i l l a n d t e s t a m e n t , w h i c h b e c a m e effective w i t h his d e a t h i n E n g l a n d i n 1 7 1 8 a t t h e age o f 7 4 , t u r n e d all P e n n s y l v a n i a i n t o t h e same m e c h a n i s m w i t h these words: “ T h e g o v e r n m e n t of my p r o v i n c e of P e n n s y l v a n i a , and territories t h e r e u n t o b e l o n g i n g , and A l l P o w e r s r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o , I g i v e a n d d e v i s e t o t h e m o s t h o n o u r a b l e t h e Earl o f O x f o r d , a n d Earl Mortimer, and their heirs, u p o n trust, to dispose thereof to the Q u e e n [ A n n e ] , o r t o any o t h e r person, t o t h e best a d v a n t a g e and profit they c a n . ” W i t h a stroke of Penn’s quill, the c h i l d r e n of the Q u a k e r s w h o had followed h i m out of the C h u r c h of England were literally g i v e n back. T o b e c o m e free o f this b o n d a g e , the Q u a k e r s were obliged to align themselves with the C h u r c h of R o m e , at least t h e b l a c k papacy. T h i s a l l i a n c e was f a c i l i t a t e d b y B e n j a m i n Franklin, w h o s e political career was built on d e f e n d i n g the Q u a k e r interests against t h e Proprietary heirs, w h i c h were t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . A g a i n s t this c o m m o n enemy, Franklin and t h e Q u a k ers u n i t e d , k n o w i n g l y o r u n k n o w i n g l y , w i t h t h e designs o f t h e R o m a n C h u r c h Militant.

W

H I L E these stones rolled unstoppably toward their o b j e c t i v e ,

Jesuit G e n e r a l Luigi C e n t u r i o n i died. Early i n M a y o f 1 7 5 8

the G e n e r a l C o n g r e g a t i o n arrived a t R o m e t o c h o o s e his successor. O n t h e last day o f t h e m o n t h t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n u n a n i m o u s l y elected Lorenzo R i c c i , the Society’s Spiritual Father and Secretary, as its e i g h t e e n t h B l a c k Pope. R i c c i , a professor of p h i l o s o p h y , t h e o l o g y , and t h e classics at the R o m a n C o l l e g e , was k n o w n for his p a t i e n t , p l a c i d n a t u r e , his e v e n temper. H e i n h e r i t e d a n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e m a r k a b l y g o o d shape. T h e L a t i n A m e r i c a n missions w e r e flourishing. A mission

h a d just b e e n established i n P o l a n d . E v e r y w h e r e t h e s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s w e r e p r o s p e r i n g . In t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , Jesuits w e r e c o u n t e d a m o n g the world’s leading authorities. T h e i r presence i n

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e c o n o m i c and secular g o v e r n m e n t had n e v e r b e e n more imposing. As the papal n u n c i o to V i e n n a stated in a letter to his superior at t h e V a t i c a n , “ t h e Jesuits h a v e t h e upper h a n d o v e r e v e r y t h i n g , e v e n t h e most p r o m i n e n t ministers o f S t a t e , and d o m i n e e r o v e r t h e m if they do n o t carry out their w i l l . ”
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But the Society’s legendary power could hinder C a t h o l i c activity in t h e P r o t e s t a n t missions. To defeat G r e a t B r i t a i n w i t h o u t a b a t t l e L o r e n z o R i c c i required t h e abilities and resources o f a n i m p o r t a n t M a r y l a n d family, t h e C a r r o l l s . T h e three C a r r o l l sons, D a n i e l , J o h n and their first cousin C h a r l e s , all n o w in their t w e n ties, h a d b e e n t r a i n e d in Jesuit warfare at S t . O m e r ’ s . J o h n was t e a c h i n g t h e r e . C h a r l e s was s t u d y i n g law a t t h e Jesuit C o l l e g e Louis-le-Grand in Paris, about to undertake further studies at L o n don’s Inner T e m p l e . D a n i e l – of D a n i e l ’ s a c t i v i t i e s b e t w e e n 1 7 5 3 and 1 7 8 1 , v e r y l i t t l e is k n o w n . W h a t is w e l l - k n o w n is t h a t the C a r r o l l lads w e r e a m o n g t h e w e a l t h i e s t A m e r i c a n s a l i v e . T h e mother of Daniel and John, Eleanor Darnall, claimed direct descent from the C a l v e r t s , the o w n i n g family of original Maryland. S h e h a d c o m e i n t o possession o f m u c h o f t h e land t h a t D a n i e l w o u l d transfer t o t h e District o f C o l u m b i a . C h a r l e s C a r r o l l stood t o i n h e r i t A m e r i c a ’ s largest p r i v a t e estate; later, J o h n A d a m s would label h i m A m e r i c a ’ s richest citizen. Lorenzo R i c c i c o u l d n o t w i n his W a r w i t h o u t the o v e r t partici p a t i o n o f t h e C a r r o l l s . B u t N e w E n g l a n d was v i r u l e n t l y Protest a n t . W h a t P r o t e s t a n t leader w o u l d s t o o p t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h d e v o u t R o m a n C a t h o l i c s s c h o o l e d i n trickery b y t h e all-powerful Jesuits? W o u l d u n i t i n g w i t h Jesuits n o t be laying A m e r i c a ’ s future at the feet of the Bishop of R o m e ? In this consensus R i c c i was able to d i s c e r n a v a l u a b l e n e g a t i v e w e a p o n . If t h e stones of e n v y and h a t r e d were g i v e n a g e n t l e n u d g e , t h e i r o w n w e i g h t and m o m e n t u m c o u l d spectacularly blast the S o c i e t y of Jesus to s m i t h e r e e n s . W i t h t h e S o c i e t y out o f t h e way, R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m w o u l d h a n g in t h e w i n d , defenseless. To a Protestant’s p e r c e p t i o n , the C h u r c h w o u l d no longer be a forceful c o n t e n d e r for p o l i t i c a l power. S u n tzu advised a ruse k n o w n in t h e lingo of m o d e r n c o v e r t professionals as “ b l o w n c o v e r as cover:”

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There will be times when you will lower yourself, and others when you pretend to be afraid. Sometimes you will feign weakness so that your enemies, opening the door to presumption & pride, come to attack you unwisely.... G i v e out false information about the state [you] are in ... [The enemy], believing [it] to be true, will act in consequence toward his Generals & all the Officers presently at his service.... Yes, sudden misfortune w o u l d bless the Society. W e a k n e s s and persecution would be transformed into magnificent n e w capital for building s y m p a t h e t i c relationships w i t h o t h e r w e a k and persecuted p e o p l e , s u c h as t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t s w e r e d e s t i n e d s o o n to b e c o m e . W i t h o u t detailing his strategy (for Sun-tzu says “You will act in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h o s e w h o are inferior to y o u c a n n e v e r guess your i n t e n t i o n s . . . . ” ) , Lorenzo R i c c i affirmed to the G e n e r a l C o n g r e g a t i o n that stormclouds were gathering on the horizon. T h e C o n g r e g a t i o n summarily gave its understanding in o b e d i e n c e to the “ h i d d e n design” of their n e w Superior G e n e r a l – w h o o c c u pied, after all, t h e p l a c e of Jesus. It issued a c a l l for esprit to t h e brotherhood at large: If, God permitting it because of his hidden designs which we could do nothing else but adore, we are to become the butt of adversity, the Lord will not abandon those who remain attached and united to him; and as long as the Society is able to go to him with an open soul and a sincere heart, no other source of strength will be necessary for it.
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T h e Prime Minister of Portugal, Sebastian the Marquis de P o m b a l , had b e e n c o n d u c t i n g w h a t the N e w C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e dia calls “a l o n g c a m p a i g n of c a l u m n i e s , false rumors, distorted m a n i p u l a t i o n of i n c i d e n t s , all i n t e n t on u n d e r m i n i n g the Jesuits’ reputation by ascribing to t h e m nefarious doctrines, purposes, and practices.” A m o n g Pombal’s a l l e g a t i o n s were t h a t the Jesuits h a d incited revolts in Paraguay (a Portuguese c o l o n y ) , had traded illegally, h a d e v e n c o n s p i r e d t o murder t h e K i n g . P o m b a l supported his c l a i m w i t h n u m e r o u s anti-Jesuit tracts and i n f l a m m a t o r y pas-

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toral letters, w h i c h h e s u b m i t t e d t o P a r l i a m e n t . I n t h e S o c i e t y ’ s defense, a group of bishops s h o w e r e d Pope C l e m e n t XIII w i t h letters c o m m e n d i n g t h e Jesuits for t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e w o r k . C l e m e n t , k n o w n by Jesuit historians as “a Jesuited p o p e , ” h a s t e n e d to send
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c o p i e s o f these e n d o r s e m e n t s t o L o r e n z o R i c c i for p u b l i c a t i o n u n d e r t h e title “ C a t h o l i c E c c l e s i a s t i c a l J u d g m e n t for t h e Present Status of the S o c i e t y of Jesus.” P u b l i c a t i o n of these e n d o r s e m e n t s w o u l d s h o w t h e w o r l d t h a t t h e S o c i e t y e n j o y e d t h e solid support of t h e R o m a n h i e r a r c h y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Ricci declined to publish them. O n January 1 9 , 1 7 5 9 , the Marquis d e P o m b a l procured a royal decree expelling t h e Jesuits from P o r t u g a l and its overseas c o l o n i e s . M o r e t h a n a t h o u s a n d Jesuit fathers were c r a m m e d into ships and d u m p e d on t h e shores of the Papal States ( t h e n an area in central Italy only slightly more spacious t h a n Switzerland). T w o hundred-fifty fathers were cast into dungeons, m a n y perishing from maltreatment. T h e Portuguese C r o w n seized all the Society’s houses, churches, and colleges, as well.

S

T O N E S were t h e n n u d g e d i n F r a n c e . T h e S u p e r i o r o f a Jesuit mission i n t h e C a r i b b e a n , Père L a V a l e t t e , h a d o b t a i n e d c o m -

mercial credit t o finance his mission i n M a r t i n i q u e . W h e n i t h a p Marseilles alleged d a m a g e s against h i m o f more t h a n t w o m i l l i o n francs. L a V a l e t t e asked L o r e n z o R i c c i for h e l p . Ricci turned him

p e n e d t h a t he c o u l d no l o n g e r pay his d e b t , a t r a d i n g firm in

down. T h e firm sued the S o c i e t y in a F r e n c h court and w o n . R i c c i t h e n appealed t h e case to the P a r l e m e n t in Paris, w h i c h was more of a supreme court t h a n a legislative body. His lawyers argued that t h e S o c i e t y could n o t be h e l d liable for personal debts of its m e m bers due to a p r o h i b i t i o n laid d o w n by S t . Ignatius h i m s e l f in t h e Constitutions against any member’s d o i n g business as a principal or partner. A l t h o u g h this c l a i m was easily dismissible as a flimsy legal f i c t i o n , t h e court d e m a n d e d e v i d e n c e to support it. T h i s required Lorenzo R i c c i to produce the Constitutions, w h i c h had n e v e r before b e e n p u b l i c l y r e v e a l e d . W h e n t h e v o l u m e s were b r o u g h t t o court and e x a m i n e d , the g o v e r n m e n t attorneys had a field day. A lawyer

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from B r i t t a n y n a m e d L a C h a t o l a i s c h a r g e d t h a t t h e Constitutions was a h a n d b o o k of “ e v e r y k n o w n form of heresy, idolatry, and superstition, [which] provides tutelage in suicide, legicide, blasphemy, and e v e r y k i n d of impurity, usury, sorcery, murder, cruelty, hatred, v e n d e t t a , insurrection, and treason.”
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A s t h e L a V a l e t t e case u n f o l d e d , d u r i n g 1 7 5 9 and 1 7 6 0 B e n j a m i n Franklin’s b e l o v e d Voltaire slammed the Jesuits in t w o satirical plays m o u n t e d o n t h e Parisian stage. Educated in the h u m a n i t i e s and t h e a t r i c a l arts by Jesuits at t h e C o l l è g e L o u i s - l e G r a n d , Voltaire served the S o c i e t y and the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n by b e c o m i n g their c h i e f critic and debunker, m u c h in the way W i l l Rogers served Franklin Roosevelt’s administration by lampooning N e w Deal politicians, or in the way Keystone C o p s t i c k l e d a n A m e r i c a b e i n g transformed i n t o a p o l i c e state. A u d i e n c e s at Candide h o w l e d at Jesuit buffoons strutting a b o u t selfi m p o r t a n t l y drilling t h e i r P a r a g u a y a n I n d i a n troops. Account of the Sickness, Confession, Death and Apparition In The of the

Jesuit Berthier, t h e e d i t o r of a Jesuit literary r e v i e w w h o dies of sheer b o r e d o m challenges the n o t i o n that the S o c i e t y is e v e n worthy of existence. W i t h his predecessor Blaise Pascal (whose Provincial Letters had alerted earlier generations to the e g o m a n i a of h i g h Jesuitry), V o l t a i r e p r o v i d e d a spirit of ridicule w h i c h g a v e Jesuitbashing the feel of good sport. Lorenzo Ricci’s h a n d l i n g of the L a V a l e t t e case resulted in a reso l u t i o n , passed b y P a r l e m e n t o n A u g u s t 6 , 1 7 6 2 , c o n d e m n i n g the Jesuits as “endangering the C h r i s t i a n faith, disturbing the peace of the C h u r c h , and in general building up far less t h a n they destroy.” T h e resolution c o n t i n u e d : T h e Society of Jesus by its very nature is inadmissible in any properly ordered State as contrary to natural law, attacking all temporal and spiritual authority, and tending to introduce into C h u r c h and State, under the specious veil of a religious Institute, not an Order truly aspiring towards evangelical perfection, but rather a political organization whose essence consists in a continual activity, by all sorts of ways, direct and indirect, secret and public, to gain absolute independence and then the usurpa-

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tion of all authority.... T h e y outrage the laws of nature and as enemies of the laws of France should be irrevocably expelled. Louis X V b e i n g a n a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h , p a r l i a m e n t a r y resolutions were w o r t h l e s s w i t h o u t his signature. Louis b e i n g o b e d i e n t to his Jesuits, it was highly unlikely that he would ever sign a resol u t i o n c o n d e m n i n g t h e Jesuits. Yet sign it he did. A n d w h y he did has remained a p o i n t of debate. S o m e say his mistress, M a d a m e de Pompadour, c r a v e d v e n g e a n c e against court Jesuits for implacably d e n y i n g her a mass. O t h e r s say the k i n g n e e d e d Parlement’s favor to bail h i m out of debt. I submit that Louis signed because L o r e n zo R i c c i w a n t e d h i m to. W h e n t h e r e s o l u t i o n b e c a m e law, R i c c i released t h e F r e n c h Jesuits from t h e i r v o w s . T h e S o c i e t y a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n c e a s e d t o exist on F r e n c h soil. Louis c o n s e n t e d to allow the Jesuits to remain in F r a n c e , but as “regular clergy.” O t h e r s w e n t i n t o e x i l e . (Père LaValette, whose financial problems had brought on the debacle, was e x i l e d by R i c c i to live the rest of his life as a private citizen in England. W h e n the war that had b e g u n i n the O h i o valley reached M a r t i n i q u e , t h e E n g l i s h o c c u p i e d t h a t t i n y island and t o o k o v e r t h e Jesuit p l a n t a t i o n s , selling t h e m , slaves and all, for m o r e t h a n e n o u g h m o n e y to h a v e paid off LaValette’s debts.) In t h e midst of t h e i r d e c o m p o s i n g glory, t h e Jesuits r e c e i v e d from C l e m e n t XIII an awesome gift designed to m a k e w e l c o m e the most h u m i l i a t i n g of circumstances. T h i s was the mass and office of t h e S a c r e d H e a r t , w i t h its i c o n of a r e a l i s t i c a l l y b l o o d y h e a r t p l u c k e d from C h r i s t ’ s ribcage a n d i g n i t e d by an e t e r n a l flame. Based o n v i s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from t h e S p i r i t u a l Exercises m a d e b y Ste. Margaret-Marie A l a c o q u e ( 1 6 4 7 - 9 0 ) as promoted by her Jesuit spiritual director, C l a u d e de la C o l o m b i è r e , S a c r e d H e a r t is a g n o s t i c Jesuit p r o d u c t i o n c e n t e r i n g on t h e S a v i o u r ’ s perfect h u m a n i t y . “ B y d e v o t i o n t o m y H e a r t , ” Jesus supposedly r e v e a l e d to A l a c o q u e , “tepid souls shall grow fervent, and fervent souls shall q u i c k l y m o u n t t o h i g h p e r f e c t i o n . ” S a c r e d H e a r t s u m m o n s true believers to pay a debt of “reparation” for the world’s sins. T h e debt is payable only by prayers, p e n a n c e s , masses, and (significantly for

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this e p o c h in the Society’s history) social a c t i o n . J o h n C a r r o l l , so indispensable for the o u t w o r k i n g of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , was profoundly d e v o t e d to Sacred Heart.

L

o u i s x v was t h e e f f e c t i v e h e a d o f t h e “ F a m i l y C o m p a c t , ” a n agreement b e t w e e n reigning Bourbon monarchs to present a

united front before the rest of the world “ o n important measures.” Bourbons to do likewise, a l t h o u g h he c o u l d n o t n a m e a n y t h i n g to

O n c e h e h a d d i s s o l v e d t h e Jesuits i n F r a n c e , h e a d v i s e d o t h e r be gained politically, e c o n o m i c a l l y , or financially by the Society’s d i s s o l u t i o n . T h e issue “still r e m a i n s puzzling a n d p r o b l e m a t i c ” (Professor M a r t i n says ) unless c o n s i d e r e d (I s u b m i t ) in l i g h t of
8

Sun-tzuan ruse. A t any rate, t h e B o u r b o n C h a r l e s III o f S p a i n f o l l o w e d Louis’ advisory. C h a r l e s c o n v e n e d a special commission to prepare a master p l a n for ousting the Jesuits. No one could produce any hard evidence against the Society. But there were plenty of rumors. A m o b t h a t h a d risen up to protest a law C h a r l e s h a d passed f o r b i d d i n g the w e a r i n g of wide sombreros was said to h a v e b e e n f o m e n t e d by Jesuits. A rumor swept across S p a i n that the Jesuits were nursing a p l o t t o assassinate C h a r l e s . T h e Jesuits supposedly h a d proof t h a t the k i n g was t e c h n i c a l l y a bastard and should be deposed. N o n e of these rumors w e r e e v e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d . M o r e o v e r , General Ricci ordered the Jesuits to do nothing to dispel them. T h e result was t h a t forty-six o f t h e sixty S p a n i s h b i s h o p s d e c i d e d t h a t S p a i n s h o u l d follow the Marquis de P o m b a l and oust the Society. A n d s o t h e c o m m i s s i o n drafted a n e x p u l s i o n order, w h i c h C h a r l e s signed o n February 2 7 , 1 7 6 7 . T h e order was e x e c u t e d b y ambush, reminiscent of Philip IV’s m o v e against the K n i g h t s T e m plar in 1 3 1 2 . C h a r l e s sent out sealed e n v e l o p e s marked “ N o t to be o p e n e d before sunrise of A p r i l 2 on p a i n of d e a t h ” to all p r o v i n c i a l v i c e r o y s and military c o m m a n d e r s . W h e n sunrise c a m e and the recipients o p e n e d their e n v e l o p e s , they discovered t w o letters inside. T h e first ordered t h e m to place troops around the Jesuit resi d e n c e s and c o l l e g e s d u r i n g t h e n i g h t of A p r i l 2, to arrest all Jesuits, and to arrange for t h e m to be p l a c e d aboard w a i t i n g ships

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at c e r t a i n d o c k s . “If a single Jesuit,” c o n c l u d e d t h e k i n g , “ e v e n t h o u g h sick or d y i n g , is still to be f o u n d in t h e area u n d e r your c o m m a n d after the e m b a r c a t i o n , prepare yourself to face summary execution.” T h e second letter was a copy of K i n g C h a r l e s ’ original order of e x p u l s i o n , w h i c h b e g a n “ B e i n g swayed by just and l e g i t i m a t e reasons w h i c h shall remain sealed w i t h i n my royal breast forever,” and w e n t on to say t h a t “all m e m b e r s of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus are to leave my k i n g d o m s [Castille, A r a g o n , N a v a r r e , and t h e o t h e r formerly i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g d o m s t h a t m a d e u p S p a i n ] a n d all t h e i r goods are declared forfeit ... by virtue of the highest power, w h i c h the L o r d G o d A l m i g h t y has c o n f i d e d i n t o m y h a n d s . ” T h e k i n g made sure to discourage any investigation into causes: “It is n o t for subjects to q u e s t i o n t h e w i s d o m or to seek to i n t e r p r e t t h e d e c i sions of their sovereign.” O n l y days before A p r i l 2, the S p a n i s h ambassador to t h e H o l y S e e presented a d o c u m e n t from C h a r l e s to Pope C l e m e n t XIII that explained, Your Holiness knows as well as anyone else that a sovereign’s first duty is to ensure the peace of his dominions and the tranquillity of his subjects. In the fulfillment of this sovereign task, I have found it necessary to expel all the Jesuits residing in my kingdoms and to commit them directly to Your Holiness’ wise stewardship in the States of the C h u r c h . . . . I beg Your Holiness to consider that my decision is unalterable and has been made as the result of mature reflection and all due consideration for the consequences.... C l e m e n t , the likelihood of whose submission to the will of Lorenzo R i c c i should not be underestimated, responded in a m e l o d r a m a t i c v e i n , a s t h o u g h p l a y i n g for a n a u d i e n c e : “ O f all t h e shocks I h a v e had to endure in the n i n e unhappy years of my pontificate, this o n e , of w h i c h Your M a j e s t y has i n f o r m e d m e , is t h e worst.” T h e p o p e h a d little more to say, e x c e p t that the k i n g may h a v e placed himself in danger of eternal damnation. T h e order was e x e c u t e d during the n i g h t o f A p r i l s e c o n d and

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third. S o m e six t h o u s a n d Jesuits were r o u n d e d up t h r o u g h o u t S p a i n . T h e y were c r a m m e d i n t o t h e l o w e r d e c k s o f t w e n t y - t w o watships. I n M a y 1 7 6 7 the gruesome fleet appeared off C i v i t a v e c c h i a , t h e port of the Papal S t a t e s , and – amazingly, was fired upon by shore artillery! T h e ships were d e n i e d p e r m i s s i o n to land t h e i r h u m a n c a r g o by order of the pope himself, pursuant to a conference with Lorenzo Ricci! Historians are at a loss to e x p l a i n why C l e m e n t , s o d e v o t e d t o t h e Jesuits, w o u l d i m p o s e s u c h c r u e l t y u p o n his beloveds in their hour of need. T h e most plausible answer, I would suggest, is t h a t his u n d e r s t a n d i n g was o b e d i e n t to the inscrutable c o m m a n d o f his G e n e r a l , w h o s e e x c e e d i n g l y p r i v a t e o b j e c t i v e , after all, was to disqualify t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus and t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h as viable enemies of Protestantism, at least in the N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s . N o longer enemies, they could d e v e l o p personal alliances. T h e suffering priests, the guns of C i v i t a v e c c h i a , were all explained in A m i o t ’ s Sun-tzu: Your army, accustomed to not knowing your plans, will he equally unaware of the peril which threatens it. A good General takes advantage of everything. But he can only do that because he has operated in the greatest secrecy, because he knows how to remain cool-headed & because he governs with uprightness. At the same time, however, his men are constantly misled by what they see & hear. He manages for his troops never to know what they must do nor what orders they must receive.... If his own people are unaware of his plans, how can the enemy discover them? O v e r t h e n e x t few m o n t h s , t h o u s a n d s m o r e Jesuits were

e x p e l l e d from t h e r e m a i n i n g B o u r b o n states o f N a p l e s , Parma, M a l t a , and S p a n i s h A m e r i c a . Jesuits i n F r e n c h A m e r i c a ( Q u e b e c ) and N e w E n g l a n d were left undisturbed, as were those in A u s t r i a . I n O c t o b e r 1 7 6 8 t h e A u s t r i a n Empress M a r i a - T h e r e s a , a H a b s burg, w r o t e h e r Jesuit confessor, F a t h e r Koffler: “ M y dear fathet, there is no cause for c o n c e r n ; as long as I am alive you h a v e n o t h ing to fear.” But M a r i a - T h e r e s a h o p e d to marry her t w o daughters t o B o u r b o n p r i n c e s , C a r o l i n e t o t h e son o f t h e S p a n i s h k i n g ,

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M a r i e - A n t o i n e t t e t o t h e s o n o f L o u i s X V . B o u r b o n ambassadors advised her t h a t unless she e x p e l l e d the Jesuits, she w o u l d h a v e to look elsewhere for sons-in-law. T h e Empress reneged on her promise to F a t h e r Koffler, e x p e l l e d t h e Jesuits, and t h e girls g o t t h e i r m e n . ( M a r i e - A n t o i n e t t e ’ s marriage w o u l d e n d w i t h the e x e c u t i o n o f h e r h u s b a n d , L o u i s X V I , i n January 1 7 9 3 . N i n e m o n t h s later, she w o u l d die t h e same way, d e c a p i t a t e d b y t h e g u i l l o t i n e . T h i s d e v i c e bears t h e n a m e o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n i s t w h o i n 1 7 9 2 first suggested its use in a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e d e a t h penalty, Dr. Josef G u i l l o t i n . Dr. G u i l l o t i n was a disestablished Jesuit.) In January 1 7 6 9 t h e ambassadors from France, S p a i n , and Portugal visited C l e m e n t XIII to d e m a n d “ t h e c o m p l e t e and utter suppression of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus.” C l e m e n t c a l l e d for a special consistory o f t h e C o l l e g e o f C a r d i n a l s t o d e l i b e r a t e t h e q u e s t i o n . But w h e n the cardinals c o n v e n e d February 3, it was n o t to discuss B o u r b o n u l t i m a t u m s , but t o c h o o s e C l e m e n t ’ s successor. For t h e 7 6 - y e a r - o l d p o p e h a d died t h e n i g h t before “ o f a n a p o p l e c t i c a t t a c k , ” said t h e official r e c o r d , a h e a r t a t t a c k a t t r i b u t e d to t h e pressures applied by the B o u r b o n diplomats. For n e a r l y t h r e e m o n t h s , o n e q u e s t i o n c h a r g e d t h e t u r b u l e n t c o n c l a v e : S h o u l d the n e x t p o p e b e for o r against t h e Jesuits? T h e cardinals’ c h o i c e of Lorenzo G a n g a n e l l i was a triumph for Lorenzo R i c c i . A l t h o u g h G a n g a n e l l i was a F r a n c i s c a n , h e h a d c o l l e a g u e d w i t h Jesuits as a special consultant to the Inquisition. His celebrated b o o k Diatriba theologica ( 1 7 4 3 ) h a d b e e n d e d i c a t e d to Ignatius Loyola. M o r e o v e r , G a n g a n e l l i literally o w e d his papacy to Lorenzo R i c c i , as it was R i c c i w h o had sponsored his n o m i n a t i o n for cardinal i n 1 7 5 9 . A l m o s t immediately after r e c e i v i n g the red h a t G a n 9

ganelli had shown evidence of cooperating w i t h G e n e r a l Ricci’s strategy of g r a d u a l l y d i s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. Oxford Book of Popes indicates a sudden and u n e x p l a i n a b l e h a b i t c h a n g e : “ H i t h e r t o regarded as a friend of t h e Jesuits, C a r d i n a l G a n g a n e l l i n o w d i s t a n c e d h i m s e l f from t h e m . ” A n d now, a d e c a d e later, calling himself C l e m e n t XIV, G a n g a n e l l i presented w h a t the C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a calls “in appearance a h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e ” t o w a r d t h e Jesuits, an apparent hostility, a t h e a t r i c a l h o s t i l i t y t h a t masked an

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i n v o l v e d loyalty toward the Society. C l e m e n t X I V would d o whatever was necessary t o h e l p t h e S o c i e t y w i n v i c t o r y w i t h o u t d o i n g battle, e v e n if it m e a n t obliterating the Society. T h e B o u r b o n s n e e d e d a p p e a s i n g . Hastily, C l e m e n t p r o m i s e d C h a r l e s III o f S p a i n f o r t h c o m i n g d o c u m e n t s necessary t o “proc l a i m to all t h e w o r l d t h e w i s d o m of Your Majesty’s d e c i s i o n to e x p e l t h e Jesuits as unruly and r e b e l l i o u s subjects.” He assured Louis XV of France also of a “ p l a n for the c o m p l e t e suppression of this s o c i e t y . ” O n M a u n d y T h u r s d a y 1 7 7 0 , C l e m e n t o m i t t e d t h e a n n u a l r e a d i n g of In coena Domini ( “ O n t h e Lord’s s u p p e r ” ) . T h e omission was an a s t o n i s h i n g s t a t e m e n t . T h i s c e l e b r a t e d bull, first proclaimed in 1 5 6 8 by Pope Pius V, arrogantly reminded kings that t h e y w e r e but vassals o f t h e papacy. S u d d e n l y d i s c o n t i n u i n g this assertion flattered t h e r o y a l s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e , i n v i t i n g c r o w n e d heads to stay on the anti-Jesuit, a n t i - C h u r c h track so necessary for t h e f u l f i l l m e n t of L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s secret designs in E n g l a n d and A m e r i c a . It surely e v i d e n c e s C l e m e n t ’ s i n v o l v e m e n t in the strategy of feigned weakness in order to c o n c e a l w h a t Sun-tzu called “ a n order t h a t n o t h i n g c a n i n t e r r u p t . ” T h e n o n - r e a d i n g o f I n coena Domini r a n g t h e d e a t h k n e l l of t h e s t r o n g - a r m e d w h i t e p a p a c y as manifest by Ricci’s p o l i t i c a l theorist, “Justinius Febronius,” in his 1 7 6 3 masterpiece On the State of the Church & the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff – about w h i c h more presently. For m o r e t h a n e i g h t y years, t h e p a p a c y h a d supported R o m e based m e m b e r s o f t h e S t u a r t m o n a r c h s e x i l e d from E n g l a n d for b e i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c s . N o t only did C l e m e n t X I V d i m i n i s h this tradition t o almost n o t h i n g , i n 1 7 7 2 h e b e g a n e x t e n d i n g a h i g h l y visible and most cordial hospitality to t h e Protestant K i n g G e o r g e III and his family. T h i s t a b l e a u was e n o r m o u s l y d i s t u r b i n g to A m e r i c a n Protestants, w h o at t h a t time were h a v i n g e x t r e m e difficulties w i t h G e o r g e . T h e p r o s p e c t o f E n g l a n d r e u n i t i n g w i t h R o m e g a v e t h e m all t h e m o r e r e a s o n t o strive for w h a t L o r e n z o R i c c i w a n t e d , their i n d e p e n d e n c e . Finally, o n July 2 1 , 1 7 7 3 , C l e m e n t X I V delivered o n his promise by signing the brief Dominus ac Redemptor noster ( “ G o d and our R e d e e m e r ” ) . T h e brief “dissolved, suppressed, disbanded, and abol-

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ished” the S o c i e t y of Jesus “for all eternity” so as “to establish a real and e n d u r i n g p e a c e w i t h i n the C h u r c h . ” A l l t h e Jesuits’ “offices, a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d f u n c t i o n s ” were d e c l a r e d “ n u l l and v o i d , and all their houses, colleges, hospices, and any o t h e r places o c c u p i e d by t h e m t o b e h e r e b y disestablished, n o m a t t e r i n w h a t p r o v i n c e , state, or k i n g d o m they might be found.” C l e m e n t appointed five cardinals, an archbishop, a bishop, two t h e o l o g i a n s , and o t h e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i g n i t a r i e s t o supervise the D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . N o n e o f t h e c o n f i s c a t e d Jesuit records, correspondence, and accounts showed any incriminating e v i d e n c e . A l t h o u g h L o r e n z o R i c c i l i v e d a short w a l k from t h e pope’s palace at St. Peter’s, n o t i c e of the Disestablishment was n o t served u p o n h i m until m i d - A u g u s t . Guards t o o k the G e n e r a l into custody at his offices in N u m b e r 45 Piazza del G e s u . T h e y r e m o v e d h i m to t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e a few b l o c k s away. He r e m a i n e d t h e r e five weeks. T h i n g s were t h e n h a p p e n i n g i n England and A m e r i c a that m a k e Ricci’s p r e s e n c e in t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y sign i f i c a n t . W e shall c o n s i d e r those h a p p e n i n g s i n a f o r t h c o m i n g chapter T o w a r d t h e e n d o f S e p t e m b e r , L o r e n z o R i c c i was t a k e n from the English C o l l e g e to C a s tel Sant’Angelo, a med i e v a l fortress w h o s e d u n g e o n s suggest a prison. His d e t e n t i o n was probably less demeaning than we might imagine, contained
View of St. Peter’s Basilica from Castel Sant’Angelo

as Popes

Sant’Angelo elegant used often

quite

rooms. sort

t h e m as a c o n v e n i e n t refrom administrative

stresses. In fact, a secret u n d e r g r o u n d t u n n e l c o n n e c t e d S a n t ’ A n gelo to the papal palace at the V a t i c a n . It would be consistent w i t h L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s p o s i t i o n and strategy for h i m to stay in p e r s o n a l , secret c o n t a c t w i t h C l e m e n t X I V by means of this tunnel. O n S e p t e m b e r 2 2 , 1 7 7 4 , the first anniversary o f Ricci’s d e t e n -

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tion at S a n t ’ A n g e l o , C l e m e n t died. He was sixty-nine. He had suffered the last year of his life in severe depression, it was said, w i t h morbid paranoia o v e r assassination. His corpse d e c o m p o s e d rapidly, feeding rumors of death by poison, rumors w h i c h his famous last words tended to confirm: “ M e r c y ! M e r c y ! Compulsus feci!” (“I was c o m p e l l e d to do it!”) For m a n y years afterward, historians w o u l d w o n d e r just w h o m G a n g a n e l l i was addressing: G o d ? A v e n g e f u l Jesuit assassin? R i c c i ? W h a t was t h e “it” he was c o m p e l l e d to do? D i s e s t a b l i s h t h e Jesuits? C o m m i t suicide? T h e d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r may n e v e r b e k n o w n , b e c a u s e t h e pope’s p e r s o n a l papers and effects d e c o m p o s e d as rapidly as his flesh. W h a t is q u i t e k n o w n , t h o u g h , is t h a t t h e d e a t h of C l e m e n t XIV, in the words of Oxford Book of Popes, “ b r o u g h t t h e prestige of t h e p a p a c y to its lowest level in centuries.” W h i c h is precisely w h a t Lorenzo R i c c i n e e d e d for his A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n to h a p p e n .

W

E n o w p r o c e e d to e x a m i n e t h e structured darkness of t h e m e n w h o led t h e a t t a c k against the S o c i e t y of Jesus. It was

t h e same darkness from w h e n c e c a m e n o t o n l y t h e E n g l i s h m e n w h o t u r n e d t h e i r k i n g d o m i n t o a h a t e d tyranny, but also t h e

A m e r i c a n s w h o a d v o c a t e d r e b e l l i o n against t h a t tyranny. T h e darkness is c a l l e d Freemasonry, a n d it is t h e subject of our n e x t chapter.

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WASHINGTON IN MASONIC REGALIA (From a Currier & Ives engraving, 1868.)

Chapter

13

THE SECRET BRIDGE

“The papal prohibition might even have tyranny and superstition.”

encouraged Mason-

ry by identifying opposition to the group with Catholic — STEVEN C . BULLOCK, REVOLUTIONARY BROTHERHOOD, 1996

T

HE

New

Catholic

Encyclopedia

identifies

the

men

who

attacked the S o c i e t y of Jesus as “ t h e radical d e v o t e e s of the

r a t i o n a l i s t i c E n l i g h t e n m e n t – r i c h l y t a l e n t e d and influen-

tial writers, s u c h as V o l t a i r e , R o u s s e a u , a n d o t h e r ‘philosophes’

a m o n g the Encyclopedists, the followers of Freemasonry, and h i g h p l a c e d g o v e r n m e n t officials.” A t t a c k i n g t h e Jesuits was for t h e m “a step t o w a r d t h e i r u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e of a b o l i s h i n g all religious orders, the papacy, and finally the C h u r c h itself.” T h e masterpiece of the encyclopedists (most of w h o m happ e n e d to be philosophes), was the m o n u m e n t a l Encyclopedia of Sciences, Arts, and Trades ( 1 7 4 3 - 1 7 5 1 ) . T h e Encyclopedia was the flame of t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e fulfillment of C a r d i n a l W o l s e y ’ s dream of flooding the world w i t h print containing “learning against l e a r n i n g . ” It b r o u g h t so m u c h l e a r n i n g (secular l e a r n i n g , as against S c r i p t u r a l l e a r n i n g ) t h a t it b e c a m e its o w n p a r a d i g m d e m a n d i n g radical c h a n g e i n existing norms. T h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t
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c a l l e d for a “ n e w a g e ” t h a t p l a c e d R e a s o n a b o v e any C h u r c h , above e v e n the Bible. T h e n e w age issued in the elegant neo-gnostic r e l i g i o n o f D e i s m , t h e t h i n k i n g man’s a l t e r n a t i v e t o R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m and its imperious h o l d on the h u m a n c o n s c i e n c e . Nowhere was Deism more methodically practiced than “ a r o u n d t h e altars of F r e e m a s o n r y , ” as t h e great M a s o n i c s c h o l a r A l b e r t Pike put it. H e r e , w r o t e Pike in his i n f l u e n t i a l Morals and Dogma ( 1 8 7 1 ) , “the C h r i s t i a n , the Hebrew, the M o s l e m , the Brahm i n , t h e f o l l o w e r s of C o n f u c i u s a n d Zoroaster, c a n assemble as b r e t h r e n a n d u n i t e i n prayer t o t h e o n e G o d w h o i s a b o v e all gods.” T h e b r e t h r e n prayerfully c l i m b t h e g n o s t i c pyramid o f successive i l l u m i n a t i o n u n t i l , hopefully, a o n e n e s s w i t h t h e supreme G o d i s a t t a i n e d . A s P i k e e x p l a i n e d , t h e Deists (like t h e p a p a c y ) looked u p o n the Bible as s o m e t h i n g of a stumbling block: T h e Freemason does not pretend to dogmatic certainty, nor vainly imagine such certainty attainable. He considers that if there were no written revelation, he could safely rest the hopes that animate him and the principles that guide him, on the deductions of reason and the convictions of instinct and consciousness. He studies the wonders of the Heavens, the framework and revolutions of the Earth, the mysterious beauties and adaptations of animal existence, the moral and material constitution of the human creature, so fearfully and wonderfully made; and is satisfied that God I S . . . . M o s t of t h e philosophes, including Frederick the Great, the

P r o t e s t a n t K i n g of Prussia w h o subsidized the entire Encyclopedia project, were D e i s t i c b r e t h r e n . A s were the “ h i g h p l a c e d g o v e r n m e n t officials” w h o pushed for the disestablishment of the Jesuits. A l l the B o u r b o n m o n a r c h s e m p l o y e d a s t h e i r official advisors “ a r d e n t members of the L o d g e , ” to use Professor Martin’s phrase.
1

T h e M a r q u i s d e P o m b a l o f P o r t u g a l was a M a s o n . C h a r l e s Ill’s advisor t h e C o u n t d e A r a n d a , L o u i s X V ’ s M i n i s t e r d e T i l l o t and the Duc de C h o i s e u l , as w e l l as M a r i a - T h e r e s a ’ s P r i n c e v o n K a u nitz and G e r a r d v o n S w i e t e n – all b e l o n g e d to the secret brotherhood.
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S i n c e it was no secret that the E n l i g h t e n m e n t aimed to m a k e R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m passée, P o p e C l e m e n t XII p r o m u l g a t e d i n 1 7 2 8 t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n I n eminenti, w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o c o n d e m n Freemasonry thusly:
CONDEMNATIO FREEMASONS, SOCIETATIS THE DE CONVENTICULORUM IPSO FACTO INCURRED, DE OR

UNDER

PENALTY

EXCOMMUNICATION; PONTIFEX MAXIMUS

ABSOLUTION

FROM

IT BEING RESERVED TO

Free Masons of whatever sect or religion, confederate together in a close and inscrutable bond, according to secret laws and orders agreed upon between them, and bind themselves as well by strict oath taken on the Bible as by the imprecations of heavy punishments to preserve their mysteries with inviolable secrecy T h e great mischiefs which generally accrue from secret bodies are antagonist to civil and canonical laws. Wherefore, by the advice of the cardinals and of our mere motion, and from the plenitude of the apostolic power, we do condemn and prohibit the meetings of the above-named society of Free Masons. We strictly command that no one, under any pretext or color, dare to presume to promote, favor, admit, or conceal in their houses members of assemblies of this abominable order, nor in any way aid or assist in their meeting in any place, or to administer medicine to them in their sickness, or in any manner, directly or indirectly, by themselves or others, afford them counsel or help in their hour of trial and affliction, or persuade others to join said Order.... While Eminenti’s stern r h e t o r i c , w h i c h was r e n e w e d by B e n e -

dict X I V i n 1 7 5 1 , seems t o dig a wide o c e a n b e t w e e n C a t h o l i c i s m and Freemasonry, its fruits tell a n o t h e r story. W h y , for e x a m p l e , were t h e B o u r b o n m o n a r c h s , all o f t h e m R o m a n C a t h o l i c , n e v e r penalized or e x c o m m u n i c a t e d for admitting, promoting, and favoring M a s o n i c advisors? A n d why, a d e c a d e after t h e M a r q u i s de P o m b a l had shipped the Jesuits out of Portugal, did C l e m e n t X I V send a n a p p e a s i n g n u n c i o t o t h e Portuguese court, e l e v a t e P o m -

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bal’s brother to Bishop, and confirm all Pombal’s n o m i n e e s in bisho p r i c s ? T h e answer, of course, is c o n t a i n e d in t h e bull’s title,
2

w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h a t a b s o l u t i o n from p e n a l t i e s o r e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n is “reserved to Pontifex Maximus.” T h a t is to say, a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h the a b o m i n a t i o n of Freemasonry, if d o n e for a cause valuable to t h e p a p a c y ( s u c h as w e a k e n i n g t h e Jesuits to t h e p o i n t everybody assumes they’re no longer a threat to P r o t e s t a n t i s m ) , will be a b s o l v e d b y t h e papacy. G i v e n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , does any other answer m a k e sense? T h e l e a d i n g Jesuit-bashers w e r e n o t o n l y F r e e m a s o n s , t h e y were also the product of Jesuit learning against learning. It was the ratio studiorum – the M e d i c i Library’s g n o s t i c w i s d o m absorbed in a n a m b i a n c e o f casuistry, e q u i v o c a t i o n , m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n , and obedience of the understanding, c o m b i n e d w i t h smatterings of H o l y S c r i p t u r e usually filtered t h r o u g h t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s o f C h u r c h d o c t o r s – t h a t h a d t u r n e d t w o c e n t u r i e s of Jesuited students into secular philosophes. T h e ratio studiorum dictated the form and scope of the Encyclopedia, w h i c h in turn codified the E n l i g h t e n m e n t paradigm, w h o s e D e i s t i c litany was p r e a c h e d “around the altars of Freemasonry.” H o l d Freemasonry up to the light and you c a n n o t h e l p but see t h e b l a c k papacy’s w a t e r m a r k . Isn’t i t r e a s o n a b l e , g i v e n t h e circ u m s t a n c e s , t h a t t h e “ G ” i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e familiar M a s o n i c e m b l e m represents the initial of “Gesu,” the residence of the black popes at the Jesuits’ world headquarters at N u m b e r 5, Borgo S a n c to Spiritu, in R o m e ? Freemasons w o u l d n ’ t suspect this, n o r w o u l d Jesuits. It would be information reserved uniquely to the u n k n o w n superior, w h o shares w h a t h e k n o w s w i t h n o o n e . “Your e n e m i e s will serve y o u w i t h o u t t h e i r wishes,” said S u n - t z u , “or e v e n their knowledge.” Freemasonry was t h e natural, t h e reasonable, t h e o n l y intelligent way for the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h to c o n t r o l (a) the o n g o ing affront of P r o t e s t a n t i s m , (b) t h e increase in “ d i v i n e r i g h t ” kings h e a d i n g t h e i r o w n n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s i n d e p e n d e n t o f V a t i c a n control, and (c) the incredible explosion of international merc a n t i l i s m . L i k e t h e a q u a t i c c r e a t u r e w h o s e m o u t h resembles a

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c o m f o r t a b l e resting p l a c e to its prey, t h e L o d g e s were a sagacious r e c y c l i n g of the old T e m p l a r infrastructure i n t o a d y n a m i c spiritua l and e c o n o m i c b r o t h e r h o o d t h a t g a v e P r o t e s t a n t s , Jews, Buddhists, Muslims, agnostics, and a n y o n e else an opportunity to build a b e t t e r life outside R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m , y e t still u n d e r t h e C h u r c h ’ s s u p e r i n t e n d i n g eye. For Sun-tzu said, “ T h e G e n e r a l sees all, hears all, does all, and in appearance is n o t i n v o l v e d w i t h anything.” T h e Jesuit G e n e r a l is t h e d i s e m b o d i e d eye substituting for the pyramid's missing capstone, the stone the builders rejected. T h e Lodge’s secrecy and its c o n d e m n a t i o n by the C h u r c h were essential t o s u s t a i n i n g t h e i n t e g r i t y o f b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s . A n d s o the deepest M a s o n i c secret, the secret that n o t e v e n their G r a n d est Masters c o u l d p e n e t r a t e , was that all their secrets were k n o w n t o o n e m a n a l o n e , t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. T h i s should n o t surprise a n y o n e aware of h o w t h o r o u g h l y Freemasonry is suffused w i t h Jesuitic t e c h n i q u e . B o t h F r e e m a s o n r y and the S o c i e t y of Jesus are (a) humanist religious orders, (b) secretive, (c) fraternal, (d) socially c o n s c i e n t i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e – q u e s t i n g , like A e n e a s , t h e p r o t o t y p i c a l R o m a n , for t h e greatest good for the greatest number. B o t h orders (e) h o l d Tradition, R e a son, and E x p e r i e n c e in equal if n o t greater e s t e e m t h a n t h e Bible, (f) employ carefully structured programs of gnostic visualization to a c h i e v e a n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d i v i n e , (g) c o n d o n e “the e n d justifies t h e means,” and (h) require absolute o b e d i e n c e , secured by a blood o a t h , to a hierarchy of superiors c u l m i n a t i n g in the Jesuit G e n e r a l , w h o s e orders are so wisely suited to t h e recipient that they are obeyed as t h o u g h willed by the recipient himself.

T

H E first r e c o r d e d m e m b e r o f A m e r i c a n F r e e m a s o n r y was D a n i e l C o x e , w h o was c o n s t i t u t e d P r o v i n c i a l G r a n d M a s t e r

o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f N e w Y o r k , N e w Jersey, a n d P e n n s y l v a n i a o n
5

June 5 , 1 7 3 0 , o n a d e p u t a t i o n g r a n t e d b y t h e D u k e o f N o r f o l k , G r a n d M a s t e r o f M a s o n s i n E n g l a n d . Evidently, C o x e was a n industrious recruiter. M i n u t e s of a m e e t i n g of t h e G r a n d L o d g e of L o n d o n o n January 2 9 , 1 7 3 1 reflect t h a t “ C o x e ’ s h e a l t h was proposed and drank [sic] as ‘Provincial G r a n d Master of N o r t h A m e r ica.’”
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D a n i e l C o x e was a c t u a l l y a junior, a c c o r d i n g t o S i d n e y H a y den’s Washington and His Compeers ( 1 8 6 8 ) . He was “ t h e son of Dr. D a n i e l C o x e o f E n g l a n d , w h o was p h y s i c i a n t o t h e Q u e e n o f C h a r l e s II.” Dr. C o x e must be presumed a R o m a n C a t h o l i c sympathizer, as b o t h C h a r l e s and his Q u e e n were C a t h o l i c s . T h e Q u e e n , C a t h e r i n e of Braganza ( P o r t u g a l ) , flaunted a h u g e V a t i c a n e n t o u r a g e , for w h i c h she was c o n t i n u a l l y harassed by d e a t h p l o t s . C h a r l e s c o n v e r t e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m i n e x c h a n g e for m o n e y from Louis X I V of France under the terms of the Treaty of Dover. T h e j u n i o r D a n i e l C o x e deserves w i d e r r e c o g n i t i o n a s a n A m e r i c a n visionary, or at least t h e sole a p o l o g i s t of s o m e undisclosed visionary. T h i r t e e n years before B e n j a m i n Franklin’s proposal of a “ c o l o n i a l U n i o n ” to the A l b a n y congress in 1 7 5 4 , for w h i c h Franklin is credited w i t h being the first to suggest a “united S t a t e s , ” C o x e p u b l i s h e d in E n g l a n d a dissertation p r o m o t i n g a s c h e m e t o settle “ a n e x t e n s i v e tract o f c o u n t r y l y i n g o n t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o ” o w n e d b y his father, t h e Q u e e n ’ s p h y s i c i a n . T h e dissertation, entitled A Description of the English Province of Carolina, by the Spaniards called Florida, and by the French La Louisiane, prom o t e d t h e elder C o x e ’ s tract a s a n E n g l i s h p r o v i n c e allied w i t h N e w E n g l a n d against t h e S p a n i s h , F r e n c h , and Indians. I t c a l l e d for “all the colonies appertaining to the c r o w n of G r e a t Britain, on t h e n o r t h e r n c o n t i n e n t of A m e r i c a , [to] be u n i t e d u n d e r a legal, regular, and firm e s t a b l i s h m e n t ; o v e r w h i c h a l i e u t e n a n t or supreme g o v e r n o r may be constituted and appointed to preside on the spot, t o w h o m t h e g o v e r n o r s o f e a c h c o l o n y shall b e subordinate.” W i t h this u n i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t s under one president, C o x e foresaw “a great c o u n c i l or general c o n v e n t i o n of the estates of the c o l o n i e s ” to “meet together, consult and advise for the good of the w h o l e . ” T h e s e “ u n i t e d states” w o u l d p r o v i d e “for t h e i r m u t u a l defense and safety, as well as, if necessary, for offense and invasion of their enemies” – independently of the protections of the British C r o w n . Of course, these imaginings b e c a m e reality forty years later w i t h t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s strategy for d i v i d i n g t h e British Empire. C o n s i d e r i n g the elements i n v o l v e d – lands o w n e d b y t h e C a t h o l i c Q u e e n ’ s p h y s i c i a n , lands m a n a g e d and p r o m o t e d

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by the physician’s son, w h o is a Freemason deputed to generate an A m e r i c a n b r o t h e r h o o d b y the e i g h t h D u k e o f N o r f o l k , w h o h i m self was a m e m b e r of England’s premier R o m a n C a t h o l i c family – C o x e ’ s dissertation appears to be t h e earliest f o r m a t t i n g of the c o l o n i a l c o n s c i e n c e t o d i v i s i v e t h i n k i n g b y agents o f t h e b l a c k papacy. T h e Duke of Norfolk, “Grand Master of Masons in England,” was also k n o w n as T h o m a s H o w a r d , Earl of A r u n d e l l . His nephew, Henry, Lord A r u n d e l l , o c c u p i e d W a r d o u r C a s t l e n e a r Tisbury i n W i l t s h i r e a t the time C l e m e n t X I V disestablished the Jesuits. W e shall see how, in the a u t u m n of 1 7 7 3 , it was to Lord Arundell’s castle t h a t J o h n C a r r o l l repaired w h e n c i v i l authorities closeci d o w n the Jesuit school in Liège, Belgium, where C a r r o l l had b e e n teaching. For a year C a r r o l l stayed at Wardour, serving as t h e A r u n d e l l family’s tutor a n d c h a p l a i n before sailing for A m e r i c a to p a r t i c i pate in the R e v o l u t i o n .

T

H I R T Y - T H I R D degree M a s o n i c s c h o l a r M a n l y P. H a l l , in his Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Sym-

gnostic extravaganza Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclo(1988), remarked that “not only were many

pedic Outline of Masonic, bolical Philosophy

founders o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t M a s o n s , but t h e y rec e i v e d aid from a secret and A u g u s t b o d y e x i s t i n g in E u r o p e , w h i c h helped t h e m to establish this country for a peculiar and particular purpose k n o w n only to the initiated few.” M o s t histories o f t h e A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t skim o v e r t h e M a s o n i c presence. A m e r i c a n s like their history told in high-defin i t i o n i c o n s o f g o o d and e v i l , liberty a n d tyranny, h e r o i s m and treason, m i g h t a n d right. T h e y w o n ’ t b u y a h e r i t a g e p o l l u t e d by dark spots of mystery. Yet the greater part of A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n tal heritage is almost wholly mysterious. T h e m a n best qualified to b e c o m e our country’s greatest historian, c e r t a i n l y t h e m a n w i t h t h e most c o m p l e t e access to primary sources i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y cause, was C h a r l e s T h o m s o n . A n a u t h e n t i c classical scholar, a discreet Protestant steeped in M e d i c i learning, T h o m s o n was k n o w n as “Perpetual Secretary of the C o n -

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tinental C o n g r e s s . ” He inscribed minutes of every C o n g r e s s i o n a l session from 1 7 7 4 until ratification of the C o n s t i t u t i o n in 1789. W i t h William Barton, designed the Great a Freemason, of the he Seal United

S t a t e s of A m e r i c a : t h e c h o i c e of its V i r g i l i a n m o t t o e s is c r e d i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to Thomson. Among Thomson's
Charles Thomson, the man who talked the truth.

his

contemporaries, was

Charles with the

name

synonymous with

T r u t h . S o a c c u r a t e w e r e his m i n u t e s o f Pennsylvania's negotiations D e l a w a r e Indians that the Delawares called

h i m Wegh-wu-law-mo-end, “ t h e m a n w h o talks the t r u t h . ” W h e n he w o u l d take his daily reports of congressional proceedings to the streets, eager m o b s w o u l d cry “ H e r e c o m e s C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ! Here comes the Truth!” O n c e the C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified, C h a r l e s T h o m s o n retired to Harriton, his country h o m e in Bryn Mawr. He destroyed his personal papers relative t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f the n e w republic. A n article by K e n n e t h B o l i n g in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography ( 1 9 7 6 ) says that T h o m s o n actually wrote a l e n g t h y history of the R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h he also destroyed. T h o m s o n biographer J. E d w i n H e n d r i c k s of W a k e Forest suggests a fate other t h a n d e s t r u c t i o n , a l l u d i n g t o “persistent rumors t h a t t h e T h o m s o n papers are in the P e n n s y l v a n i a M a s o n i c records.” (Professor H e n dricks assured me p e r s o n a l l y t h a t n u m e r o u s inquiries h a v e failed t o reflect T h o m s o n ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n P e n n s y l v a n i a M a s o n r y . ) W h e t h e r T h o m s o n destroyed his history o r surrendered i t t o t h e c r y p t of secrecy, it is c l e a r t h a t he k n e w there w e r e c e r t a i n elem e n t s in the f o r m a t i o n of A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t t h a t must, must be i g n o r e d . “If t h e t r u t h w e r e k n o w n , ” he told friends darkly, “ m a n y careers would be tarnished and the leadership of t h e n a t i o n would be w e a k e n e d . ”
4

A n d s o C h a r l e s T h o m s o n o c c u p i e d t h e r e m a i n i n g forty years o f his life t r a n s l a t i n g t h e S e p t u a g i n t , t h e G r e e k - l a n g u a g e B i b l e ,

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into English. Still, he was frequently requested to write the definitive insider’s history of t h e R e v o l u t i o n . Dr. B e n j a m i n R u s h overheard T h o m s o n ’ s reply to o n e s u c h request and recorded it in his diary: “No,” said he, “I ought not, for I should contradict all the histories of the great events of the Revolution, and shew by my account of men, motives and measures, that we are wholly indebted to the agency of Providence for its successful issue. Let the world admire the supposed wisdom and valor of our great men. Perhaps they may adopt the qualities that have been ascribed to them, and thus good may be done. I shall not undeceive future generations.”
5

W h a t I b e l i e v e T h o m s o n was m e a n i n g to say is simply that no h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n c a n b e truthful unless it discloses t h e role p l a y e d by “the agency of Providence.” N o t i c e t h a t T h o m s o n does n o t use t h e w o r d “Providence” a l o n e , w h i c h was u n d e r s t o o d i n his day t o m e a n “ G o d ” o r “ C h r i s t . ” H e does n o t say “we are wholly indebted to G o d , ” or “we are wholly indebted to Christ,” but rather to the “agency” thereof. If T h o m s o n k n e w t h e w o r d “ a g e n c y ” was a s y n o n y m for “vicar,” and I c a n ’ t i m a g i n e t h a t a professional linguist w o u l d n ’ t , and i f h e k n e w t h a t t h e p o p e s h a d b e e n c a l l e d “ v i c a r s o f C h r i s t ” since t h e fifth century, and I c a n ’ t i m a g i n e t h a t a b i b l i c a l scholar of his quality w o u l d n ’ t , t h e n T h o m s o n was most likely saying “We are wholly indebted to the Vicar of Christ, that is, the Roman papacy.” B u t w h a t a r i d i c u l o u s s t a t e m e n t to t h e p o s t - R e v o l u t i o n a r y A m e r i c a n mindset! W h o would h a v e b e l i e v e d such a n outrageous n o t i o n , c o m i n g from e v e n t h e m a n w h o talks t h e truth? T h e e m battled, degenerate, dying papacy could n o t possibly h a v e effected t h e R e v o l u t i o n ! A n y o n e foolish e n o u g h t o run w i t h this idea w o u l d h a v e crashed h e a d l o n g i n t o a w a l l o f r i d i c u l e . For T h o m son, there was n o future i n t e l l i n g w h a t h e k n e w . S i n c e h e c h o s e n o t t o u n d e c e i v e future g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e h a v e lived according to histories that can be contradicted by truth. T h e y h a v e b e e n served by careers and leaders that truth c o u l d tar-

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nish and w e a k e n . T h e y seem comfortable in their deception, w h i c h i s generally t h e case a m o n g c o n s e n t i n g subjects t o R o m a n rule. Let’s m o v e n o w to the n e x t chapter, w h e r e i n we shall see h o w the Jesuits, w h i c h we n o w recognize as the unsung architects of the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , supplied t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i s t s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l basis for rebelling against G r e a t Britain.

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CARDINAL ROBERT BELLARMINE ( I 5 4 2 - 1 6 4 1 )

(After Passerotti’s engraved portrait from life.)

Chapter

14

THE DOGMA OF INDEPENDENCE

T

HE J E S U I T ratio studiorum i m b u e d w e s t e r n culture w i t h a

purely C a t h o l i c p o l i t i c a l theory. T h i s theory, as articulated by Deist philosophes a n d p o l i t i c i a n s , u l t i m a t e l y b e c a m e t h e

rhetorical mainspring of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . It so impacted the world that its formulator and original apologist, a Jesuit priest named R o b e r t Bellarmine, was created a S a i n t in 1930. Prior to H e n r y VIII’s break w i t h the R o m a n papacy in the mid1530s a n d s u b s e q u e n t c r e a t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , k i n g s regarded themselves, w i t h i n their respective realms, as the anointed vicars of G o d for secular purposes only. A f t e r H e n r y ’ s s c h i s m , Protestant kings assumed G o d ’ s a n o i n t m e n t c o v e r e d religious purposes as w e l l . T h e y b e c a m e infallible popes of their o w n n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e b i b l i c a l t e a c h i n g t h a t t h e ruler is “ G o d ’ s m i n i s t e r to t h e e for g o o d , ” P r o t e s t a n t k i n g s c l a i m e d to rule by D i v i n e R i g h t , h o l d i n g absolute sway o v e r t h e i r subjects. I n the m a x i m of D i v i n e R i g h t ’ s greatest c h a m p i o n and James I’s private

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theologian, Sir R o b e r t Filmer, “ T h e K i n g c a n do no wrong.” D i v i n e R i g h t ’ s s t a u n c h e s t o p p o n e n t was R o b e r t B e l l a r m i n e , p r i v a t e t h e o l o g i a n t o the p o p e , C l e m e n t V I I I ( 1 5 9 2 - 1 6 0 5 ) , w h o made h i m Cardinal Bellarmine in 1599. Cardinal Bellarmine a p p e a l e d t o t h e self-interest o f t h e c o m m o n m a n , s o m e t h i n g the D i v i n e R i g h t system failed to do. He i n v e n t e d liberation theology. D r a w i n g o n A r i s t o t l e and S t . T h o m a s A q u i n a s , B e l l a r m i n e maint a i n e d t h a t G o d a n o i n t e d n o k i n g s b u t instead g a v e s o v e r e i g n t y directly and naturally to the p e o p l e . T h e p e o p l e were free to c o n fer t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y u p o n w h o m e v e r o r w h a t e v e r t h e y c h o s e . S h o u l d t h e people’s c h o s e n s o v e r e i g n p r o v e h i m s e l f (or itself) unworthy, the p e o p l e had the right to depose h i m (or it) and start a n e w w i t h any form o f g o v e r n m e n t t h e y d e e m e d necessary, w h e t h e r monarchy, aristocracy, or republic. Understandably, the Protestant monarchs loathed Cardinal Bellarmine. A Collegio Anti-Bellarminianum was established at H e i delberg to train L u t h e r a n s in h o w to c o p e w i t h Bellarmine’s democratic egalitarianism. When Queen Elizabeth ordered that B e l l a r m i n e b e l e c t u r e d against a t C a m b r i d g e , t h e lecturer, w h i l e reading the C a r d i n a l t o refute h i m , c o n v e r t e d t o R o m a n C a t h o l i cism. T h e o d o r e Beza, w h o s u c c e e d e d J o h n C a l v i n a s h e a d o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h at G e n e v a , is said to h a v e d e c l a r e d of B e l larmine’s m a g n u m opus, Christian Controversy, ruined us!” O f t h e process o f “ m a k i n g t h e e n e m y m o v e a s o n e wishes,” Sun-tzu wrote: “ T h e great science is to m a k e h i m desire e v e r y t h i n g y o u w i s h h i m t o d o & t o p r o v i d e h i m w i t h all t h e m e a n s t o h e l p y o u i n this, w i t h o u t his realizing it.” T h u s , l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y reached the A m e r i c a n revolutionaries through the v o i c e and energies of its p r i n c i p a l adversary, Sir R o b e r t Filmer. Sir R o b e r t spent the first four pages of Patriarcha ( 1 6 8 0 ) , his illustrious defense of D i v i n e R i g h t m o n a r c h y , refuting C a r d i n a l B e l l a r m i n e . B u t his refutation c o n t a i n s so m u c h material from Bellarmine’s works that Patriarcha a m o u n t s to n o t h i n g less t h a n a c o n c i s e introduction of Bellarminian theory. T h e t w o most c o n s p i c u o u s reviewers of Patriarcha were A l g e r “ T h i s b o o k has

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n o n Sidney, Puritanism’s greatest p o l i t i c a l philosopher, and J o h n L o c k e , t h e v o i c e o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t i n E n g l a n d and A m e r i c a . A l g e r n o n S i d n e y ’ s n a m e m e a n s little t o m o d e r n A m e r i c a n s , but in his day, and for generations after, it was s y n o n y m o u s w i t h indiv i d u a l liberty. Babies and c o u n t r y estates were called “ S i d n e y ” in his h o n o r , e v e n t h o u g h he was b e h e a d e d in 1683 for p l o t t i n g t h e death of K i n g C h a r l e s II. Sidney’s philosophical admirers loved his o p e n h o s t i l i t y t o R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . T h e y ignored his intrigues w i t h the Jesuits of Louis XIV, and his long visits to R o m e . Discourses concerning Government, his most c e l e b r a t e d w o r k , was k n o w n respectfully as “ t h e n o b l e b o o k . ” A f t e r its r e p u b l i c a t i o n in 1 7 6 3 , along w i t h an a c c o u n t of his preposterous trial ( n o i n d i c t m e n t , no assistance of counsel, perjured testimony, tainted e v i d e n c e , packed j u r y ) , it c o u l d be f o u n d in t h e library of e v e r y affluent h o m e in America. S i d n e y b e g a n Discourses w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e : “ H a v i n g lately seen a b o o k e n t i t l e d Patriarcha w r i t t e n by Sir R o b e r t Filmer c o n c e r n i n g the u n i v e r s a l a n d u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d right of all kings, I t h o u g h t a time of leisure m i g h t well be e m p l o y e d in e x a m i n i n g his doctrine and the questions arising from it: w h i c h seem to c o n c e r n all m a n k i n d . ” W h e r e u p o n , q u o t i n g Filmer’s q u o t a t i o n s from Bellarmine, S i d n e y goes on to a t t a c k Filmer and in the process defends Bellarmine. H o w w o n d r o u s l y S u n - t z u a n t h a t a trusted P r o t e s t a n t t h i n k e r w o u l d i n d o c t r i n a t e a n a t i o n of f e l l o w - C a t h o l i c - b a s h e r s w i t h the teachings of a Jesuit C a r d i n a l ! J o h n L o c k e h e l d such influence o v e r revolutionary intellectuals that historians h a v e labeled h i m “ A m e r i c a ’ s Philosopher.” H e , too, endorsed Bellarmine by a t t a c k i n g Filmer. On the title page of his Two Treatises on Government ( 1 6 9 0 ) , L o c k e advertises that he will refute Patriarcha w i t h r e a s o n i n g w h e r e i n “ t h e false principles and f o u n d a t i o n of Sir R o b e r t Filmer and his followers are detected a n d o v e r t h r o w n . ” H e t h e n e x p o u n d s C a r d i n a l B e l l a r m i n e i n his o w n words, words that will b e c o m e the rationale of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n : “ M e n b e i n g b y nature all free, e q u a l , a n d i n d e p e n d e n t , n o o n e c a n b e p u t o u t o f this e s t a t e , and s u b j e c t e d t o the political power of another, w i t h o u t his c o n s e n t . . . . ”

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T h e personal library o f t h e m a i n a u t h o r o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , T h o m a s Jefferson, c o n t a i n e d a c o p y of Patriarcha, and also a h a n d s o m e folio of four h u n d r e d n i n e t y - s e v e n pages of the discourses of A l g e r n o n Sidney. “If Jefferson read but the opening pages of S i d n e y ’ s and Filmer’s b o o k s , ” B e l l a r m i n i a n s c h o l a r John C l e m e n t Rager wrote in 1926, he had the principles of democracy as propounded by Bellarmine, in a nutshell. It is more than likely, however, that the curiosity of Jefferson ... prompted [him] to look more deeply into the original writings of this Catholic Schoolman. [He] had not far to go. In the library of Princeton University there was a copy of Cardinal Bellarmine’s works. James Madison, a member of the committee which framed the Virginia Declaration of Rights, was a graduate of Princeton. Probably he read Bellarmine, for at this period of his life he read everything he could lay his hands on and was deeply versed in religious controversy. It might be remarked that several members of the committee which drew up the [Virginia] Declaration of Rights had been educated in England, where the writings of Bellarmine were not unpopular even among those who were most inimical to his faith. T h e operative p h i l o s o p h y o f the D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e is easily traceable to Bellarminian liberation theology: Cardinal Bellarmine Declaration of Independence

“Political power emanates from “The people are endowed by their God. Government was introduced Creator with certain inalienable by divine law, but the divine law rights.” has given this power to no particular man.” “Society must have power to protect and preserve itself.” “To secure these rights, governments are instituted among men.”

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Cardinal Bellarmine “The people themselves, immediately and directly, hold the political power.”

Declaration of Independence “Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.” “All men are created equal.”

“All men are born naturally free and equal.” “For legitimate reason the people can change the government to an aristocracy or a democracy or vice versa.”

“Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new goverment.”

Interestingly, Patriarcha ( 1 6 8 0 ) was n o t published until t w e n t y - e i g h t years after its a u t h o r Sir R o b e r t Filmer’s d e a t h . It arrived in an era of d w i n d l i n g hopes for D i v i n e R i g h t , the c o n c e p t h a v i n g b e e n thoroughly discredited w h e n K i n g C h a r l e s I was b e h e a d e d in 1625. C o u l d it be t h a t Patriarcha was e d i t e d or g h o s t - w r i t t e n by Jesuits a t t h e c o m m a n d o f S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l J o h n Paul O l i v a ( 1 6 6 1 — 1 6 8 1 ) ? T h e purpose w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o i n d u c e t h e e n e mies o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m t o f o l l o w B e l l a r m i n e b y h a v i n g B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n attacked by a loser, Filmer, t h e disgraced c h a m p i o n of a lost P r o t e s t a n t cause. T h e idea is n o t far-fetched w h e n o n e considers actual o u t c o m e . For Patriarcha did in fact produce the theory of r e v o l u t i o n that impelled the colonists to create a n a t i o n subservient to the black papacy. But for liberation t h e o l o g y to translate into the v i o l e n c e n e c essary to d i v i d e t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g world, E n g l a n d h a d to c o m m i t acts of tyranny. H o w this was a c c o m p l i s h e d , despite a dazed and c o n f u s e d and rather i n n o c u o u s y o u n g k i n g , is t h e subject of our n e x t chapter.

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JOHN STUART, 3RD EARL OF BUTE

(From the portrait by Alan Ramsay.)

Chapter

15

THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE III

U

P O N T H E D E A T H in 1732 of Thomas Howard, Eighth Duke of N o r f o l k and real Founder of A m e r i c a n Freemasonry, the N o r f o l k title passed to T h o m a s ’ brother Edward. In a curi-

ous way, the N i n t h D u k e of N o r f o l k played a part in the f o u n d i n g of the U n i t e d States as well, albeit a c a m e o role. Sun-tzu wrote Multiply your spies, put them everywhere, in the very Palace of the enemy Prince; have a list of the principal Officers who are at his service. Know their first & last names, the number of their children, their relatives, their friends, their servants. Let nothing happen to them that is not known to you. Edward, N i n t h D u k e of N o r f o l k , was a regular in the c r o w d of Frederick W i l l i a m , P r i n c e o f W a l e s , and his Princess, A u g u s t a o f Saxony. T h e Waleses were party creatures, and an o n - g o i n g disap-

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p o i n t m e n t t o the Prince’s father, K i n g G e o r g e I I . T h e k i n g resented that his son appeared n o t to h a v e inherited his craving for war – G e o r g e II was t h e last British m o n a r c h to lead his army i n t o battle, w h i c h he did against t h e S p a n i s h in 1 7 3 9 . G e o r g e despised his son’s Ignatian entourage. W h e n Frederick W i l l i a m ran up an exorb i t a n t tab e n t e r t a i n i n g foreign ambassadors at S t . James’s P a l a c e , t h e k i n g c u t his a l l o w a n c e , s h o o e d t h e ambassadors away, and ordered t h e c o u p l e to m o v e o u t of S t . James’s a n d t a k e up a simpler residency at Leicester House. I n 1 7 3 8 , A u g u s t a g a v e birth t o a son, G e o r g e W i l l i a m . A t the age of six t h e c h i l d was p l a c e d u n d e r t h e t u t e l a g e of a Dr. A y s c o u g h . L i k e t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus, A y s c o u g h did n o t w i s h t h e head of the C h u r c h of England well. “ H e is chiefly remarkable,” says Brittanica, “as an adherent of the opposition.” Ayscough’s role i n history was t o k e e p t h e future k i n g o f E n g l a n d , w h o suffered e m o t i o n a l l y u n d e r t h e u n g a i n l y squabbles d i v i d i n g f a t h e r a n d grandfather, virtually illiterate for more t h a n five years. T h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s was fond o f h o r s e - r a c i n g . O n e a f t e r n o o n in 1 7 4 7 , so t h e official story goes, a sudden d o w n p o u r of rain c o n fined h i m and a h a n d f u l of friends to his t e n t at t h e E g h a m races. D e t e r m i n e d t o play cards, t h e P r i n c e sent Edward, N i n t h D u k e o f N o r f o l k , out in t h e rain to find s o m e o n e to m a k e up a whist party. T h e D u k e returned w i t h a strikingly h a n d s o m e S c o t , J o h n Stuart, third Earl o f B u t e . “ B u t e i m m e d i a t e l y g a i n e d t h e f a v o u r o f t h e prince and princess,” says Brittanica, “and b e c a m e the leading pers o n a g e a t t h e i r c o u r t . ” W h a t B r i t a n n i c a o m i t s saying, a l o n g w i t h every other source I could find on this leading character in the form a t i o n o f A n g l o - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s , i s t h a t B u t e , like N o r f o l k , was a secret brother of the Lodge. T h i s fact is ascertainable only from t h e k e y s t o n e o f t h e a r c h o v e r Bute’s m a u s o l e u m i n S t . Mary’s C e m e t e r y at R o t h e s a y , Isle of B u t e , in t h e F i r t h of C l y d e w e s t of Glasgow. C a r v e d into that keystone is the familiar M a s o n i c disembodied all-seeing eye. B o r n i n 1 7 1 3 , e d u c a t e d a t E t o n , B u t e was e l e c t e d i n 1 7 3 7 t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e e r a g e for S c o t l a n d . H e n e v e r o p e n e d his m o u t h i n d e b a t e . W h e n his bid for r e - e l e c t i o n failed, h e returned

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to the family estate on the Isle of Bute, w h o s e remarkably temperate c l i m a t e p r o d u c e s a lush foliage, e v e n p a l m trees. T h e r e he indulged a passion for b o t a n y that c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d to this day in the v e r d a n t grounds at M o u n t Rothesay. In 1 7 4 5 , Bute suddenly left R o t h e s a y and t o o k up residence in L o n d o n . T h e year 1 7 4 5 is distinguished by the so-called Jacobite R e b e l l i o n , a n o t h e r w o n drous S u n - t z u a n ruse in w h i c h a p p a r e n t defeat for t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus masked a h i d d e n victory. T h e Jacobite R e b e l l i o n aimed t o restore R o m a n C a t h o l i c rule o v e r E n g l a n d by deposing G e o r g e II and p l a c i n g James II’s grandson C h a r l e s Stuart, better k n o w n as B o n n i e Prince C h a r l i e , on the throne. However, w h e n Charlie marched on L o n d o n with a band o f S c o t t i s h d e v o t e e s , n o C a t h o l i c p o l i t i c i a n o f any p r o m i n e n c e would desert G e o r g e II. T h e R e b e l l i o n was forced t o abort. C h a r lie escaped to France and the and the S c o t s were massacred. C l e a r ly, this was a C a t h o l i c disaster. Or was it? S u c h e x t e n s i v e C a t h o l i c support for a P r o t e s t a n t k i n g assured E n g l a n d t h a t t h e m o n a r c h y w o u l d b e f o r e v e r P r o t e s t a n t . A C a t h o l i c E n g l a n d was n o w a n impossible d r e a m . T h e Jesuits c o u l d g i v e up. E n g l i s h m e n c o u l d n o w r e l a x w i t h t h e m i n t h e i r midst, just a s Jesuits c o u l d n o w g o about t h e i r business w i t h o u t c a u s i n g official alarm. T h e J a c o b i t e R e b e l l i o n m a d e E n g l a n d a t l a s t . . . safe for t h e b l a c k papacy. T h e Jesuits secured a n e w c o v e r by b l o w i n g their c o v e r – “ b l o w n c o v e r as cover” in the parlance of C I A . T h e S u n - T z u a n G e n e r a l wins w h a t e v e r the circumstances.

W
fully

H E N B u t e j o i n e d t h e c o u r t o f t h e P r i n c e and Princess o f W a l e s , t h e i r son G e o r g e W i l l i a m was a n e m o t i o n a l basket

case. B u t e l a v i s h e d a t t e n t i o n o n t h e lad, w o n his trust and a d m i ration, b e c a m e his mentor. Indeed, Bute m a d e h i m s e l f so d e l i g h t indispensable around Leicester House that the Prince appointed h i m , in 1 7 5 0 , to the most intimate position on his staff, Lord of t h e B e d c h a m b e r . N o t h i n g h a p p e n e d in the life of t h e t w o

heirs to t h e t h r o n e of E n g l a n d t h a t was n o t privy to a m a n u n d e r o b e d i e n c e to the U n k n o w n Superior. But in the year f o l l o w i n g Bute’s a p p o i n t m e n t , t h e P r i n c e died

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mysteriously at the age of forty-four. Rumors that Bute was responsible c i r c u l a t e d for a w h i l e and e v a p o r a t e d . H o w e v e r , gossip linking Bute r o m a n t i c a l l y t o Princess A u g u s t a n e v e r w e n t away, e v e n t h o u g h he was husband to a d e v o t e d wife and happy family. G e o r g e II, surprisingly d e s o l a t e o v e r t h e Prince’s u n t i m e l y d e a t h , remained an absurdly stern grandfather to G e o r g e W i l l i a m . U n t i l his o w n d e a t h in 1 7 6 0 , G e o r g e II grew increasingly m e l a n c h o l i c and d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n ruling. P a r l i a m e n t g a i n e d s t r e n g t h . B u t e a c t e d the surrogate father to t h e future k i n g . C a r i n g for t h e gardens at L e i c e s t e r H o u s e , he inspired t h e boy w i t h a lifelong interest in botany. He e n c o u r a g e d h i m to patronize t h e arts – the composer H a n d e l , t h o u g h blind, was still superintending performances of his works at t h e royal b e h e s t . H o w e v e r , Bute did little to allay George’s t o r m e n t i n g fears of inadequacy. R e i n f o r c i n g himself as the ideal of c o n d u c t , the S c o t n o u r i s h e d t h e boy’s self-distrust, w h i c h would b e c o m e the most p r o m i n e n t feature of his maturity. S u c h was t h e c o n t e x t o f E n g l i s h p o w e r w h e n L o r e n z o R i c c i t i p p e d t h e stones i n t h e O h i o v a l l e y t h a t t u m b l e d i n t o a costly w o r l d war b e t w e e n E n g l a n d and F r a n c e . S i x years i n t o t h e war, G e o r g e II d i e d at t h e age of s e v e n t y - s e v e n . He left b e h i n d a disunited Parliament and a dysfunctional heir barely out of his teens. G e o r g e W i l l i a m , n o w K i n g G e o r g e III, fearfully turned the British Empire o v e r t o J o h n S t u a r t . B u t e a c t e d swiftly t o c o n f o r m t o t h e wishes of his U n k n o w n Superior. He b e g a n by a p p o i n t i n g a more c o m p l i a n t first lord of the Treasury, the office later to be k n o w n as P r i m e M i n i s t e r . N e x t , w i t h s e c r e t l y - f u n d e d grants, h e p u r c h a s e d votes from key members of Parliament widely k n o w n as “the King’s Friends.” U n d e r t h e n o b l e p r e t e x t o f a c h i e v i n g “ a closer unity o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire u n d e r P a r l i a m e n t , ” B u t e w h i p p e d t h e King’s Friends into passing a law to enforce writs of assistance across the A t l a n t i c . T h e s e w e r e r e v e n u e - r a i s i n g w a r r a n t s issued s u m m a r i l y u n d e r t h e royal seal r e q u i r i n g a law officer to t a k e possession of lands w i t h o u t trial, w i t h o u t jury. O n e does n o t n e e d a d o c t o r a t e i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e t o k n o w that summary e x p r o p r i a t i o n is a sure way to divide an empire, n o t u n i t e it. W h e n t h e writs were e n f o r c e d i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , James

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O t i s resigned his A d v o c a t e - G e n e r a l ' s post i n t h e C o u r t o f A d m i ralty to p r e a c h against t h e m “ i n a style of oratory,” J o h n A d a m s would later recall, “ t h a t I h a v e n e v e r heard equalled in this or any o t h e r c o u n t r y . ” I n July 1 7 7 6 , A d a m s w o u l d d e c l a r e t h a t t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f Bute's writs o f assistance i n 1 7 6 1 was “ t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f this controversy b e t w e e n G r e a t Britain and A m e r i ca.”
1

L o r e n z o R i c c i ' s W a r , or t h e M a r i t i m e W a r , or t h e F r e n c h and I n d i a n W a r s , c a m e t o a n e n d i n 1 7 6 3 . E n g l a n d was t h e a p p a r e n t v i c t o r . B u t e was sent by his p r o t e g e , G e o r g e III, to n e g o t i a t e a peace in Paris. Assisted by R o b e r t Petty, Lord S h e l b u r n e , the n o t o rious “Jesuit of B e r k e l e y S q u a r e , ” B u t e p e r f e c t e d t h e T r e a t y of Paris. U n d e r its terms E n g l a n d w o n from F r a n c e all o f C a t h o l i c Q u e b e c and the region east of the Mississippi, e x c e p t for the island of N e w O r l e a n s . T h i s was s u c h a great territorial w i n d f a l l for t h e colonists that N o r t h Carolinians created Bute C o u n t y in the n o r t h e a s t e r n part o f t h e c o l o n y .
2

H o w e v e r , B u t e restricted t h e

w i n d f a l l b y o r d e r i n g t h e infamous R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 , w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d A m e r i c a n s from m o v i n g w e s t o f a line d r a w n a l o n g t h e crest o f t h e A l l e g h e n y M o u n t a i n s . M o s t c o l o n i s t s v i e w e d t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n as a s c h e m e to i m p r i s o n t h e m b e t w e e n the A l l e g h e n i e s and t h e A t l a n t i c . T o purchasers o f w e s t e r n real estate prior to t h e Treaty, it was legalized theft. T h e c h u r c h g o e r s saw a papal a d v a n c e : “ W i t h R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m no longer actively persecuted in England, many A m e r i c a n s concluded that the mother country was about to return to R o m e . ”
3

Prior to Lorenzo Ricci's accession to the black papacy in 1 7 5 8 , the colonists had b e e n blissfully loyal to the m o t h e r country. Looking b a c k o n t h e p r e - R i c c i a n years w h i l e testifying before t h e House of C o m m o n s in 1 7 6 6 , B e n j a m i n Franklin recalled that “ t h e colonists were g o v e r n e d by E n g l a n d at the e x p e n s e o n l y of a little p e n , ink, and paper; t h e y were led by a thread.” Yet, w i t h t h e rise of R i c c i , as if in preparation for the absurdities of Bute, radical propagandists began appearing t h r o u g h o u t the colonies - C h r i s t o p h e r Gadsden in South Carolina, Cornelius Harnett in North Carolina, Patrick Henry and T h o m a s Jefferson in Virginia, and, in P e n n -

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s y l v a n i a , C h a r l e s T h o m s o n . T h e d e a n o f all these p r o p a g a n d i s t s was S a m u e l A d a m s , the c e l e b r a t e d “Father o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n ” and Freemasonry’s “ d o m i n a n t figure in t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n of the B o s t o n artisans and inland t o w n s . ” J o h n A d a m s , in a letter
4

dated February 9, 1 8 1 9 , framed his cousin Sam’s political activism w i t h i n exactly the s e v e n t e e n years of Lorenzo Ricci’s generalate: Samuel Adams, to my certain knowledge, from 1758 to 1775, that is, for seventeen years, made it his constant rule to watch the rise of every brilliant genius, to seek his acquaintance, to court his friendship, to cultivate his natural feelings in favor of his native country, to warn him against the hostile designs of Great Britain, and to fix his affections and reflections on the side of his native country. T h u s , w e l l before t h e a d v e n t o f m u c h t o rebel against – w e l l before Bute’s writs of assistance a n d t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n – a p r o p a g a n d a o f A m e r i c a n r e b e l l i o n was b e i n g o r g a n i z e d . A t the same t i m e , Dr. F r a n k l i n p u t t o g e t h e r t h e m e a n s o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g it. He streamlined the c o l o n i a l postal system to flow s m o o t h l y and efficiently from southern Virginia through eastern N e w England. On the d i p l o m a t i c front, England’s future war-making capability was s t u n t e d by t h e Paris n e g o t i a t i o n s of B u t e a n d S h e l b u r n e , w h i c h isolated E n g l a n d from a n y possibility o f f o r m i n g helpful European alliances. T h i s , in 1 7 6 3 , was of negligible i m p o r t a n c e to a n y o n e but the f o r e k n o w i n g and o m n i s c i e n t Lorenzo R i c c i . W h e n the hour c a m e for A m e r i c a to revolt for i n d e p e n d e n c e , and no one but Ricci k n e w w h e n that hour would come, England had to be friendlessly alone. H a v i n g w e a k e n e d England and stimulated the production of hostile, divisive rhetoric in A m e r i c a , Bute resigned from public life a very unpopular m a n . But the king’s m e n t o r was n o t yet finished. From the shadows, Bute h a n d p i c k e d a n e w Prime Minister, G e o r g e G r e n v i l l e . G r e n v i l l e made a broad show of refusing to accept office unless t h e k i n g p r o m i s e d n e v e r a g a i n to e m p l o y B u t e in office or seek his c o u n s e l . T h e k i n g promised. P l e d g i n g t o g i v e the British Empire a t h o r o u g h o v e r h a u l i n g , G r e n v i l l e t h e n p r o c e e d e d ( w i t h

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CHAPTER 15

T H E M A D N E S S O F K I N G G E O R G E III

Bute’s secret c o u n s e l and m o r e m o n e y grants from t h e King’s Friends) to create d y n a m i c situations that accelerated Britain and the colonies toward divorce. D u t i e s w e r e i n c r e a s e d o n c o l o n i a l imports, justified b y t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o l o n i e s should c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r fair share to the increased e x p e n s e s o f r u n n i n g a n E m p i r e m u c h e x p a n d e d b y t h e Treaty o f Paris. H i g h e r duties h e i g h t e n e d s m u g g l i n g a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h in turn increased the admiralty caseload. A m e r i c a n s b e g a n sniffing tyranny in the breeze. G r e n v i l l e ’ s n e w S u g a r and M o l a s s e s A c t e n f o r c e d ruinous duties o n foreign staples necessary for r u m - m a k i n g . T h e A c t reduced imports of sugar and molasses from t h e F r e n c h , S p a n i s h , and D u t c h W e s t Indies, w h i c h i n turn greatly r e d u c e d t h e m e a t , fish, flour, horses a n d l u m b e r w h i c h t h e c o l o n i e s c o u l d e x p o r t t o the islands. T h i s c a u s e d a slump in c o l o n i a l p r o d u c t i o n . Large debts w h i c h colonists o w e d to their British creditors for furniture, c l o t h i n g , ironware, pottery, jewelry, and m a n y other articles, w e n t unpaid. M e r c h a n t s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t P a r l i a m e n t was k i l l i n g t h e goose t h a t laid t h e g o l d e n egg. Parliament’s strange response was to prohibit the colonies from issuing paper currency to supply their lack of gold and silver. G e o r g e G r e n v i l l e did, h o w e v e r , i n v i t e the fuming colonists to propose suggestions for h o w they w o u l d like to be taxed. W h e n the colonists refused to dignify the i n v i t a t i o n w i t h a response, P a r l i a m e n t in M a r c h 1 7 6 5 passed, w i t h o u t d e b a t e or opposition, an e v e n more infuriating measure. T h e S t a m p A c t required t h e p u r c h a s i n g and f i x i n g o f stamps to all c o l o n i a l deeds, leases, bills of sale, p a m p h l e t s , n e w s p a p e r s , advertisements, mortgages, wills, and c o n t r a c t s . If duties on sugar and molasses could be considered part of the regulation of the Empire’s trade, t h e S t a m p A c t was a t a x l e v i e d by a b o d y t h o u s a n d s of miles away for t h e sole purpose of raising a r e v e n u e . It affected all classes of c o l o n i s t . N e v e r before h a d P a r l i a m e n t dared to impose s u c h a t a x . W h e r e a s t h e duty on f o r e i g n molasses or antismuggling measures were felt o n l y by t h e great m e r c h a n t s in N e w York, Boston, Philadelphia, or C h a r l e s t o n , the S t a m p A c t affected a wider public. It added t h e price of a stamp to t h e lawyer’s bill of

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e v e r y c o l o n i s t s e l l i n g a h o r s e , m a k i n g a w i l l , or m o r t g a g i n g a h o u s e . T h e price o f e v e r y n e w s p a p e r was i n c r e a s e d b y t h e stated value of the stamp attached to it. In Massachusetts, “Britannus Americanus,” one of Sam A d a m s ’ more t h a n t w e n t y p s e u d o n y m s , c h a r g e d t h a t it was as absurd for P a r l i a m e n t to t a x t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e as it w o u l d be for an assembly of A m e r i c a n s to tax the people of England. In Virginia, Patrick Henry cried his slogan “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!” From the L o n d o n Coffee House in Philadelphia, C h a r l e s T h o m s o n led a secret club of workers, teachers, merchants a n d professionals in a d v o c a t i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n and sales of l o c a l g o o d s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y a n i n t e r c o l o n i a l a g r e e m e n t n o t t o import goods from Britain. A m o n t h before the first stamps arrived, S a m A d a m s agitated Massachusetts to hold a “Stamp A c t Congress,” w h i c h c o n v e n e d a t N e w Y o r k i n O c t o b e r . T h e C o n g r e s s drew u p a D e c l a r a t i o n o f Rights and G r i e v a n c e s protesting that the A c t threatened “ t h e liberties of t h e c o l o n i e s . ” By t h e t i m e t h e stamps arrived from E n g land in N o v e m b e r , the colonists h a d forced most of the stamp-distributors t o resign. T h e m e r c h a n t s o f B o s t o n , N e w York, a n d Philadelphia agreed n o t to import English goods, causing a decline in trade w i t h G r e a t Britain of about t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t w i t h i n a year. I n a n address before t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s , B e n j a m i n Franklin issued his famous warning that if troops should be sent to t h e c o l o n i e s t o e n f o r c e t h e A c t , t h e y “ w i l l n o t find a r e v o l u t i o n there but m i g h t very well create one.” G r e n v i l l e ’ s ministry s u d d e n l y fell t o W i l l i a m P i t t a n d L o r d R o c k i n g h a m , w h o repealed the S t a m p A c t i n M a r c h . T h e colonies r e j o i c e d a n d p l e d g e d l o y a l t y t o G e o r g e III. T h e y h a r d l y n o t i c e d t h a t t h e K i n g ’ s Friends h a d a c c o m p a n i e d t h e r e p e a l w i t h a D e c l a r a t o r y A c t c l a i m i n g “full p o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y t o b i n d t h e c o l o n i e s a n d p e o p l e o f A m e r i c a , subjects o f t h e C r o w n o f G r e a t Britain, in all cases whatsoever.” R e g a r d i n g Patrick Henry’s o b j e c t i o n s to unfair t a x a t i o n as “so m u c h nonsense,” Charles Townshend, C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, v o w e d t o get “ p l e n t y o f r e v e n u e from t h e c o l o n i e s . ” I n t h e

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T H E M A D N E S S OF K I N G G E O R G E III

summer of 1 7 6 7 , he and the King’s Friends passed acts laying duties on glass, painters’ c o l o r s , red and w h i t e lead, paper, and tea s h i p p e d t o A m e r i c a . B u t t h e acts p r o d u c e d little r e v e n u e . B y T o w n s h e n d ’ s o w n e s t i m a t e , m a d e shortly before his p r e m a t u r e death at forty-two, the British Treasury stood to gain no more than £40,000. T h e real, c o v e r t , purpose o f t h e A c t s appears t o h a v e b e e n n o t to get “plenty of revenue,” but to stimulate the rebellious i n v e s t m e n t of c o l o n i a l capital in local manufacturing. In M a r c h of 1 7 7 0 , a small c r o w d of jeering B o s t o n i a n s pelted a few British redcoats w i t h snowballs. T h e angry redcoats fired into the crowd, killing four m e n , w o u n d i n g several more. T h e t o w n and s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e r e a c t e d i n rage t o t h e B o s t o n M a s s a c r e . S a m u e l A d a m s led his disciples t o t h e m a n s i o n o f a c t i n g G o v e r n o r T h o m a s H u t c h i n s o n and d e m a n d e d t h e i m m e d i a t e d e p o r t a tion of the redcoats, w h o wisely retreated to C a s t l e W i l l i a m on the harbor. W h e n n e w s o f t h e Massacre r e a c h e d E n g l a n d , t h e King’s Friends scolded Hutchinson’s “cowardly surrender to S a m Adams’s regiments.” T h e n c e f o r t h , e a c h anniversary of the B o s t o n Massacre b e c a m e an occasion for A d a m s and others to make more blistering orations against British tyranny in favor of i n d e p e n d e n c e . In 1770, Lord N o r t h , the new Prime Minister, declared the T o w n s h e n d A c t s were costing more to collect than the revenue was r e t u r n i n g to t h e Treasury. N o r t h secured t h e repeal of all the T o w n s h e n d d u t i e s , e x c e p t a t a x on t e a of t h r e e p e n c e a p o u n d to prove P a r l i a m e n t had authority t o tax the c o l o n i e s . T h e colonists w e r e n ’ t affected by this m i n i s c u l e tax, since most of their tea was smuggled in from H o l l a n d anyway. Feelings toward England turned amicable o n c e again, as c o l o n i a l m e r c h a n t s increased orders from British firms from £ 1 , 3 3 6 , 1 2 2 in 1 7 6 9 to £4,200,000. S a m A d a m s , P a t r i c k Henry, C h a r l e s T h o m s o n and T h o m a s Jefferson t o o k a d v a n t a g e of the lull to agitate. O b s e r v i n g the first anniversary of the B o s t o n Massacre o n M a r c h 5 , 1 7 7 1 , A d a m s c a l l e d for a c t i o n and solidarity: It is high time for the people of this country explicitly to declare whether they will be Freemen or Slaves. Let it be the

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topic of conversation in every social Club. Let every Town assemble. Let Associations & Combinations be everywhere set up to consult and recover our just Rights.
5

B e t w e e n 1 7 7 0 and 1 7 7 3 , a b o u t t h e o n l y t r o u b l e s o m e c o n frontations were those b e t w e e n British r e v e n u e vessels and smugglers. T h e c o l o n i e s b e g a n p r o d u c i n g more. Trade was so brisk that m e r c h a n t s , formerly the c h i e f o p p o n e n t s of British rule, h a d little to protest. T h e y turned their full a t t e n t i o n back to business. A n d t h e n L o r e n z o R i c c i n u d g e d his w e i g h t i e s t boulders t o date, the Religious R i g h t , the Protestant churchgoers. H o w he did this is the subject of our n e x t chapter.

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JOHN CARROLL, BISHOP OF BALTIMORE AND FOUNDER OF GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY.

(From the portrait by Gilbert Stuart)

Chapter

16

TWEAKING THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT

A

s T H E F U R O R o v e r t h e S t a m p A c t was c o o l i n g d o w n , t h e Jesuits of M a r y l a n d and P e n n s y l v a n i a d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the director of C a t h o l i c operations in the British colonies,

B i s h o p R i c h a r d C h a l l o n e r , h a d asked R o m e t o ordain a n A m e r i T h e A m e r i c a n Jesuits disliked t h e idea. F a t h e r F e r d i n a n d S t e i n m a y e r (alias Farmer) of N e w York cautioned Bishop C h a l l o n er, “It is i n c r e d i b l e h o w h a t e f u l to n o n - C a t h o l i c s in all parts of

c a n bishop.

A m e r i c a is the very n a m e of bishop.” Still, in C h a l l o n e r ’ s view, an A m e r i c a n b i s h o p w o u l d establish b e t t e r order i n t h e c o l o n i e s , restore discipline, and m a k e it possible for c o l o n i a l C a t h o l i c s to be c o n f i r m e d . S t e i n m a y e r a n d his A m e r i c a n b r e t h r e n strenuously o p p o s e d t h e idea o n grounds t h a t i t w o u l d o n l y m a k e life a m o n g Protestants more difficult for C a t h o l i c s . T h e y collected lay support for their views and asked C h a l l o n e r himself to forward the protests to R o m e , w h i c h he declined to do, l e a v i n g it to the Jesuits to state their o w n case.
1

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R o m e n e v e r replied t o C h a l l o n e r ’ s p e t i t i o n for a n A m e r i c a n b i s h o p . T h e b i s h o p later d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n , m a d e i n a letter to C a r d i n a l S p i n e l l i and entered into the post in 1 7 6 4 , never left England. In Bishop Challoner’s words, “it was opened, and stopt on this side of the water.”
2

W h o e v e r o p e n e d C h a l l o n e r ’ s letter must h a v e passed its c o n tents o n t o t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . For n o s o o n e r h a d C h a l l o n e r p o s t e d his letter t h a n t h e Anglican B i s h o p o f L o n d o n , w h o h a d thus far b e e n c o n t e n t to rule his A m e r i c a n subjects from L o n d o n , asked the British c a b i n e t to permit the Church of England to create a n A m e r i c a n b i s h o p t o “ a t t e n d t h e sheperdless f l o c k i n t h e c o l o n i e s . ” W h e n word o f this request r e a c h e d the c o l o n i e s , w h i c h were mostly Protestant but less t h a n fifteen percent A n g l i c a n , the
3

r e a c t i o n must h a v e elated L o r e n z o R i c c i . T h e sons and daughters o f i m m i g r a n t s w h o h a d b r a v e d w i l d I n d i a n s and r a t t l e s n a k e s t o escape religious prelates t o o k the Bishop’s p e t i t i o n to be the worst act of t y r a n n y yet, t h e most pressing cause for alarm, t h e n u m b e r one thing to revolt against. T h e A m e r i c a n bishop scare was w h i p p e d up in the n o n - A n g l i c a n Protestant c h u r c h pulpit – the era’s most electrifying c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m e d i u m . Presbyterian and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t preachers, representing nearly fifty percent of the c h u r c h e d colonists, charged t h a t a n A m e r i c a n bishop w o u l d b e “ a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l S t a m p A c t ” w h i c h w o u l d strip A m e r i c a n s of all t h e i r liberties, c i v i l as w e l l as religious, and “if s u b m i t t e d to w i l l at l e n g t h grind us to p o w d e r . ”
4

T h e y w a r n e d t h a t a n A m e r i c a n bishop w o u l d d o m i n a t e the c o l o nial governors and councils, strengthen the position of the colon i a l oligarchy, and d r i v e dissenters from p o l i t i c a l life w i t h a Test A c t requiring officials t o state t h e i r religious p r e f e r e n c e . H a v i n g b r o u g h t t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t s u n d e r his c o n t r o l , t h e A m e r i c a n b i s h o p w o u l d t h e n establish t h e C h u r c h o f R o m e i n all t h e colonies and impose taxes for the support of its hierarchy. A letter in t h e New York Gazette or Weekly Post Boy for M a r c h 1 4 , 1 7 6 8 c h a r g e d t h a t a n A m e r i c a n b i s h o p w o u l d “ i n t r o d u c e a system o f e p i s c o p a l p a l a c e s , o f p o n t i f i c a l r e v e n u e s , o f spiritual courts and all t h e p o m p , grandeur, luxury, and regalia o f a n A m e r i c a n L a m b e t h ” – L a m b e t h Palace b e i n g the residence of the A r c h b i s h o p of
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Canterbury, h e a d o f all E n g l a n d after the royal family. A n A m e r i c a n b i s h o p w o u l d transform A m e r i c a n s i n t o a p e o p l e “ c o m p e l l e d to fall u p o n their k n e e s in the streets a n d adore the papal miter as the A p o s t o l i c Tyrant rides by in his gilded equipage.” Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, Dudleian Lecturer at Harvard, i n v e i g h e d against “ P o p i s h I d o l a t r y ” in a famous ( a n d arguably prophetic) sermon by that title, saying, Let the bishops get their foot in the stirrup, and their beast, the laity, will prance and flounce about to no purpose. Bishops will prove to be the Trojan horse by which Popery will subjugate North America. T h e A m e r i c a n b i s h o p scare did more t o f o m e n t t h e c o l o n i s t s to r e v o l t , a n d e v e n t u a l l y raised more soldiery, t h a n all t h e tyrann i c a l writs a n d t a x s c h e m e s c o m b i n e d . I m m e d i a t e l y , i t c r e a t e d permanent Committees of Correspondence, an intercolonial o r g a n i z a t i o n of c h u r c h e s , a n d a “ S o c i e t y of D i s s e n t e r s ” based in N e w York. T h e s e organizations brought all opposed t o t h e C h u r c h of England into correspondence with one another, whether in A m e r i c a , G r e a t B r i t a i n , o r I r e l a n d . T h e specter o f a n A m e r i c a n
5

bishop g a v e t h e c o l o n i a l patriots an almost i n e x h a u s t i b l e fund of p r o p a g a n d a to e m p l o y against any form of p e r c e i v e d t y r a n n y at h o m e and abroad. It served, in J o n a t h a n Boucher’s words, “to keep the p u b l i c m i n d in a state of f e r m e n t a n d e f f e r v e s c e n c e ; to m a k e the p e o p l e jealous and suspicious of all measures n o t b r o u g h t forward by [ p o p u l a r l y - a p p r o v e d leaders]; and a b o v e all, to train and habituate the people to opposition.”
6

T h e fact t h a t A m e r i c a n s w e r e t r a i n e d and h a b i t u a t e d t o oppose t h e British C r o w n a n d t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d n o t b y R o m a n C a t h o l i c s but b y P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h m e n is, t o m y m i n d , proof of the S u n - T z u a n ingenuity of L o r e n z o R i c c i . S u n - T z u said: “ T h e G e n e r a l will k n o w h o w t o s h a p e a t w i l l , n o t o n l y t h e army he is c o m m a n d i n g but also that of his enemies.” W h i l e Ricci’s o w n army was appearing in t h e world’s o p i n i o n markets to be a b a n d of v i c i o u s dolts slipping d o w n i n t o t h e i r w e l l - d e s e r v e d o b l i v i o n , a small elite corps of indispensibles, some n e i t h e r k n o w i n g nor car-

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ing w h o t h e i r true boss was, w e r e f a c i l i t a t i n g E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Protestant c h u r c h g o e r s i n systematically a n n i h i l a t i n g o n e a n o t h er! Lorenzo Ricci’s orchestration h a d reached such fullness that he could n o w soliloquize Iago’s boast in Othello: “ N o w , w h e t h e r he kill C a s s i o o r C a s s i o h i m , o r e a c h d o k i l l t h e other, e v e r y w a y m a k e s my gain.” B a c k i n the n i n e t e e n - s i x t i e s and seventies, C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n Jesuits designed posters to m o t i v a t e c a m p e s i n o s to o v e r t h r o w corrupt p o l i t i c i a n s . T h e posters for this B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n t h e ology depicted an angry Jesus C h r i s t in the image of C h e G u e v a r a , s w a t h e d in fatigues, draped in b u l l e t - b e l t s , h o l d i n g a s u b m a c h i n e gun at the ready, a R a m b o Jesus, a Jesus whose Sacred Heart called for social a c t i o n that included killing. T h e A m e r i c a n bishop scare aroused the same d y n a m i c in t h e 1770’s. W h a t was c o n s i d e r e d by m a n y t o b e t h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l s e r m o n o n t h e subject was p r e a c h e d t o Boston’s A n c i e n t and H o n o r a b l e A r t i l l e r y C o m p a n y b y R e v . J o n a t h a n M a y h e w ’ s successor a t H a r v a r d , R e v . S i m e o n H o w a r d . S i m e o n H o w a r d r e c e i v e d his early p r e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e in N o v a S c o t i a – or A c a d i a , as the F r e n c h settlers called it. He exp e r i e n c e d first-hand t h e u p r o o t i n g and e x p u l s i o n , by B r i t i s h soldiers, o f s o m e t h r e e t h o u s a n d F r e n c h C a t h o l i c A c a d i a n s , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r Jesuit priests. C r u e l l y , o f t e n v i o l e n t l y , t h e A c a d i a n s w e r e forced t o e m i g r a t e t o v a r i o u s A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s , w i t h n o c o m p e n s a t i o n for property or livestock. (Longfellow memorialized the e v e n t in Evangeline). W i t h a casuistry t h a t w o u l d h a v e d e l i g h t e d C a r d i n a l B e l larmine, Rev. Howard’s famous A r t i l l e r y C o m p a n y sermon o p e n l y a d v o c a t e d the use of v i o l e n c e against a p o l i t i c a l tyrant. O u r duty to d e f e n d p e r s o n a l liberty and property, he argued, is stated in S c r i p t u r e at G a l a t i a n s 5:1 – “ S t a n d fast t h e r e f o r e in t h e liberty w h e r e w i t h C h r i s t h a t h m a d e u s free.” True, R e v . H o w a r d a d m i t ted, C h r i s t requires us to “resist n o t e v i l – l o v e your e n e m i e s , do good t o t h e m that h a t e you” ( M a t t h e w 5 ) , and “recompense t o n o m a n e v i l for e v i l – a v e n g e n o t y o u r s e l v e s ” ( R o m a n s 1 2 , 1 7 , 1 9 ) . B u t these precepts apply only to cases of “small injuries,” H o w a r d said, n o t large ones, such as tyranny.

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N o r , said R e v . H o w a r d , s h o u l d w e fully a c c e p t C h r i s t ’ s c o m m a n d m e n t s o n property. “ L o v e n o t the world, nor the things that are in the w o r l d ” (John 2:5), and “Lay n o t up for yourselves treasure o n earth” ( M a t t h e w 6 : 1 9 ) , and “ G i v e t o h i m that asketh t h e e , and from h i m t h a t w o u l d b o r r o w o f t h e e , turn n o t t h o u a w a y ” ( M a t t h e w 5:42) – s u c h p r e c e p t s as t h e s e , R e v . H o w a r d said, are “indefinite expressions” w h i c h “we h a v e a right to limit.” N o w , t h e d e f e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of l e t h a l force is r e a s o n a b l e , and n o b l e , a n d p a t r i o t i c . B u t it is n o t r e c o m m e n d e d by Jesus C h r i s t . T h e Jesus of the Scriptures c a u t i o n s t h a t life by the sword m e a n s d e a t h by t h e sword. It is R o m e , n o t Jesus, t h a t c o m m a n d s the use of lethal force – R o m e , whose natural-law society was built on t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l to risk his o w n life in k i l l i n g t o preserve t h e R e l i g i o u s S t a t e . A n d i t was R o m e t h a t S i m e o n H o w a r d b e s e e c h e d his a u d i e n c e t o e m u l a t e : “ R o m e , w h o rose t o be mistress of t h e w o r l d by an army c o m p o s e d of m e n of property and worth.” A d e c a d e after t h e A m e r i c a n b i s h o p scare h a d b r o k e n out, thousands of A m e r i c a n Protestant and C a t h o l i c churchgoers b e g a n k i l l i n g and b e i n g killed t o w i n T h e W a r T h a t W o u l d K e e p A n g l i c a n Bishops O u t o f A m e r i c a . A n d they w o n this war. But the utterly stupefying o u t c o m e o f t h e i r v i c t o r y was t h a t n o b i s h o p s were kept out of A m e r i c a : t w o bishops were brought into A m e r i c a , an A n g l i c a n and a R o m a n C a t h o l i c ! T h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c , o f course, was J o h n C a r r o l l . T h i s Jesuit son o f M a r y l a n d was c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e o n A u g u s t 15, 1 7 9 0 , in the c h a p e l of L u l w o r t h , a castle set h i g h on the Dorset coast o f E n g l a n d o w n e d b y t h e W e l d s , a p r o m i n e n t R o m a n C a t h o l i c family. L u l w o r t h ’ s upper “ R e d R o o m ” l o o k s t o t h e east u p o n a c o m m a n d i n g v i e w o f t h e estate’s l o n g e n t r a n c e m e a d o w and to the south u p o n a famous smugglers’ c o v e in the distance. A frequent visitor to L u l w o r t h C a s t l e , and h o n o r e d guest in its R e d R o o m , I am told, was K i n g G e o r g e III. Bishop C a r r o l l b e c a m e the H o l y See’s direct representative not just in B a l t i m o r e but t h r o u g h o u t t h e U . S . T h i s fact was v a l i d a t e d i n 1 7 9 8 b y Judge A d d i s o n , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u r t o f C o m m o n

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Pleas of the Fifth C i r c u i t of P e n n s y l v a n i a in the case of Fromm vs. C a r r o l l . F r o m m was a r e c a l c i t r a n t G e r m a n F r a n c i s c a n w h o w a n t e d t o establish his o w n G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g , l a i t y - o w n e d parish. A d d i s o n ruled t h a t “ t h e B i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e has sole e p i s c o p a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y from h i m n o C a t h o l i c priest c a n e x e r c i s e any pastoral f u n c t i o n o v e r any c o n g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e United S t a t e s . ” F r o m m was e x c o m m u n i c a t e d and h e l d up as an e x a m p l e o f w h a t h a p p e n s t o rebels against w h o l e s o m e C h u r c h authority. Addison’s use of the term “ C a t h o l i c C h u r c h of the U n i t e d States” is an interesting judicial n o t i c e t h a t Carroll’s o r d i n a t i o n instituted, for all p r a c t i c a l purposes, a secular c h u r c h ruled by t h e b l a c k papacy. E m i n e n t C a t h o l i c historian T h o m a s O ’ G o r m a n concurred in 1 8 9 5 , o b s e r v i n g t h a t A m e r i c a n C a t h o l i c i s m was, “ i n its i n c e p tion, wholly a Jesuit affair and [has] largely remained s o . ”
7

A m e r i c a ’ s first A n g l i c a n b i s h o p , o r d a i n e d i n 1 7 8 4 , was R e v . S a m u e l S e a b u r y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . R e v . S e a b u r y was b o t h a H i g h C h u r c h m a n and a Freemason. To a v o i d the political repercussions
8

of s w e a r i n g a l l e g i a n c e to t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d so s o o n after 1 7 7 6 , S e a b u r y was c o n s e c r a t e d i n N o v e m b e r 1 7 8 4 a t A b e r d e e n , S c o t l a n d . Of critical importance to R o m e was that the three bishops c o n s e c r a t i n g S e a b u r y w e r e all “ n o n j u r i n g ” b i s h o p s . “ N o n j u r i n g ” d e s c r i b e d t h e class o f C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s t h a t s t o o d i n the succession of “Jacobite” clergy w h o , remaining loyal to K i n g James II after his a b d i c a t i o n in 1 6 8 9 , h a d refused to take a loyalty o a t h to James’ successors – his daughter, M a r y S t u a r t , and son-in-law, W i l l i a m o f O r a n g e , b o t h P r o t e s t a n t s . A m e r i c a ’ s first P r o t e s t a n t
9

b i s h o p , like his R o m a n C a t h o l i c c o u n t e r p a r t , o w e d a l l e g i a n c e t o Rome. T h i s obscure fact is c o m m e m o r a t e d in o n e of L o n d o n ’ s most heavily-trafficked and world-famous locations. T h e spacious grassy lawns on either side of the great stairway leading up to the N a t i o n al Portrait G a l l e r y facing Trafalgar Square are i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t for their bronze statuary, o n e p i e c e a l o n e p l a c e d at the c e n t e r of e a c h l a w n . O n t h e n o r t h l a w n stands James II, c r o w n e d w i t h imperial laurel, w e a r i n g t h e armor of Julius Caesar. ( A n elderly British Je-

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suit w i t h a passion for offbeat historical detail confided to me t h a t James l o v e d t o g o i n C a e s a r e a n drag.) O n t h e s o u t h l a w n stands t h e c e l e b r a t e d H o u d o n figure of... George Washington, garbed in period attire, l e a n i n g for support u p o n a h u g e b u n d l e of rods from w h i c h projects the h e a d of an axe – the fasces, a n c i e n t e m b l e m of R o m a n legal a u t h o r i t y ! W h e n B i s h o p S e a b u r y u n i t e d his episcopate w i t h t h e o t h e r t w o A n g l i c a n c o m m u n i o n s i n A m e r i c a i n 1 7 8 9 , t h e P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l C h u r c h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was born. G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n was a m e m b e r of this C h u r c h . T h e L o n d o n statuary are e x p l a i n i n g t h e l i t t l e - k n o w n h i s t o r i c a l fact t h a t James II’s R o m a n C a t h o l i c rulership of t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e o ple was resumed in t h e First President of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l U n i t ed States of A m e r i c a . It is a tribute to the p h e n o m e n a l generalate of Lorenzo R i c c i . J o h n C a r r o l l spent his final years in Europe h e l p i n g to d e v e l o p Lorenzo Ricci’s vision of rebellion in A m e r i c a . He m o v e d cautiously, and o f t e n i n c o g n i t o . W h a t few traces h e left b e h i n d are quite revealing.

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ARCHBISHOP NIKOLAUS VON HONTHEIM (JUSTINIUS FEBRONIUS)

(From a painting in Trier)

Chapter

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A TIMELY GRAND TOUR

Somerset counties named Charles Philippe Stourton.

A

M O N G T H E M A N Y British visitors t o R o m e during C l e m e n t X I V ’ s s w e e t e n i n g toward England in the early 1770’s was a y o u n g m e m b e r o f a n a n c i e n t r u l i n g family o f D o r s e t and
1

Charles

P h i l i p p e was n e p h e w t o t h e D u k e s o f N o r f o l k . W e r e m e m b e r the N o r f o l k s , T h o m a s and Edward H o w a r d , for t h e i r significant c o n tributions to A m e r i c a n independence – T h o m a s , originator of c o l o n i a l Freemasonry; Edward, c o u p l e r of Lord Bute to t h e future G e o r g e III. A r r i v i n g i n R o m e w i t h C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e was h i s professor a t the Jesuit c o l l e g e i n t h e m e d i e v a l F l e m i s h ( n o w B e l g i a n ) city o f Bruges, J o h n C a r r o l l . T h e pair w e r e e n j o y i n g a G r a n d T o u r o f Europe w h i c h had begun in the summer of 1 7 7 1 . F r o m Bruges t h e y h a d p r o c e e d e d b y carriage d o w n t h r o u g h A l s a c e - L o r r a i n e to Strasbourg, across t h e R h i n e to B a d e n - B a d e n , then upstream to Carlsruhe, Bruschal, Heidelberg, M a n n h e i m ,
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W o r m s , and M a i n z . F r o m M a i n z t h e y m a d e a curious detour o v e r to Trier, b a c k to M a n n h e i m , t h r o u g h S w a b i a to A u g s b u r g , t h e n to M u n i c h , I n n s b r u c h , across the I t a l i a n border t o T r e n t , a l o n g the A d i g e R i v e r t o R o v e r e d o , V e r o n a , M a n t u a , M o d e n a , and Bologna. T h e y reached R o m e i n the a u t u m n o f 1 7 7 2 . In R o m e , Lorenzo Ricci appointed Carroll to the position of Prefect of the Sodality. T h i s title designates, according to the N e w C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , “ a c h i e f organizer o f l a y m e n for t h e prom o t i o n of some form of social a c t i o n . ” For t h e p r o m o t i o n of w h a t social a c t i o n , I w o n d e r , m i g h t R i c c i h a v e o r d a i n e d C a r r o l l to organize, if n o t the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n ? W h i l e J o h n was i n R o m e w i t h L o r e n z o R i c c i , his c o u s i n C h a r l e s C a r r o l l , n o w in his mid-thirties, pulled off a c l e v e r media ruse i n M a r y l a n d . I t w o n h i m t r e m e n d o u s p o p u l a r i t y and established h i m as an i m p o r t a n t c i v i c leader. In January 1 7 7 3 , a letter in the M a r y l a n d Gazette a t t a c k e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of M a r y l a n d G o v e r n o r R o b e r t Edens. T h e letter was signed “First C i t i z e n . ” In a s u b s e q u e n t Gazette, t h e a t t a c k was d e m o l i s h e d by t h e e l o q u e n t arguments of a “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n . ” B u t in February, “First C i t i z e n ” d e m o l i s h e d “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n . ” A s t h e duel c o n t i n u e d o n i n t o t h e summer, “First C i t i z e n ” was r e v e a l e d t o b e C h a r l e s C a r r o l l . W h e r e u p o n “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n ” nastily slandered C a r r o l l , p u t t i n g h i m d o w n a s a “ d i s f r a n c h i s e d C a t h o l i c . ” S u d d e n l y now, C a r r o l l was an underdog – just like his fellow A m e r i c a n s in relation to the British Crown. Although Charles was a super-rich lawyerl a n d o w n e r e d u c a t e d at t h e best Jesuit colleges in Europe, the people l a v i s h e d h i m w i t h sympathy. T h e y despised “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n ” for his bigotry. M a r y l a n d and A m e r i c a n o w had a n e w hero, a pree m i n e n t c h a m p i o n o f religious liberties, a R o m a n C a t h o l i c First C i t i z e n a d v o c a t i n g a n e w political order. L o a t h s o m e S e c o n d C i t i zen made the status q u o seem distasteful and undesirable – w h i c h , of course, was his a s s i g n m e n t in t h e ruse. S e c o n d C i t i z e n turned out to be t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d h e a d of t h e A m e r i c a n bar, a Mr. Dulany....

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M

E A N W H I L E , w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f spring, C a r r o l l and S t o u r t o n left R o m e for F l o r e n c e , G e n o a , L y o n s , Paris, L i è g e , arriving
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b a c k in Bruges just a few w e e k s before G a n g a n e l l i , C l e m e n t XIV, disestablished the Jesuits. C a r r o l l kept a journal of their tour. Partly a study-guide for C h a r l e s Philippe, partly a travelog, it’s a “fragmentary and circumspect” d o c u m e n t , as one historian gingerly put it. H e r e a n d t h e r e , o n e finds s n a t c h e s o f informal p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n . A l t h o u g h C a r r o l l ’ s o p i n i o n s are i n t e r e s t i n g , it’s his c i r c u m s p e c t i o n t h a t intrigues us most, it’s w h a t his j o u r n a l doesn’t say. T r a v e l i n g w i t h a s t u d e n t appears o r d i n a r y e n o u g h , but C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e S t o u r t o n was no ordinary c o l l e g i a n . He was a s t u d e n t of casuistry, e q u i v o c a t i o n , and B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y t a u g h t b y professionals s w o r n t o e x p a n d R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m and extirpate Protestantism. H e had b e e n i n d o c t r i n a t e d t o o b e d i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , was a m e m b e r of England’s premier C a t h o l i c and M a s o n i c family, and was a b o u t t h e age of A l e x a n d e r H a m i l t o n ( w h o by t h e n was already turning out anonymous r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a m p h l e t s a t King’s C o l l e g e i n N e w Y o r k ) . N o r were C a r r o l l and S t o u r t o n merely sight-seeing. T h e y were up to s o m e t h i n g big. Carroll’s journal alludes to m e e t i n g s w i t h h i g h r a n k i n g officials in c h u r c h and state, but gives no specific n a m e s . W r i t i n g to an English Jesuit colleague, he confided “I k e e p a close i n c o g n i t o during this t i m e . ”
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D e s p i t e Carroll’s c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , his itinerary reveals c e r t a i n clues. C o n s i d e r t h a t o d d d e t o u r t o Trier from t h e route b e t w e e n M a i n z and M a n n h e i m . Trier is more t h a n t w o hundred kilometers out of t h e way, q u i t e a l o n g day’s journey. W h a t m i g h t w a r r a n t such a d e v i a t i o n ? T h e r e a p p e a r e d in 1 7 6 3 a h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l book by an obviously pseudonymous person, “Justinius Febronius.” T h e pseudonym belonged to Bishop Nikolaus v o n H o n t h e i m , C h a n c e l l o r of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Trier. In J o h n Carroll’s day, Trier U n i v e r s i t y had b e e n run by Jesuits for m o r e t h a n a century. T h e b o o k , of w h i c h t h e r e is a p p a r e n t l y no p u b l i s h e d E n g l i s h translat i o n out of its original L a t i n , is e n t i t l e d On the State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff. T h e gist of State of the Church suggests w h y C a r r o l l had to visit

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Trier: “ F e b r o n i a n i s m , ” t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f v o n H o n t h e i m ’ s b o o k , c o n t a i n s t h e f o r m u l a for a d m i n i s t e r i n g P r o t e s t a n t A m e r i c a as a B e l l a r m i n i a n c o m m o n w e a l t h ! F e b r o n i a n i s m calls for decentralizing the Roman Catholic Church into independent national c h u r c h e s m o d e l e d o n t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . B e c a u s e t h e y are ruled d i r e c t l y by k i n g s and p r i n c e s , these c h u r c h e s are more correctly called “ S t a t e s . ” T h e Pope may be successor to Peter, Prince o f the A p o s t l e s , but u n d e r F e b r o n i a n i s m h e has n o legal jurisdiction. He is merely a principle of unity, a spiritual unifier obligated to abide by the decrees of general c o u n c i l s under the leadership of bishops and their properly e n l i g h t e n e d laymen. C r u c i a l to Febronianism’s a p p l i c a t i o n is “ t h o r o u g h popular edu c a t i o n . ” O n c e l a y m e n , b i s h o p s , and c o u n c i l s are “properly e n l i g h t e n e d ” t h e y w i l l b e e m p o w e r e d t o resist any a t t e m p t s o f t h e papacy to exert monarchial control over the C h u r c h . Febronius emphasized that his system w o u l d succeed only in a milieu of popular e n l i g h t e n m e n t . H i s c o n t e x t presumes a n e n l i g h t e n m e n t

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w h e r e i n the public is indoctrinated w i t h the Jesuit ratio studiorum’s full h u m a n i s t d i e t , of c o u r s e . It c a n n o t o p e r a t e w h e r e S c r i p t u r e reigns supreme. O n c e t h e milieu’s understanding, its mentality, has b e e n shaped by the Superior G e n e r a l of the S o c i e t y of Jesus, it will respond w i t h u n q u e s t i o n i n g o b e d i e n c e t o t h e w i l l o f t h e m a n w h o s e f u n d a m e n t a l duty i s t h e e x p a n s i o n o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m and t h e e x t i r p a t i o n of P r o t e s t a n t i s m . T h u s w i l l u n f o l d a p e r f e c t secular political state w i t h i n the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , a n autocracy ruled by a m o n a r c h invisible to all but the few w h o , by the grace of G o d , c a n n o t be d e c e i v e d .
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F e b r o n i a n i s m was t h e secret f o r m u l a for r e t u r n i n g t h e n o n C a t h o l i c world to the b o s o m of the C h u r c h . To mask this fact, the V a t i c a n dramatically c o n d e m n e d the b o o k . T h e jesuited C l e m e n t XIII h a d b a n n e d it from c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . In a rather quaint example of academic “blown cover as cover,” Bishop v o n H o n t h e i m , w h o m few realized was Febronius, e v e n b a n n e d it from his o w n classes at the U n i v e r s i t y ! On the State of the Church is arguably L o r e n z o Ricci’s “ A m e r i can Manifesto,” the social blueprint for h o w the G e n e r a l intended to realize B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n in a P r o t e s t a n t m o n a r c h y . T h e full title page of t h e first edition copy of the b o o k says it all: On the State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff: A Singular Book On the Properly-Ordered Reunification with Dissidents in the Christian Religion. H e r e o n e b e h o l d s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e m o m e n t o u s s o c i a l change that the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n would indeed produce – neither m o n a r c h i a l overthrow, nor democracy, nor republicanism, but a “properly-ordered reunification w i t h dissidents in the C h r i s t ian r e l i g i o n , ” t h a t is, t h e r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c s w i t h P r o t e s t a n t s u n d e r a secularized r e l i g i o n w h o s e v a l u e s – l o n g on h u m a n i s m , short on Scripture – are taught t h r o u g h public schools f o l l o w i n g t h e Jesuit ratio studiorum. “ R e u n i f i c a t i o n ” m e a n s t h a t Protestantism has b e e n reabsorbed into R o m e . T h i s , in the eyes of the b l a c k papacy, t o the S u n - T z u a n m i n d , and t o c o m m o n sense, equals the practical extirpation of Protestantism.

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A

L T H O U G H Bishop v o n H o n t h e i m lived i n Trier, h e was A r c h bishop of M a i n z . His jurisdiction e x t e n d e d to the M a i n z prin-

c i p a l i t y o f H e s s e - H a n o v e r . V o n H o n t h e i m was thus t h e spiritual counterpart of the ruler of H e s s e - H a n o v e r , Frederick II ( n o t to be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e K i n g o f Prussia, F r e d e r i c k t h e G r e a t , w h o was also a Frederick II.) Frederick II of Hesse was married to t h e aunt o f the K i n g o f E n g l a n d , w h i c h m a d e h i m G e o r g e III’s u n c l e . B o r n a P r o t e s t a n t , F r e d e r i c k subscribed to t h e R o s i c r u c i a n style of Freemasonry. A l t h o u g h Jesuits c o n v e r t e d h i m t o R o m a n C a t h o l i cism, he nevertheless remained a R o s i c r u c i a n secretly a c t i v e . Frederick of Hesse was o n e of Europe’s richest rulers. M u c h of his business was h a n d l e d by his son, P r i n c e W i l l i a m , also a R o s i c r u c i a n F r e e m a s o n . W i l l i a m ’ s s p e c i a l t y was f a c i l i t a t i n g war. H e drafted a b l e - b o d i e d male Hessians, outfitted and trained t h e m for battle, and t h e n sold t h e m to his English cousin G e o r g e , w h o used t h e m to fight alongside his o w n redcoats. Every time a Hessian was killed, W i l l i a m r e c e i v e d a reparation in the form of extra c o m p e n sation. As casualties m o u n t e d , so did his profits, w h i c h he l o a n e d out at interest. I n S e p t e m b e r 1 7 6 9 , Prince W i l l i a m appointed M e y e r A m s c h e l R o t h s c h i l d of n e a r b y Frankfurt to t r a n s a c t s o m e of his f i n a n c i a l affairs i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f C r o w n A g e n t . A w a r e t h a t t h e R o t h schilds are an i m p o r t a n t Jewish family, I l o o k e d t h e m up in Encyclopedia ]udaica and discovered that they bear the title “ G u a r d i a n s o f t h e V a t i c a n Treasury.” T h e V a t i c a n Treasury, o f c o u r s e , h o l d s the imperial w e a l t h of R o m e . Imperial w e a l t h grows in proportion to its v i c t o r i e s in war – as t h e Jesuit e m p o w e r m e n t Regimini militantis ecclesiae implies, the C h u r c h - a t - W a r is more necessary t h a n t h e C h u r c h - a t - P e a c e . A c c o r d i n g t o H . Russell R o b i n s o n ’ s illustrated Armour of Imperial Rome, C a e s a r e a n soldiers protected themselves in battle w i t h shields painted red. S i n c e t h e soldiery is the State’s most valuable resource (the C o u n c i l of T r e n t admitted this in preferring t h e Jesuits to all o t h e r religious orders), it is easy to understand w h y t h e red shield was identified w i t h t h e very life of t h e C h u r c h . H e n c e , t h e appropriateness of the n a m e Rothschild, G e r m a n for “red shield.” T h e a p p o i n t m e n t of R o t h s c h i l d gave the

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b l a c k p a p a c y absolute f i n a n c i a l p r i v a c y a n d secrecy. W h o w o u l d e v e r search a family of o r t h o d o x Jews for t h e k e y to the w e a l t h of the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ? I b e l i e v e this a p p o i n t m e n t explains w h y t h e H o u s e of R o t h s c h i l d is famous for h e l p i n g n a t i o n s go to war. It is fascinating that, as M e y e r Rothschild’s sons grew into the family business, the firm t o o k on the title Meyer Amschel Rothschild und Söhne, w h i c h g i v e s us t h e n o t a r i q o n M A R S . Isn’t M a r s t h e R o m a n G o d o f W a r , w h o s e h e a v e n l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s “ t h e red planet”? T h e r e is powerful c a b a l a h here, and there’s hardly an acre of inhabitable earth that hasn’t b e e n affected by it in some way. It may never be k n o w n if John Carroll and Charles Philippe S t o u r t o n paid a c a l l o n t h e offices o f M e y e r R o t h s c h i l d during their G r a n d Tour. C a r r o l l was n o t permitted to k e e p a record, and the R o t h s c h i l d n a m e is synonymous w i t h secrecy. But a call, keeping a “close i n c o g n i t o , ” at t h e H o u s e of R o t h s c h i l d w o u l d n o t be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o u t c o m e . T h e n e w l y - d e s i g n e d Prefect o f t h e Sodality, c h i e f organizer of l a y m e n for social a c t i o n , w o u l d h a v e a l e g i t i m a t e n e e d t o talk f i n a n c e s w i t h t h e C h u r c h ’ s m o s t secret trustee. A s t h i n g s w e r e d e v e l o p i n g , G e n e r a l R i c c i n e e d e d a n A m e r i c a n f i n a n c i a l crisis t o p r o v o k e t h e c o l o n i s t s i n t o r e s o l v i n g the utter necessity of war. C a r r o l l ’ s j o u r n a l reflects t h a t h e and S t o u r t o n did e n t e r t h e Frankfurt-Mainz area, w h i c h is R o t h s c h i l d country, in early spring 1 7 7 2 . I f w e suppose t h e y t a l k e d f i n a n c i a l crisis w i t h t h e R o t h schilds, t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e i r talks a c t u a l l y did o c c u r s e v e r a l m o n t h s later. D u r i n g July, in fact, t h e B r i t i s h b a n k i n g system u n d e r w e n t a severe c r e d i t r e d u c t i o n . T h i s c o n s e q u e n t l y t h r e w A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s i n t o a n e x t r e m e f i n a n c i a l distress t h a t did n o t e n d u n t i l t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W a r itself p r o d u c e d a business b o o m in 1 7 7 6 . R o t h s c h i l d , w i t h his access to Hesse-Hanover’s vast w e a l t h , a n d c o n c e i v a b l y t h a t of t h e Jesuits as w e l l , h a d p o w e r to affect a credit reduction in British b a n k i n g . A n d Rothschild’s profiting f r o m t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W a r is w e l l k n o w n . If, d u r i n g t h e spring of 1 7 7 2 , the circumspect y o u n g Jesuit professor c o n v e y e d to the powerful y o u n g Jewish banker Lorenzo Ricci’s need for a financial disturbance in England and A m e r i c a , didn’t John Carroll

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admirably serve his S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l , his C h u r c h , and his c o u n try? A n d didn’t R o t h s c h i l d do his client likewise? E v e n a s C a r r o l l and S t o u r t o n w e r e n e t w o r k i n g ( a c c o r d i n g t o m y surmise) w i t h R i c c i and t h e b a n k e r s o f war, A m i o t ’ s S u n - T z u was published. Carroll’s c i r c u m s p e c t i o n bars us ever from k n o w i n g w h e t h e r he and S t o u r t o n c a m e u p o n a copy and read it. Did R o t h schild k n o w t h e b o o k ? E v e n i f t h e y k n e w i t w e l l , t h e e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d n o t possibly h a v e b e e n for t h e m the a d v e n t u r e in irony it is for us now. We o p e n The Thirteen Articles and hear the gentle v o i c e of t h e m a n in c h a r g e of t h e papacy’s most i m p o r t a n t business, the m a n w h o d e c i d e d e v e r y t h i n g , w h o w a s i n t h e process o f g a i n i n g a d v a n t a g e from d a n g e r o u s a n d c r i t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w h o s e int e n t i o n s were unguessable, whose decisions were shaping b o t h his o w n army and t h e armies of his E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g P r o t e s t a n t e n e mies, t h e m a n w h o t h r o u g h c l e v e r n e s s a n d ruse h a d already secured t h e o b e d i e n c e o f his e n e m i e s i n L o n d o n a n d B o s t o n and Paris and P h i l a d e l p h i a a l t h o u g h t h e y b e l i e v e d h i m a n d his army to be far away and slumped in rest from sustained losses, t h e m a n w h o w o u l d w i n the most important W a r i n m o d e r n times w i t h o u t g i v i n g battle or d r a w i n g a sword, w h o u n i q u e l y k n e w the day, the hour, the m o m e n t of battle-less, sword-less c o m b a t . Lorenzo Ricci’s v o i c e whispers to us across the centuries b e t w e e n the lines in passages such as these:
5

A State’s most important business is its army. It is the G e n eral who decides everything. If he is clever, he will gain an advantage from even the most dangerous & critical circumstances. He will know how to shape at will, not only the army he is commanding but also that of his enemies. Try to be victorious without giving battle. Without giving battle, without spilling a drop of blood, without even drawing a sword, the clever General succeeds in capturing cities. Without setting foot in a foreign Kingdom, he finds the means to conquer them. He acts in such a way that those who are inferior to him can never guess his intentions. He has them change location, even taking them to rather difficult places where they must work & suffer. Do not disdain the use of artifice. Begin by learning every162

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thing there is to know about your enemies. Know exactly what relationships they have, their reciprocal liaisons & interests. Do not spare large amounts of money. Have spies everywhere, be informed of everything. Overlook nothing to corrupt what is best on the enemy’s side: offers, presents, caresses, let nothing be omitted. Maintain secret liaisons with those amongst the enemy who are the most depraved. Use them for your own ends, along with other depraved individuals. Cross through their government, sowing dissension amongst their Chiefs. Ceaselessly give them false alarms & bad advice. Engage the Governors of their Provinces in your interests. That is approximately what you must do, if you wish to fool them by cleverness & ruse. W h e n a clever General goes into action, the enemy is already defeated. W h e n he fights, he alone must do more than his entire army, not through the strength of his arm but through his prudence, his manner of commanding, & above all his ruses. T h e great secret of solving all problems consists of the art of knowing how to create division when necessary. W h a t is far must be brought near, advantage must be drawn even from losses, and slowness must be turned into diligence. You must be near when the enemy believes you to be far, have a real advantage when the enemy believes you have sustained some losses, be occupied by useful work when he believes you are slumped in rest, and use all sorts of diligence when he only perceives you to be moving slowly. Thus, by throwing him off track, you will lull him to sleep in order to attack him when he expects it the least & without him having the time to prepare for it. As it is essential for you to be completely familiar with the place where you must fight, it is no less important for you to know the day, the hour, even the moment of combat. T h a t is a calculation which you must not neglect. You, therefore, who are at the head of an army must overlook nothing to render yourself worthy of the position you hold. Throw your gaze upon the measurements of quantities & the measurements of dimensions. Remember the rules of calculus. Consider the effects of balance. Examine what victory really is. T h i n k about all of this deeply & you will have everything you need in order to never be defeated by your enemies. They who possess the true art of governing troops well are
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those who have known & who know how to make their power formidable, who have acquired unlimited authority, who are not brought low by any event no matter how vexing, who do nothing with precipitation, who conduct themselves as calmly when they are surprised as they do when their actions have been planned long in advance, and who always act in everything they do with that promptness which is in fact the fruit of cleverness combined with great experience. T h e strength of this sort of warrior is like that of those great bows which can only be stretched with the help of some machine. Their authority has the effect of those terrible weapons which are shot from bows which are thus stretched. Everything succumbs to their blows, everything is laid low.... If you do exactly as I have indicated, success will accompany all your steps. Everywhere you will be a conqueror, you will spare the lives of your soldiers, you will affirm your country in its former possessions and procure new ones, you will augment the splendor & glory of the State, and the Prince as well as his subjects will be indebted to you for the sweet tranquility in which they will henceforth live their lives. W h a t objects can be more worthy of your attention & all your efforts?

C

H A R L E S Philippe Stourton and John Carroll departed R o m e for Flanders i n M a r c h 1 7 7 3 . T h e j o u r n e y t o o k t h e m four

m o n t h s . T h e y passed t h r o u g h F l o r e n c e , G e n o a , Lyons, and Paris, arriving at L i è g e in early July. J o h n returned C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e to

his father, Lord S t o u r t o n , and p r o c e e d e d a l o n e t o t h e Jesuit C o l lege at Bruges. M e a n w h i l e , in L o n d o n , during the m o n t h of A p r i l , the British East India C o m p a n y presented the King’s Friends a s c h e m e w h i c h , i f m e a s u r e d b y t h e w a y i t w o u l d a n g e r A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s and p o i n t t h e m i n e x o r a b l y t o w a r d r e b e l l i o n , c o u l d o n l y h a v e sprung from the S u n - T z u a n i n t e l l e c t of L o r e n z o R i c c i – “I demand the art of making enemies move as one wishes.” T h a t s c h e m e , a p l a n to glut N e w England w i t h c h e a p tea, is the subject of our n e x t chapter.

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KING GEORGE III

Chapter

18

THE STIMULATING EFFECTS OF TEA

T

H E E A S T I N D I A C O M P A N Y was a major subsidizer o f t h e Je1

suit m i s s i o n t o B e i j i n g .

T h e Jesuits, i n t u r n , i n t e r c e d e d

w i t h o r i e n t a l m o n a r c h s t o secure l u c r a t i v e c o m m e r c i a l fa-

vors for t h e C o m p a n y , i n c l u d i n g m o n o p o l i e s on tea, spices, saltaccording to Reid’s Commerce and Conquest: The Story of the Honourable East India Company, the C o m p a n y appears to o w e its very e x i s t e n c e to t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. H o w this c a m e to be is w o r t h a digression. Briefly, in 1583, four young c o m m e r c i a l travelers – Fitch, N e w bery, Leeds, and Storey – set out from L o n d o n w i t h letters of introduction from Queen Elizabeth to the Emperor of China. S o m e w h e r e east of the Persian Gulf, they were arrested by the Portuguese for illegally crossing t h e “ l i n e of d e m a r c a t i o n . ” P o p e Alessandro VI (whose mistress, we recall, was G i u l i a Farnese, Paul Ill’s b e a u t i f u l sister) h a d d r a w n t h e line i n 1493 from t h e N o r t h
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peter (for e x p l o s i v e s ) , silks, and the world’s o p i u m trade. I n d e e d ,

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P o l e t h r o u g h t h e A z o r e s t o t h e S o u t h P o l e . A l l lands west o f the line he granted to S p a i n and those east to Portugal. T h e four violators were sent in chains to the Portuguese c o l o n y of G o a on the western coast of India. In G o a , they were rescued by a fellow c o u n t r y m a n , T h o m a s S t e v e n s . S t e v e n s had influence. He was R e c t o r of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of G o a , and he was a Jesuit priest. Father S t e v e n s arranged their release, but apparently n o t w i t h o u t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . S t o r e y j o i n e d t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. N e w b e r y and L e e d e s a c c e p t e d posts i n t h e G o a n c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t . R a l p h F i t c h p r o c e e d e d o n t o C h i n a , e v i d e n t l y under a n I g n a t i a n o a t h , otherwise the Portuguese V i c e r o y w o u l d n o t h a v e permitted h i m to carry on. In 1 5 9 1 , Fitch returned to England and, like M a r c o P o l o before h i m , tantalized adventurers w i t h the lucrative possibilities of transp o r t i n g to the w e s t e r n h e m i s p h e r e all t h e o r i e n t a l splendors h e ’ d seen. Eight years later, on S e p t e m b e r 24, 1 5 9 9 , w i t h a subscription of a little more t h a n £30, F i t c h and several others formed the East India C o m p a n y . A n d now, i n 1 7 7 3 , t h e East India C o m p a n y was g o v e r n e d b y F r e e m a s o n s , w h o s e G r a n d M a s t e r since 1 7 7 2 was t h e n i n t h Lord Petre (his mastery w o u l d c o n t i n u e u n t i l 1 7 7 7 ) . R e l a t e d t o the S t o u r t o n s , N o r f o l k s , and A r u n d e l l s , the Petre family ( p r o n o u n c e d “ P e t e r ” ) was h i g h l y e s t e e m e d by t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. It was t h e Petres w h o , b a c k in t h e s i x t e e n t h century, bankrolled the original Jesuit missions to England. T h e East India C o m p a n y ’ s most powerful political a t t a c h é was R o b e r t Petty, Lord S h e l b u r n e . We recall S h e l b u r n e as “ T h e Jesuit o f B e r k e l e y S q u a r e ” w h o w o r k e d i n 1 7 6 3 w i t h Lord B u t e t o c o n clude the F r e n c h and Indian W a r s w i t h the Treaty of Paris, w h i c h isolated England from European alliances and angered the A m e r i c a n s o v e r t h e w e s t e r n lands. A c t i n g o n East India C o m p a n y ’ s behalf, S h e l b u r n e c o l l u d e d w i t h t h e K i n g ’ s Friends on a s c h e m e designed t o disturb the relative p e a c e w h i c h had e x i s t e d b e t w e e n A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s and E n g l a n d s i n c e t h e repeal o f the T o w n shend A c t s in 1 7 7 0 . It w e n t like this. S t o r e d i n t h e C o m p a n y ’ s d o c k s i d e British w a r e h o u s e s were

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s e v e n t e e n m i l l i o n p o u n d s o f surplus tea. T h i s tea c o u l d n o t b e released for sale until a duty of o n e shilling per p o u n d was paid to t h e C r o w n . I f t h e K i n g w o u l d e x e m p t t h e C o m p a n y from p a y i n g the shilling duty, the C o m p a n y w o u l d sell the tea t h r o u g h special c o n s i g n e e s t o A m e r i c a n s a t prices l o w e r t h a n t h e c o l o n i s t s were paying for either the dutied English tea or the smuggled D u t c h tea. E v e r y o n e w o u l d w i n . T h e A m e r i c a n t e a - d r i n k e r s , still suffering from t h e depressive effects of t h e British b a n k i n g crisis of July 1 7 7 2 , w o u l d w i n . East India C o m p a n y w o u l d w i n . A n d w i t h a w i n d f a l l duty of n o t o n e b u t three s h i l l i n g s a p o u n d , t h e C r o w n w o u l d w i n . T h e o n l y loser w o u l d b e t h e c o l o n i a l tea m e r c h a n t s , w h o h a d b e e n e n j o y i n g n i c e profits o n b o t h d u t i e d and smuggled tea. T h e King’s Friends directed Parliament to put the scheme into law, and on M a y 10, 1 7 7 3 , the “Tea A c t ” w e n t into effect. Predictably, t h e t e a m e r c h a n t s reacted i n fury. O v e r t h e n e x t six m o n t h s , t h e y pressed t h e i n t e r c o l o n i a l n e t w o r k o f dissident propagandists t o h e l p t h e m m o u n t a protest. W h a t b e g a n a s a n injustice against tea m e r c h a n t s was amplified by the propagandists into a widely-felt injustice against the colonies g e n e r a l l y . . . .

T

H E N , o n July 2 1 , 1 7 7 3 , G a n g a n e l l i , C l e m e n t XIV, a b o l i s h e d

t h e Jesuits “for all e t e r n i t y . ” His brief of d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t is

e n t i t l e d Dominus ac Redemptor noster, w h i c h is usually translated “ G o d a n d O u r R e d e e m e r . ” W e should n o t e t h a t “redemptor” also m e a n s “ r e v e n u e a g e n t . ” C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the brief’s real effect in the l o n g t e r m was a d r a m a t i c increase in p a p a l r e v e n u e s from a n e w F e b r o n i a n A m e r i c a , perhaps “ G o d and O u r R e v e n u e A g e n t ” would be a more appropriate translation, if n o t the intended one. A l t h o u g h C a t h o l i c history calls the Disestablishment “a supreme tragedy,” J o h n C a r r o l l more accurately appraised it as the “secularisation” of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. T h o u s a n d s of Jesuits n o w rose to secular p r o m i n e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d , in t h e arts, sciences, and g o v e r n m e n t . R a i m o n d o X i m e n e s b e c a m e a radical F r e e m a s o n . A l e s s a n d r o Zorzi from V e n i c e j o i n e d t h e editors of t h e I t a l i a n Encyclopedia. Dr. B o s c o v i c h arrived in Paris w h e r e his scientific reputation secured h i m the post of Director of O p t i c s

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o f t h e F r e n c h N a v y . E s t e b a n A r t e a g a b e c a m e a m u s i c c r i t i c and p u b l i s h e d a b o o k in Paris e n t i t l e d The Revolution in the Italian Musical Theatre. W e ’ v e already seen h o w Professor Joseph-Ignace G u i l l o t i n of the Bordeaux C o l l e g e became the physician who g a v e F r a n c e t h e b e h e a d i n g m a c h i n e n a m e d after h i m . A d a m W e i s h a u p t , dismissed from the Jesuit college at Ingolstadt, attracted the fiercer e l e m e n t s of European R o s i c r u c i a n Freemasonry into a n e w secret c u l t in B a v a r i a . H i s “ I l l u m i n a t i , ” w h o s e c o v e r was e v e n t u a l l y b l o w n i n order t o c o n v i n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h a t evil secret societies were b e i n g diligently u n m a s k e d w h e n in fact they were n o t – was a n o t h e r instance of “ b l o w n c o v e r as cover.” C o u n t less o t h e r members of the greatest c l a n d e s t i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e agency t h e w o r l d has e v e r k n o w n , n o w secularized w i t h t h e j e e r i n g approval of its e n e m i e s , crossed the A t l a n t i c to h e l p guide A m e r i cans t h r o u g h t h e pains o f b e c o m i n g t h e first n a t i o n expressly d e s i g n e d to be a F e b r o n i a n , B e l l a r m i n i a n d e m o c r a t i c r e p u b l i c a n C h u r c h - S t a t e . W h a t a n amazing p r o d u c t i o n , all t h e more impressive for the c o m p l e t e invisibility of its means! W e ’ v e seen h o w the Brief of Disestablishment was served u p o n L o r e n z o R i c c i i n m i d - A u g u s t , and h o w t h e G e n e r a l was r e m o v e d to t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e a few b l o c k s away, w h e r e he r e m a i n e d for five w e e k s , u n t i l late S e p t e m b e r . Interestingly, t h e D e a n o f t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e at t h a t t i m e was a t h i r t y - t w o - y e a r - o l d Jesuit professor of c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h e o l o g y n a m e d J o h n Mattingly. M a t t i n g l y was a n A m e r i c a n , said t o b e t h e l o n e A m e r i c a n Jesuit i n R o m e . He was a n a t i v e of M a r y l a n d , a graduate of St. O m e r ’ s , and a dear friend of J o h n C a r r o l l , w h o (as we k n o w ) had departed R o m e five m o n t h s before R i c c i ’ s arrest. W i t h i n fifteen years, C a r r o l l w o u l d invite M a t t i n g l y to b e c o m e the first president of G e o r g e t o w n U n i versity, an offer M a t t i n g l y would decline. W h a t m i g h t L o r e n z o R i c c i b e l i k e l y t o discuss for five w e e k s (a) u n d e r a B r i t i s h roof, (b) in t h e c u s t o d y of a y o u n g A m e r i c a n Jesuit, (c) at a t i m e w h e n A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s w e r e i n c e n s e d at b e i n g c h e a t e d o u t of t h e i r tea profits by a n e w law (d) sponsored b y British F r e e m a s o n s , (e) w h o s e G r a n d M a s t e r h a p p e n e d t o b e Ricci’s secret servant?

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T H E S T I M U L A T I N G EFFECTS O F T E A

M i g h t the G e n e r a l h a v e b e e n conferring w i t h members o f the B r i t i s h East India C o m p a n y , o n e o f t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e ’ s major patrons? M i g h t t h e i r discussions h a v e i n v o l v e d t o w h i c h A m e r i c a n ports t h e i r tea m i g h t b e most a d v a n t a g e o u s l y s h i p p e d , and w h e n ? A p p a r e n t l y so, for w h i l e R i c c i was residing at t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e , P a r l i a m e n t a u t h o r i z e d t h e East India C o m p a n y t o ship h a l f a m i l l i o n p o u n d s o f tea t o B o s t o n , N e w York, P h i l a d e l p h i a , a n d C h a r l e s t o n , c o n s i g n e d to a group of s p e c i a l l y - c h o s e n merchants. M i g h t R i c c i h a v e b e e n formulating w i t h Carroll’s friend M a t tingly plans for a d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n t e n d e d to c l i m a x the agitations that h a d b e e n f o m e n t e d in the c o l o n i e s since the b e g i n n i n g of his g e n e r a l a t e , in 1758? M i g h t he h a v e suggested a spectacular e v e n t to o c c u r in, say, B o s t o n Harbor, symbolizing t h e colonists’ frustrations w i t h E n g l a n d ? A n d m i g h t n o t P a r l i a m e n t respond t o this e v e n t w i t h v e n g e f u l measures designed to push the colonists over t h e brink of r e b e l l i o n ? A r e n ’ t five w e e k s sufficient t i m e to script s u c h a “ B o s t o n T e a Party,” a l o n g w i t h t h e h a r s h legal measures with w h i c h it might be punished? As well as how the colonists’ violent reaction to the punishment might be coordinated? O u t c o m e suggests t h a t R i c c i did more in his five w e e k s at the English C o l l e g e t h a n languish in custody. W e h a v e s e e n h o w t h e G e n e r a l was t a k e n from t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e to C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o , w i t h its secret t u n n e l to the papal apartments in the V a t i c a n . For m a n y m o n t h s after his “imprisonm e n t , ” Lorenzo R i c c i was “questioned by the Inquisition,” according t o t r a d i t i o n a l C h u r c h history. B u t t h e I n q u i s i t i o n h a d b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d b y Jesuits s i n c e 1 5 4 2 . N o t surprisingly, t h e inquisitors pried absolutely no useful information out of Lorenzo R i c c i . . . .

I

N O c t o b e r o f 1 7 7 3 , A u s t r i a n officials w i t h d r a w n b a y o n e t s d e s c e n d e d u p o n the Jesuit C o l l e g e in Bruges – the officials were

A u s t r i a n because Bruges was under t h e jurisdiction of t h e A u s t r i an g o v e r n m e n t . T h e y arrested John C a r r o l l and the rest of the college faculty and s t u d e n t s . S t r i p p e d of his possessions and papers, C a r r o l l was spared further h u m i l i a t i o n by the timely intercession

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o f his erstwhile t r a v e l i n g c o m p a n i o n C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e S t o u r t o n ’ s cousin, H e n r y H o w a r d , Lord A r u n d e l l o f W i l t s h i r e . T h e C a t h o l i c n o b l e m a n e s c o r t e d C a r r o l l across t h e E n g l i s h C h a n n e l t o W i l t shire’s lushly r o l l i n g h i l l s . O n his family estate n e a r Tisbury, Howard had been constructing a Palladian mansion, N e w Wardour C a s t l e . O n e of Carroll’s duties was to write his version of the c l o s i n g o f Bruges C o l l e g e i n order t o h e l p H e n r y H o w a r d and o t h e r English sponsors o f t h e c o l l e g e w i n d a m a g e s from the A u s trian g o v e r n m e n t . His principal chore, h o w e v e r , was to administer t h e C h a p e l o c c u p y i n g N e w W a r d o u r C a s t l e ’ s w e s t w i n g . I n this w a y C a r r o l l e s t a b l i s h e d a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H e n r y H o w a r d ’ s art a g e n t in R o m e , a Jesuit n a m e d Francis T h o r p e . T h o r p e was a
2

r e n o w n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e - b r o k e r , a m a n w h o s e k n o w l e d g e of R o m e , its h a p p e n i n g s and resources, was legendary. His a p a r t m e n t was a favorite m e e t i n g place for visiting English nobility, and his favorite E n g l i s h n o b l e m a n was H e n r y H o w a r d .
3

Howard had put Father

T h o r p e in charge of “every detail, every aspect of the Chapel’s design.” Father T h o r p e and J o h n C a r r o l l n e e d e d n o i n t r o d u c t i o n to o n e another. From the editor’s notes to Carroll’s letters, we learn that T h o r p e t a u g h t at St. O m e r ’ s during the years J o h n was a student there. Moreover, he was Carroll’s favorite instructor. T h e s e remarkable facts suggest interesting probabilities. From Tisbury, in less t h a n a day, C a r r o l l could reach B e n j a m i n Franklin’s r e s i d e n c e i n L o n d o n b y s t a g e c o a c h . F r a n k l i n , for h i s s c i e n t i f i c a c h i e v e m e n t s and e n l i g h t e n e d e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , h a d l o n g b e e n the toast of Europe, a darling of Jesuit intellectuals. He was the e x c l u sive c o l o n i a l a g e n t now, representing t h e c o m m e r c i a l interests of all t h i r t e e n c o l o n i e s before the C r o w n . Franklin k n e w more about A m e r i c a t h a n a n y o n e else living in England, and more about England t h a n any o t h e r A m e r i c a n . Francis T h o r p e k n e w more about E n g l a n d t h a n a n y o n e else l i v i n g i n R o m e , and more a b o u t R o m e t h a n any other Englishman. A n d b o t h m e n k n e w John C a r r o l l well. A n d there C a r r o l l was, for the six m o n t h s during w h i c h time t h e Tea A c t erupted i n t o t h e most e x p l o s i v e scandal o f t h e r e v o lutionary epoch, poised i n Tisbury to facilitate information

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b e t w e e n these t w o personal friends of his, geniuses, institutions. But where is the evidence that anything bearing on the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n transpired b e t w e e n R i c c i and T h o r p e and C a r r o l l and F r a n k l i n a n d H o w a r d and t h e e n t i r e A n g l o - A m e r i c a n M a s o n i c system? W e are left w i t h n o t h i n g but clues and o u t c o m e , w h i c h nonetheless emphatically point to a fruitful collaboration. D u r i n g t h e n i g h t o f D e c e m b e r 1 6 , 1 7 7 3 , a g a n g o f Indians c l i m b e d aboard certain ships in B o s t o n Harbor, ripped o p e n three h u n d r e d f o r t y - t w o o f t h e East India C o m p a n y ’ s t e a - c h e s t s a n d t h r e w o v e r b o a r d t h e i r c o n t e n t s , v a l u e d a t $90,000. W e l l , t h e y looked like I n d i a n s , a n d witnesses thought t h e y w e r e I n d i a n s , but the big o p e n secret was that they were Freemasons in disguise. Perhaps t h e most s u c c i n c t s t a t e m e n t o n t h e subject appears i n respected M a s o n i c historian A r t h u r Edward Waite’s New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry: “ T h e Boston Tea Party was entirely M a s o n i c , carried o u t by m e m b e r s of t h e S t . John’s L o d g e d u r i n g an adjourned meeting.” P a r l i a m e n t reacted to the B o s t o n T e a Party in a way c a l c u l a t ed to increase dozens of r o l l i n g boulders i n t o a d e v a s t a t i n g landslide. W i t h o u t seriously i n q u i r i n g i n t o w h o was r e s p o n s i b l e , and w h o l l y disregarding t h e offer of more t h a n a hundred B o s t o n merc h a n t s to m a k e r e s t i t u t i o n , P a r l i a m e n t rushed i n t o law a mass of u n r e a s o n a b l y p u n i t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n – c l o s i n g t h e port of B o s t o n to trade, forbidding t o w n meetings w i t h o u t the c o n s e n t of the governor, d e n y i n g the Massachusetts legislature the right to c h o o s e the governor’s c o u n c i l , providing for the quartering of British and Hessian troops in t h e c o l o n y , and ordering t h a t any officer or soldier of t h e C r o w n accused of an a c t of v i o l e n c e in t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of his duty should be sent to a n o t h e r c o l o n y or to E n g l a n d for w h a t would surely be a sweetheart trial. T o c o m p l e t e t h e o v e r k i l l , P a r l i a m e n t passed t h e Q u e b e c A c t , w h i c h c u t off the claims of Massachusetts, C o n n e c t i c u t , V i r g i n i a , and N e w Y o r k t o t h e i r w e s t e r n lands, a n d p l a c e d these lands, t o add insult to injury, u n d e r t h e F r e n c h C a t h o l i c j u r i s d i c t i o n of Quebec.
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S o e x a g g e r a t e d l y o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e offense t h e y were framed to punish, these notorious “Intolerable A c t s ” caused every class o f A m e r i c a n t o sympathize w i t h t h e T e a Partyers. Suddenly, i n d e p e n d e n c e was n o l o n g e r a radical a l t e r n a t i v e . T h e I n t o l e r a bles r e n d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n c e t h e s u b j e c t o f sensible, serious c o n versation as n e v e r before. G o v e r n o r H u t c h i n s o n was recalled to England a n d was r e p l a c e d b y G e n e r a l T h o m a s G a g e , w h o b r o u g h t a n army o f four thousand m e n to quarter in Boston. G a g e v o w e d severe discipline. T h e c o l o n i s t s v o w e d severe r e s i s t a n c e . “ T h e die i s c a s t , ” G e o r g e III wrote to Lord N o r t h . “ T h e colonies must either triumph or submit.”

J

O H N C a r r o l l left W a r d o u r C a s t l e i n M a y 1 7 7 4 a n d sailed for M a r y l a n d to reunite w i t h his aged and w i d o w e d mother, the for-

mer E l e a n o r D a r n a l l , w h o m h e h a d n o t s e e n i n t w e n t y - f i v e years.

T h e history o f E l e a n o r D a r n a l l i s t h e history o f M a r y l a n d , w h i c h bears some reflection here. I n 1 6 2 5 , a t a b o u t t h e t i m e y o u n g C h a r l e s S t u a r t was i n h e r i t ing the throne of England from his father, K i n g James I, the Jesuits c o n v e r t e d a h i g h g o v e r n m e n t official to R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . T h a t official was Secretary of State G e o r g e C a l v e r t , t h e first Lord Baltim o r e . For t h e sake of a p p e a r a n c e s – it was d e e m e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e for a C a t h o l i c to serve a C a l v i n i s t m o n a r c h – B a l t i m o r e resigned his post. M e a n w h i l e , b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s t h e Jesuits p e r f e c t e d a n a u d a c i o u s marriage a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n C h a r l e s , n o w K i n g C h a r l e s I, and a R o m a n C a t h o l i c princess, H e n r i e t t e - M a r i e , sister of Louis XIII of F r a n c e . T h e marriage p u r p o r t e d to be g o o d for C h a r l e s ’ e c o n o m i c interests. He w e n t out of his way to a c c o m m o date t h e Jesuits. A l t h o u g h a S c o t t i s h C a l v i n i s t , C h a r l e s c o n d u c t ed his m o n a r c h y in m a n y respects as t h o u g h it w e r e R o m a n C a t h o l i c . H e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w e a k e n e d England’s f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o w a r d C a t h o l i c F r a n c e , t h e c o u n t r y o f his Q u e e n . H e p r o m o t e d to the highest levels in the C h u r c h of England members of the H i g h C h u r c h Party, c l e r g y m e n sympathetic w i t h R o m a n C a t h o l i c ritual and traditions. A n d he squandered England’s resources in a pointless, Jesuit-engineered war w i t h Spain.
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S e v e n years i n t o his marriage w i t h H e n r i e t t e - M a r i e , C h a r l e s f o u n d h i m s e l f stuck b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l i n d e b t e d n e s s t o I g n a t i a n creditors and a stingy P a r l i a m e n t . In h o p e s of g e n e r a t i n g tax revenues abroad, he c a r v e d a feudal b a r o n y o u t of n o r t h e r n V i r g i n i a and granted it to Lord Baltimore. But Baltimore died before develo p i n g t h e grant. T h e c h a r t e r passed d o w n t o his son, C e c i l i u s Calvert. C a l v e r t , the n e w Lord B a l t i m o r e , called persecuted emigrants desiring religious and t a x f r e e d o m to p a r t i c i p a t e in a v o y a g e to a p l a c e b e a r i n g a n a m e dear to C a t h o l i c s “ M a r y l a n d , ” after t h e Blessed V i r g i n . B a l t i m o r e did n o t n e g l e c t a p p e a l i n g to t h e irreligious n i c h e as w e l l . A n u m b e r of his a d v e r t i s e m e n t s spoke of the limitless opportunities from settling in “Merrie Land.” On N o v e m b e r 22, 1 6 3 3 , t w o ships, t h e Ark and t h e Dove, set sail from L o n d o n . T h e passenger list included three Jesuits, sixteen t o t w e n t y R o m a n C a t h o l i c g e n t l e m e n , several h u n d r e d predominantly Protestant slaves and laborers, and C e c i l i u s Calvert’s brother L e o n a r d . L e o n a r d C a l v e r t had b e e n a p p o i n t e d Maryland’s first g o v e r n o r . T h e v o y a g e of t h e Ark a n d t h e Dove was spiritually directed by a Jesuit priest n a m e d A n d r e w W h i t e . Educated at b o t h S t . O m e r ’ s and D o u a i , a professor for t w e n t y years in P o r t u g a l , S p a i n , and Flanders, A n d r e w W h i t e is remembered by the C h u r c h as “ t h e A p o s t l e to Maryland.” C h o o s i n g an Andrew for t h e task was g o o d l i t u r g i c a l c a b a l a h o n t h e part o f t h e G e s u . A n d r e w was t h e b r o t h e r o f t h e apostle Peter, t h e first P o p e , t h e R o c k u p o n w h o m R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m claims to be established. A n d r e w is t h e P a t r o n S a i n t of S c o t l a n d ; K i n g C h a r l e s I was a S c o t . A personal representative of the king’s brotherly attitude toward R o m e could not be more eloquently identified t h a n b y the simple n a m e “ A n d r e w . ” A n d r e w W h i t e c o n secrated t h e M a r y l a n d v o y a g e t o t w o C a t h o l i c saints: t h e V i r g i n Mary, Protectress of the Jesuits, and Ignatius L o y o l a , only recently decreed Patron S a i n t of Maryland by U r b a n V I I I , the second pupil of Jesuits to be elected Pope. T h e ships were at sea nearly four m o n t h s . Finally, one hundred t w e n t y - t h r e e days from E n g l a n d , o n M a r c h 2 5 , 1 6 3 4 , t h e parties r e a c h e d S t . C l e m e n t s Island i n t h e m o u t h o f t h e P o t o m a c River.
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It was an auspicious day. N o t o n l y was M a r c h 25 t h e first day of spring, but also it was the first day of t h e Julian calendar. (In 1 7 5 2 the colonies would adopt the G r e g o r i a n calendar, w h i c h we follow today.) O n M a r c h 2 5 , A n d r e w W h i t e read t h e first R o m a n Mass ever h e l d in any of the original thirteen colonies. T h e n he formally t o o k possession of t h e land “for our S a v i o u r and for our S o v e r eign Lord K i n g of England.” M a r y l a n d h i s t o r i a n s trace t h e j u r i d i c a l origins o f t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h in the U n i t e d States to a P a t u x e n t Indian chieftain’s w i g w a m , w h i c h A n d r e w W h i t e d e n o t e d in his diary “the first c h a p e l o f Maryland.” W h i t e introduced R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m t o the P a t u x e n t s , A n a c o s t i c s , and P i s c a t a w a y s o n real estate t h a t today c o m p r i s e s t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a . It’s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a ’ s e x e c u t i v e m a n s i o n was t e r m e d “ W h i t e H o u s e ” less because of a c o l o r of e x t e r i o r p a i n t t h a n out of revere n c e for t h e A p o s t l e t o M a r y l a n d . E v e r y u t t e r a n c e o f “ W h i t e H o u s e ” should fill t h e historically k n o w l e d g e a b l e Jesuit w i t h pride in his Society’s a c h i e v e m e n t s . C o n v e r s i o n s a m o n g t h e I n d i a n s r a n h i g h , but t h e S o c i e t y e n j o y e d greater profits e v a n g e l i z i n g Protestants. For every Protest a n t settler c o n v e r t e d , t h e Jesuits w o n a land grant from C e c i l i u s C a l v e r t . O t h e r lands C a l v e r t retained and passed on to his descendants. O v e r t h e g e n e r a t i o n s , R o c k C r e e k Farm w i t h its “ R o m e , ” o n w h i c h t h e U . S . C a p i t o l was e r e c t e d , d e v o l v e d t o t h e C a l v e r t heiress E l e a n o r D a r n a l l and h e r h u s b a n d , a n Irish i m m i g r a n t w h o s e marriage and abilities h a d e a r n e d e n o u g h m o n e y t o m a k e h i m a prosperous m e r c h a n t - p l a n t e r . It was to this c o u p l e , and on this land, that the first A m e r i c a n bishop was born in 1 7 3 5 . L i k e his older b r o t h e r D a n i e l , Jacky C a r r o l l did his earliest s c h o o l i n g at B o h e m i a M a n o r , a secret Jesuit a c a d e m y just d o w n t h e road. B o h e m i a M a n o r h a d t o b e r u n secretly b e c a u s e o f antiC a t h o l i c laws resulting from t h e a b d i c a t i o n of C a t h o l i c James II and the succession of Protestants W i l l i a m and Mary to t h e British t h r o n e i n 1 6 8 9 . T h e P e n a l Period i n M a r y l a n d , w h i c h w o u l d e x tend up to the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , served the black papacy well by inclining affluent C a t h o l i c families to send their sons across the

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A t l a n t i c to t a k e t h e Jesuit ratio studiorum at S t . O m e r ’ s . I n d e e d , more A m e r i c a n s w e n t t o S t . O m e r ’ s C o l l e g e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century t h a n to O x f o r d and C a m b r i d g e c o m b i n e d .
4

A t t h e t e n d e r age o f t h i r t e e n , Jacky sailed t o Europe w i t h his e v e n younger cousin, C h a r l e s C a r r o l l , for s c h o o l i n g at St. Omer’s. D a n i e l returned h o m e from there to h e l p manage the family interests he stood to inherit. In 1 7 5 3 , Jacky entered the n o v i t i a t e of the Jesuits a t W a t t e n i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s . C h a r l e s w e n t o n t o study pre-law a t Voltaire’s a l m a mater, t h e C o l l è g e L o u i s - l e - G r a n d i n Paris. I n 1 7 5 8 , Jacky r e t u r n e d t o S t . O m e r ’ s t o t e a c h , w h i l e C h a r l e s crossed t h e C h a n n e l t o E n g l a n d , e n r o l l i n g i n L o n d o n ’ s p r e m i e r s c h o o l for barristers, t h e I n n e r T e m p l e , f o u n d e d in the fourteenth century by the K n i g h t s Templar.
5

Jacky was ordained to the Jesuit priesthood in 1 7 6 1 . W h e n he learned t h a t St. O m e r ’ s was about to be seized by t h e F r e n c h gove r n m e n t in p r e p a r a t i o n for t h e royal e d i c t suppressing t h e Jesuits i n F r a n c e , h e w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r pupils m o v e d t o Bruges. I n 1 7 6 9 , h e r e n o u n c e d his C a l v e r t i n h e r i t a n c e , s l o u g h e d off his n i c k n a m e , t o o k the e x t r e m e Jesuit v o w of papal o b e d i e n c e , and b e g a n t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y and t h e o l o g y a t t h e E n g l i s h c o l lege i n L i è g e . I t was h e r e t h a t h e b e f r i e n d e d C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e S t o u r t o n , his G r a n d Tour c o m p a n i o n .

J

O H N Carroll’s arrival a t his mother’s h o m e i n M a r y l a n d c o i n c i d ed w i t h Paul R e v e r e ’ s ride to P h i l a d e l p h i a b e a r i n g letters from Boston Committee of Correspondence s e e k i n g aid from

the

C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s group in protesting the closing of B o s t o n Harbor. From his mother’s estate at R o c k C r e e k , C a r r o l l dealt w i t h the a f t e r m a t h o f t h e T e a A c t b y e x e r c i s i n g h i s “ s e c u l a r i s e d ” priestly authority as Prefect of the Sodality. He integrated the C a t h o l i c s of M a r y l a n d , P e n n s y l v a n i a , and n o r t h e r n V i r g i n i a i n t o t h e m o v e m e n t for i n d e p e n d e n c e . C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s P h i l a d e l p h i a c o m m i t t e e sent B o s t o n a letter of support. T h e c o m m i t t e e additionally proposed a congress of deputies from the c o l o n i e s to (a) consider measures to restore harm o n y w i t h G r e a t Britain and (b) p r e v e n t the dispute from advanc-

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ing t o “ a n u n d e s i r a b l e e n d . ” T h o m s o n t h e n n o t i f i e d all t h e c o l o n i e s s o u t h of P e n n s y l v a n i a of his c o m m i t t e e ’ s a c t i o n . He suggested t h e n e c e s s i t y of c a l l i n g a g e n e r a l congress to c o n s i d e r t h e problem. C o m b i n e d w i t h a similar call from the V i r g i n i a House of Burgesses, his s u g g e s t i o n was a p p r o v e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o l o n i e s . Plans were laid for t h e First C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s to m e e t at Philadelphia in September. O n June 1 , 1 7 7 4 , t h e bill c l o s i n g B o s t o n H a r b o r w e n t i n t o effect. T h o m s o n ’ s radicals led P h i l a d e l p h i a in o b s e r v i n g a day of mourning. Shops closed, churches held services, the people r e m a i n e d quietly i n t h e i r h o m e s . O n June 8 , T h o m s o n and more t h a n n i n e hundred freeholders petitioned G o v e r n o r R i c h a r d P e n n to c o n v e n e the Pennsylvania Assembly so that it might consider s e n d i n g d e l e g a t e s t o a n a l l - c o l o n y congress t o e x p l o r e w a y s o f restoring h a r m o n y and peace to the British Empire. T h e G o v e r n o r refused their request, w h i c h justified T h o m s o n ’ s taking a c t i o n outside the established order. T h o m s o n c a l l e d for a t o w n m e e t i n g t o b e h e l d o n June 18. N e a r l y 8,000 P h i l a d e l p h i a n s attended. Boisterously, they resolved that the closing of B o s t o n Harbor was tyrannical, and that a C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s to secure the rights and liberties of the colonies must be c o n v e n e d in Philadelphia. In July, the P e n n s y l v a n i a A s s e m b l y yielded to T h o m s o n ’ s popular pressure and agreed to n a m e a d e l e g a t i o n to this First C o n t i n e n t a l Congress. T h o m s o n , h o w e v e r , was n o t n a m e d . T h a n k s t o t h e p u b l i c i t y from his “First C i t i z e n / S e c o n d C i t i zen” m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n during t h e first h a l f o f 1 7 7 3 , C h a r l e s C a r roll was n a m e d b y t h e A n n a p o l i s C o m m i t t e e o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e to be a delegate to the First C o n t i n e n t a l Congress. But he declined the n o m i n a t i o n . He said that his usefulness m i g h t be restricted by anti-Catholic sentiment engendered by the Quebec A c t (with w h i c h Parliament had a v e n g e d the B o s t o n Tea Party by g i v i n g the w e s t e r n lands o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , C o n n e c t i c u t , V i r g i n i a , and N e w York t o C a t h o l i c Q u e b e c ) . H e a t t e n d e d t h e C o n g r e s s , h o w e v e r , but as an “ u n o f f i c i a l c o n s u l t a n t ” to t h e M a r y l a n d e r s . C h a r l e s T h o m s o n a c c o m p a n i e d the Pennsylvanians in the same capacity.

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T o prepare for t h e S e p t e m b e r 5 t h o p e n i n g session, d e l e g a t e s b e g a n arriving i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n late A u g u s t . T h e y c o n g r e g a t e d at a w e l l - k n o w n radical m e e t i n g - p l a c e , t h e e l e g a n t m a n s i o n of T h o m a s Mifflin. Mifflin h a d studied classics under C h a r l e s T h o m son a t B e n j a m i n Franklin’s A c a d e m y (later t o b e c o m e U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a ) . T h e y were close friends. As Mifflin’s houseguest, T h o m s o n was o n h a n d r o u n d t h e c l o c k t o greet and c o n f e r w i t h t h e a r r i v i n g leaders, m o s t o f w h o m already k n e w h i m b y n a m e . J o h n A d a m s ’ diary entry for A u g u s t 3 0 t h speaks of “ m u c h c o n v e r sation” he and his fellow delegates h a d w i t h the learned T h o m s o n . He called T h o m s o n “the Sam A d a m s of Philadelphia,” and “the life of the cause of liberty.” T h o m s o n and the Carrolls – C h a r l e s , Daniel, and John – spent these critical preliminary days lobbying for the inevitability of war. T h o m s o n was already h e a v i l y invested in N e w Jersey’s Batso Furn a c e . B a t s o w o u l d furnish c a n n o n balls, shot, k e t t l e s , spikes and nails t o the army t h r o u g h the W a r C o m m i s s i o n e r , w h o c o n t r o l l e d all the e x e c u t i v e duties of the military department. T h e W a r C o m missioner was just t h e m a n L o r e n z o R i c c i n e e d e d for t h e j o b : Charles Carroll. T h o m s o n was elected Secretary of the First C o n t i n e n t a l C o n gress, an office he h e l d u n d e r t h e title “Perpetual S e c r e t a r y ” until the U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified i n 1 7 8 9 . H e led t h e delegates t h r o u g h a n itemized s t a t e m e n t o f the A m e r i c a n theory o f r e b e l l i o n t h a t c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e c r i t i c a l D e c l a r a t i o n and Resolves of O c t o b e r 14, 1 7 7 4 .

I

T was w h i l e t h e First C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s was d e l i b e r a t i n g A m e r i c a ’ s future u n d e r B r i t i s h t y r a n n y t h a t G a n g a n e l l i , P o p e

C l e m e n t XIV, died his a g o n i z i n g d e a t h ( S e p t e m b e r 22, 1 7 7 4 ) . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e H o l y See’s t e m p o r a l rights – that is, its business affairs – are routinely t a k e n over by the

W h e n t h e p a p a c y is v a c a n t , says New Catholic Encyclopedia, the

Treasurer o f the A p o s t o l i c C h a m b e r . T h e A p o s t o l i c Treasurer o n the day of G a n g a n e l l i ’ s passing was C a r d i n a l G i o v a n n i Braschi. A fifty-seven-year-old aristocrat of impoverished parentage, C a r d i n a l

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Braschi was a sterling p r o d u c t of the Jesuit colleges. T h e ratio stu~ diorum h a d m a d e of h i m a distinguished lawyer and d i p l o m a t . He had b e e n A p o s t o l i c Treasurer w h e n R o t h s c h i l d b e g a n serving the C a t h o l i c principality o f H e s s e - H a n o v e r i n 1 7 6 9 . T h i s interesting fact awakens the possibility that the C a r d i n a l and R o t h s c h i l d had b e e n i n v o l v e d in R i c c i ’ s A m e r i c a n p r o j e c t for years. B u t t h a t is only conjecture. W h a t is b e y o n d conjecture, h o w e v e r , is that until a n e w pope could be elected, the w h o l e fiscal w e a l t h of the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h b e l o n g e d t o B r a s c h i a n d t o n o o n e else. A l t h o u g h lacking formal e n t i t l e m e n t , C a r d i n a l Braschi would rule as a k i n d of “virtual” Pontifex Maximus for o n e of the longest periods of papal v a c a n c y on record. D a y after day after day, t h e c o n c l a v e h a g g l e d o v e r a single issue – W h a t w o u l d t h e c a n d i d a t e s do a b o u t t h e Jesuits? S h o u l d G a n g a n e l l i ’ s brief of D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o n t i n u e to be enforced or not? A l t h o u g h L o r e n z o R i c c i was i n d e t e n t i o n a t C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n gelo, we k n o w he could easily h o p a t u n n e l carriage to the V a t i c a n for c o v e r t m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e V i r t u a l P o p e . In a v e r y real way, Braschi was a c r e a t i o n of Ricci’s. Braschi h a d b e e n m a d e a C a r d i n a l u n d e r t h e sponsorship o f G a n g a n e l l i , w h o s e o w n c a r d i n a l a t e was sponsored, as we r e c a l l , by R i c c i . T h e s e t w o most powerful m e n on earth, R i c c i and Braschi, had b e e n secretly allied for years. A n d n o w t h e turn o f e v e n t s h a d m a d e t h e m invisible and inaudible. T h e s e last p r e c i o u s days in t h e final b u r s t i n g - f o r t h of R i c c i ’ s grand strategy afforded ideal c o n d i t i o n s for B r a s c h i a n d R i c c i to determine face-to-face w i t h the R o t h s c h i l d emissaries, out of public sight and mind, h o w the Vatican’s immense resources – money, m e n , supplies – w o u l d be d e p l o y e d in t h e c o m i n g m o n t h s and years. (In O c t o b e r 1 7 7 4 , for e x a m p l e , c o l o n i a l a g e n t B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n sent England’s most e n l i g h t e n e d copywriter, T o m Paine, to beef up the pamphleteers in Philadelphia.) T h e days of papal v a c a n c y w o r e on – thirty, fifty, sixty, s e v e n ty-five, a hundred days, a hundred and ten. Finally, after nearly five m o n t h s of confusion, on February 1 5 , 1 7 7 5 , the o n e hundred thirty-fourth day, it was a n n o u n c e d t h a t R o m e h a d a n e w P o p e . T h e

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n e w p o p e was a m a n a c c e p t a b l e to b o t h sides of t h e Jesuit quest i o n . He h a d tacitly assured the anti-Jesuits that he w o u l d c o n t i n ue to enforce Disestablishment, yet the pro-Jesuits k n e w he would e n f o r c e it tenderly b e c a u s e of t h e great i n t e l l e c t u a l , p o l i t i c a l , and spiritual debts he o w e d the Society. T h e n e w pope was best qualified for t h e p a p a c y b e c a u s e h e ’ d b e e n r u n n i n g t h e H o l y S e e w i t h L o r e n z o R i c c i for t h e past h u n d r e d t h i r t y - f o u r days – Giovanni Braschi! Braschi t o o k the papal n a m e Pius V I . A n d n o w p l u m m e t e d the great a v a l a n c h e .

O

N February 9, 1 7 7 5 the British Parliament declared Massachusetts to be “in a state of rebellion.”

O n M a r c h 23, P a t r i c k H e n r y d e l i v e r e d his famous “ G I V E M E O n A p r i l 1 9 , a t a tense daybreak c o n f r o n t a t i o n o n L e x i n g t o n

LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH” oration.

G r e e n b e t w e e n a group of angry colonists and some eight hundred redcoats, an unseen and unidentified shootist fired on the redcoats from b e h i n d a n e a r b y m e e t i n g - h o u s e . T h i s was t h e “ s h o t h e a r d ’round t h e w o r l d ” – a l t h o u g h R a l p h W a l d o E m e r s o n c o i n e d t h a t phrase in his Concord Hymn ( 1 8 3 6 ) to describe a skirmish at C o n c o r d B r i d g e , s e v e n miles away a n d a few h o u r s later. T h e air on L e x i n g t o n G r e e n c r a c k l e d w i t h e x p l o d i n g g u n p o w d e r , and w h e n the smoke cleared, eight colonists lay dead.
6

A s t h e redcoats r e t u r n e d t o B o s t o n , t h e y w e r e a t t a c k e d b y ever-increasing colonial militiamen. T h e Massachusetts Provincial C o n g r e s s mobilized 13,600 c o l o n i a l soldiers and placed Boston under a siege that lasted for almost a year. T o p r e v e n t t h e spread o f t h e B o s t o n c a r n a g e t o t h e Q u a k e r province, the Pennsylvania Assembly named Charles T h o m s o n and t w e l v e o t h e r s to a c o m m i t t e e to p u r c h a s e e x p l o s i v e s and m u n i t i o n s – t h e l e a d i n g m a n u f a c t u r e r s of w h i c h h a p p e n e d to be T h o m s o n and C h a r l e s Carroll. O n May 10, the S e c o n d C o n t i n e n t a l Congress c o n v e n e d i n Philadelphia and n a m e d G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f of the C o n t i n e n t a l A r m y . On June 22, C o n g r e s s v o t e d to issue a c o n t i n e n t a l c u r r e n c y –

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t w o m i l l i o n dollars in unsecured bills of credit – to be used in paying the costs of war. O n July 3 , G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n formally assumed c o m m a n d o f the C o n t i n e n t a l A r m y , a b o u t s e v e n t e e n t h o u s a n d m e n g a t h e r e d in C a m b r i d g e , Massachusetts. On July 5, Congress adopted its last h u m b l e plea for peace w i t h E n g l a n d , the “ O l i v e B r a n c h P e t i t i o n , ” w r i t t e n b y C h a r l e s T h o m son and J o h n D i c k i n s o n . G o v e r n o r P e n n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a personally d e l i v e r e d t h e P e t i t i o n t o L o n d o n , but t h e King’s Friends prevented G e o r g e III from seeing P e n n or e v e n a c k n o w l e d g i n g the Petition. On July 6, Congress adopted the D e c l a r a t i o n of the Causes and N e c e s s i t i e s o f T a k i n g U p A r m s , w h i c h fell short o f asserting indep e n d e n c e , but v o w e d a h o l y war of liberation from slavery. On A u g u s t 23, G e o r g e III issued a p r o c l a m a t i o n declaring that all t h i r t e e n A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s w e r e in a state of o p e n r e b e l l i o n . T w o m o n t h s later, i n O c t o b e r , British forces b u r n e d F a l m o u t h , w h a t is presently Portland, M a i n e . T h e war was o n . B u t from L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s v a n t a g e p o i n t , t h e war was won. T h e r e remained only opportunities n o w for his e n e mies, the British C r o w n and the A m e r i c a n colonials, to engage in blood-letting hostilities that would eventually separate and e x h a u s t t h e m b o t h . Divide et impera, d i v i d e and conquer. W h a t to t h e British was “ t h e W a r o f A m e r i c a n R e b e l l i o n , ” and t o the A m e r i c a n s “the W a r for I n d e p e n d e n c e , ” was to G e n e r a l R i c c i “the W a r o f R e u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h P r o t e s t a n t Dissidents.” From i t w o u l d rise t h e first F e b r o n i a n g o v e r n m e n t on e a r t h , a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of secular c h u r c h e s called states led by an e l e c t o r a t e of l a y m e n properly e n l i g h t e n e d by t h e ratio studiorum and united under the spiritual guidance of Pontifex Maximus, and paying tribute to R o m e for the privilege. United ... States. T h e real war over, there b e g a n n o w the u n r a v e l i n g , w h i c h was the historical war, t h e theatrical war. T h i s w o u l d consist of a series of bloody battles m o u n t e d by Congress and C r o w n for the people’s participation, observation, and c o m m e m o r a t i o n . T h e s e events would produce C a e s a r e a n Rome’s essential e m o t i o n a l cornerstone.

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L i k e Virgil’s Aeneid, e p i c n a t i o n a l h e r o e s w o u l d forge a fictitious n a t i o n a l legacy. W e must n o t forget C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s c a n d i d assessment t h a t t h e R e v o l u t i o n ’ s leaders were largely d e c e p t i o n s , m e n of “supposed w i s d o m and valor” w h o were far inferior to “the qualities that h a v e b e e n ascribed to t h e m . ” A n d there is e v i d e n c e – a d m i t t e d l y t h e faintest h i n t of e v i d e n c e (as is so often t h e case w i t h c l a n d e s t i n e warriors) – t h a t L o r e n z o R i c c i c o m m u n e d w i t h these A m e r i c a n h e r o e s , and g a v e t h e m instruction, on their o w n soil. T h i s e v i d e n c e is presented in our n e x t chapter.

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THE GENERALATE OF LORENZO RICCI — 1750-1775
A Brief Summary of Events

EUR0W0RLD

ENGLAND
BENJ. FRANKLIN in LONDON seeking

AMERICA
Colonies happy, seeking greater British presence, yet SAM ADAMS begins organizing against Great Britain. Gadsen in S . C . , Harnett in N.C., Patrick Henry and Jefferson in Virginia, and Chas. T h o m s o n in Phila. follow suit.

1758

LORENZO RICCI elected Black Pope,
CLEMENT X I I I elected Pope. JOHN CAR-

greater British presence in P e n n sylvania. KING GEORGE II obliges by plunging England into the French & Indian Wars. CHAS. CARROLL graduates in civil law from Jesuit college in PARIS, arrives in London for more legal studies at the MIDDLE TEMPLE.

ROLL begins teaching at ST. OMER’S. POMBAL denounces Jesuits in PORTUGAL.

1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765

Jesuits expelled from PORTUGAL, VOLTAIRE bashes Jesuits in two hit plays in Pans, GANGANELLI becomes cardinal, under RICCI’S sponsorship.

GEORGE II’S g r a n d s o n , the PRINCE OF

CHAS. THOMSON formalizes “ Y O U N G

WALES, matures under the spiritual
d i r e c t i o n of LORD BUTE.

J U N T O , ” a secret c l u b for young men interested in useful arts and s c i ences cloned from FRANKLIN’S
“ J U N T O , ” and akin to SAM ADAMS’ “ C A U C U S C L U B ” in Boston.

Jesuits under attack in SPAIN.

GEORGE I I I takes throne upon G r a n d father’s death, BUTE runs Parliament through “KING’S FRIENDS.”

Happy to be English subjects, COLONISTS are peacefully “ruled by a little pen, ink, and paper-led by a thread.”

Jesuits c o n d e m n e d in SPAIN.

BUTE, virtual head of British g o v e r n ment, chooses mate for GEORGE I I I , Queen CHARLOTTE of Mecklenburg.

WRITS OF ASSISTANCE imposed on colonists by KING’S FRIENDS. JOHN

ADAMS considers this the “COMMENCEMENT OF THE CONTROVERSY.”

Jesuits c o n d e m n e d by FRENCH parlement. JOHN CARROLL transfers to
BRUGES. FEBRONIUS publishes STATE OF THE-’. ENGLAND wins FRENCH & INDIAN WARS,

BENJ. FRANKLIN returns to install POSTAL SYSTEM connecting southern Virginia with eastern New England Colonists resent ENGLAND’S grant of lands to FRANCE under the PEACE OF PARIS. The secret c l u b s agitate against E n g l a n d .

CHURCH, calling for reunification of Protestants with Catholics in
s t a t e s u n d e r t h e papacy’s s p i r i t u a l

but under terms of the PEACE OF
PARIS, negotiated by LORD BUTE, is c u t

off from any European alliances and made object of colonial resentment. BUTE forced to resign.

direction.

Pope CLEMENT X I I I bans FEBRONIUS

1

BUTE picks GRENVILLE new Prime Minister. GRENVILLE increases duties on colonial imports. CHAS. CARROLL leaves England for MARYLAND.

FRANKLIN returns to England to lobby for Pennsylvania’s becoming a royal colony. Colonists resent GRENVILLE’S measures, smuggling increases, GRENVILLE brings ADMIRALTY COURTS inland

book. LOUIS X V suppresses Jesuits by royal edict in FRANCE.

CLEMENT X I I I authorizes office of SACRED HEART, a Jesuit c u l t w h i c h holds believers responsible for reparations for the sins of the w o r l d , payable t h r o u g h prayers, penances, masses and SOCIAL ACTION.

GRENVILLE passes STAMP ACT. ANGLICAN

CHAS. CARROLL arrives in MARYLAND. T h e AMERICAN BISHOP SCARE “trains a n d

CHURCH requests British cabinet to
establish an AMERICAN BISHOP.

habituates the colonists to o p p o s i t i o n . ” PATRICK HENRY, furious at STAMP

A C T , cries “ N o taxation without representation!” S A M ADAMS convenes
STAMP ACT CONGRESS in NEW YORK.

1766 1767

CLEMENT X I I I a p p o i n t s jesuited GIOV.

GRENVILLE falls. STAMP ACT repealed, with rider that PARLIAMENT has “full power” to bind colonies, CHAS. TOWNSHEND takes over as Prime M i n ister.

Colonies exuberant over STAMP ACT repeal.

BRASCHI Treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber.

KING CHARLES III expels Jesuits from
SPAIN.

TOWNSHEND ACTS place high duties on goods received in A m e r i c a .

TOWNSHEND ACTS stimulate colonial productivity.

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EUROWORLD

ENGLAND
First ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITTANICA p u b lished.

AMERICA
Productivity and self-support help raise comfort level of SEPARATION and INDEPENDENCE among colonists.

1768 1768

Jesuits expelled from other Catholic countries.

Day before meeting with European powers to discuss DISSOLUTION OF JESUITS, Pope CLEMENT X I I I dies s u d denly. GANGANELLI elected CLEMENT X I V . ROTHSCHILD appointed ordained a Jesuit. guardian of Vatican treasury. JOHN CARROLL

TOWNSHEND ACTS costing more to enforce than revenue returns. BENJ.
FRANKLIN now representing PENNSYLVANIA, GEORGIA, and NEW JERSEY in LONDON.

CHAS. THOMSON opens a rum distillery near PHILADELPHIA.

1770 1771 1772 1773
JOHN CARROLL begins tour of Europe
with CHARLES STOURTON.

FRANKLIN adds MASSACHUSETTS to list, making him chief spokesmen for American interests in E n g l a n d .
TOWNSHEND ACTS repealed

REDCOATS fire into an angry Boston crowd. BOSTON MASSACRE becomes the symbol of British tyranny.

O n anniversary of BOSTON MASSACRE, S A M ADAMS calls for ACTION AND SOLIDAR-

ITY against E n g l a n d .
RICCI causes AMIOT’S SUN-TZU to be

published in PARIS, disclosing his strategy for bringing America under Rome’s d o m i n i o n . After making GIOV. BRASCHI cardinal, CLEMENT X I V dissolves Jesuits o n J u l y 2 1 . On August 17, LORENZO
RICCI is taken to ENGLISH COLLEGE for

In May, PARLIAMENT passes the TEA
ACT, proposed by EAST INDIA COMPANY. JOHN CARROLL arrives at WARDOUR C A S -

CHAS.

CARROLL r u n s his

“FIRST CITI-

ZEN” o p i n i o n shaper. CHAS. T H O M -

SON’S group turns back Tea A c t product meant for Philadelphia.
DISGUISED FREEMASONS stage t h e BOSTON T E A PARTY, Dec. 16

TLE in Wiltshire, E n g l a n d , to serve as Chaplain to the ARUNDELLS.

meetings with JOHN MATTINGLY of MARYLAND, BRASCHI, and others, perhaps i n c l u d i n g EAST INDIA COMPANY.

Sept. 2 2 , RICCI taken to CASTEL S A N T’ANGELO, as Tea Act product heads for Boston.

1774

Pope CLEMENT X I V dies. C h u r c h gives appearance of serious disability. RICCI accesses VATICAN via tunnel from SANT’ANGELO for meetings with CARDINAL BRASCHI, who runs Holy See during long conclave to elect successor.

PARLIAMENT enacts the INTOLERABLE

Efforts of CHAS. THOMSON result in
FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS at

ACTS, ostensibly to punish the colonies for TEA PARTY offense, but meant to drive them to SEPARATION.
GEORGE I I I writes LORD NORTH: “ T h e die

Philadelphia in Sept., with THOMSON
serving as “PERPETUAL SECRETARY”

for the next fifteen years. CHAS. CARROLL attends first CONGRESS as “unofficial c o n s u l t a n t ” to Maryland delegation. THOS. MIFFLIN’S house scene of secret meetings between CARROLLS and patriot leaders. CHAS.
CARROLL and CHAS. THOMSON manufac-

is cast; the colonies must either triumph or s u b m i t . ” TOM PAINE boards ship for America with letter of introduction from BENJ. FRANKLIN. JOHN CARROLL also departs for America

ture explosives and weaponry.

1775

Long conclave ( 1 4 3 days) elects GIOV. BRASCHI pope, who takes name
PIUS V I . LORENZO RICCI “ d i e s ” in C A S TEL SANT’ANGELO Nov 2 4 . GEORGE I I I ignores “OLIVE BRANCH

On Apr. 19, REDCOATS fire on A m e r i cans in response to an unseen shootist at LEXINGTON GREEN, near C o n c o r d Bridge PETITION” offered by Congress.

1776

JOHN AND CHAS. CARROLL join C o n g r e s -

PAINE’S

COMMON

SENSE p u b l i s h e d .

sional MISSION TO CANADA and secure
QUEBEC’S NEUTRALITY in the c o m i n g

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE resolved JULY 2 , M D C C L X X V I .

War

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THE NEW REPUBLIC’S FIRST FLAG: THE FLAG OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY

Chapter

19

THE DEATH & RESURRECTION OF LORENZO RICCI

O

N N O V E M B E R 19, 1 7 7 5 officials at C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o were

presented the f o l l o w i n g d e p o s i t i o n , g i v e n under o a t h and signed by L o r e n z o R i c c i : “ T h e S o c i e t y of Jesus t h a t is dis-

solved offered no reason or pretext whatsoever for its dissolution.” T h i s , Ricci’s last official s t a t e m e n t , is a masterpiece of m e n t a l reservation, for indeed the S o c i e t y had n o t offered a pretext or reason for its dissolution, and indeed Lorenzo R i c c i had n o t furnished a p r e t e x t or reason for his incarceration. T h e Jesuits had b e e n dissolved and R i c c i imprisoned for no offered reasons whatsoever; ergo, their dissolution for all eternity was null and void. O u t c o m e would prove this fact: the S o c i e t y of Jesus w o u l d be officially restored in 1 8 1 4 . S i n c e t h e D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t was a n u l l i t y from t h e b e g i n n i n g , it must follow t h a t the Jesuits were still t e c h n i c a l l y alive as the world’s largest c l a n d e s t i n e milice du Christ. Legally, thousands of Jesuits were still b o u n d to their o a t h of o b e d i e n c e to t h e b l a c k papacy. T h e y were free n o w t o e x p a n d R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m w i t h
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perfect invisibility, e n d justifying means, dedicating their e n c y c l o p e d i c skills in t h e useful arts, law, religion, m e d i c i n e , philosophy, the h u m a n i t i e s , f i n a n c e , c o m m e r c e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , diplomacy, b a n k i n g , f i n a n c e , espionage, and intrigue – d e d i c a t i n g all to b o t h sides of the self-extirpating Protestant belligerents. “Now, whether he kill Cassio or Cassio him, or each do kill the other, every way makes my gain!” If t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus c o u l d c o n q u e r t h o u g h b e l i e v e d dead, could n o t its Superior G e n e r a l d o the same? W h e n L o r e n z o R i c c i “ d i e d ” i n his c e l l a t C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o o n N o v e m b e r 24, 1 7 7 5 , w h a t if his “ d e a t h ” was no more p h y s i c a l t h a n the supposed disest a b l i s h m e n t o f his army? Lesser m y s t i c s t h a n R i c c i , w h o secretly c o m m a n d e d the R o s i c r u c i a n s , were k n o w n to die and resurrect at the threshold of important endeavors: According to material available, the supreme council of the Fraternity of the Rose Croix [Rosicrucians] was composed of a certain number of individuals who had died what is known as the “philosophic death.” W h e n the time came for an initiate to enter upon his labors for the Order, he conveniently “died” under somewhat mysterious circumstances. In reality he changed his name and place of residence, and a box of rocks or a body secured for the purpose was buried in his stead. It is believed that this happened in the case of Sir Francis Bacon who, like all servants of the Mysteries, renounced all personal credit and permitted others to be considered as the authors of the documents which he wrote or inspired.
1

W a s it really Ricci’s b o d y lying in state at the cathedral of S a n G i o v a n n i d’Fiorentini during the elaborate funeral mass that Pius V I arranged for h i m ? W a s i t really L o r e n z o R i c c i w h o was e n t o m b e d b e n e a t h the C h u r c h of the G e s u a w e e k later, in the vault reserved for G e n e r a l s of the S o c i e t y ? Or was it a w a x effigy sculpted by artisans u p o n a corpse of Ricci’s dimensions under the direction of John Carroll’s collaborator, m a n - a b o u t - R o m e and art agent extraordinaire Francis T h o r p e ? Of course, Lorenzo R i c c i would h a v e covered his tracks in sub-

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l i m e l y S u n - T z u a n f a s h i o n , so we c a n n e v e r be sure. B u t is it n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h his authority, resources, m o t i v e s , and m o d u s operandi, as w e l l as t h e verifiable o u t c o m e of A m e r i c a n I n d e p e n d e n c e , that the G e n e r a l would feign d e a t h at precisely this opportunity and sail to A m e r i c a in order to c o n d u c t his o r c h e s t r a t i o n s personally? Reflect on his c o u n s e l in The Thirteen Articles of S u n Tzu, particularly – T h e great art of a General is to arrange for the enemy never to know the place where he will have to fight & to carefully withhold from him knowledge of which posts he must guard. If he manages that & can also hide the slightest of his movements, then he is not only a clever General, he is an extraordinary man, a prodigy. Without being seen, he sees. He hears without being heard. Go to places where the enemy would never suspect that you intended to go.... Do not think of gathering the fruits of your victory until his entire defeat has put you in a position where you can yourself reconnoitre surely, tranquilly & with leisure. If t h e G e n e r a l did sail to A m e r i c a r a t h e r t h a n lie in state, he w o u l d arrive n o t as a c o n q u e r i n g h e r o b u t as a g e n t l e , h a r m l e s s , n a m e l e s s , s c h o l a r l y o l d m a n w h o s p e n t most o f his t i m e reading. A n d during t h e course o f his stay, inevitably, s o m e o n e w o u l d o b serve his subtle p o w e r o v e r great patriots a n d w r i t e a b o u t it. Just such a person was observed and written about.

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U R I N G t h e fall o f 1 7 7 5 , C o n g r e s s authorized a c o m m i t t e e made up of Benjamin Franklin, T h o m a s Lynch, Benjamin

H a r r i s o n a n d G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n t o c o n s i d e r and r e c o m m e n d a design for the first u n i t e d c o l o n i a l flag. T h e so-called “Flag C o m mittee” traveled to Cambridge, Massachusetts. T h e r e , according t o t h e o n l y k n o w n a c c o u n t o f its p r o c e e d i n g s , g i v e n i n R o b e r t A l l e n C a m p b e l l ’ s b o o k , Our Flag ( C h i c a g o , 1 8 9 0 ) , t h e C o m m i t tee mysteriously shared its a u t h o r i t y w i t h a t o t a l stranger. T h i s stranger was an elderly E u r o p e a n t r a n s i e n t k n o w n o n l y as “ t h e Professor.”

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H e h a d arrived from parts u n k n o w n a t summer’s e n d . ( T h e prisoner o f C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o had n o t b e e n publicly seen i n t w o years – a m p l e t i m e to m a n a g e Braschi’s e l e c t i o n to t h e papacy, relax, pack important things, die the philosopher’s death, and take a t h r e e - m o n t h v o y a g e t o B o s t o n H a r b o r ) . S i n c e his arrival, t h e Professor had o c c u p i e d a guestroom in a private C a m b r i d g e h o m e w h o s e hostess, “ o n e of his earnest and intelligent disciples,” would r e m e m b e r h i m in her diary (cited in C a m p b e l l ’ s b o o k ) as “a quiet and very interesting m e m b e r of the family.” W h a t the hostess records about the Professor m a t c h e s remarkably w h a t i s k n o w n a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f L o r e n z o R i c c i . For e x a m p l e , t h e Professor is p e r c e i v e d to be “ m o r e t h a n three-score and t e n ” years of age; Lorenzo R i c c i was s e v e n t y - t w o . T h e Professor spoke m a n y l a n g u a g e s fluently, displayed an e n c y c l o p e d i c k n o w l e d g e of history, and was “ s e e m i n g l y at h o m e u p o n any and every topic c o m i n g up in conversation.” We might e x p e c t the very same of Lorenzo R i c c i , a distinguished professor of literature, philosophy and theology at the R o m a n C o l l e g e and a well-established c o n f i d a n t of Europe’s l e a d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s , philosophes, a n d mystics. T h e Professor k e p t “ l o c k e d a w a y in a large, old f a s h i o n e d , cubically shaped, iron bound, heavy, o a k e n chest, a n u m b e r of very rare old books and a n c i e n t manuscripts,” w h i c h he spent m u c h of his time “deciphering, translating, or rewriting.” We m i g h t e x p e c t as m u c h of L o r e n z o R i c c i , t h e v o r a c i o u s s c h o l a r and p u b l i s h e r of oriental masterworks. On the morning of December 13, 1 7 7 5 , the c o m m i t t e e m e n arrived in C a m b r i d g e for a m i d d a y feast. T h e Professor g r e e t e d t h e m as we m i g h t e x p e c t Lorenzo R i c c i would, “ w i t h an ease, grace and d i g n i t y [ e v i d e n c i n g ] his superior ability, e x p e r i e n c e a n d att a i n m e n t s , and ... w i t h a c o u r t l y b o w t h a t left no r o o m to d o u b t t h a t h e had h a b i t u a l l y associated w i t h those i n a c k n o w l e d g e d a u t h o r i t y . ” W h e n B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n was p r e s e n t e d t o h i m , the hostess w a t c h e d t h e patriarchal D o c t o r lock hands w i t h t h e patriarchal Professor, “and as fingers closed u p o n fingers, their eyes also met, and there was an instantaneous, a very apparent and a mutually gratified r e c o g n i t i o n . ” W h a t h a d t h e w o m a n witnessed? T h e

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U l t i m a t e S u m m i t ? U n k n o w n Superior revealing himself t o A m e r ica’s G r a n d e s t Freemason? T h e table talk s o o n focused o n subjects t h a t h a d o c c u p i e d L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s a t t e n t i o n since t h e b e g i n n i n g o f his g e n e r a l a t e . T h e hostess witnessed t h e m discussing “the relation o f the C o l o n i e s to e a c h other and to the M o t h e r C o u n t r y . ” S h e saw t h e m discuss “ t h e related q u e s t i o n of one’s duty to the C o l o n y , as related to his a l l e g i a n c e to G r e a t B r i t a i n . ” S h e saw t h e Professor take “a n o t i c e a b l e , t h o u g h n o t at all an obtrusive, part in the conversation, himself possessed of a wonderful fund of varied and accurate i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e C o l o n i e s , a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f their progress, c o n d i t i o n a n d n e e d s , a n d a familiarity w i t h t h e p r i n c i ples and o p e r a t i o n s of British and E u r o p e a n s t a t e s m a n s h i p . ” W o u l d n ’ t w e e x p e c t a s m u c h from t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l o f t h e world’s best intelligence agency? A f t e r l u n c h , G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n and the c o m m i t t e e m e n h e l d a “brief, undertone conversation.” T h e n Dr. Franklin rose and stated: “ A s t h e c h a i r m a n of this c o m m i t t e e , s p e a k i n g for my associates, w i t h t h e i r c o n s e n t , a n d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n , I respectfully i n v i t e t h e Professor to m e e t w i t h t h e C o m m i t t e e a s o n e o f its m e m b e r s ; and w e , e a c h o n e , p e r s o n a l l y and urgently, request h i m to a c c e p t the responsibility, and to give us, and the A m e r i c a n C o l o n i e s , the benefit of his counsel.” T a k i n g t h e floor, t h e Professor a c c e p t e d t h e responsibility. T h e n , startlingly, h e p r o p o s e d t h a t his d i s c i p l e , t h e hostess, b e p l a c e d on t h e c o m m i t t e e “because she is our hostess, because she is a w o m a n , and above all, because she is a superior w o m a n . ” ( T h e c o m m i t t e e considered this an i n n o v a t i o n ; yet the Jesuits had b e e n e m p l o y i n g female coadjutors for centuries.) T h e proposal was “imm e d i a t e l y and u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d . ” L u n c h e o n was a d j o u r n e d . T h e c o m m i t t e e would r e c o n v e n e a t s e v e n i n the e v e n i n g , “ i n the guest c h a m b e r usually occupied by the Professor.” F r a n k l i n and the Professor spent the afternoon t o g e t h e r walking about C a m b r i d g e . W h e n they returned, the hostess n o t e d that “ b o t h of t h e m wore the relieved and confident look of earnest and d e t e r m i n e d m e n w h o h a d , in a satisfactory way, solved a perplex-

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ing p r o b l e m , and of victors w h o h a d successfully mastered a difficult and dangerous situation.” A t t h e e v e n i n g session, F r a n k l i n t u r n e d t h e m e e t i n g o v e r t o “his n e w - f o u n d and a b u n d a n t l y h o n o r e d friend.” T h e subject was a flag. A d d r e s s i n g t h e c o m m i t t e e as “ C o m r a d e A m e r i c a n s , ” the Professor e x p l a i n e d t h a t , since t h e c o l o n i e s w e r e still d e p e n d e n t u p o n G r e a t Britain, “we are n o t e x p e c t e d to design or r e c o m m e n d a flag w h i c h w i l l represent a n e w g o v e r n m e n t or an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n , ” b u t instead o n e “ t h a t w i l l testify our p r e s e n t l o y a l t y as English S u b j e c t s , ” a flag t h a t was “already in use,” a flag t h a t h a d b e e n recognized by t h e British g o v e r n m e n t for “ h a l f a century,” a flag h a v i n g a field of alternate horizontal red and w h i t e stripes w i t h the G r a n d U n i o n Flag of G r e a t Britain in the upper left corner. “I refer,” he said, “to the flag of the East India Company.” T o h i d e t h e fact t h a t A m e r i c a n s w o u l d b e f i g h t i n g u n d e r t h e private flag of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e r c a n t i l e c o r p o r a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d by Jesuits, the Professor provided a plausible c o v e r whereby the flag could be “ e x p l a i n e d to the masses:” “The U n i o n Flag of the Mother Country is retained as the union [upper left corner] of our new flag to announce that the Colonies are loyal to the just and legitimate sovereignty of the British Government. T h e thirteen stripes will at once be understood to represent the thirteen Colonies; their equal width will type the equal rank, rights and responsibilities of the Colonies. The union of the stripes in the field of our flag will announce the unity of interests and the cooperative union of efforts, which the Colonies recognize and put forth in their common cause. T h e white stripes will signify that we consider our demands just and reasonable; and that we will seek to secure our rights through peaceable, intelligent and statesmanlike means – if they prove at all possible; and the red stripes at the top and bottom of our flag will declare that first and last – and always – we have the determination, the enthusiasm, and the power to use force – whenever we deem force necessary. T h e alternation of the red and white stripes will suggest that our reasons for all demands will be intelligent and forcible, and that our force in securing our rights will be just and reasonable.”
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T h e Professor reminded the c o m m i t t e e that “the masses of the people, and a large majority of the leaders of public o p i n i o n , desire a r e m o v a l of g r i e v a n c e s , and a r e c t i f i c a t i o n of w r o n g s , t h r o u g h a fuller r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r rights as B r i t i s h S u b j e c t s ; a n d few of t h e m desire and very few of t h e m e x p e c t – at this time – any c o m plete s e v e r a n c e of their present p o l i t i c a l and d e p e n d e n t relations with the English G o v e r n m e n t . ” T h a t severance would occur “before the sun in its n e x t summer’s strength” – indicating that the Professor foreknew, as Lorenzo R i c c i would h a v e f o r e k n o w n , a July declaration o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . A t that time, the East India C o m p a ny flag could be “easily modified” by replacing the U n i o n Jack w i t h stars against a blue b a c k g r o u n d , “to m a k e it a n n o u n c e and represent the n e w and i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . ” W a s h i n g t o n and F r a n k l i n l a v i s h e d t h e Professor’s idea w i t h “especial approval and unstinted praise.” T h e c o m m i t t e e formally a n d u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d t h e East India C o m p a n y ’ s b a n n e r , k n o w n as “ T h e T h i r t e e n Stripes,” as t h e “ g e n e r a l flag and r e c o g nized standard of t h e C o l o n i a l A r m y a n d N a v y . ” Just before midnight, they adjourned. On January 2, 1 7 7 6 , at a formal c e r e m o n y attended by the Flag C o m m i t t e e , G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n personally hoisted the East India C o m p a n y flag “ u p o n a t o w e r i n g and specially raised pine tree liberty p o l e , ” unfurling it to the breeze and displaying it for t h e first time “to his army, the citizens of the vicinity, and the British forces in B o s t o n . ” T h e British officers at C h a r l e s t o w n H e i g h t s p e r c e i v e d the e v e n t to mean that General Washington had thus announced his surrender to them. At once, they saluted “ T h e Thirteen Stripes” with thirteen hearty cheers. They immediately followed this spontaneous outburst of British Enthusiasm with the grander and more dignified official salute of thirteen guns, the thirteengun salute being the highest compliment in gunpowder, the military “God speed you.” By so colorfully e q u i v o c a t i n g b o t h his e n e m i e s , t h e Professor had m a d e h i m s e l f G o d o f C o n f u s i o n . T h e redcoats were t o a s t i n g

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t h e g o o d h e a l t h o f t h e rebels, w h o i n turn w e r e f i g h t i n g for t h e East India C o m p a n y . O n e o f t h e few p l a c e s i n t h e w o r l d w h e r e such ludicrous p h e n o m e n a are considered standard and routine is in t h e pages of L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s Thirteen Articles: “ T h e G e n e r a l d e c i d e s e v e r y t h i n g ; h e k n o w s h o w t o shape, a t w i l l , n o t o n l y t h e army he is c o m m a n d i n g but also that of his enemies.”

L

O R E N Z O Ricci’s p o s t - m o r t e m a t t e n d a n c e in A m e r i c a is strongly suggested in yet a n o t h e r p i v o t a l e p i s o d e , t h e famous “mis-

sion to C a n a d a . ” T h i s strange e x e r c i s e is n o r m a l l y regarded by w h e n t h e S e c o n d C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s r e s o l v e d t o send B e n -

h i s t o r i a n s as a colossal failure. It b e g a n on February 1 5 , 1 7 7 6 , jamin Franklin, Samuel C h a s e , and Charles Carroll to Montreal w i t h full a u t h o r i t y “ t o p r o m o t e o r form a u n i o n ” w i t h C a n a d a against England. Just before the c o m m i t t e e left P h i l a d e l p h i a , J o h n A d a m s proposed a curious last-minute resolution. On the record, he requested “ t h a t C h a r l e s C a r r o l l prevail on Mr. John Carroll to accompany the committee to Canada, to assist t h e m in such matters as they shall think useful.” C o n g r e s s adopted the resolution. H o w m i g h t a priest h a v e assisted the c o m m i t t e e in p r o m o t i n g or f o r m i n g a u n i o n w i t h C a n a d a ? T h e answer lies in d e m o g r a p h ics. C a n a d a t h e n was largely Q u e b e c , a n d Q u e b e c , t h o u g h ruled despotically by the British since 1763, was mostly Roman C a t h o l i c . A Jesuit priest, armed w i t h the right V a t i c a n paperwork o r password, c o u l d e x e r t powerful i n f l u e n c e o n C a n a d i a n foreign policy. T h e same priest, if a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e c o m b i n e d h e a d of t h e black papacy and i n t e r n a t i o n a l Freemasonry, c o u l d make that policy. T h e mission arrived i n M o n t r e a l o n l y t o learn t h a t B i s h o p B r i a n d o f Q u e b e c h a d ordered Pierre F l o q u e t , t h e Jesuit superior in M o n t r e a l , to c o n s i d e r J o h n C a r r o l l persona non grata. F l o q u e t , h o w e v e r , defied his bishop and i n v i t e d C a r r o l l to say a mass in his h o m e anyway, for w h i c h Floquet was immediately suspended from his priestly f u n c t i o n s . T h e i n c i d e n t c o l o r e d the mission w i t h disaster ( a l t h o u g h Floquet was restored, a c c o r d i n g to Walsh’s Ameri-

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can Jesuits, after a simple a p o l o g y ) . Disaster was verified w h e n the c o m m i t t e e returned t o P h i l a d e l p h i a w i t h n o p r o s p e c t for any union whatsoever with C a n a d a . Congress lamented that A m e r i ca’s first diplomatic legation had failed. B u t A m e r i c a ’ s first d i p l o m a t i c l e g a t i o n was S u n - T z u a n and Jesuitic, and Jesuit d i p l o m a c y c a n be e x p e c t e d to c o n c e a l v i c t o r y b e h i n d m i s h a p . As t h e Thirteen Articles p u t it, “ Y o u must h a v e a real a d v a n t a g e w h e n the e n e m y believes y o u h a v e sustained some losses.” So we e x a m i n e the C a n a d i a n m i s h a p for a real a d v a n t a g e and d i s c o v e r s o m e t h i n g far m o r e v a l u a b l e t h a n t h e originallys o u g h t u n i o n . W h i l e B i s h o p B r i a n d was o u t w a r d l y d e m e a n i n g John Carroll, the mission was o b t a i n i n g from C a n a d a a position of neutrality. T h i s was a significant a c h i e v e m e n t , c o n s i d e r i n g C a n a da’s g o o d relationship w i t h G r e a t Britain on the o n e h a n d and t w o centuries of hostilities toward N e w E n g l a n d on the other. For the colonists, C a n a d i a n neutrality removed the threat of a powerful northwestern e n e m y and cleared the way for a declaration of indep e n d e n c e . At M o n t r e a l , as at C a m b r i d g e , I sense t h e p r e s e n c e of s o m e o n e infinitely more c o m m a n d i n g t h a n mere c o m m i t t e e m e n a p p o i n t e d by C o n g r e s s . I sense t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e “ h o n o r a r y ” c o m m i t t e e m a n unlisted in any record – the Professor, the fugitive Vicar of C h r i s t . R e t u r n i n g from C a n a d a , B e n j a m i n Franklin fell ill. It was John C a r r o l l w h o e s c o r t e d h i m t o P h i l a d e l p h i a . A t Franklin’s i n v i t a t i o n , C a r r o l l m o v e d i n t o his h o m e . F r a n k l i n a c k n o w l e d g e d the fact in a letter dated M a y 27, 1 7 7 6 , m e n t i o n i n g “Mr. C a r r o l l ’ s friendly assistance and t e n d e r care of m e . ” T h e s e were c r i t i c a l w e e k s of c o u n t d o w n to t h e D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e . I w o n der w h o else m i g h t h a v e b e e n found under the Franklin roof? Perhaps the Professor, w i t h his d y n a m i c o a k e n chest? P h i l a d e l p h i a was c r a w l i n g just n o w w i t h social activists from all over, t h e very p e o p l e L o r e n z o R i c c i h a d a p p o i n t e d J o h n C a r roll, as Prefect of the Sodality, to organize. T h e h o m e of A m e r i c a ’ s pre-eminent Freemason, w i t h Carroll and perhaps e v e n R i c c i in r e s i d e n c e , w o u l d h a v e b e c o m e t h e m a i n c l e a r i n g - h o u s e for sub rosa congressional business.

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O

N July 3, 1 7 7 6 , J o h n A d a m s t o o k p e n in h a n d and dashed off a letter to his wife A b i g a i l . A d a m s was a writer of M o z a r t e a n

facility, c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and c o n f i d e n c e . E v e r y t h i n g h e e v e r wrote was first-draft a n d g o o d . H e n e v e r struck t h r o u g h w o r d s , n e v e r edited. His m o v i n g h a n d , h a v i n g writ, just m o v e d on. “Yesterday,”

he scribbled, the greatest question was decided which ever was debated in America, and a greater, perhaps, never was nor will be decided among men. A resolution was passed without one dissenting colony, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to have, full power to make war, conclude peace, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which other States may rightfully do. T h e second day of July 1776 will be the most memorable date in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to G o d Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward, forevermore. If the black papacy truly had orchestrated A m e r i c a ’ s breakaway from England, we would e x p e c t to find the second day of July to be rich in c a b a l a h and in R o m a n C a t h o l i c liturgical color. T h e Liturg i c a l C a l e n d a r is a process, a u t h o r i z e d n o w h e r e in t h e B i b l e , t h r o u g h w h i c h faithful C a t h o l i c s m a y plead w i t h A l m i g h t y G o d for favors t h r o u g h t h e merits of a s c e n d e d saints on s p e c i a l feast days. Supposedly, the prayerful performance of an act on a date the C h u r c h has c o n s e c r a t e d t o a saint e n d o w s t h e act w i t h t h e mystique of the saint as w e l l as the saint’s intercessory prayers to G o d for success. M a r y l a n d history, for e x a m p l e , is g r o u n d e d in t h e L i t u r g i c a l C a l e n d a r . W e r e c a l l h o w t h e o r i g i n a l settlers o f M a r y l a n d , m a n y of w h o m were R o m a n C a t h o l i c s , set sail from E n g l a n d , under t h e spiritual d i r e c t i o n o f Jesuit f a t h e r A n d r e w W h i t e , o n N o v e m b e r 22, 1 6 3 3 . N o v e m b e r 22 is the Feast Day of St. C e c i l i a , a third cen196

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tury R o m a n martyr a n d t r a d i t i o n a l p a t r o n e s s o f m u s i c i a n s . D i d Cecilia’s spirit bless the v o y a g e w i t h musicality to cheer up an otherwise oppressive boredom? T h e voyagers r e a c h e d landfall the foll o w i n g year o n M a r c h 2 5 , A n n u n c i a t i o n Day, feast o f t h e a n g e l G a b r i e l ’ s a n n o u n c e m e n t to t h e V i r g i n M a r y t h a t she is p r e g n a n t w i t h the S o n o f G o d . A n n u n c i a t i o n D a y c o n t a i n s the joyful mystery of an angel’s a n n o u n c i n g the p l a n t i n g of the d i v i n e seed w i t h in a v i r g i n m a t r i x . D i d t h e settlers i m a g i n e t h e m s e l v e s p l a n t i n g t h e seed of a n e w s o c i a l order in a strange w i l d e r n e s s , t h e w h o l e enterprise blessed by G o d t h r o u g h the merits of the V i r g i n Mary’s u n i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o H i m ? T h e n , e x a c t l y o n e year later, o n A n n u n c i a t i o n D a y 1 6 3 4 , Father W h i t e c o n s e c r a t e d t h e c o l o n y o f Maryland to the V i r g i n Mary. T h e s e c o n d day o f July i n t h e year 1 7 7 6 was V i s i t a t i o n Day, c o m m e m o r a t i n g t h e e v e n t r e c o r d e d i n t h e first c h a p t e r o f L u k e w h e r e i n t h e V i r g i n , p r e g n a n t w i t h t h e M e s s i a h , visits h e r c o u s i n Elizabeth, w h o is p r e g n a n t w i t h John the Baptist. ( N o w a d a y s Visitation D a y is celebrated on M a y 3 1 , but in the year 1 7 7 6 it was celebrated on July second, as it had b e e n celebrated, according to the New Catholic Encyclopedia’s article e n t i t l e d “ V i s i t a t i o n of M a r y , ” every year since the C o u n c i l of Basel in 1 4 4 1 . ) No day in the Liturgical C a l e n d a r is more suited to Bellarminian l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y t h a n V i s i t a t i o n Day. S t e . M a r g a r e t - M a r i e A l a c o q u e , w h o s e v i s i o n s inspired t h e Jesuit s o c i a l - a c t i o n c u l t o f Sacred H e a r t , was a m e m b e r of the V i s i t a n d i n e s , an order of nuns d e v o t e d to t h e V i s i t a t i o n . V i s i t a t i o n Day’s scriptural basis is t h e V i r g i n Mary’s e c s t a t i c s e r m o n t o E l i z a b e t h a t L u k e 1 : 4 6 - 5 5 . T h i s famous e j a c u l a t i o n , k n o w n as t h e Magnificat ( t h e o p e n i n g w o r d in t h e L a t i n Vulgate’s r e n d e r i n g of t h e passage, m e a n i n g “it magnifies”), literally defines the social a c t i o n called for by Sacred Heart in Philadelphia on the second day of July, 1 7 7 6 : My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in G o d my Saviour. For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name. A n d his mercy is on them that fear
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h i m from g e n e r a t i o n to generation. He h a t h shewed strength w i t h his arm; h e h a t h s c a t t e r e d t h e p r o u d i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f their h e a r t s . H e h a t h p u t d o w n t h e m i g h t y from t h e i r seats, a n d e x a l t e d t h e m o f l o w degree. H e h a t h f i l l e d t h e h u n g r y w i t h g o o d things; and t h e r i c h h e h a t h sent e m p t y a w a y . . . .

Scattered the proud, put down the mighty,

exalted them of low

degree, filled the hungry, emptied the rich.... T h i s is t h e r h e t o r i c of C h r i s t i a n r e d e m p t i o n , yes, but i n t h e c o n t e x t o f L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s a g e n d a it’s t h e r h e t o r i c of r e b e l l i o n - t o - t y r a n n y , t h e v e r y point of t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , and it’s s p o k e n b y t h e V i r g i n Mary, P a t r o n e s s of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus, Patroness of M a r y l a n d , i n d e e d , Patroness o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c C o n q u e s t , o n t h e day particular to her. E v e n the year of I n d e p e n d e n c e seems divinely validated by the perfect design of sixes and sevens c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n its expression i n R o m a n numerals, M D C C L X X V I :
M D C = 1600 = CLX XVI = 160 =16 = = (1+6) = 7 (1+6) = 7 (1+6) = 7

Particularly fascinating is the way the Latin e q u i v a l e n t of 1 7 7 6 is structured u p o n 666 and 7 7 7 . Swiss t h e o l o g i a n E. W. Bullinger, in his scholarly guide to b i b l i c a l arithmography, Number In Scripture, says that 6 in t h e Bible is always associated w i t h h u m a n i t y , 7 w i t h d i v i n i t y . T h e t w o n u m b e r s t o t a l 1 3 , w h i c h B u l l i n g e r says i s biblically associated w i t h rebellion. M D C C L X X V I , 1 7 7 6 , really does s e e m to be a u n i q u e c o n v e r g e n c e of time and h u m a n rebellion in the service of a d i v i n e ordin a t i o n . T h i s is eerily c o r r o b o r a t e d by J o h n A d a m s ’ letter to A b i g a i l o n July third. H e confides t o his wife t h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e should have been declared in December of 1775:
H a d a D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c y b e e n m a d e seven months ago, i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t t e n d e d w i t h m a n y g r e a t a n d g l o r i o u s effects. If I c o u l d w r i t e w i t h f r e e d o m , I c o u l d easily c o n v i n c e y o u that it w o u l d , and e x p l a i n it to y o u t h e m a n n e r how.

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A d a m s never fully explained h o w the earlier declaration would h a v e p r o d u c e d great and glorious effects. H o w e v e r , t h e n u m b e r s suggest it would h a v e rather fizzled. R o m a n numerals for 1 7 7 5 fall into the following groups:
M D C = 1600 = (1+6) = 7 CLX = 160 = (1+6) = 7 X V = 15 = (1 + 5) = 6

P l a i n to see, D e c e m b e r 1 7 7 5 fails as c a b a l a h . It gives no indic a t i o n of d i v i n e a p p r o v a l to r e b e l l i o u s h u m a n i t y . T h i s is why, I believe, Lorenzo R i c c i held out for 1 7 7 6 . O f course, a sufficiently g n o s t i c Jesuit w o u l d see i n M D C C L X X V I more t h a n good numbers. He would see an encapsulation o f t h e very origins o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. M D C w o u l d g i v e h i m milice du Christ ( “ C h r i s t i a n m i l i t i a ” ) , t h e official classification of the K n i g h t s Templar and the S o c i e t y of Jesus. M D C also produces M e d i c i , t h e family n a m e o f P o p e L e o X , w h o s e d e g e n e r a c y provoked Martin Luther to create the Protestant m o v e m e n t , w h i c h in turn created t h e n e e d for t h e Society. C L X specifies t h e Ignatian era, w h i c h h i s t o r i a n s h a v e e v e r s i n c e c a l l e d t h e “ C e n t u r y o f L e o X . ” A n d the last three numerals n a m e the C e n t u r y o f L e o X , the s i x t e e n t h century, X V I .

W

H E N it c a m e time to sign the D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e , h o w could Lorenzo R i c c i n o t be present? H o w could he w h o

had labored more t h a n s e v e n t e e n years for this superbly Bellarminian a m b i a n c e not participate in the e x c i t e m e n t ? T h e r e is a story, usually told in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Professor and t h e Flag C o m m i t t e e , i n v o l v i n g a n o t h e r mysterious stranger, one w h o suddenly appeared i n the legislative c h a m b e r o f t h e old State House in Philadelphia on the n i g h t of July fourth. T h e m o m e n t was tense. I n d e p e n d e n c e h a d b e e n r e s o l v e d , but t h e d o c u m e n t l a c k e d signatures. S o m e w e r e h a v i n g s e c o n d thoughts about the risks. M a s o n i c historian M a n l y P. Hall writes:
It was a g r a v e m o m e n t a n d n o t a few of t h o s e p r e s e n t feared t h a t t h e i r l i v e s w o u l d b e t h e forfeit for t h e i r a u d a c i t y . I n t h e

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midst of t h e d e b a t e a fierce v o i c e r a n g out. T h e debaters stopped a n d t u r n e d t o l o o k u p o n t h e stranger. W h o w a s t h i s m a n w h o had suddenly appeared in their midst and transfixed t h e m w i t h his o r a t o r y ? T h e y h a d n e v e r s e e n h i m b e f o r e , n o n e k n e w w h e n h e h a d e n t e r e d , b u t h i s tall f o r m a n d p a l e f a c e filled t h e m w i t h a w e . His v o i c e r i n g i n g w i t h a h o l y zeal, t h e stranger stirred t h e m t o t h e i r very souls. H i s c l o s i n g words r a n g t h r o u g h t h e b u i l d i n g : “ G o d has g i v e n A m e r i c a t o b e free!” A s t h e stranger sank i n t o a c h a i r e x h a u s t e d , a wild e n t h u s i a s m burst forth. N a m e after n a m e was placed u p o n t h e p a r c h m e n t : t h e D e c l a r a t i o n of Independ e n c e was s i g n e d . B u t w h e r e was t h e m a n w h o h a d p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of this i m m o r t a l task – w h o h a d lifted for a m o m e n t the veil from the eyes of the assemblage and revealed t o t h e m a p a r t a t l e a s t o f t h e g r e a t p u r p o s e for w h i c h t h e n e w n a t i o n was c o n c e i v e d ? H e had disappeared, nor was h e e v e r seen again or his i d e n t i t y established.
2

Be warned. T h i s is only a story, unsupported by primary source material. J o h n A d a m s , the most t a l k a t i v e of t h e framers, said n o t a w o r d a b o u t it. B u t w e k n o w from A d a m s ’ o w n p e n t h a t some k i n d of gag order h a d b e e n imposed u p o n t h e signers – “if I could write with freedom” he h a d t o l d A b i g a i l in t h a t l e t t e r d a t e d the third o f July. C o u l d M a n l y H a l l h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e story t h r o u g h Freemasory’s w e l l - i n s u l a t e d oral tradition? C o u l d t h e stranger w h o s e v o i c e rang “ w i t h a h o l y zeal” h a v e b e e n t h e Professor, Lorenzo R i c c i ? C o u l d the “wild enthusiasm” w i t h w h i c h the legislators signed t h e d e c l a r a t i o n h a v e resulted n o t from Ricci’s inspiring p e p - t a l k but u p o n his disclosure of d o c u m e n t s t a k e n from the o a k e n chest, d o c u m e n t s easy for the V i c a r of C h r i s t in his capacity as Freemasonry’s U n k n o w n Superior to o b t a i n , guaranteeing that the international monetary network would indemnify the signers for their action? My m i n d , informed by an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e o f h o w t h e greatest c l a n d e s t i n e warriors fight, h a s n o p r o b l e m w h a t s o e v e r b e l i e v i n g this to be t h e case. It is e x q u i s i t e l y consist e n t w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n of a F e b r o n i a n u n i o n of t h i r t e e n Protest a n t c o l o n i e s , o r d a i n e d to be ruled from a federal city n a m e d “ R o m e , ” a city situated w i t h i n the S e e of Baltimore, under the prot e c t i o n of the Patroness of the S o c i e t y of Jesus.
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O n e o f t h e more i n t r i g u i n g clues t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a was e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r Regimini militantis ecclesiae is the n e w republic’s G r e a t Seal. As we shall see in the n e x t chapter, the Seal is legal proof that A m e r i c a ’ s true founding fathers were indeed priests of R o m e .

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Chapter 20

AMERICAN GRAFFITI

T

H E R E IS A U N I V E R S A L legal t r a d i t i o n t h a t requires acts of a g o v e r n m e n t a l authority to be marked by a seal – otherwise t h e acts are n o t a u t h e n t i c . T y p i c a l l y , a seal discloses t h e

c h a r a c t e r of t h e a u t h o r i t y it represents by m e a n s of an image or word. T h e first seal o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , d e s i g n e d t o a u t h e n t i c a t e all g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i o n s u n d e r t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , was presented t o C o n g r e s s i n A u g u s t 1 7 7 6 . C r e a t ed by an official c o m m i t t e e consisting of B e n j a m i n Franklin, J o h n A d a m s , and T h o m a s Jefferson, t h e seal illustrates a n e v e n t based on E x o d u s 1 4 : 1 9 - 2 7 . It is a c a m e o of M o s e s leading the Israelites t h r o u g h the parted waters w h i l e a c h a r i o t - b o u n d P h a r a o h , wielding a sword and w e a r i n g t h e c r o w n of tyranny, perishes in t h e m a e l s t r o m . F r a m i n g t h e picture are t h e words “REBELLION TO
TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO GOD.”

w h i c h c a n be, and usually is, amplified by some s e n t e n c e , phrase,

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W h e n I first b e c a m e aware of this seal m a n y years ago, I t h o u g h t it demonstrated h o w intensely biblical was the faith of the f o u n d i n g fathers. B u t o n c e I b e g a n d i s c e r n i n g the h i d d e n makers of A m e r i c a n nationalism, my thinking changed radically. I n o w see this seal, despite the biblical glow of the committee that designed it, as the profession of an i n t e n s e l y Roman Catholic faith.
THE MOSAIC SEAL of August, 1776

For t h e r e is a great disparity between biblical faith and Roman

C a t h o l i c faith. I n d e e d , this disparity was t h e c r u x o f t h e Protestantism w h i c h Pope Paul III c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus to extirpate. Biblical faith regards the Bible a l o n e , sola scriptura, apart from any other source, to be a sufficient and infallible rule of life. In the Bible’s o w n words: “ A l l scripture is G o d - b r e a t h e d , and is profitable for t e a c h i n g , for c o u n s e l i n g , for c o r r e c t i o n , a n d for t r a i n i n g in righteousness: t h a t t h e m a n o f G o d may b e p e r f e c t , c o m p l e t e l y outfitted to perform good works” (2 T i m o t h y 3 : 1 6 ) . R o m a n C a t h o l i c faith, o n the o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e agreeing that t h e B i b l e is G o d - b r e a t h e d , c o n s i d e r s scripture n e i t h e r infallible n o r sufficient in itself as a rule of life, unless so interpreted by the M a g i s t e r i u m (the t e a c h i n g authority of t h e C h u r c h ) , and t h e n so p r o n o u n c e d by the infallible pope. A t Paul Ill’s C o u n c i l o f T r e n t ( 1 5 4 5 - 6 3 ) , w h i c h w e h a v e learned was closely supervised o v e r its e i g h t e e n years of e x i s t e n c e by t h e Jesuits, it was d e c r e e d t h a t t h e M a g i s t e r i u m “ r e c e i v e s and venerates, w i t h a feeling of piety and reverence all the books of the O l d and N e w Testaments, also the traditions [italics m i n e ] , w h e t h e r they relate to faith or morals, as h a v i n g b e e n dictated either orally b y C h r i s t o r b y t h e H o l y G h o s t , and p r e s e r v e d i n t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h in unbroken succession.”
1

O v e r the centuries, R o m a n

C a t h o l i c faith in S c r i p t u r e , as m o d i f i e d by t r a d i t i o n , as pro-

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n o u n c e d by the Magisterium and pope, has b o u n d millions of c o n sciences to a thousand doctrines n o t found in scripture and either u n k n o w n or rejected by the apostles and early C h r i s t i a n fathers.
2

T h e 1 7 7 6 seal agrees w i t h R o m a n C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g a s m u c h as it disagrees w i t h t h e B i b l e . W h e r e a s t h e c a p t i o n “ R e b e l l i o n to tyrants is o b e d i e n c e to G o d ” is f o u n d n o w h e r e in S c r i p t u r e , it is the c o r n e r s t o n e o f B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y . T h e B i b l e never c o n d o n e s rebellion, n o t e v e n rebellion to those tyrants under w h o m G o d ’ s o w n people, the Israelites, were obliged to suffer c o n tinuously. W h e n Scripture m e n t i o n s r e b e l l i o n , it is almost always referring t o t h e d i s o b e d i e n c e o f t h e Israelites t o w a r d t h e i r G o d Y a h w e h . T h e s e v e n t e e n t h chapter of Proverbs teaches that “the e v i l m a n seeks r e b e l l i o n , ” and 1 S a m u e l 1 5 : 2 3 a d m o n i s h e s t h a t “ r e b e l l i o n is as t h e sin of w i t c h c r a f t . ” T h e G o d of S c r i p t u r e c a n not be obeyed by evil-doing and witchcraft. He will not be h o n ored in the breach. H o w e v e r , sacred tradition authorizes anything in t h e s e r v i c e of R o m e – Cum finis est licitus, etiam media sunt licita, the e n d justifies the means. D e p i c t i n g r e b e l l i o n as a s a l v a t i o n a l act, t h e 1 7 7 6 seal further harmonizes w i t h the Magisterium on h o w the sinful soul of m a n is saved from eternal p u n i s h m e n t . T h e Magisterium concurs w i t h the B i b l e t h a t s a l v a t i o n is t h e free gift of G o d ’ s grace, but adds t h e nonscriptutal t e a c h i n g that s a l v a t i o n c a n be lost if g o o d works are n o t performed t h r o u g h t h e “sacred c h a n n e l s ” of Baptism, C o n f e s sion, a n d t h e M a s s . S c r i p t u r e ( E p h e s i a n s 2 : 8 - 1 0 ) says t h a t Jesus C h r i s t does n o t shate his saviorhood w i t h anyone or anything (“You h a v e b e e n saved by grace through faith; and that n o t of yourselves, it is the gift of G o d ; n o t as a result of works, so that no o n e should b o a s t ” ) , yet t h e M a g i s t e r i u m says t h a t C h r i s t is no savior w i t h o u t the sinner’s c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the C h u r c h and its traditions. In fact, Scripture’s a c c o u n t of the Exodus shows the departure from Egypt n o t to be a r e b e l l i o n at all. W h e n called by Y a h w e h to represent Israel before P h a r a o h , M o s e s p l e d h i m s e l f i n c a p a b l e (Exodus 3 : 1 1 ) , uninformed ( 3 : 1 3 ) , unauthorized ( 4 : 1 ) , i n e l o q u e n t ( 4 : 1 0 ) , u n a d a p t e d ( 4 : 1 3 ) , u n p r o v e n ( 5 : 2 3 ) , and u n c r e d e n t i a l e d (6:12) – hardly the audacious mindset of a great rebel leader. W h a t

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M o s e s led was no r e b e l l i o n but a s o c i o l o g i c a l d e l i v e r a n c e for w h i c h Y a h w e h a l o n e c l a i m e d responsibility: “ C o m e n o w , t h e r e fore, and I will send you to P h a r a o h so that you c a n bring my people, t h e c h i l d r e n o f Israel, o u t o f E g y p t . . . . A n d I w i l l s t r e t c h o u t my h a n d , and smite Egypt w i t h all my w o n d e r s w h i c h I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he w i l l let y o u g o ” (Exodus 3:10, 20). If A d a m s , Franklin, and Jefferson h a d wished the 1 7 7 6 seal to express t h e true t e a c h i n g o f S c r i p t u r e , t h e y m i g h t h a v e w r i t t e n
“YAHWEH REMOVES TYRANTS FOR HIS FAITHFUL.”

B u t e v e n w i t h a biblically c o r r e c t m o t t o the seal fails the biblical standard. For it is after all a seal, a u t h o r i t y r e p r e s e n t e d by a g r a v e n i m a g e . A l t h o u g h t h e use of seals and images is o n e of R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m ’ s proudest sacred t r a d i t i o n s , S c r i p t u r e prohibits it. T h e only Israelite s h o w n to rule w i t h a seal is k i n g A h a b , w h o “did e v i l i n t h e sight o f t h e L o r d a b o v e all t h a t w e r e before h i m ” ( 1 K i n g s 1 6 : 3 0 ) . A h a b ’ s seal, a p p a r e n t l y a p p r o p r i a t e d from a n c i e n t pagan tradition, was e m p l o y e d by his wife, the quintessentially w i c k e d Jezebel, t o c o m m i t fraud a n d murder ( 2 1 : 8 - 1 6 ) . S c r i p t u r e w a r n s o f a n u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l for e v i l i n h e r e n t i n g r a v e n - i m a g e seals. T h e apostles of C h r i s t understood this principle w e l l . T h e y saw t h e pharisees d e m a n d Jesus show t h e m a t o k e n o f H i s authority, and w h a t Jesus s h o w e d t h e m was n o t a n image but Scripture – t h e b o o k of Jonah ( M a t t h e w 1 2 : 3 9 ) . Paul the apostle had no seal e x c e p t t h e people he’d evangelized: “for the seal of my apostleship are those of y o u in t h e L o r d ” (1 C o r i n t h i a n s 9:2). I n d e e d , t h e seal of t h e B o d y of C h r i s t is represented in S c r i p t u r e n o t b y t h e m i t e r a n d crossed keys o f t h e H o l y S e e , o r t h e d o v e s , flames, Bibles, bare crosses, and sunbursts of the Protestant d e n o m i n a t i o n s , but by Scripture alone: “ T h e f o u n d a t i o n of G o d stands sure, h a v i n g this seal: THE L O R D KNOWS HIS OWN;
CHRIST’S FAITHFUL DEPART FROM INIQUITY” (2 Timothy

AND LET

2:19).

T h e early C h r i s t i a n leaders, w h o s e faith is historically regarded as the best-informed of any generation’s, rigorously opposed the m a k i n g of images or likenesses of any k i n d . S c r i p t u r e h a d t a u g h t t h e m w e l l t h a t Y a h w e h ’ s p e o p l e always suffered terrible c a l a m i t y w h e n e v e r they v i o l a t e d t h e c o m m a n d m e n t n o t t o identify t h e m -

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selves or their G o d w i t h “any graven images or any likeness of any t h i n g ” (Exodus 20:4). E d w y n Bevan’s Holy Images: An Inquiry into Idolatry and Image Worship in Ancient Paganism and in Christianity cites t h r e e i m p o r t a n t early c h u r c h m e n w h o forbade images. C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a t a u g h t t h a t images were “ n o t true,” and were f o r b i d d e n b y Y a h w e h “in order t h a t w e m i g h t n o t direct our a t t e n t i o n to sensible objects, but m i g h t p r o c e e d to the intelligential.” O r i g e n h e l d t h a t images “drag t h e soul d o w n instead o f directing the mind to a divine invisible reality.” Tertullian instructed t h e s e r v a n t s o f G o d t o a v o i d e v e r y form o f imagery, e v e n secular art. Indeed, as B e v a n points out, C h r i s t i a n s of t h e first and second c e n t u r i e s p l a c e d v i s u a l artists in a class w i t h h a r l o t s , drunkards, brothel-keepers, and actors. B u t for t h o u s a n d s of years M e d i t e r r a n e a n cultures h a d b e e n r e c e i v i n g their religious and political information from myths narrated by visual art. Paulinus, B i s h o p of N o l a , said of his c o n g r e g a tions, “ T h e y are n o t d e v o i d of religion, but n o t able to read.” T h i s was Paulinus’ excuse for b e s e e c h i n g the Bishop of R o m e to permit h i m t o t e a c h w i t h g r a v e n images. P a u l i n u s h a d f o r g o t t e n , o r perhaps h a d n e v e r learned, that t h e basis of t h e G o s p e l of C h r i s t was above all literary – else w h y had its A u t h o r prohibited graphic likenesses? K n o w i n g this, t h e apostles d e v o t e d a large part of the e v a n g e l i c a l process to spreading literacy – “blessed is he w h o reads” ( R e v e l a t i o n 1:3). E v e n so, t h e apostle P e t e r foresaw t h e t i m e o f Paulinus, B i s h o p of N o l a , a time w h e n “false teachers a m o n g you shall bring in d a m n a b l e heresies d e n y i n g t h e L o r d ” (2 Peter 2 : 1 ) . W h a t more d a m n a b l e heresy c o u l d there be t h a n d e p i c t i n g a G o d w h o c o n d e m n s i m a g e s . . . with an image? C o u l d such a G o d e v e n be depictable by an image? W o u l d n ’ t an image purporting to be H i m h a v e to be in reality, by sheer force of l o g i c , t h e image of another God? T h e apostle Paul, aware of the c o m p e l l i n g nature of images, and t h e i r d e f i n i t i v e i n c a p a c i t y t o t e a c h Jesus and t h e G o s p e l , warned the C o r i n t h i a n s h o w easily a false teacher could lead t h e m to “ a n o t h e r Jesus, a n o t h e r gospel” (2 C o r i n t h i a n s 1 1 : 4 ) . T h e time was very close, Paul knew, w h e n Christians “will n o t endure sound doctrine, but will heap to themselves teachers w h o will switch

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t h e m from t r u t h t o m y t h s ” ( 2 T i m o t h y 4 : 3 , 4 ) . A n d w h a t are g r a v e n images but the very grammar of myths? T h e s w i t c h b e g a n n o t i c e a b l y h a p p e n i n g i n t h e third century, w h e n t e a c h e r s like P a u l i n u s o f N o l a b e g a n i n s t r u c t i n g from pictures (for w h i c h P a u l i n u s was c a n o n i z e d b y t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ) . W i t h C o n s t a n t i n e a c e n t u r y later, as w e ’ v e seen, a powerful n e w “ C h r i s t i a n ” visual language developed. O l d m y t h i c icons w e r e r e n a m e d to fit B i b l e stories, a n d an i c o n i c C h r i s t i a n i t y was spread t h r o u g h p a g a n images processed by missionary a d a p t a t i o n . W h a t the n e w c o n v e r t s were not t a u g h t is that Scripture categorically rejects s u c h attempts to iconize its c o n t e n t s , and that therefore (again, by sheer force of logic) the likenesses u p o n w h o m they r e v e r e n t l y gazed were no more t h a n the gods and goddesses originally pictured, other gods of other gospels. A r c h a e o l o g y traces these gods and their gospels b a c k to the very earliest B a b y l o n i a n c a t h e drals. It was in these cathedrals, erected nearly four thousand years before t h e C h r i s t i a n era, t h a t t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c sacred i c o n o graphic t r a d i t i o n was born. We shall e x p l o r e this subject in some detail in a f o r t h c o m i n g chapter.

C

O N G R E S S refused t o adopt t h e 1 7 7 6 seal. W e may n e v e r k n o w why. T h e r e is no record of any debate, only the n o t a t i o n that

t h e seal was ordered to lay “ o n t h e t a b l e . ” F i v e years later, in t h e i n C h e s a p e a k e Bay w i t h more t h a n t w e n t y t h o u s a n d soldiers accompanied by ninety R o m a n C a t h o l i c chaplains and G o d only

s u m m e r of 1 7 8 1 , a fleet of t w e n t y - f i v e F r e n c h war vessels arrived

k n o w s h o w m a n y secularized Jesuits. A m o n t h later, the B r i t i s h army surrendered t o G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n a t Y o r k t o w n . T h e legend-spinning visible war was over at last. In June 1 7 8 2 , B e n j a m i n Franklin and J o h n A d a m s were meeting in Paris to p e r f e c t a treaty w i t h e n v o y s of t h e n e w l y - e l e c t e d British Prime M i n i s t e r – R o b e r t Petty. We recall Petty, Lord S h e l burne, the ubiquitous “Jesuit of Berkeley Square” w h o teamed w i t h Lord B u t e to c o n c l u d e t h e F r e n c h a n d I n d i a n W a r s in terms t h a t h a d m a d e t h e R e v o l u t i o n i n e v i t a b l e . F r a n k l i n and A d a m s found t h e m s e l v e s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i n g table w i t h o u t a n a t i o n a l seal. N o t h i n g they m i g h t d o o n b e h a l f o f the U n i t e d States c o u l d
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b e v a l i d w i t h o u t a seal. T h i s was t h e e x i g e n c y t h a t m o v e d C o n gress to adopt, on June 28, the seal designed by C h a r l e s T h o m s o n and W i l l i a m Barton. T h e G r e a t S e a l is “written” in cabalah, that style of allegorical c o m m u n i c a t i o n composed of seemingly unrelated symbols, numerals, and phrases. A piece in Le Charivari N o . 18 (Paris, 1 9 7 3 ) , discussing c e r t a i n s y m b o l i c motifs used b y t h e e n l i g h t e n e d F r e n c h artist N i c o l a s Poussin, explains the practical a d v a n t a g e of cabalistic works:
A s i n g l e w o r d suffices t o i l l u m i n e c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h t h e m u l t i t u d e c a n n o t g r a s p . S u c h w o r k s are a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e , but their s i g n i f i c a n c e addresses itself to an elite. A b o v e and b e y o n d t h e masses, sender and r e c e i v e r u n d e r s t a n d e a c h other.

C a b a l a h goes b e y o n d mere secret c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Supposedly, i t thrusts t h e sender “ i n t o d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e l i v i n g powers and forces o f t h e U n i v e r s e , and t h r o u g h t h e m w i t h t h e e t e r n a l source o f all m a n i f e s t a t i o n , ” e x p l a i n s H e n r i e t t a B e r n s t e i n i n h e r Cabalah Primer. “In o t h e r words, y o u m a k e c o n t a c t w i t h G o d . ” To a cabalist gnostic illuminatus whose special k n o w l e d g e has liberated h i m from the c l u t c h of m a t t e r and is speeding h i m t o w a r d the pure l i g h t of godliness, c a b a l a h is “ t h e royal art, a closed b o d y of k n o w l e d g e sacred to the elect.” S i n c e t h e G r e a t S e a l is w r i t t e n in t h e l a n g u a g e of c a b a l a h , it appears to be a v e r i t a b l e G n o s t i c C o n s t i t u t i o n . In terms w e l l k n o w n t o initiates a n d G o d A l m i g h t y , i t sets f o r t h t h e o r i g i n , nature, purpose, and p l a n of A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t . Of course, as Charles T h o m s o n and M a n l y Hall h a v e intimated, the initiates will n e v e r disclose to outsiders the m e a n i n g of the Seal’s elements. But G o d A l m i g h t y is n o t so aloof. He does n o t resist inquiries. N o r is He a respecter of persons. C o n t r a r y to the cabalist’s boast of privileged access, Scripture promises more light to any mind that seeks i t from G o d i n person. S h i n i n g t h a t light o n c o m m o n l y available histories of rulers and r e l i g i o n s , a n y o n e c a n trace t h e Seal’s elem e n t s b a c k to their a n c i e n t origins and in t h e e n d k n o w as m u c h as, if n o t more t h a n , the gnostics.

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On the front or obverse side of the S e a l we find an eagle c l u t c h ing an o l i v e b r a n c h and thirteen arrows, w i t h a banner in his beak inscribed w i t h the m o t t o “ E P L U R I B U S U N U M . ” T h e earliest images of sacred eagles h a v e b e e n found in that region of present-day Iraq o n c e k n o w n a s B a b y l o n . T h e eagle was identified w i t h the Babylonian sky-god A n n u . W h e n A n n u entered sacred R o m a n iconography as Jupiter, t h e eagle was still his m a s c o t . For the more t h a n t w o t h o u s a n d years since the d e a t h of R o m e ’ s first emperor, Julius Caesar, Jupiter’s eagle has signified Rome’s imperial power – “imperial” m e a n i n g t h e r i g h t o f t h e C a e s a r s t o m a k e laws and e n f o r c e t h e m . I n m a n y a c h u r c h , R o m a n C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t a l i k e , the Bible from w h i c h lessons are publicly read rests on a h a r d w o o d lectern carved in the shape of a magnificent eagle. Yet in the pages o f this very B i b l e , G o d forbids c a r v e d images o f e a g l e s . W h a t , t h e n , does the eagle signify, if n o t a power indifferent to Scripture? T h e brilliant cloud h o v e r i n g over the eagle’s h e a d in the G r e a t S e a l is t h e aegis. T h e aegis is a g o a t s k i n . ( W e h a v e already e x a m ined h o w Scripture equates the goat w i t h worldly p o w e r and separ a t i o n from G o d . ) W h e n Jupiter was a baby he was nursed by a s h e - g o a t n a m e d A m a l t h e i a . ( T h e priestly artists o f t e n p o r t r a y e d t h e adult Jupiter as a satyr, h a v i n g a man’s b o d y w i t h t h e h o r n s , hair, and legs of a goat.) W h e n A m a l t h e i a died, Jupiter m a d e the aegis out of her hide. T h e aegis of t h e G r e a t S e a l glorifies t h i r t e e n five-pointed stars, o r p e n t a g r a m s . E a c h p e n t a g r a m represents a n o r i g i n a l S t a t e . I n gnostic symbology, t h e p e n t a g r a m is identified w i t h Jupiter’s wife, V e n u s . T h e r e is a n a t u r a l r e a s o n for this. A d e d i c a t e d observer, from a fixed l o c a t i o n o v e r an e i g h t - y e a r p e r i o d , w i l l d i s c e r n t h a t t h e p l a n e t V e n u s travels a u n i q u e c e l e s t i a l p a t h w a y t h a t e x a c t l y describes a p e n t a g r a m . C a r l L j u n g m a n , in Dictionary of Symbols, has written:
As the orbit of V e n u s is closer to the sun t h a n the earth’s position, she is n e v e r seen more t h a n 48 degrees from the sun. D u r i n g a p e r i o d of 247 days, V e n u s is v i s i b l e as t h e E v e n i n g star t h a t is, w i t h i n 48 d e g r e e s or less of t h e sun after t h e s u n h a s set. T h e n V e n u s c o m e s t o o c l o s e t o t h e s u n for u s t o see her. S h e

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r e m a i n s i n v i s i b l e for 14 days, t h e n reappears as t h e M o r n i n g star (or Eastern star) i m m e d i a t e l y before t h e sun rises in t h e east. For 245 d a y s w e c a n see V e n u s e a c h m o r n i n g a t d a w n b e f o r e s h e a g a i n d i s a p p e a r s i n t o t h e sun’s l i g h t b y g e t t i n g t o o c l o s e t o t h e sun. V e n u s is n o w i n v i s i b l e for 78 days. On t h e 79th e v e n i n g , she appears a g a i n i n t h e west i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e s e t t i n g sun. N o w she is t h e E v e n i n g star o n c e m o r e . I f o n e k n o w s t h e e c l i p t i c [ t h a t is, t h e g r e a t c i r c l e o f t h e celestial sphere that is the apparent path of the sun a m o n g the stars] a n d c a n p i n p o i n t t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e p l a n e t s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of fixed stars in t h e zodiac, o n e c a n mark the e x a c t place in the 360 degrees of the zodiac where the M o r n i n g star first appears shortly before sunrise after a p e r i o d of i n v i s i b i l i t y . I f w e d o t h i s , w a i t for t h e M o r n i n g star t o a p p e a r a g a i n 5 8 4 days later [the s y n o d i c orbital t i m e of V e n u s ] a n d m a r k its p o s i t i o n i n t h e z o d i a c , a n d t h e n r e p e a t t h i s p r o c e s s u n t i l w e h a v e f i v e p o s i t i o n s o f V e n u s a s t h e M o r n i n g star, w e w i l l f i n d t h a t e x a c t l y e i g h t years p l u s o n e d a y h a v e p a s s e d . I f w e t h e n d r a w a l i n e f r o m t h e first p o i n t m a r k e d t o t h e s e c o n d p o i n t marked, t h e n to the third, and so on, we end up w i t h a pentagram. O n l y V e n u s possesses t h e f i v e - p o i n t e d star s i g n . N o t o n e o f t h e i n n u m e r a b l e stars a b o v e u s c a n r e c r e a t e t h i s b y its o w n orbit.
3

C h a r l e s T h o m s o n , t h e G r e a t Seal’s c o - d e s i g n e r , led a group o f d e d i c a t e d o b s e r v e r s o f V e n u s . T h e first c o o r d i n a t e d s c i e n t i f i c e x periment of the A m e r i c a n Philosophical Society, the club T h o m son f o u n d e d for p o l i t i c a l l y radical y o u n g professionals, focused o n V e n u s ’ c e l e s t i a l p a t h w a y . O n t h e e v e n i n g o f June 3 , 1 7 6 9 , w i t h c o l l e a g u e s s t a t i o n e d a t t h r e e sites i n P e n n s y l v a n i a a n d D e l a w a r e , T h o m s o n and five others w a t c h e d , from t h e Public O b s e r v a t o r y on State House Square in Philadelphia, an eclipse caused by “the transit o f V e n u s across t h e S u n . ”
4

T h e goddess V e n u s , a s w e ’ v e seen, was absorbed b y missionary a d a p t a t i o n i n t o t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c sacred t r a d i t i o n a s t h e V i r g i n Mary. T h e a d a p t e r s e v e n a s c r i b e d t o M a r y t h e V e n u s i a n e p i t h e t “ Q u e e n of H e a v e n , ” a title never ascribed to Mary in the Bible.

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“ Q u e e n o f H e a v e n ” i n S c r i p t u r e n a m e s o n l y o n e p e r s o n a g e , and that is Ishtar, the B a b y l o n i a n V e n u s . M o s t faithful C a t h o l i c s , hist o r i c a l l y i n s u l a t e d from S c r i p t u r e by t h e M a g i s t e r i u m a n d t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , h a v e n o t k n o w n this. J e r e m i a h 4 4 e x p l a i n s h o w t h e Israelites v i o l a t e d t h e i r c o v e n a n t w i t h Y a h w e h b y praising t h e Q u e e n of H e a v e n , and in turn lost their dignity, property, freedom, everything to t h e B a b y l o n i a n s . S c r i p t u r e t e a c h e s , also, t h a t t h e B a b y l o n i a n interests h a v e m u c h t o g a i n from i n d u c i n g souls t o praise the Q u e e n o f H e a v e n . A n d a s w e shall later see, their gain is divinely approved. T h e term “ Q u e e n o f H e a v e n ” appears n o w h e r e else i n the O l d a n d N e w T e s t a m e n t s b u t a t J e r e m i a h 4 4 , a n d t h e r e e x a c t l y five times. Did Jeremiah k n o w that Venus’ celestial trail delineated five points? A n d did the other thirty-five writers of the Bible’s sixty-six books k n o w as well? Did all these m e n , w h o wrote in different languages o v e r a p e r i o d of more t h a n a t h o u s a n d years, c o n s p i r e not to m e n t i o n “ Q u e e n of H e a v e n ” in order to preserve Jeremiah’s five m e n t i o n s , so that the link b e t w e e n (a) the Q u e e n of H e a v e n , (b) t h e f i v e - p o i n t e d p a t h o f V e n u s , and (c) t h e curse resulting from praising her w o u l d stand as a d i v i n e lesson for the rest of eternity? Or did it just h a p p e n that way by accident? Or, as the Bible t e a c h es, were Jeremiah and his co-authors inspired by the A u t h o r of all c r e a t i o n to say (and n o t say) things for reasons b e y o n d their individual understanding?

T

H E G r e a t Seal’s eagle h o l d s a b a n n e r i n its b e a k inscribed “ E P L U R I B U S UNUM.” T h i s phrase, w h i c h appears o n A m e r i c a n

c o i n a g e as w e l l , is p o p u l a r l y u n d e r s t o o d to signify t h e m e l t i n g of m a n y p e o p l e i n t o o n e n a t i o n , “of many, o n e . ” O r t o identify t h e c o i n as one of m a n y identical coins. T h e gnostic understanding of this phrase, h o w e v e r , borders o n t h e p s y c h e d e l i c . A c c o r d i n g t o M a n l y H a l l , e pluribus unum refers to t h e a n c i e n t B a c c h i c R i t e s , w h i c h he says was “a forerunner to Freemasonry.” Mysterious and fantastic, the B a c c h i c Rites are built u p o n the following story line: In a t i m e before t h e c r e a t i o n of m a n k i n d , t h e t w e l v e T i t a n s cause B a c c h u s , Jupiter’s beautiful son, to b e c o m e fascinated by his

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o w n image in a mirror. Enthralled by himself, B a c c h u s is seized by t h e T i t a n s . T h e y k i l l h i m , tear h i m t o p i e c e s , b o i l t h e p i e c e s i n water, and afterwards roast and eat t h e m . T h i s grieves all his loved o n e s , h e n c e his n a m e , from bakhah, “ t o w e e p ” o r “ l a m e n t . ” T h e strewn body parts of B a c c h u s b e c o m e the four elements of matter. O n e of B a c c h u s ’ sisters, the virgin M i n e r v a , rescues his sacred heart from the four e l e m e n t s and places it before Jupiter in H e a v en. From H e a v e n , Jupiter hurls thunderbolts at his son’s murderers and reduces the Titans to ashes. T h e rains further reduce the ashes, m i n g l i n g w i t h t h e four e l e m e n t s , t o s l i m e . F r o m this e v i l slime Jupiter forms m a n k i n d , a “ T i t a n i c e m b o d i m e n t ” from w h i c h t h e “ B a c c h i c idea,” o r r a t i o n a l soul, must b e released. T h e B a c c h i c idea is released by evil slime’s sexual energy, especially w h e n facilitated by a l c o h o l i c drink – h e n c e B a c c h u s is associated w i t h grapevines, wild dancing, phallic symbols, and fornication. W h e n d e a t h and sex h a v e rescued t h e r a t i o n a l soul from t h e four slimy corners of t h e e a r t h , a transfigured, e t e r n a l B a c c h u s is
resurrected as the flaming S u n . He is E PLURIBUS UNUM, O n e from

Many, a resurrection symbolized by t h e p e n t a g r a m , the o n e rising out of the four to m a k e five. T h i s , says M a n l y H a l l , is “the magical formula of man,”
t h e h u m a n soul r i s i n g f r o m t h e b o n d a g e o f t h e a n i m a l n a t u r e . T h e p e n t a g r a m i s t h e true l i g h t , t h e S t a r o f t h e M o r n i n g , marking t h e l o c a t i o n o f five m y s t e r i o u s c e n t e r s o f force, t h e a w a k e n ing of w h i c h is t h e supreme secret of w h i t e m a g i c .

W i t h “E PLURIBUS UNUM” f l o w i n g from his b e a k , Jupiter’s eagle p r e a c h e s t h e B a c c h i c G o s p e l . It is a gospel of s a l v a t i o n that antedates t h a t o f Jesus C h r i s t b y many, m a n y centuries. T h e Bacc h i c G o s p e l w a s p r e a c h e d and p l a y e d o u t in t h e p a g a n c u l t s . A H o l y V i r g i n w o u l d ritually rescue t h e S o n o f G o d ’ s S a c r e d H e a r t from the slime of h u m a n i t y i m p r i s o n i n g t h e Son’s soul. E a c h c u l t i n i t i a t e – a f r a c t i o n a l part of t h e S o n ’ s soul – supposedly g a i n e d increasing a m o u n t s o f k n o w l e d g e from m i n d - a l t e r i n g substances and sexual ecstasy administered for money, of course, by t h e t e m ple priests a n d priestesses. T h e i n i t i a t e l o o k e d forward t o b e i n g

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released from his slimy h u m a n i t y b y e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e . He yearned to be reunited ultimately with the Sacred Heart in H e a v e n , resurrected and transfigured for all eternity. T h i s s a l v a t i o n a l p l a n , or some v a r i a t i o n of it, c a n be found at t h e core of all t h e secret or mystery religions – cults of empire. It persists from t h e earliest B a b y l o n i a n p r o t o t y p e r i g h t o n d o w n t h r o u g h t h e G r e a t S e a l . It has s u c c e e d e d n o t b e c a u s e it calls for r e p e n t a n c e from sin, but because it makes sin an asset in a process o f self-deification. T h e B a c c h i c G o s p e l serves a n e c o n o m y o f sin m a n a g e m e n t , i n w h i c h sins are f o r g i v e n u p o n t h e p a y m e n t o f m o n e y or performance of some act of c o n t r i t i o n valuable to society. It is about p e o p l e c o n t r o l . Because it prospers on the a d d i c t i v e n a t u r e of f o r n i c a t i o n and m i n d - a l t e r i n g substances, it n a t u r a l l y facilitates sex and booze and drugs and all their destructive fallout in order to h a v e a c o n t e x t in w h i c h to m a k e itself useful. U n l i k e t h e C h r i s t i a n G o s p e l , w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s f o r g i v e n e s s o f sins u p o n repentance – “ a n d if he r e p e n t s , f o r g i v e h i m ” ( L u k e 1 7 : 3 ) – the B a c c h i c G o s p e l forgives u p o n t h e t e n d e r i n g o f appropriate sacrifices to the priest of the appropriate deity. T h e c o n g e n i a l i t y of this gospel t o secular g o v e r n m e n t and R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m speaks for itself.

T

HE reverse side of the G r e a t S e a l contains four elements. First, the m o t t o “ANNUIT COEPTIS;” second, a thirteen-coursed top-

less p y r a m i d w i t h M D C C L X X V I e n g r a v e d i n t h e f o u n d a t i o n ; third, a d i s e m b o d i e d eye f o r m i n g t h e pyramid’s c a p s t o n e , and “NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM.” These elements

fourth, the m o t t o

define exactly the “ d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e ” u p o n whose p r o t e c t i o n the signers of the D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e firmly relied. T h e land of the Pyramid, Egypt, is w h e r e C a e s a r e a n R o m e was inaugurated. By “ C a e s a r e a n ” I m e a n t h e empire w h o s e h e a d c o m m a n d s n o t o n l y affairs of state but t h o s e of r e l i g i o n as w e l l . C a e sarean R o m e officially b e g a n i n A l e x a n d r i a , Egypt, a t t h e temple of Jupiter, on t h e w i n t e r solstice – D e c e m b e r 25 – in t h e year 48 B C , w h e n a f i f t y - t w o - y e a r - o l d priest of Jupiter was d e c l a r e d to be Jupiter’s i n c a r n a t i o n , thus “ S o n o f G o d . ” H i s n a m e was C a i u s o f

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the family of Marius, C a i u s Maria. A f t e r deification, and occasionally before, C a i u s M a r i a was referred to as “ C a e s a r , ” a c a b a l i s m formed by the letter “ C ” (for C a i u s ) a t t a c h e d to “Aesar,” the Etruscan word for “ G o d . ” T h e G o d C a i u s . ( S u e t o n i u s , t h e first-century b i o g r a p h e r of t h e C a e s a r s , suggests t h a t t h e title was formed from p r e f i x i n g A e s a r w i t h t h e n u m e r a l “ C , ” m e a n i n g “ h u n d r e d . ” G o d of the Hundred, or Hundreds.) According to Scottish theologian Alexander Hislop, Caesar c o n s e n t e d to d e i f i c a t i o n in order to i n h e r i t t h e h u g e k i n g d o m of Pergamum.
5

C o n s i s t i n g o f most

of A s i a

Minor

(present-day

T u r k e y ) , P e r g a m u m was b e q u e a t h e d t o t h e R o m a n p e o p l e i n 133 BC by its k i n g , A t t a l u s III. B u t t h e r e was a c a t c h : t h e p e o p l e of R o m e had to regard their leader as G o d . T h e Pergamenian kings had begun ruling as G o d w h e n the title of Pontifex Maximus fled the fall of B a b y l o n in 539 B C . In that e v e n t f u l year, Persian i n v a d e r s assassinated t h e B a b y l o n i a n k i n g Belshazzar. Just m o m e n t s prior, Belshazzar h a d s e e n his assassinat i o n p r o p h e s i e d b y t h e f a m o u s h a n d w r i t i n g o n t h e w a l l : “Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin,” ( “ t h e N u m b e r e r is numbered”). R u l i n g as
6

G o d b y d i v i n e a p p o i n t m e n t , Belshazzar h a d p r o f a n e d t h e sacred vessels o f t h e Israelite t e m p l e . T h i s was t h e u n p a r d o n a b l e sin o f blasphemy, for w h i c h G o d sent the Persians to destroy h i m . Belshazzar’s priests were e v i d e n t l y spared. R a t h e r t h a n submit to the Persian conquerors, they furtively gathered together all their p o r t a b l e treasures, e n t i t l e m e n t s , c o d e s , i n s c r i p t i o n s , astrology, sacred formulae, and insignia and fled w i t h t h e m northwesterly to P e r g a m u m . S i n c e t h e rulers of P e r g a m u m were already p r a c t i c i n g Babylonian religion, they were honored to receive the fugitive B a b y l o n i a n C o l l e g e and their great e n d o w m e n t . P e r g a m u m , t h e n e w r e s i d e n c e of Pontifex Maximus, b e c a m e a showplace for despotism. T h e n e i g h b o r i n g G r e e k s reflected its sudden transformation w i t h the m y t h of Midas, the k i n g w h o s e t o u c h turned e v e r y t h i n g to gold. B a b y l o n i a n rule graced P e r g a m u m w i t h the world’s greatest m e d i c a l c o m p l e x , the A s k l e p i o n , dedicated to the god of p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l h e a l i n g , A s k l e p i o s . Pergamum b e c a m e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t h u m a n i s t l e a r n i n g c e n t e r , its library h o u s i n g

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more t h a n t w o h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d scrolls. ( M a r c A n t o n y w o u l d later m o v e these assets to A l e x a n d r i a as a gift to C l e o p a t r a . M a n y of t h e m e v e n t u a l l y found their way from A l e x a n d r i a to the M e d i c i Library in Florence.) W h e n A t t a l u s III died i n 1 3 3 B C , h e b e q u e a t h e d all his k i n g dom’s B a b y l o n i a n grandeur to the R o m a n s . But no R o m a n emperor was d e e m e d fit to r e c e i v e it b e c a u s e t h e R o m a n c o n s t i t u t i o n had n e v e r suffered a m a n to be deified. T h e bequest lay u n c l a i m e d until 4 8 B C , w h e n C a i u s Maria C a e s a r was declared G o d A l m i g h t y in the Serapion, A l e x a n d r i a ’ s temple of Jupiter. D e i f i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d C a e s a r n o w to assume t h e t i t l e Pontifex Maximus. To indicate his infinitely holier status, he t o o k the n a m e “Julius.” T h e n a m e was a c l a i m of d e s c e n t from Julius A s c a n i u s ,
7

the legendary son of legendary A e n e a s , Virgil’s maritime hero w h o sailed westward w i t h a band of his Trojan f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n fleeing t h e sack o f T r o y b y G r e e k marauders. A s s i s t e d b y t h e w h o l e h e a v e n l y n e t w o r k o f m y t h i c d e i t i e s , A e n e a s led his f o l l o w e r s t o sacrifice their individuality for a glorious c o l l e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e that w o u l d o n e day be called “ R o m e . ” A e n e a s was c o n s i d e r e d t h e offspring of a u n i o n b e t w e e n a h u m a n being, A n c h i s e s , and Jupiter’s wife V e n u s . ( W h e n A n c h i s es boasted of his intercourse w i t h t h e goddess, Jupiter struck h i m blind w i t h a t h u n d e r b o l t . T h e Aeneid opens w i t h A e n e a s carrying b l i n d o l d A n c h i s e s o u t o f T r o y o n his shoulders.) B y t a k i n g t h e n a m e of A e n e a s ’ son Julius and claiming descent from h i m as well, C a e s a r was able to trace his lineage b a c k to the Q u e e n of H e a v e n . T h e d i v i n e l i n e a g e supposedly f l o w e d t h r o u g h his m o t h e r , M a i a , w h o was purported t o h a v e c o n c e i v e d h i m w i t h o u t losing her virginity. M a i a also c l a i m e d to h a v e r e m a i n e d a virgin e v e n in childb i r t h by h a v i n g h e r s o n d e l i v e r e d from t h e side in a surgical operation that still bears Caesar’s n a m e . A l l o f this “fable and endless g e n e a l o g y , ” w h i c h P a u l t a u g h t the c h u r c h n o t to h e e d , is f o u n d a t i o n a l to A m e r i c a n secular gove r n m e n t . For it is Julius A s c a n i u s , grandson of V e n u s and c l a i m e d ancestor of the original Caesar, w h o inspired “ANNUIT COEPTIS,” the upper m o t t o o n t h e f l i p side o f t h e G r e a t S e a l o f t h e U n i t e d

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States. T h e phrase, w h i c h the U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f State interprets t o m e a n “ G o d h a t h f a v o r e d this u n d e r t a k i n g , ” was s p o k e n b y y o u n g Julius A s c a n i u s in the N i n t h B o o k of Virgil’s Aeneid. T h e scene is a battleground. T h e Trojans are outnumbered and fearful. Y o u n g Julius A s c a n i u s takes a p o s i t i o n in front of his shrinking c o u n t r y m e n . He looks up at an evil giant n a m e d R e m u lus, K i n g of the Rutulus. R e m u l u s m o c k s the Trojans for sending a boy t o fight h i m . W h i l e t h e g i a n t q u a k e s w i t h derisive laughter, Julius slips an arrow o n t o his bowstring and cries toward the h e a v ens:
Almighty (AUDACIBUS altar! Jupiter, ADNUE favor this rebellious undertaking

COEPTIS)!

E a c h year, I s h a l l b r i n g to t h y

t e m p l e gifts i n m y o w n h a n d s , a n d p l a c e a w h i t e b u l l o c k a t t h y

Jupiter t h e n hisses an arrow from t h e sky that strikes R e m u l u s in t h e h e a d w i t h s u c h force t h a t it passes c l e a n t h r o u g h his t e m ples. T h e Trojans “raise a c h e e r and laugh aloud; their hearts rise t o w a r d t h e stars.” A p o l l o , from his t h r o n e o f c l o u d , shouts the gnostic credo: “By striving so, m e n reach the stars, dear son of gods and sire of gods to c o m e ! ” A thrilling story. A n d o n e that leaves no doubt as to the identity of the god w h o favored t h e u n d e r t a k i n g of the U n i t e d States. It was a p a g a n deity, t h e god of Julius A s c a n i u s , and n o t t h e G o d of the Bible. Surely, if C o n g r e s s had w a n t e d to show that the n e w n a t i o n was u n d e r w r i t t e n b y Y a h w e h , G o d o f t h e B i b l e , i t c o u l d h a v e referred to the b o y - d o w n s - g i a n t story told in t h e O l d Testam e n t . W h o doesn’t k n o w D a v i d and G o l i a t h ? C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s biblical scholarship could easily h a v e produced a m o t t o based on I S a m u e l 17:47, w h e r e D a v i d says to G o l i a t h :
“ T h e L o r d saves n o t w i t h sword a n d spear: for t h e b a t t l e is t h e Lord’s, and H e w i l l g i v e y o u i n t o our h a n d s ! ”

R e d u c e d to an original-language m o t t o at least as c o m p r e h e n -

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sible as “ANNUIT COEPTIS,” t h e passage m i g h t h a v e a p p e a r e d in the S e a l as the H e b r e w

ENEMN EFEF
or e v e n in translation, “THE BATTLE IS THE LORD’S.”

But establishing a national g o v e r n m e n t directly on biblical scripture was n o t the intent, I b e l i e v e , of the founding fathers. Far more useful to t h e m , and a c c e p t a b l e to t h e souls they k n e w would be populating A m e r i c a in good time, were the fabulous vanities of R o m a n religion. T h e s e souls required the sacred icons of burgeoning h u m a n i t y and u n i n h i b i t e d sexual energy, legends that inspired h o t b l o o d e d h e r o i s m and p a t r i o t i s m . C o n s e n t t o images o f this character presumed obedience to the o m n i p o t e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e h o v e r i n g inscrutably a b o v e t h e E S T A B L I S H M E N T o f a n c i e n t , s t o n e heavy, well-ordered pyramidic hierarchy.

L

ESS t h a n four years after his deification, Julius C a e s a r was assassinated by an e x e c u t i v e conspiracy. For another four years, civil

war raged as t w o of t h e assassins, Brutus and Cassius, struggled for c o n t r o l against Caesar’s i m m e d i a t e successor, a T r i u m v i r a t e c o m prised of Lepidus, M a r c A n t o n y , and Caesar’s adopted son (his biological g r a n d - n e p h e w ) , C a i u s O c t a v i a n C a p i a s . T h e T r i u m v i r a t e d e f e a t e d t h e assassins o n l y t o war against e a c h other. Poets l a m e n t e d t h a t R o m e , against w h o m n o foreign e n e m y h a d e v e r p r e v a i l e d , was b e i n g destroyed by t h e s t r e n g t h of h e r o w n sons. O b l i g a t i o n s o f e v e r y k i n d d i s s o l v e d . C l a s s f o u g h t against class. A fog of guilt and despair settled in. T h e poets y e a r n e d for escape b e y o n d the world’s borders, to a p l a c e of i n n o c e n c e and p e a c e , p e r h a p s to a n e w order of t h i n g s . In his b o o k a b o u t R o m e ’ s r e v o l u t i o n from r e p u b l i c t o B a b y l o n i a n autocracy, O x f o r d historian R o n a l d S y m e writes: T h e darker the clouds, the more certain was the dawn of redemption. On several theories of cosmic economy it was firmly believed that one world-epoch was passing, another was coming into being. T h e lore of the Etruscans, the calculations of
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astrologers and the speculations of philosophers might conspire with some plausibility and discover in the comet that appeared after Caesar’s assassination the sign and herald of a new age. Vague aspirations and magical science were quickly adopted for purposes of propaganda by the rulers of the world. Already coins of the year 43 BC bear symbols of power, fertility and the Golden Age.
s

T h e most influential and enduring c e l e b r a t i o n o f G o l d e n A g e o p t i m i s m was Virgil’s p r o p h e t i c - s o u n d i n g Fourth Eclogue. This w o r k was addressed t o o n e o f Virgil’s c h i e f b e n e f a c t o r s , C a i u s A s i n i u s P o l l i o , w h o was C o n s u l (roughly e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e office of President) w h e n C a i u s O c t a v i a n , A n t o n y , and Lepidus were reconciled in 40 BC by the Peace of Brindisi. Pollio, w h o represente d O c t a v i a n a t t h e Brindisi n e g o t i a t i o n s , i n t r o d u c e d V i r g i l t o C a i u s M a e c e n a s , the media mogul of his day. He had risked his fortune s u p p o r t i n g Julius Caesar’s rise to absolute d i c t a t o r s h i p , a n d he w o u l d risk no less to put Caesar’s adopted son, C a i u s O c t a v i a n , in t h e same p l a c e . He scouted and subsidized the most h i g h l y tale n t e d artists, sculptors, and p o e t s to c r e a t e a t o t a l l y n e w k i n d of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . V i r g i l g a v e h i m t h e m o s t for his m o n e y . V i r g i l d e v e l o p e d a n e w “ c i v i c ” literature w h o s e pious r h e t o r i c a l style gently guided public o p i n i o n toward a c c e p t i n g the rule of a deified B a b y l o n i a n a u t o c r a t . In w r i t i n g t h e Fourth Eclogue, V i r g i l borrowed h e a v i l y from t h e messianic verses of Isaiah, w h o s e writings were freely accessible t h r o u g h the Jewish rabbis of R o m e : Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and call his name ‘God With U s ’ . . . . [Isaiah 7:14] For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, T h e mighty God, T h e everlasting Father, T h e Prince of Peace. [9:6] S i x h u n d r e d years after Isaiah, V i r g i l s o l e m n l y a n n o u n c e d i n the Fourth Eclogue t h a t the Prince of P e a c e w o u l d be p r o d u c e d by
the unrolling of a N e w W o r l d Order (“NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM”):

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Now returns the G o l d e n A g e of Saturn, now appears the Immaculate Virgin. Now descends from heaven a divine Nativity. O! Chaste Lucina [Goddess of Maternity], speed the Mother’s pains, haste the glorious Birth, and usher in the reign of thy A p o l l o . T h y consulship, O Pollio, shall lead this glorious
Advent, and the new world order [NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM] shall

then begin to roll. Thenceforth whatever vestige of Original Sin remains, shall be swept away from earth forever, and the Son of God shall be the Prince of Peace! T h e b i l l i o n a i r e M a e c e n a s e x p l o i t e d the Fourth Eclogue in t h e media as t h o u g h it were a divine summons for Caesar’s adopted son O c t a v i a n to take t h e t h r o n e and b e g i n s w e e p i n g the w o r l d free of S i n . A fabulous resume of O c t a v i a n was already g o i n g a r o u n d – a b o u t h o w a t h u n d e r b o l t h a d blasted t h e city w a l l of his b i r t h place, Velitre, just prior to his birth. A n d h o w the priests interpreted this to be Jupiter’s w a y of s a y i n g t h e future ruler of t h e w o r l d w o u l d arise from the spot. A n d about h o w the S e n a t e , u p o n hearing this, had decreed that all male babies should be e x e c u t e d . A n d h o w O c t a v i a n was s a v e d b y h i s m o t h e r , w h o pilfered t h e s t o n e tablet on w h i c h the decree was engraved. O c t a v i a n ’ s m o t h e r was A t i a o f t h e family o f M a r i u s , A t i a Maria, a vestal virgin, niece of Caius Maria, the m a n w h o would b e c o m e Julius Caesar. W h e n O c t a v i a n r e a c h e d the age o f t w e l v e , great-uncle C a i u s b e c a m e his legal father through adoption. T h r e e years later, in O c t a v i a n ’ s fifteenth year, his adoptive father was deified as Julius Caesar, Pontifex Maximus. T h a t ’ s w h e n the propagandists of M a e c e n a s got busy p r o m o t i n g t h e S o n ’ s d i v i n e origins – about h o w the c h i l d was born S e p t e m b e r 28, 63 BC in h u m b l e circ u m s t a n c e s : t h e butler’s p a n t r y at his grandfather’s m a n s i o n at Velitre. A b o u t how he had been conceived on December 25 by A p o l l o , w h o c a m e i n serpent form a n d i m p r e g n a t e d t h e v i r g i n A t i a Maria as she lay sleeping on the floor of the A p o l l o n i a n temp l e . A b o u t how, just prior t o t h e child’s a d v e n t , t h e v i r g i n M a r i a h a d d r e a m e d t h a t h e r body was scattered to t h e stars and e n c o m passed t h e u n i v e r s e . A b o u t h o w h e r h u s b a n d , t o o , h a d d r e a m e d t h a t from w i t h i n h e r s h o n e t h e b r i g h t b e a m s o f t h e sun, w h i c h

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t h e n “rose from b e t w e e n her thighs.” A b o u t h o w the toddler O c t a vian’s h e a d was often seen b e i n g licked by g o l d e n solar flames. T h e p r o p a g a n d a c i r c u l a t e d t h e story o f h o w t h e great astrologer T h e o g e n e s , w h e n told O c t a v i a n ’ s birth sign ( C a p r i c o r n ) , rose and flung himself at the lad’s feet. T h e o g e n e s k n e w the astrological ruler o f C a p r i c o r n was S a t u r n , w h o s e s e c o n d G o l d e n A g e was at h a n d – S a t u r n , t h e c e l e s t i o - m y t h i c a l F a t h e r - G o d of R o m e and father of Jupiter. O c t a v i a n , as the incarnation of Jupiter, would be ruled by Saturn, t h e most dictatorial house in the zodiac, terrible for his restriction, l i m i t a t i o n , c o n t r o l , e v e n to t h e excesses of f o r n i c a t i o n and c a n n i b a l i z i n g o f h i s o w n c h i l d r e n . N o w o n d e r T h e o g e n e s flung himself at O c t a v i a n ’ s feet! In 28 B C , t w e l v e years after t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Fourth Eclogue, O c t a v i a n e n t e r e d R o m e t r i u m p h a n t l y as t h e P r i n c e of P e a c e . Like Julius h a d d o n e , the n e w Pontifex Maximus r e c e i v e d a n e w and h o l i e r n a m e , C a e s a r Augustus (“since sanctuaries and all places c o n s e c r a t e d by t h e augurs are k n o w n as ‘August,’” a c c o r d ing to S u e t o n i u s ) . A n d like Julius, he was h a i l e d as “ S o n of G o d . ” H i s t o r i a n A l e x a n d e r D e l M a r describes t h e u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e of the d i v i n e O c t a v i a n in these excerpts from his l a n d m a r k e x p o sition of R o m a n political deification, The Worship of Augustus Caesar ( 1 8 9 9 ) : In the firm establishment of the Messianic religion and ritual, Augustus ascended the sacred throne of his martyred sire and was in turn addressed as the Son of God (Divi filius), whilst Julius was worshiped as the Father.... This claim and assumption appears in the literature of his age, was engraved upon his monuments and stamped upon his coins.... It was universally admitted and accepted throughout the Roman empire as valid and legitimate, according to chronology, astrology, prophecy, and tradition.... His actual worship as the Son of G o d was enjoined and enforced by the laws of the empire, accepted by the priesthood and practised by the people.... Both de jure and de facto it constituted the fundamental article of the Roman imperial and ecclesiastical constitution. As supreme pontiff of the Roman empire, Augustus lawfully

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acquired and exercised authority over all cardinals, priests, curates, monks, nuns, flamens, augurs, vestal virgins, temples, altars, shrines, sanctuaries and monasteries, and over all religious rites, ceremonies, festivals, holidays, dedications, canonizations, marriages, divorces, adoptions, benefices, wills, burying grounds, fairs, and other ecclesiastical subjects and matters.... T h e common people wore little images of Augustus suspended from their necks. Great images and shrines of the same god were erected in the highways and resorted to for sanctuary. There were a thousand such shrines in Rome alone. Augustus wore on his head a pontifical mitre surmounted by a Latin cross, an engraving of which, taken from a coin of the Colonia Julia Gemella, appears in Harduini, de Numiis Antiquis [1689], plate I.... T h e images of Augustus upon the coins of his own mintage, or that of his vassals, are surrounded with the halo of light which indicates divinity, and on the reverse of the coins are displayed the various emblems of religion, such as the mitre, cross, crook, fishes, labarum, and the Buddhic or Bacchic or Dionysian monogram of PX [the Greek chi-rho, “Cairo,” site of the great pyramid]. The Augustan writers furnished materials showing that [Augustus’] Incarnation was the issue of a divine father and mortal mother, that the mother was a wife-virgin, that the birth occurred in an obscure place, that it was foretold by prophecy or sacred oracle, that it was presaged or accompanied by prodigies of Nature, that the divinity of the child was recognized by sages, that the Holy O n e exhibited extraordinary signs of precocity and wisdom, that his destruction was sought by the ruling powers, that his miraculous touch was sufficient to cure deformity or disease, that he exhibited a profound humility, that his deification would bring peace on earth, and that he would finally ascend to heaven, there to join the Father. So universally were his divine origin and attributes conceded, that many people, in dying, left their entire fortunes to his sacred personal fisc, in gratitude, as they themselves expressed it, for having been permitted to live during the incarnation and earthly sojourn of this Son of God. In the course of twenty years he thus inherited no less than 35,000,000 gold aurei [nearly $1 billion at 1996 values].... Many potentates bequeathed him not

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only their private fortunes, but also their kingdoms and people in vassalage.... T h e marble and bronze monuments to Augustus still extant contain nearly one hundred sacred titles. A m o n g them are Jupiter Optimus Maximus, A p o l l o , Janus, Quirinus, Dionysus, Mercurius, Volcanus, Neptunus, Liber Pater, Savus [Saviour], and Hesus. At his death, Senator Numericus Atticus saw his spirit ascend to Heaven. T h e Ascension of Augustus is engraved upon the great cameo, from the spoils of Constantinople, presented by Baldwin II to Louis IX, and now in the Cabinet of France. A facsimile of it is published in Duruy’s History of Rome.... A m e r i c a ’ s G r e a t S e a l , w i t h its obsessive fidelity t o C a e s a r e a n R o m e , c a n n o t represent a n a t i o n more moral t h a n the source of its scripture. T h e icons and mysterious cabalistic language of this S e a l i n t r o d u c e a preposterous B a b y l o n i a n gospel. T a k e n seriously (and s h o u l d n ’ t a g o v e r n m e n t ’ s s o l e m n s t a t e m e n t s be t a k e n seriously?), the Seal’s gospel t e a c h e s t h a t A m e r i c a ’ s h i g h spiritual purpose is to assist in t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n of t h e S o n of G o d ’ s m u t i l a t e d parts from the evil slime of h u m a n flesh. It tells us that already the H o l y V i r g i n has rescued t h e S o n ’ s S a c r e d H e a r t from t h e slime – E PLURIBUS UNUM, “ o n e from m a n y ” – and has placed it h i g h in the vault of H e a v e n , as her five-pointed celestial p a t h describes for all to see. It calls for A m e r i c a to e x e r t f e r v e n t sexual e n e r g y so t h a t the S o n ’ s m a n y parts o n e a r t h m i g h t b e r e u n i t e d w i t h t h e U N U M in H e a v e n . It promises that A m e r i c a will rise toward the pure light of sinlessness and G o d l i n e s s , i n t o e t e r n a l life as part of t h e solar b o d y of t h e S o n – t h e S u n – of G o d . It signifies t h a t this c o s m i c resurrective process is administered by a pyramidic hierarchy c o n ceived in ancient Babylon, exported to A s i a Minor, and beq u e a t h e d t o R o m e . A t t h e top o f t h e h i e r a r c h y sits a n u n s e e n c h i e f t a i n , a n u n k n o w n superior, a G o d o f t h e S e a l w h o possesses universal intelligence and authority o v e r every soul w h o confederates w i t h , or subscribes to, the Seal. T h e G o d of the S e a l wields the fasces to sweep the earth c l e a n of t h e last traces of O r i g i n a l S i n . He is assisted by a n e w priestly order, a “ n e w w o r l d order” c h a r g e d w i t h destroying all i n d i v i d u a l

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identity deemed inconsistent with the resurrection to godliness. U n c o o p e r a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t s and dissident citizens alike are cut d o w n by arts of war so frugal that the liquidation increases popular faith in the fasces. B e c a u s e they f u n c t i o n in a G o l d e n Era of S a t urn, t h e c h i e f and his h i e r a r c h y c a n b e d e p e n d e d u p o n t o m i m i c Saturn’s strictness, cruelty, licentiousness, e v e n c a n n a b i l i s m as the situation requires. To the charge that such is impossible in A m e r i ca, o n e c o m p a r i s o n should b e sufficient. N o sooner was A u g u s t u s C a e s a r deified t h a n he sacrificially murdered three h u n d r e d S e n a tors in Perugia to atone for the assassination of his adoptive father Julius. Likewise, no sooner was an A m e r i c a n president inaugurat9

ed t h a n h e , as C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f of t h e armed forces, authorized the sacrificial murder of n e a r l y a hundred misguided C h r i s t i a n s near W a c o , Texas, to a t o n e for what? A growing popular d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h federal g o v e r n m e n t ? W h a t t h e S e a l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a represents, t o a n y o n e w h o takes it seriously, is a Ministry of Sin. A s p e e c h by Jesuit political scientist M i c h a e l N o v a k , published in the January 28, 1989 issue of America, t h e w e e k l y m a g a z i n e of A m e r i c a n Jesuits, sums it up eloquently e n o u g h : T h e framers wanted to build a “novus ordo” that would secure “liberty and justice for all”.... T h e underlying principle of this new order is the fact of human sin. To build a republic designed for sinners, then, is the indispensable task.... There is no use building a social system for saints. There are too few of them. A n d those there are are impossible to live w i t h ! . . . A n y effective social system must therefore be designed for the only moral majority there is: sinners. I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , w e shall e x a m i n e h o w faithfully t h e f o u n d i n g fathers r e c o n s t r u c t e d B a b y l o n i a n R o m e o n t h e b a n k s o f the Potomac.

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L’Enfant’s celebrated plan of Washington, D . C . , conforming to the cabalistic Baphomet, arranged so that the Goat’s mouth (see below) is the W h i t e House.

Chapter

21

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R

O M E ’ S G O D O F G O D S , Jupiter, was served i n t e m p l e s c a l l e d capitolia, from t h e L a t i n w o r d m e a n i n g “ h e a d . ” A s w e ’ v e seen, A m e r i c a ’ s t e m p l e o f Jupiter was erected o n land t h a t

had b e e n k n o w n as “ R o m e ” for more t h a n a h u n d r e d years before it was s e l e c t e d by D a n i e l C a r r o l l ’ s “federal c i t y ” c o m m i t t e e from properties o w n e d by C a r r o l l himself. S u b d i v i d i n g the federal city, or District of C o l u m b i a , into plats was the task of an artistic Parisian e n g i n e e r n a m e d P i e r r e - C h a r l e s L’Enfant. A c c o r d i n g to Dr. James W a l s h in his b o o k American

Jesuits, L’Enfant got t h e j o b t h r o u g h t h e intercession of his priest, John Carroll. L’Enfant was a F r e e m a s o n . He s u b d i v i d e d the city i n t o a brilliant array of c a b a l i s t i c s y m b o l s and n u m e r i c s . P e r h a p s his bestk n o w n d e v i c e is the p a t t e r n that is discerned w h e n a straight line i s d r a w n from t h e W h i t e H o u s e a l o n g C o n n e c t i c u t A v e n u e t o D u p o n t C i r c l e , t h e n a l o n g Massachusetts A v e n u e t o M o u n t Ver227

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n o n Square, t h e n b a c k across K Street to W a s h i n g t o n C i r c l e , t h e n u p R h o d e Island A v e n u e t o L o g a n C i r c l e , t h e n a l o n g V e r m o n t A v e n u e back to the W h i t e House. W h a t results is a perfect p e n t a g r a m , the Q u e e n of Heaven’s eight-yearand-one-day celestial journey. B u t L’Enfant’s p e n t a g r a m p o i n t s downward, forming the shape of Baphomet, the gnostic “absorptioninto-wisdom” goat’s-head i c o n of the Knights Templar. G n o s t i c historian M a n l y H a l l says t h e u p s i d e - d o w n p e n t a g r a m “is used e x t e n s i v e l y in b l a c k m a g i c ” a n d “ a l w a y s signifies a perverted power.” The Baphomet puts the i m p o s e d u p o n t h e federal c i t y b y Pierre-Charles L’Enfant m o u t h of this “ p e r v e r t e d p o w e r ” exT h e Congressional Medal of Honor, depicting Aeneas within a Baphomet, rewards Americans who have sacrificed most for the Roman ideal.

actly at the W h i t e House. T h e presence o f perverted p o w e r is underscored in L’Enfant’s n u m b e r ing of W a s h i n g t o n ’ s city blocks. T h e
1

600 series of b l o c k s runs in a s w a t h from Q S t r e e t N o r t h t h r o u g h t h e

C a p i t o l grounds d o w n t o t h e m o u t h o f James C r e e k b e l o w V S t r e e t S o u t h . A l l t h e n u m b e r s b e t w e e n 600 and 699 are assigned to blocks w i t h i n this swath, e x c e p t for the n u m b e r 666. T h a t n u m ber is missing from t h e m a p . It must h a v e b e e n secretly affixed to the only u n n u m b e r e d section of blocks in the 600 series. T h a t sect i o n , w e find, includes the C a p i t o l grounds t h a t o n c e w e r e called “ R o m e . ” Of course, 666 is t h e “ n u m b e r of t h e n a m e of t h e Beast” mentioned in the thirteenth chapter of Revelation. If America’s t e m p l e of Jupiter sits u p o n the Beast n a m e d 666, c o u l d it be t h a t the true founding fathers soberly recognized Congress as “the great w h o r e ” of R e v e l a t i o n 17:1? T h e L a t i n historians O v i d , Pliny, and A u r e l i u s V i c t o r all tell

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us t h a t t h e prehistoric n a m e for R o m e was Saturnia, “ c i t y of S a t urn.” Saturnia’s original settlers came from the east, from Babylon. I n the B a b y l o n i a n (or C h a l d e a n ) language, a c c o r d i n g t o A l e x a n der H i s l o p , S a t u r n i a was p r o n o u n c e d “ S a t r ” but spelled w i t h o n l y four characters, Stur. N o w , C h a l d e a n , like Hebrew, G r e e k , and to a l i m i t e d e x t e n t L a t i n , h a d n o separate n u m b e r i n g system. T h e i r numbers were represented by certain characters of their a l p h a b e t . T h e c a b a l a h d e r i v e s its p o w e r from m a t h e m a t i c a l e n e r g i e s c o n v e y e d from these languages. H i s l o p r e p o r t e d a p h e n o m e n o n that he said “every C h a l d e e scholar k n o w s , ” w h i c h is that the letters of Stur, Rome’s earliest n a m e , total 666:
S = 60; T = 400; U = 6; R = 200 := 666

H i s l o p further r e p o r t e d t h a t R o m a n n u m e r a l s consist o f o n l y six letters, D (500), C ( 1 0 0 ) , L ( 5 0 ) , X ( 1 0 ) , V ( 5 ) , and I ( 1 ) – we ignore the letter M, signifying 1,000, because it’s a latecomer, h a v ing e v o l v e d as s h o r t h a n d for t w o D’s. W h e n we total these six letters, we d i s c o v e r a s t a r t l i n g l i n k w i t h t h e Beast of R e v e l a t i o n e m b e d d e d in the very alphanumeric c o m m u n i c a t i o n system of the Romans:
D = 500; C = 100; L = 50; X = 10; V = 5; I = 1 := 666

Demonism,

black magic,

and perverted power formatted into the

streets of the federal city? W e l l , as M i c h a e l N o v a k o b s e r v e d , t h e indispensable task of t h e f o u n d i n g fathers was to build a republic designed for sinners. N o t all sinners c a n be governed w i t h a l o v i n g call to repentance, w i t h reason, logic, patience, understanding, and f o r g i v e n e s s . S i n d e v e l o p s c u n n i n g v i l l a i n s w h o steal, rape, destroy, torture, and kill. A republic d e s i g n e d for sinners must be up to the villainy of its meanest subject. T h i s is w h y the great revolutionary p a m p h l e t e e r T o m Paine candidly characterized h u m a n g o v e r n m e n t as “a necessary evil.” A g o v e r n m e n t must necessarily be as e v i l as the evildoers it’s c h a r g e d w i t h regulating or it c a n n o t p r o t e c t t h e i n n o c e n t . T h i s just stands t o reason. S c r i p t u r e shows t h e p r i n c i p l e a s d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d . Yes, G o d o r d a i n e d t h e e v i l t o rule t h e g o o d . B u t t h e details o f this gracious o r d i n a t i o n , w h i c h

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w e ’ l l be e x a m i n i n g presently, are so embarrassing to t h e flaunted piety of rulers that they must be c o n c e a l e d in cabalah. S o o n after c o m p l e t i n g his master p l a n for t h e federal city, P i e r r e - C h a r l e s L’Enfant b e c a m e e m b r o i l e d in a flagrant dispute with Bishop Carroll’s high-ranking brother Daniel. T h e young engineer wanted an avenue to go where Daniel Carroll intended to build his n e w m a n o r house. W h e n C a r r o l l refused to build elsew h e r e , L’Enfant ordered t h e w o r k c r e w t o tear t h e n e w h o u s e d o w n . Before any significant damage could be d o n e , h o w e v e r , Presi d e n t W a s h i n g t o n dismissed L’Enfant. T h e w h o l e affair d i v e r t e d a t t e n t i o n away from t h e d e m o n i c symbolism in L’Enfant’s designs w h i l e c o n v e n i e n t l y r e m o v i n g h i m from p u b l i c scrutiny. A g a i n , b l o w n c o v e r as cover. T h e designs were e x e c u t e d by his successor, A n d r e w Ellicott, w i t h o u t significant alteration.

T

h e formal c r e a t i o n o f Jupiter’s A m e r i c a n A b o d e o n W e d n e s -

day, S e p t e m b e r 1 8 , 1 7 9 3 was a j u b i l a n t affair. P r e s i d e n t

George W a s h i n g t o n and C a p i t o l Commissioner Daniel Carroll departed from the W h i t e House, m a r c h i n g side by side. T h e y led a magnificent parade “ w i t h music playing, drums beating, and spectators rejoicing in o n e of the grandest M a s o n i c processions w h i c h perhaps ever was e x h i b i t e d on the like important o c c a s i o n . ”
2

A r r i v i n g a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n site o n L o t 6 6 6 , C o m m i s s i o n e r C a r r o l l p r e s e n t e d “ W o r s h i p f u l M a s t e r W a s h i n g t o n ” a large silver plaque engraved w i t h the following words: This South East corner stone, of the Capitol of the United States of America in the city of Washington, was laid on the 1 8 t h day of September, in the thirteenth year of American Independence, in the first year of the second term of the Presidency of George Washington, whose virtues in the civil administration of his country have been as conspicuous and beneficial, as his military valor and prudence have been useful in establishing her liberties, and in the year of Masonry, 5 7 9 3 , by the President of the United States, in concert with the Grand Lodge of Maryland, several lodges under its jurisdiction, and Lodge N o . 22 from Alexandria, Virginia.

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President W a s h i n g t o n t h e n d e s c e n d e d i n t o a builder’s t r e n c h prepared for t h e C a p i t o l ’ s f o u n d a t i o n s , laid t h e p l a q u e o n t h e ground, and c o v e r e d it o v e r w i t h the cornerstone. T h e cornerstone was a m a s s i v e r o c k c u t from Eagle Quarry, a p r o p e r t y in A c q u i a C r e e k , V i r g i n i a , o w n e d b y t h e family o f D a n i e l Carroll’s n e p h e w , R o b e r t Brent. T h e n , just a s t h e priests o f Jupiter m i g h t h a v e blessed t h e i r capitolia t w o m i l l e n n i a ago three W o r s h i p f u l Masters c o n s e c r a t e d the stone w i t h corn, w i n e , and oil. W a s h i n g t o n and the other M a s ters stepped out of t h e t r e n c h , and j o i n e d the assembled t h r o n g to listen to a patriotic speech. Afterward, said the Gazette, the congregation joined in reverential prayer, which was succeeded by Masonic chanting honors, and a 1 5 - v o l l e y from the artillery. T h e n the participants retired to a barbecue, at which a five-hundred-pound ox was roasted, and those in attendance generally partook, with every abundance of other recreation.... R e a d i n g of the b a r b e q u e , I was r e m i n d e d of the passage in the Aeneid w h e r e Julius A s c a n i u s p r o m i s e d a sacrifice to Jupiter for favoring his rebellious u n d e r t a k i n g : “I shall bring to thy temple gifts in my o w n h a n d s , and p l a c e a w h i t e bullock at thy altar...” C o u l d it be t h a t the silver plaque, the corn, the w i n e , the oil, the c h a n t i ng, the roasted o x , and the reverential prayer were the fulfillment of t h a t p r o m i s e – a b u r n t sacrifice to Jupiter, on t h e altar of his capitolium, u p o n l a n d c a l l e d R o m e , l a n d f o r m a l l y c o n s e c r a t e d by Pontifex Maximus to the p r o t e c t i o n of the goddess Venus? Historians w h o b e l i e v e the g o v e r n m e n t of the U n i t e d States was founded by C h r i s t i a n s will c e r t a i n l y disagree. But the c e r e m o n y , as reported in t h e press, was a n y t h i n g but C h r i s t i a n . M o r e o v e r , the plaque itself r e c k o n e d t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e systems: ( 1 ) t h e years o f i n d e p e n d e n c e of the U n i t e d States, (2) the years of G e o r g e W a s h ington’s administration, and (3) the years of Freemasonry. It c o m p l e t e l y ignored t h e system t h a t r e c k o n s t i m e in t h e years of Jesus Christ.
3

Eight years after t h e sacrifice, C o n g r e s s m e t in the C a p i t o l for the first t i m e . W a s h i n g t o n g a v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a R o m a n

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C a t h o l i c s e t t l e m e n t . T h e most i m p o s i n g houses i n t h e city b e l o n g e d t o D a n i e l C a r r o l l a n d his b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , secularized Jesuit priest N o t l e y Y o u n g . T h e city’s mayor was Carroll’s nephew, R o b e r t Brent, w h o was also purveying stone for most of the federal b u i l d i n g s . O v e r o n t h e west side o f t o w n stood G e o r g e t o w n C o l lege, established by Bishop John Carroll in 1789. G e o r g e t o w n q u i c k l y b e c a m e t h e f o r e m o s t i n c u b a t o r o f federal policy, f o r e i g n and domestic. It is still administered by the S o c i e t y of Jesus.

Seal of the Black Papacy’s Georgetown University, as it appears today on a campus security vehicle. T h e Roman eagle grasps both the world and the cross, State and Roman Catholic C h u r c h , the banner in its beak declaring “UTRAQUE U N U M , ” – “Both together.”

W h e n P o p e Pius V I I restored t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus i n A u g u s t 1 8 1 4 , former presidents J o h n A d a m s a n d T h o m a s Jefferson exc h a n g e d c o m m e n t s . “I do n o t like t h e resurrection of the Jesuits,” wrote A d a m s . They have a general now in Russia [Tadeusz Brzozowski], in correspondence with the Jesuits in the United States, who are more numerous than everybody knows. Shall we not have swarms of them here, in the shape of printers, editors, writers, schoolmasters, & c ? I have lately read Pascal’s letters over again [Blaise Pascal’s Provincial Letters helped bring about the suppression of the Society], and four volumes of the History of the Jesuits. If ever any congregation of men could merit eternal perdition on earth and in hell it is this company of Loyola. Our system, however, of religious liberty must afford them an asylum; but if they do not put the purity of our elections to a severe trial, it will be a wonder.

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Jefferson’s reply i n d i c a t e s (or p r e t e n d s ) t h a t h e , t o o , was u n a w a r e t h a t A m e r i c a ’ s destiny h a d b e e n shaped b y t h e h a n d s o f R o m e : “ L i k e y o u , I d i s a p p r o v e of t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e Jesuits, w h i c h seems to portend a backward step from light into darkness.” During the next seventy years, Superior Generals John R o o t h a a n ( 1 8 2 9 - 1 8 5 3 ) and Pieter Jean B e c k x ( 1 8 5 3 - 1 8 8 3 ) would p u m p t h e S o c i e t y up to its o r i g i n a l greatness, s w e l l i n g t h e m e m bership from a few h u n d r e d to m o r e t h a n t h i r t e e n t h o u s a n d . In t h o s e same s e v e n t y years, t h e P r o t e s t a n t s w h o h a d f o u g h t for A m e r i c a ’ s i n d e p e n d e n c e w o u l d vastly d i m i n i s h i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the influx of fresh R o m a n C a t h o l i c refugees from E u r o p e a n tyrannies. ( T h e r e is e v i d e n c e t h e s e t y r a n n i e s w e r e Jesuit-fed, for t h e express purpose of p o p u l a t i n g A m e r i c a . Perhaps a n e w scholarship w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e more t h o r o u g h l y t h a n I h a v e time or i n c l i n a t i o n for.) As America’s public became increasingly C a t h o l i c , Generals R o o t h a a n and B e c k x were able to signify W a s h i n g t o n ’ s debt to the black papacy with m u c h bolder iconographic and architectural s y m b o l s . T h i s l i t t l e - e x p l o r e d m a t e r i a l is t h e subject of our n e x t chapter.

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Persephone, Goddess of the U.S. Capitol Dome. Said by her priests to have been immaculately conceived, she was renamed “Freedom” for American consumption. Abducted by Hades, son of Saturn, she ruled the dead and all else that is within the earth, namely metals and precious stones. At daybreak of May 9, 1993, helicopters lowered the Queen of the dead to ground level for her first cleaning in more than a century. T h e author attended this historic event and snapped the above photograph. Significantly, May 9, 1993 was... Mother’s Day.

Chapter 22

THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION

had dedicated his S e e of Baltimore to her, the 1846 c o n v e n t i o n of A m e r i c a n R o m a n C a t h o l i c bishops declared the Virgin Mary to be “Patroness of the U n i t e d States.” T h e first t w o years under her patronage e n r i c h e d the n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t considerably. T h e O r e g o n territory and the S o u t h w e s t j o i n e d t h e U n i o n . A s did C a l i f o r n i a , w i t h its bursting v e i n s o f gold. T h e blessings had their downside, h o w e v e r . T h e y precipitated a corresponding increase in intersectional tensions that erupted in a devastating interstate b l o o d b a t h some historians call the C i v i l War. In that war, the Patroness of the U n i t e d States dealt as cruelly w i t h t h e e n e m i e s of h e r p r o t e c t o r a t e as t h e v e n g e f u l goddess Ishtar did w i t h the enemies of a n c i e n t Babylon. In February 1849, “Pio N o n o ” (the popular n a m e for Pope Pius
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s IF IT W E R E N ’ T enough that Christopher C o l u m b u s had dedicated the N e w W o r l d t o her, and that A n d r e w W h i t e h a d d e d i c a t e d M a r y l a n d t o her, a n d t h a t B i s h o p C a r r o l l

RULERS OF E V I L

IX; there’s a boulevard n a m e d after h i m in M a c o n , G e o r g i a ) issued a n e n c y c l i c a l t h a t c o l o r e d A m e r i c a ’ s Patroness w i t h t h e fearsome aspects of Ishtar. T h e e n c y c l i c a l , e n t i t l e d Ubi primum (“By w h o m at first”), celebrated Mary’s divinity, saying: T h e resplendent glory of her merits, far exceeding all the choirs of angel, elevates her to the very steps of the throne of God. Her foot has crushed the head of Satan. Set up between Christ and his C h u r c h , Mary, ever lovable, and full of grace, always has delivered the Christian people from their greatest calamities and from the snares and assaults of all their enemies, ever rescuing them from ruin. H o l y as she m a y s o u n d , a S a t a n - b a s h i n g , l i f e - s a v i n g V i r g i n M a r y is a f a b r i c a t i o n of sacred p a g a n t r a d i t i o n . T h e B i b l e does prophesy that Satan’s serpentine h e a d will be v i o l a t e d . But n o t by Mary. A t G e n e s i s 3 : 1 5 , w e read G o d ’ s v o w t h a t S a t a n ’ s seed w i l l be bruised by the seed of E v e . It may be argued that Eve’s seed was Mary. But a c c o r d i n g to the inspired understanding of the apostles, it was Jesus. At R o m a n s 16:20 P a u l promises a R o m a n c o n g r e g a tion that “the God of peace shall bruise S a t a n under your feet.” N o r was M a r y g i v e n p o w e r t o d e l i v e r p e o p l e from their e n e m i e s . O n l y t h e “ o n e m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n G o d and m e n , t h e m a n C h r i s t Jesus” (1 T i m o t h y 2:5), “a n a m e w h i c h is a b o v e e v e r y o t h e r n a m e ” (Philippians 2:9), is a divinely-authorized deliverer. N o , the Mary of Ubi Primum will n o t be found anywhere in the Bible. But t h e n Pio N o n o , the first p o p e ever to be declared Infallible, carried about a rather famous t h e o l o g i c a l ignorance. His priv a t e secretary, M o n s i g n o r T a l b o t , d e f e n d e d Pio’s i n e p t i t u d e in a letter cited by Jesuit author Peter de Rosa in his Vicars of Christ: As the Pope is no great theologian, I feel convinced that when he writes his encyclicals he is inspired by God. Ignorance is no bar to infallibility, since G o d can point out the tight road even by the mouth of a talking ass. T h e t r u t h o f t h e matter, a c c o r d i n g t o J . C . H . A v e l i n g , i s t h a t

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t h r o u g h o u t Pius IX’s long reign ( 1 8 4 6 - 1 8 7 8 ) , most of his theology was w r i t t e n b y Jesuits. O n D e c e m b e r 8 , 1 8 5 4 , S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l B e c k x brought three h u n d r e d years of M a r i a n d e v o t i o n to a glorious c l i m a x w i t h Ineffabilis Deus ( “ G o d indescribable”), the encyclical d e f i n i n g t h e I m m a c u l a t e C o n c e p t i o n , t h e e x t r a s c r i p t u r a l d o c t r i n e that Mary, like Jesus, was c o n c e i v e d and remained free of sin: T h e doctrine which holds that the most blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instant of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by G o d and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful. Ineffabilis Deus m o b i l i z e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s to pass extraordinary legislation. Congress b e c a m e suddenly obsessed w i t h e x p a n d i n g t h e C a p i t o l ’ s d o m e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e official p u b l i c a t i o n The Dome of the United States Capitol: An Architectural History ( 1 9 9 2 ) , “ N e v e r before (or s i n c e ) has a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e C a p i t o l b e e n so eagerly embraced by Congress.” W i t h i n days of Pio N o n o ’ s d e f i n i t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e o f I m m a c u l a t e C o n c e p t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n was rushed t h r o u g h C o n g r e s s that effectively incorporated the n e w V a t i c a n d o c t r i n e i n t o t h e C a p i t o l dome’s c r o w n i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l platform, its cupola. A week following Ineffabilis Deus Philadelphia architect T h o m a s U s t i c k W a l t e r , a F r e e m a s o n , c o m p l e t e d his d r a w i n g s for t h e p r o p o s e d d o m e . It w o u l d be s u r m o u n t e d by a b r o n z e M a r i a n image w h i c h w o u l d c o m e to be recognized as “ t h e only authorized Symbol of A m e r i c a n Heritage.”
1

H e r c l a s s i c a l n a m e was Perse-

phone, G r a e c o - R o m a n goddess of t h e p s y c h e , or soul, and leading deity i n t h e E l e u s i n i a n M y s t e r i e s o f a n c i e n t G r e e c e . P e r s e p h o n e was a b d u c t e d by Saturn’s son, H a d e s , and m a d e q u e e n - c o n s o r t of his d o m i n i o n , t h e u n d e r w o r l d . P e r s e p h o n e was d i s t i n g u i s h e d for her Immaculate Conception – described by Proclus, h e a d of the Plat o n i c A c a d e m y i n A t h e n s during t h e fifth c e n t u r y o f t h e C h r i s t ian era, as “ h e r u n d e f i l e d t r a n s c e n d e n c y in h e r g e n e r a t i o n s . ” In

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fact, most of the statues of Persephone in the Christianized R o m a n E m p i r e h a d b e e n simply r e - i d e n t i f i e d and r e - c o n s e c r a t e d as t h e V i r g i n Mary by missionary adaptation. C o n g r e s s appropriated $3,000 for a statue of Persephone. President F r a n k l i n Pierce’s Secretary of W a r , Jefferson D a v i s , awarded t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o a famous y o u n g A m e r i c a n s c u l p t o r n a m e d T h o m a s Crawford. Crawford lived and worked in R o m e . His reputation had b e e n established w i t h a statue of O r p h e u s w h i c h , w h e n e x h i b i t e d in B o s t o n in 1843, was the first sculptured male nude to b e s e e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S i n c e a n o t h e r o f P e r s e p h o n e ’ s anc i e n t n a m e s was Libera ( “ L i b e r t y ” ) , C r a w f o r d n a m e d h i s Persep h o n e “Freedom.” His work has w o r n this title ever since. A f t e r t w o years o f labor i n t h e s h a d o w o f the G e s u , C r a w f o r d c o m p l e t e d a plaster m o d e l of Freedom. H e r right h a n d rested on a sword p o i n t i n g downward. Her left h a n d , against w h i c h leaned the shield of the U n i t e d States, h e l d a laurel wreath. S h e was c r o w n e d w i t h an eagle’s h e a d and feathers m o u n t e d on a tiara of p e n t a grams, some i n v e r t e d , some n o t . W h e n u l t i m a t e l y cast i n bronze, F r e e d o m w o u l d r e a c h t h e h e i g h t of n i n e t e e n feet, six i n c h e s – a sum p e r h a p s d e l i b e r a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d to pay h o m a g e to t h e work’s final destination, the Beast of R e v e l a t i o n at L o t 666, for n i n e t e e n feet, six inches works out to 6 + 6 + 6 feet, 6 + 6 + 6 inches. F r e e d o m w o u l d s t a n d u p o n a t w e l v e - f o o t iron p e d e s t a l also designed by T h o m a s C r a w f o r d . T h e upper part of the pedestal was a globe ringed w i t h t h e m o t t o of t h e B a c c h i c G o s p e l , E PLURIBUS UNUM, w h i l e the lower part was flanked w i t h twelve wreathes (the t w e l v e Caesars?) a n d as m a n y fascia, t h o s e b u n d l e s of rods wrapped around axe-blades symbolizing R o m a n totalitarianism. C r a w f o r d w a n t e d his sculpture to be cast at the R o y a l Bavaria n F o u n d r y i n M u n i c h ( w h e r e R a n d o l p h R o g e r s ’ great t e n - t o n b r o n z e doors l e a d i n g t o t h e C a p i t o l r o t u n d a w e r e c a s t ) , w h i l e a r c h i t e c t T h o m a s U . W a l t e r preferred C l a r k M i l l s ’ foundry, near W a s h i n g t o n . T h e i r t r a n s a t l a n t i c a r g u m e n t e n d e d abruptly w h e n C r a w f o r d died i n L o n d o n o n S e p t e m b e r 10, 1 8 5 7 , o f a t u m o r b e h i n d his left eye. I n t h a t same year, 1 8 5 7 , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S u p r e m e C o u r t

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h a n d e d d o w n Dred Scott vs. Sanford, a d e c i s i o n w h i c h most historians agree i g n i t e d t h e G r e a t A m e r i c a n C i v i l W a r . T h e o p i n i o n was w r i t t e n by the Roger Brooke Taney, w h o succeeded J o h n Marshall as C h i e f Justice. A d e v o u t R o m a n C a t h o l i c “under the influe n c e of t h e Jesuits most of his l o n g life” a c c o r d i n g Dr. W a l s h ’ s American Jesuits, T a n e y h e l d t h a t N e g r o slaves and t h e i r d e s c e n dants c o u l d n e v e r b e S t a t e c i t i z e n s a n d thus c o u l d n e v e r h a v e standing in court to sue or be sued. N o r could they ever h o p e to be U n i t e d States citizens since the C o n s t i t u t i o n did not create such a thing as “ U n i t e d States citizenship.” Taney’s o p i n i o n was widely suspected of being part of a plot to prepare the way for a s e c o n d S u p r e m e C o u r t d e c i s i o n t h a t w o u l d prohibit any state from abolishing slavery. A m e r i c a n slavery would b e c o m e a p e r m a n e n t i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s is e x a c t l y w h a t h a p p e n e d , a l t h o u g h n o t q u i t e as e v e r y o n e supposed it w o u l d . First, slavery was a b o l i s h e d b y t h e T h i r t e e n t h A m e n d m e n t ( 1 8 6 5 ) . T h e n , t h e Fourteenth A m e n d m e n t (1868) created a new national citizenship. U n l i k e S t a t e c i t i z e n s h i p , w h i c h was d e n i e d t o N e g r o e s , n a t i o n a l c i t i z e n s h i p was a v a i l a b l e to anyone as l o n g as t h e y subjected themselves to the jurisdiction of the U n i t e d States – that is, to t h e federal g o v e r n m e n t , whose seat is the District of C o l u m bia, “ R o m e . ” W h a t is so remarkably Jesuitic about the scheme that p r o c e e d e d o u t of R o g e r Taney’s o p i n i o n is t h a t slavery was sustained by the very a m e n d m e n t that supposedly abolished it. A m e n d m e n t T h i r t e e n provides for the abolition of “involuntary servitude, e x c e p t as p u n i s h m e n t for crime w h e r e o f t h e party shall h a v e b e e n duly c o n v i c t e d . ” In our time t h e federally r e g u l a t e d c o m m u n i c a tions m e d i a , w i t h t h e i r c o n t i n u a l l y e x c i t i n g c e l e b r a t i o n o f v i o l e n c e and drug-use, h a v e subtly but v i g o r o u s l y i n d u c e d y o u t h f u l a u d i e n c e s to play on a m i n e f i e l d of c o m p l e m e n t a r y c r i m i n a l statutes. T h e fruit of this c o l l a b o r a t i o n is a b u r g e o n i n g n a t i o n a l prison p o p u l a t i o n o f m e n and w o m e n e n s l a v e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y . A m e r i c a n slavery has b e c o m e a p e r m a n e n t institution. R e a c t i o n to Taney’s decision animated A b r a h a m L i n c o l n to immerse himself in abolitionist rhetoric and c h a l l e n g e S t e p h e n A. Douglas for the S e n a t e in 1 8 5 8 . . . .

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M

E A N W H I L E i n R o m e , Freedom’s plaster m a t r i x was p a c k e d i n t o five h u g e crates a n d c r a m m e d , w i t h bales o f rags and

cases of l e m o n s , i n t o t h e h o l d of a tired old ship b o u n d for N e w t o p u t i n t o G i b r a l t a r for repairs. O n c e t h e v o y a g e was r e s u m e d , stormy w e a t h e r caused n e w leaks. D e s p i t e attempts to l i g h t e n her load by j e t t i s o n i n g t h e rags a n d t h e c i t r o n , t h i n g s got so bad she put in to Bermuda on July 27, 1858. T h e crates were placed in storage, and the Emily was c o n d e m n e d and sold. In N o v e m b e r , L i n c o l n lost his bid for Douglas’ seat in the S e n ate, and in D e c e m b e r , a n o t h e r ship, t h e G.W. Norton, arrived in

York, t h e Emily Taylor. Early o n , t h e Emily sprang a leak a n d h a d

N e w York harbor from B e r m u d a w i t h s o m e o f t h e statuary crates. B y M a r c h 30, 1 8 5 9 all five crates h a d b e e n d e l i v e r e d t o t h e f o u n d r y o f C l a r k M i l l s o n B l a d e n s b u r g R o a d , o n t h e outskirts o f the District of C o l u m b i a , w h e r e the process of casting t h e Immaculate V i r g i n into bronze and iron was begun. L i n c o l n opposed S t e p h e n D o u g l a s again in 1860, this time for t h e Presidency, a n d this t i m e v i c t o r i o u s l y . T h e n o r t h e r n states rejoiced. T h e s o u t h e r n states, fearing L i n c o l n w o u l d abolish slavery, prepared t o s e c e d e . “ T h e tea h a s b e e n t h r o w n o v e r b o a r d ! ” s h o u t e d t h e Mercury, of C h a r l e s t o n , S o u t h C a r o l i n a , c a p i t a l of A m e r i c a n S c o t t i s h R i t e Freemasonry. “ T h e r e v o l u t i o n of 1860 has b e e n initiated!” By Lincoln’s inauguration in M a r c h 1 8 6 1 , six states h a d seceded from the U n i o n . In A p r i l , G e n e r a l Pierre Beauregard, a R o m a n C a t h o l i c w h o resigned his S u p e r i n t e n d e n c y o f W e s t P o i n t t o j o i n t h e C o n f e d e r a c y , fired o n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m i l i t a r y e n c l a v e a t Fort S u m t e r a n d b r o t h e r l y b l o o d b e g a n f l o w i n g . Jefferson D a v i s , w h o five years earlier h a d c o m m i s s i o n e d C r a w f o r d t o sculpt t h e Immaculate V i r g i n , served as President of the rebellious C o n f e d e r ate States of A m e r i c a . In historian Eli N. Evans’ b o o k on Judah P. B e n j a m i n , I h a p p e n e d u p o n a strange and interesting link b e t w e e n Davis and the V a t i c a n . W h i l e a young Protestant student at the R o m a n C a t h o l i c monastery of St. T h o m a s C o l l e g e in Bardstown, D a v i s h a d pled to be received into the C a t h o l i c faith, but was “not permitted to c o n -

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vert.” He remained “a hazy Protestant” until his confirmation into the E p i s c o p a l C h u r c h at t h e age of fifty. D e s p i t e o u t w a r d appearances of rejection, the C o n f e d e r a t e President maintained a vibrant c o m m u n i o n w i t h R o m e . N o o n e was m o r e aware o f this t h a n A b r a h a m Lincoln. At an interview in the W h i t e House during A u g u s t 1 8 6 1 , L i n c o l n confided the following to a former law client o f h i s , a R o m a n C a t h o l i c priest n a m e d C h a r l e s C h i n i q u y , w h o p u b l i s h e d t h e President’s words in his o w n a u t o b i o g r a p h y , Fifty Years In The Church of Rome: “I feel more and more every day,” [stated the President] “that it is not against the Americans of the South, alone, I am fighting. It is more against the Pope of Rome, his Jesuits and their slaves. Very few Southern leaders are not under the influence of the Jesuits, through their wives, family relations, and their friends. “Several members of the family of Jeff Davis belong to the C h u r c h of Rome. Even the Protestant ministers are under the influence of the Jesuits without suspecting it. To keep her ascendency in the North, as she does in the South, Rome is doing here what she has done in Mexico, and in all the South American Republics; she is paralyzing, by civil war, the arms of the soldiers of liberty. She divides our nation in order to weaken, subdue and rule it.... “Neither Jeff Davis not any one of the Confederacy would have dared to attack the North had they not relied on the promises of the Jesuits that, under the mask of democracy, the money and the aims of the Roman Catholics, even the arms of France, were at their disposal if they would attack us. I pity the priests, the bishops, and monks of Rome in the United States when the people realize that they are in great part responsible for the tears and the blood shed in this war. I conceal what I know, for if the people knew the whole truth, this war would turn into a religious war, and at once, take a tenfold more savage and bloody character....
2

T h e G r e a t C i v i l W a r rampaged for a n o t h e r year. I n a u t u m n o f 1862, the Confederacy’s invasion of the U n i o n was defeated at the Battle o f A n t i e t a m i n Sharpsburg, M a r y l a n d . A s i f i n c e l e b r a t i o n ,

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the I m m a c u l a t e V i r g i n was m o v e d from t h e foundry and b r o u g h t to the grounds of the C a p i t o l c o n s t r u c t i o n site. T h e lower floors of the building were teeming w i t h the traffic of a U n i o n barracks and m a k e s h i f t h o s p i t a l . A b o v e all this l o o m e d T h o m a s U . W a l t e r ’ s majestic cast-iron d o m e , p a t t e r n e d after t h a t of S t . Isaac’s C a t h e dral in St. Petersburg, Russia. In M a r c h 1 8 6 3 , F r e e d o m was m o u n t e d on a t e m p o r a r y pedestal, “in order that the public may h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y to e x a m ine it before it is raised to its destined position,” as stated in W a l ter’s A n n u a l R e p o r t dated N o v e m b e r 1 , 1 8 6 2 . O n e w o u l d e x p e c t photographers to be c l i m b i n g all over themselves to make portraits o f “ t h e o n l y authorized S y m b o l o f A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e ” w h i l e she was a v a i l a b l e for g r o u n d - l e v e l e x a m i n a t i o n . A m e r i c a ’ s p i o n e e r p h o t o g r a p h e r , M a t t h e w Brady, h a d s h o t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e record o f t h e C a p i t o l u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g portraits o f b o t h C a p i t o l a r c h i t e c t T h o m a s U . W a l t e r and C o m m i s s i o n e r o f Public Buildings B e n j a m i n B. F r e n c h . B u t n e i t h e r Brady nor a n y o n e else photographed Freedom w h i l e she was available for closeups. W h y ?
3

W a s t h e r e a fear t h a t p e r h a p s s o m e P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i a n m i g h t raise a h u e a n d cry a b o u t t h e p a g a n i c o n a b o u t to d o m i n a t e t h e C a p i t o l building? A p p a r e n t l y , n o t too m a n y Protestants ever e x a m i n e d Freedom at g r o u n d - l e v e l . T h e D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a was still v i r t u a l l y a R o m a n C a t h o l i c e n c l a v e . M o r e o v e r , the n a t i o n i n 1863 had b e e n drastically reduced in size. T h e secession of the southern states had left o n l y t w e n t y - t w o n o r t h e r n states, a n d these t w e n t y - t w o were h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d b y C a t h o l i c i m m i g r a n t s from Europe and Irel a n d . “ S o i n c r e d i b l y large,” w e r e c a l l f r o m S y d n e y E . A h l s t r o m ’ s Religious History of the American People, “was the flow of immigrants t h a t by 1850 R o m a n C a t h o l i c s , o n c e a tiny and ignored minority, h a d b e c o m e t h e c o u n t r y ’ s largest religious c o m m u n i o n . ” T h u s , C r a w f o r d ’ s t o w e r i n g goddess was b e i n g e x a m i n e d m o s t l y b y R o m a n C a t h o l i c eyes, eyes that c o u l d n o t h e l p but see i n her the dreadnaught Mary described by Pius IX in Ubi Primum: “ e v e r lovable, a n d full of grace, set up b e t w e e n C h r i s t a n d his C h u r c h , always d e l i v e r i n g the C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e from their greatest calami-

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ties and assaults of all their enemies, ever rescuing t h e m from ruin.” T h e war rapidly a d v a n c e d t o c o n c l u s i o n w h i l e F r e e d o m h e l d forth o n the east grounds o f the C a p i t o l . T h e U n i o n forces under Burnside lost to Lee at Fredericksburg, but Rosecrans defeated the C o n f e d e r a t e s at Murfreesboro, and G r a n t t o o k Vicksburg. In summer, Lee’s s e c o n d a t t e m p t to invade the N o r t h failed at C h a n c e l lorsville and G e t t y s b u r g . B y fall, G r a n t w o n t h e Battles o f C h a t t a n o o g a and Missionary R i d g e w i t h S h e r m a n and T h o m a s . By the end o f N o v e m b e r 1 8 6 3 , the U n i o n h a d t a k e n K n o x v i l l e , and the C o n f e d e r a c y found its resources exhausted and its cause hopelessly lost. O n N o v e m b e r 24, a s t e a m - o p e r a t e d h o i s t i n g apparatus lifted the I m m a c u l a t e V i r g i n M o t h e r of G o d ’ s first s e c t i o n to t h e top of the C a p i t o l d o m e and secured it. T h e second section followed the n e x t day. T h r e e days later, in a d r i v i n g t h u n d e r s t o r m , t h e third s e c t i o n was secured. T h e fourth s e c t i o n was installed o n N o v e m ber 3 1 . A t quarter past n o o n D e c e m b e r 2 , 1 8 6 3 , before a n e n o r m o u s crowd, the Immaculate Virgin’s fifth and final section was put into place. T h e ritual procedure for her installation is preserved in Special O r d e r N o . 248 o f t h e W a r D e p a r t m e n t . H e r h e a d and shoulders rose from t h e g r o u n d . T h e t h r e e - h u n d r e d - f o o t trip t o o k twenty minutes. At the m o m e n t the fifth section was affixed, a flag unfurled a b o v e it. T h e u n f u r l i n g was a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a t i o n a l salute o f f o r t y - s e v e n g u n s h o t s fired i n t o t h e W a s h i n g t o n a t m o s phere. Thirty-five shots issued from a field battery on C a p i t o l Hill. T w e l v e w e r e d i s c h a r g e d from t h e forts s u r r o u n d i n g t h e city. R e p o r t i n g t h e e v e n t in t h e D e c e m b e r 10 issue of t h e New York Tribune, an a n o n y m o u s j o u r n a l i s t e c h o e d t h e qualities t h a t Pius IX had g i v e n Mary: During more than two years of our struggle, while the national cause seemed weak, she has patiently waited and watched below: now that victory crowns our advances and the conspirators are being hedged in, and vanquished everywhere, and the bonds are being freed, she comes forward, the cynosure of thousands of eyes, her face turned rebukingly toward Virginia

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and her hand outstretched as if in guaranty of National Unity and Personal Freedom. If Tribune readers felt m o r e n a t i o n a l l y u n i t e d a n d p e r s o n a l l y free b e c a u s e F r e e d o m was g l a r i n g at r e b e l l i o u s V i r g i n i a a n d outs t r e t c h i n g her h a n d t o h e r b e l o v e d A m e r i c a , they w e r e d e c e i v e d . For t h e goddess f a c e d in precisely the opposite direction! S h e faced east, as she does to this day, faced east across M a r y l a n d , t h e “land o f M a r y , ” across t h e A t l a n t i c , t o w a r d h e r b e l o v e d R o m e . I n fact, n e i t h e r h a n d o u t s t r e t c h e s i n any d i r e c t i o n . B o t h are a t rest, o n e on her sword, the other h o l d i n g the laurel wreath. A n d her forty-seven Jupiterean thunderbolt-gunshots? T h e y w e r e a tribute to the Jesuit b i s h o p w h o h a d p l a c e d t h e D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a under h e r p r o t e c t i o n . For D e c e m b e r 2, 1863 tolled the forty-seventh year from John Carroll’s last full day alive, December 2, 1815!

O

N C E the pressures o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n were over, a n e x h a u s t e d but r e l i e v e d C a p i t o l A r c h i t e c t T h o m a s U . W a l t e r w r o t e his

wife, A m a n d a , a t t h e i r P h i l a d e l p h i a h o m e , t o say t h a t “ h e r ladyship looks placid and beautiful – m u c h better t h a n I e x p e c t e d , and I h a v e h a d thousands of congratulations on this great e v e n t , and a general regret was expressed that you were prevented from witnessing this t r i u m p h . ” S o m e o n e else h a d missed t h e t r i u m p h , t o o , s o m e o n e w h o b y all t h e rules o f p r o t o c o l s h o u l d h a v e b e e n there no matter what: the C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f of the U n i t e d States A r m e d Forces, w h o s e W a r D e p a r t m e n t h a d e n g i n e e r e d t h e w h o l e C a p i t o l p r o j e c t f r o m t o p to b o t t o m – President Abraham Lincoln. A t n o o n o n t h e day t h e t e m p l e o f federal l e g i s l a t i o n was p l a c e d under the patronage of Persephone, Freedom, Wife of Hades, Q u e e n of the Dead, Immaculate V i r g i n of R o m e , Protectress of the

Jesuits, Protectress o f M a r y l a n d , a n d P a t r o n e s s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e c o r d s h o w s t h a t L i n c o l n sequestered h i m s e l f inside the W h i t e House, t o u c h e d w i t h “a fever.” A telling detail. But t h e sacred i c o n o g r a p h y was still n o t c o m p l e t e . T h e e n g i neers began n o w preparing the interior of the d o m e , its canopy, for a m a s s i v e p a i n t i n g C o n g r e s s h a d a p p r o v e d b a c k in t h e spring of
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1863. T h i s painting w o u l d depict G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n undergoing the secular v e r s i o n of t h e c a n o n i z a t i o n of Ignatius L o y o l a . It c o n tains e v e n more data useful to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c h a r a c t e r and p r o v e n a n c e o f A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t . W e e x a m i n e this masterpiece in our n e x t chapter.

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APOTHEOSIS OF WASHINGTON. (Photograph: Architect of the Capitol)

Chapter 23

THE DOME OF THE GREAT SKY
“”It’s like St. Peter’s!“” — Tourists describing the rotunda fresco, as quoted in the official Capitol guidebook W E , THE PEOPLE

stone for St. Patrick’s C a t h e d r a l in M a n h a t t a n , and had h e l p e d the Jesuits establish F o r d h a m U n i v e r s i t y in W e s t c h e s t e r . N o w he was helping t h e m decorate the Capitol’s interior. In R o m e , Superior G e n e r a l John R o o t h a a n introduced the A r c h b i s h o p to C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi, an artist boasting an impressive list of credits. B r u m i d i h a d p a i n t e d an a c c l a i m e d p o r t r a i t of Pio N o n o ( w h i c h the V a t i c a n still e x h i b i t s ) , a n Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n i n t h e little S a n c t u a r y o f t h e M a d o n n a d e l l ’ A r c h e t t o i n V i a S a n M a r c e l l o , and t h e restoration o f three s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y frescoes in the V a t i c a n Palace. B r u m i d i was g o o d . G e n e r a l R o o t h a a n had determined t o m a k e h i m A m e r i c a ’ s M i c h a e l a n g e l o . A r c h b i s h o p H u g h e s let i t b e k n o w n t h a t B r u m i d i w o u l d b e w e l c o m e t o p a i n t s o m e frescoes i n c h u r c h e s o f t h e N e w Y o r k bish-

A

R C H B I S H O P J O H N H U G H E S o f N e w York sailed for R o m e i n

the a u t u m n o f 1 8 5 1 , just after C o n g r e s s h a d a p p r o v e d funds to enlarge t h e C a p i t o l . H u g h e s h a d laid the corner-

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opric.

General

Roothaan

then

went

about m a k i n g the Vatican’s artist acceptable to A m e r i c a n egalitarianism. S o o n after t h e A r c h b i s h o p left R o m e for N e w York, t h e V a t i c a n accused C o n s t a n t i n o B r u m i d i o f c r i m i n a l acts. S u p posedly, B r u m i d i h a d c o m m i t t e d c r i m e s during his membership in the R e p u b l i c a n C i v i l G u a r d under G i u s e p p e Mazzini, the I t a l i a n F r e e m a s o n w h o h a d r e c e n t l y led ill-fated n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n s against t h e papacy. T h e s e c r i m e s w e r e said t o h a v e i n c l u d e d (a) refusing to fire on his
Constantino Brumidi

R e p u b l i c a n friends, (b) l o o t i n g several c o n v e n t s , and (c) p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a p l o t

to destroy t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h – acts r e a s o n a b l y sure to m e r i t a hero’s w e l c o m e i n Protestant A m e r i c a . T h e A r c h i t e c t o f t h e C a p i tol’s unpublished dossier on Brumidi, w h i c h I was permitted to exa m i n e during 1 9 9 3 , notes that “several w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t a c c o u n t s suggest that C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi h i m s e l f was probably the source of at least some of the legends.” V a t i c a n j u s t i c e f o u n d t h e artist guilty i n D e c e m b e r 1 8 5 1 a n d s e n t e n c e d h i m to e i g h t e e n years in prison. S e v e r a l w e e k s later the s e n t e n c e was r e d u c e d t o six years. A n d w i t h i n t w o m o n t h s , o n M a r c h 20, Pio N o n o himself quietly granted Brumidi a n u n c o n d i t i o n a l p a r d o n . G e n e r a l R o o t h a a n t h e n p l a c e d his n e w l y - c r e a t e d republican freedom fighter on a ship b o u n d for A m e r i c a . Brumidi arrived in N e w York harbor on September 18. On N o v e m b e r 2 9 h e filed for state c i t i z e n s h i p w i t h t h e N e w Y o r k C o u r t o f C o m m o n Pleas. A l t h o u g h t h e i n v i t e h a d c o m e t o p a i n t N e w Y o r k c h u r c h e s , t h e r e was n o s u c h w o r k t o b e d o n e t h e r e . Instead, t h e A r c h b i s h o p sent h i m t o M e x i c o C i t y – b y w a y o f W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . I n W a s h i n g t o n , B r u m i d i was r e c e i v e d b y his M a s o n i c brother T h o m a s U s t i c k Walter. For t w o years W a l t e r had b e e n serving President Millard Fillmore as A r c h i t e c t of t h e C a p i tol. W h e n the cornerstone for Walter’s C a p i t o l e x p a n s i o n plan was

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laid o n t h e F o u r t h o f July o f 1 8 5 1 , P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e a n d C o m missioner o f P u b l i c Buildings B e n j a m i n B . F r e n c h , w h o also h a p p e n e d to be “ G r a n d M a s t e r of t h e M a s o n i c fraternity,” led a colorful ceremony. Washington’s p o p u l a r National Intelligencer reported the occasion was “ w e l c o m e d by a display of N a t i o n a l flags a n d t h e r i n g i n g o f bells from t h e v a r i o u s c h u r c h e s a n d e n g i n e houses.”
1

T h o m a s W a l t e r n e e d e d C o n s t a n t i n o B r u m i d i . A n edifice a s i m p o r t a n t as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C a p i t o l – like t h e p a l a c e s of A u g u s t u s and N e r o , t h e B a t h s o f T i t u s and L i v i a , t h e L o g g i a o f R a p h a e l at the V a t i c a n – required the most n o b l e and p e r m a n e n t interior d e c o r a t i o n possible. O n l y fresco p a i n t i n g , i n w h i c h pigm e n t s are m i x e d w i t h w e t mortar i m m e d i a t e l y before a p p l i c a t i o n to the surface, would suffice. A n d only C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi, of all t h e artists l i v i n g i n A m e r i c a , k n e w h o w t o p a i n t fresco. B u t t h e d o m e was n o t yet ready to be frescoed. So t h e artist was routed to the sunny, Italianate c l i m a t e of M e x i c o C i t y to enjoy life, to p o n der his subject matter at a casual pace, to w a i t for t h e call. T w o years later, o n D e c e m b e r 28, 1 8 5 4 , less t h a n three w e e k s f o l l o w i n g Pio N o n o ’ s d e c r e e o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f I m m a c u l a t e C o n c e p t i o n , C o n s t a n t i n o B r u m i d i a p p e a r e d i n t h e office o f M o n t gomery C. Meigs, Supervising Engineer of the C a p i t o l extension project. T h e Capitol’s unpublished dossier on Brumidi relates that as t h e t w o m e n conversed in b r o k e n French, Brumidi struck Meigs as “a lively old m a n w i t h a very red nose, either from M e x i c a n suns o r F r e n c h brandies.” T h e i m m e d i a t e upshot o f their c o n v e r s a t i o n was a c o m m i s s i o n to p a i n t a fresco c o v e r i n g an e l l i p t i c a l a r c h at o n e e n d of Meigs’ office in the C a p i t o l . It was t h e first fresco ever painted in the U n i t e d States, as w e l l as Brumidi’s first in five years. T h e fresco c e l e b r a t e d t h e c o m i n g C i v i l W a r i n terms o f R o m a n history. A c c o r d i n g to t h e commission’s report it d e p i c t e d “a senator, w h o p o i n t s t o R o m e a n d appeals t o C i n c i n n a t u s t o c o m e t o the h e l p o f his country.” C i n c i n n a t u s , the fifth-century B C R o m a n d i c t a t o r , was c a l l e d t o d e f e n d R o m e t w i c e , first from foreign invaders, t h e n from his o w n c o m m o n people. Likewise, A m e r i c a n heroes first defended their R o m e against foreign British invaders,

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and were n o w about to be called to defend the same R o m e against her o w n seceding states. Brumidi completed the C i n c i n n a t u s in M a r c h 1855. Meigs i n v i t e d various C o n g r e s s m e n t o b e h o l d it. T h e y were impressed. T h o m a s U . W a l t e r was “ m u c h delighted.” O n M a r c h 20, Jefferson D a v i s approved of the C i n c i n n a t u s and authorized M e i g s to negotiate a salaried c o n t r a c t w i t h Brumidi. C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi’s lifetime career spent decorating the C a p i t o l began on a salary of $8.00 a day. H i s c o n t r a c t a l l o w e d h i m to a c c e p t o t h e r artistic projects but n o t to l e a v e W a s h i n g t o n . In N o v e m b e r 1855 he b e g a n a c a n vas p a i n t i n g of the Blessed V i r g i n for St. Ignatius’ Jesuit c h u r c h in B a l t i m o r e , but was n o t present for its D e c e m b e r 4 t h i n s t a l l a t i o n , on the occasion of the Feast of the Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n .

Ibeing cast at the M i l l s foundry, T h o m a s U. W a l t e r wrote to Bru-

N t h e s u m m e r of 1 8 6 2 , e v e n as T h o m a s C r a w f o r d ’ s statue was

midi asking h i m t o p a i n t s o m e t h i n g m o n u m e n t a l “ i n real fresco” to c o v e r the 4,664-square-foot inner surface of the Capitol’s d o m e . T h r e e w e e k s later, B r u m i d i s u b m i t t e d s k e t c h e s o f s o m e t h i n g h e e n t i t l e d “ A p o t h e o s i s of W a s h i n g t o n . ” T h e w o r d “apotheosis” was t h e n c o m m o n l y u n d e r s t o o d b y its d e f i n i t i o n i n W e b s t e r ’ s 1 8 2 9 Dictionary: Apotheosis – the act of placing a prince or other distinguished person among the heathen deities. This honor was often bestowed on illustrious men of Rome, and followed by the erection of temples, and the institution of sacrifices to the new deity. W a l t e r responded ecstatically to the “ A p o t h e o s i s , ” writing the artist that “ n o picture in the world will at all compare w i t h this in m a g n i t u d e . ” H e praised t h e design before W o r s h i p f u l M a s t e r and C o m m i s s i o n e r of Buildings Benjamin French as “probably the grandest, and t h e most i m p o s i n g t h a t h a s e v e r b e e n e x e c u t e d i n the world.” F r e n c h enthusiastically agreed, adding that the S e c r e tary of I n t e r i o r was also greatly impressed. F i n a l a p p r o v a l of “ A p o t h e o s i s ” at a price of $40,000 c a m e on M a r c h 1 1 , 1 8 6 3 , just

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as the I m m a c u l a t e V i r g i n was being placed on her temporary pedestal on the Capitol’s east grounds. “Frustrating delays in manpower,” a c c o r d i n g to official histories, w o u l d h o l d t h e fresco in abeyance until D e c e m b e r 1864. O n A p r i l 9 , 1865, R i c h m o n d fell and the C o n f e d e r a c y surrendered t o Ulysses S . G r a n t . Less t h a n a w e e k later, o n t h e e v e n i n g of A p r i l 14 at Ford’s T h e a t r e , during an instant of hilarious laughter, o n e of the country’s l e a d i n g actors, J o h n W i l k e s B o o t h , cried out an oath summarizing the liberation theology of Cardinal Robert Bellarmine: “Sic Semper Tyrannis” ( “ A l w a y s this [i.e., death] to t y r a n n y ” ) , and fired a shot into t h e head of President A b r a h a m L i n c o l n . Sic Semper Tyrannis is also t h e m o t t o of V i r g i n i a , t h e n c o n s i d e r e d a S t a t e i n r e b e l l i o n . M i g h t B o o t h ’ s cry h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d to give the assassination the look of an official act of the C o n f e d e r a c y , m u c h i n the way Lee H a r v e y Oswald’s m u c h - t o u t e d s y m p a t h y for C u b a i n i t i a l l y g a v e t h e K e n n e d y assassination t h e l o o k o f c o m m u n i s t r e v e n g e ? A n illusion o f official C o n f e d e r a t e responsibility for a b e l o v e d president’s assassination justified t h e elaborately cruel r e v e n g e w h i c h the federal g o v e r n m e n t inflicted u p o n t h e s o u t h e r n states in order to bring all the states under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f W a s h i n g t o n D . C . ( T h e inferiority o f states t o t h e federal “ R o m e ” is expressed in the law of flag. W h e r e v e r state and n a t i o n a l flags are flown together, the n a t i o n a l is always higher.) B o o t h h a d associated w i t h s e v e n p e o p l e w h o were b r o u g h t t o trial less t h a n a m o n t h f o l l o w i n g t h e assassination. It was n o t a c i v i l i a n trial but a special e l e v e n - m a n military tribunal a p p o i n t e d b y President A n d r e w Johnson called “ T h e H u n t e r C o m m i s s i o n . ” C o u n s e l for t h e defendants objected to the C o m m i s s i o n , arguing that the military h a d no jurisdiction o v e r civilians, and therefore t h e p r o c e e d i n g was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . T h e o b j e c t i o n was o v e r r u l e d a n d t h e trial m o v e d forward. W i t h i n s e v e n w e e k s , t h e C o m m i s s i o n (a two-thirds majority, n o t the u n a n i m i t y required of a c i v i l i a n jury) f o u n d four of t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s guilty. On July 7, 1865 they were hanged. “ T h e great fatal m i s t a k e o f t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e assassins o f A b r a h a m L i n c o l n , ” w r o t e R e v .

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C h a r l e s C h i n i q u y , t h e e x c o m m u n i c a t e d priest w h o m L i n c o l n had successfully d e f e n d e d in his early law career (see n o t e 2, C h a p t e r 22), was to cover up the religious element of that terrible drama. But this was carefully avoided throughout the trial.
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T h e religious e l e m e n t – the fact that all s e v e n of the conspirators w e r e d e v o t e d R o m a n C a t h o l i c s – was carefully a v o i d e d b e c a u s e o f w h o c o n t r o l l e d t h e trial. A s C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f o f the armed forces, it was Johnson himself w h o quite constitutionally reigned supreme o v e r the H u n t e r C o m m i s sion. B u t J o h n s o n was also a F r e e m a s o n , w h i c h m e a n t t h a t h e f o l l o w e d the wise directives of the U n k n o w n Superior. T h u s , the real p o w e r b e h i n d t h e H u n t e r C o m m i s s i o n was S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l P i e t e r Jean B e c k x , a relatively y o u n g B e l g i a n w h o was a great favorite o f P i o N o n o , P o p e Pius IX, t h e o n l y h e a d o f state i n t h e w o r l d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e S o u t h e r n Charles Chiniquy C o n f e d e r a c y as a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . O b e d i e n t t o t h e will o f G e n e r a l B e c k x , President Johnson issued an e x e c u t i v e order c l o s i n g t h e c o u r t r o o m to t h e working press. At the end of e a c h day, officials would ration to selected reporters from t h e A s s o c i a t e d Press n e w s carefully e v a l u a t e d t o k e e p “the religious e l e m e n t ” out of the public consciousness. C h a r l e s C h i n i q u y tirelessly i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e assassination. A f t e r the conspirators were e x e c u t e d , h e w e n t i n c o g n i t o t o W a s h ington and found that not a single one of the government men would discuss it with me except after I had given my word of honor that I would never mention their names. I saw, with a profound distress, that the influence of Rome was almost supreme in Washington. I could not find a single statesman who would dare to face that nefarious influence and fight it down.
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O n e official told h i m : “ T h i s was n o t t h r o u g h c o w a r d i c e , as you m i g h t t h i n k , but t h r o u g h a w i s d o m y o u o u g h t to a p p r o v e , if y o u c a n n o t a d m i r e it.” H a d t h e r e n o t b e e n c e n s o r s h i p , h a d t h e w i t nesses b e e n pressed a little further, “ m a n y priests w o u l d h a v e b e e n compromised, for Mary Surratt’s [one of the four e x e c u t e d conspirators] house was their c o m m o n rendezvous; it is more t h a n probable that several of t h e m m i g h t h a v e b e e n h a n g e d . ” T h i r t y years after t h e assassination, a m e m b e r of t h e H u n t e r C o m m i s s i o n , Brigadier G e n e r a l T h o m a s M . Harris, p u b l i s h e d a small b o o k revealing that Lincoln’s assassination had actually b e e n a Jesuit murder plot to extirpate a Protestant ruler. Harris stated: It is fact well established that the headquarters of the conspiracy was the house of a Roman Catholic family, of which Mrs. Mary E. Surratt was the head; and that all of its inmates, including a number of boarders, were devoted members of the Roman Catholic Church. This house was the meeting place, the council chamber, of Booth and his co-conspirators, including Mrs. Mary E. Surratt, and her son, John H. Surratt, who, next to Booth, were the most active members of the conspiracy.
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C o m m i s s i o n e r Harris w e n t on to relate that Mary Surratt’s son J o h n h a d b e e n a C o n f e d e r a t e spy for three years, “passing b a c k and forth b e t w e e n W a s h i n g t o n and R i c h m o n d , and from R i c h m o n d to C a n a d a and back, as a bearer of dispatches.” John’s m e n t o r during this p e r i o d was a Jesuit, F a t h e r B.F. W i g e t , p r e s i d e n t of G o n z a g a C o l l e g e and a priest n o t e d for his sympathies for the C o n f e d e r a c y . John introduced Father W i g e t to his m o t h e r and the priest b e c a m e M a r y Surratt’s confessor and spiritual director. A s w e l l , F a t h e r W i g e t g a v e spiritual d i r e c t i o n t o t h e f a m o u s J o h n W i l k e s B o o t h w h o , t h o u g h “a d r u n k a r d , a l i b e r t i n e , a n d utterly indifferent to m a t t e r s o f r e l i g i o n , ” was spiritually a t t r a c t e d t o h i m . “ T h e w i l y Jesuit, s y m p a t h i z i n g w i t h B o o t h in his p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , and in the h o p e o f destroying our g o v e r n m e n t , and establishing t h e C o n f e d eracy ... was able t o c o n v e r t h i m t o C a t h o l i c i s m . ” Hard e v i d e n c e o f t h a t c o n v e r s i o n was found o n the assassin’s corpse: “ O n e x a m i n a t i o n of B o o t h ’ s person after his d e a t h , it was found t h a t he was wearing a C a t h o l i c medal under his vest, and over his heart.”
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A t t h e c o n s p i r a c y trial, Father W i g e t testified t o M a r y Elizab e t h Surratt’s “good C h r i s t i a n character.” E v e n assuming her c o m p l i c i t y in t h e assassination, W i g e t as a Jesuit c o u l d truthfully say Surratt was a g o o d C h r i s t i a n simply by reserving m e n t a l l y (a) that b y “ C h r i s t i a n ” h e m e a n t “ R o m a n C a t h o l i c ; ” (b) t h a t under t h e terms of the Directorium Inquisitorum (see C h a p t e r 8), “Every individual may kill a heretic;” and (c) that President L i n c o l n was twice a h e r e t i c : for his P r o t e s t a n t i s m a n d for his h a v i n g successfully defended an e x c o m m u n i c a t e d priest. But Mary after all “kept the nest that h a t c h e d the egg,” as Presi d e n t J o h n s o n put it, and was h a n g e d . C o n d i t i o n a l t o h e r d e a t h s e n t e n c e was a p r o v i s i o n t h a t a p e t i t i o n for m e r c y w o u l d be att a c h e d and sent to J o h n s o n . By e x e c u t i o n day, July 7, 1 8 6 5 , Surratt’s d a u g h t e r A n n a h a d h e a r d n o t h i n g from t h e P r e s i d e n t . D i s t r a u g h t , she a p p e a r e d a t t h e W h i t e H o u s e t o b e g h i m for c l e m e n c y . T w o g o v e r n m e n t m e n s t o o d i n h e r way. P r e s t o n K i n g and S e n a t o r James H e n r y L a n e denied her access to the President, w h o later d e c l a r e d h e h a d n e v e r r e c e i v e d any p e t i t i o n for mercy. T h e f o l l o w i n g N o v e m b e r , P r e s t o n K i n g d r o w n e d , his b o d y laden w i t h w e i g h t s . I n M a r c h , S e n a t o r L a n e shot himself. (In t h e judgm e n t o f o n e m o d e r n i n v e s t i g a t o r , “ S o m e p e r s o n o r persons w e r e apparently determined that Mary Surratt should n o t live.” ) Short5

ly thereafter, t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t r e n d e r e d a l a n d m a r k d e c i s i o n that w o u l d h a v e w o n all the conspirators a jury trial. Ex parte Milligan h e l d t h a t military courts h a v e no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r c i v i l i a n s . Milligan l e n t M a r y Surratt’s d e a t h at t h e h a n d s of P r o t e s t a n t s an aura of tragedy and C a t h o l i c martyrdom. Charles C h i n i q u y obtained important testimony supporting the w i d e l y h e l d suspicion of Jesuit responsibility for the assassinat i o n . H e r e c e i v e d from Rev. Francis A . C o n w e l l , C h a p l a i n o f t h e first M i n n e s o t a R e g i m e n t , a s w o r n affidavit saying t h a t on A p r i l 1 4 , 1 8 6 5 , he was v i s i t i n g S t . Joseph, M i n n e s o t a , l o c a t i o n of a R o m a n C a t h o l i c seminary. R e v . C o n w e l l swore t h a t a t a b o u t six o ’ c l o c k t h a t e v e n i n g t h e m a n in c h a r g e of t h e seminary, a storek e e p e r b y the n a m e o f J.H. L i n n e m a n , told h i m and a n o t h e r visitor, Mr. H.P. B e n n e t t , t h a t P r e s i d e n t L i n c o l n h a d “just b e e n killed.”
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T h e n e x t day, R e v . C o n w e l l j o u r n e y e d t e n miles t o t h e t o w n o f S t . C l o u d . A s s o o n a s h e arrived, h e asked t h e h o t e l i e r , Mr. H a w o r t h , if he h a d heard any n e w s of a presidential assassination. Mr. H a w o r t h had heard n o t h i n g , as St. C l o u d had neither railroad nor t e l e g r a p h . O n t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g , A p r i l 1 6 t h , o n his way to p r e a c h a sermon in c h u r c h , Rev. C o n w e l l was h a n d e d a copy of a telegram brought up by stagecoach from A n o k a , M i n n e s o t a . T h e telegram a n n o u n c e d that President L i n c o l n had b e e n assassinated on Friday e v e n i n g at about n i n e o’clock. O n the m o r n i n g o f M o n d a y the 1 7 t h , Rev. C o n w e l l hurried t o St. Paul and reported t o t h e n e w s p a p e r t h a t i n S t . Joseph h e h a d b e e n i n f o r m e d o f P r e s i d e n t L i n c o l n ’ s assassination t h r e e hours before the e v e n t t o o k place. T h e paper published his report. “ W e h a v e n o w before us,” wrote C o m m i s s i o n e r Harris, positive evidence that these Jesuit Fathers, priests of Rome, engaged in preparing young men for the priesthood away out in the village of St. Joseph, in far off Minnesota, were in correspondence with their brethren in Washington City, and had been informed that the plan to assassinate the President had been matured, the agents for its accomplishment had been found, the time for its execution had been set, and so sure were they of its accomplishment, that they could announce it as already done, three or four hours before it had been consummated. T h e anticipation of its accomplishment so elated them that they could not refrain from passing it around ... as a piece of glorious news.

M

E A N W H I L E , t h r o u g h t h e L i n c o l n assassination a n d its afterm a t h , t h e Vatican’s artist, C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi, along w i t h

some s e v e n t y F r e n c h a n d I t a l i a n assistants, applied p i g m e n t e d mortar to the interior c a n o p y of the C a p i t o l d o m e . T h e y were still

w o r k i n g w h e n t h e first session o f the T h i r t y - n i n t h C o n g r e s s m e t on D e c e m b e r 4, 1865. N o t until the following January did the scaffolding c o m e d o w n . W h e n it did, viewers were awestruck by w h a t they beheld. Brumidi had c r o w n e d the ceiling of A m e r i c a ’ s legislative c e n t e r w i t h a glorious, p a n o r a m i c visualization from B o o k VI of Virgil’s Aeneid, w h e r e A e n e a s ’ b l i n d father, A n c h i s e s , e x p l a i n s
NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM:

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“Here is Caesar, and all the line of Julius, all who shall one day pass under the dome of the great sky. This is the man, this one, of whom so often you have heard the promise, Caesar Augustus, son of the deified, who shall bring once again an Age of Gold to Latium, the land where Saturn reigned in early times. He will extend his power beyond the Garamants [Africans] and Indians, over far territories north and south of the zodiacal stars, the solar way....” T h e e p i c e n t e r of “ A p o t h e o s i s of W a s h i n g t o n ” is a solar o r b , t h e S u n - G o d i n t o w h i c h A u g u s t u s C a e s a r was said t o h a v e b e e n absorbed w h e n his b o d y died. F r o m t h e C a p i t o l ’ s h i g h e s t interior point Augustus radiates his golden light outward and d o w n w a r d to t h e n e x t i n t h e “ l i n e o f Julius,” t h e deified G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n . T h e god W a s h i n g t o n occupies the j u d g m e n t seat of h e a v e n , sword of Justice firmly c l a s p e d in his left h a n d . B a s k i n g in t h e l i g h t of A u g u s t u s – Pontifex Maximus – he rules “ o v e r far territories n o r t h and s o u t h of t h e zodiacal stars, the solar way.” L i k e his C a e s a r e a n forebears, W a s h i n g t o n is G o d , Caesar, Father of his C o u n t r y . O n t h e r i g h t h a n d o f t h e F a t h e r sits M i n e r v a , h o l d i n g t h e e m b l e m o f R o m a n totalitarianism, t h e fasces. M i n e r v a , w e recall, was t h e v i r g i n goddess of t h e S a c r e d H e a r t – it was she w h o resc u e d t h e h e a r t o f t h e S o n o f G o d , a n d p l a c e d i t w i t h Jupiter i n h e a v e n . S h e was called “ M i n e r v a ” w h e n praised for her justice and w i s d o m . W h e n praised for h e r b e a u t y a n d l o v e , M i n e r v a was k n o w n as V e n u s , the Q u e e n of H e a v e n . S h e and V e n u s were often identified w i t h e a c h other, just as statues of b o t h were reconsecrate d “ M a r y ” t h r o u g h R o m a n C a t h o l i c missionary a d a p t a t i o n . M i n erva’s most persistent role in a n c i e n t p a g a n i s m was Dea Benigna, “ T h e M e d i a t r i x . ” S h e h e a r d t h e prayers o f sinful mortals a n d passed t h e m on to Jupiter, in t h e same w a y t h e R o m a n M a r y is believed to pass C a t h o l i c prayers on to C h r i s t . C o m p l e t i n g the circular c o m p o s i t i o n around the solarized A u gustus are t h i r t e e n nubile goddesses. T h e s e are the original States. T h e y d a n c e w e i g h t l e s s l y i n space, s u p p o r t i n g a w h i t e b a n n e r inscribed w i t h the soul of the B a c c h i c G o s p e l , “E PLURIBUS UNUM.” A b o v e t h e h e a d of e a c h State-goddess floats a magical w h i t e pentagram.
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B e n e a t h all this celestial revelry, B r u m i d i p a i n t e d m o r e R o m a n gods mingling with American mortals. Here is V u l c a n , the god of fire a n d c r a f t s m a n s h i p , p l a n t i n g his f o o t on a c a n n o n , w h i l e his workers prepare munitions and
T h e States

w e a p o n s o f d e a t h a n d d e s t r u c t i o n . A n d o v e r h e r e N e p t u n e rises w i t h his trident from the sea in a h o r s e - d r a w n scallop-shell chariot. A n d h e r e t h e wise M e d i a t r i x c o m m u n i c a t e s w i t h A m e r i c a n scientists B e n j a m i n Franklin, S a m u e l F. B. M o r s e , i n v e n t o r of the C o d e , and R o b e r t Fulton, i n v e n t o r of the steamship. A n d here, the Goddess Immaculately C o n c e i v e d , the Dreadn a u g h t Mary. W e a r i n g t h e p e n t a g r a m s a n d eagle headdress o f T h o m a s Crawford’s statue atop the dome’s exterior, she mobilizes h e r sword a n d shield against a p a c k o f f l e e i n g sinners l a b e l e d “ T y r a n n y ” and “ K i n g l y Power.” Jupiter’s eagle, mascot, the Roman glides just b e h i n d h e r

c l u t c h i n g a b u n c h of t h u n d e r bolts in his t a l o n s . I n n o c e n t in h e r f l o w i n g scarlet c a p e ,
T h e Virgin pursues evildoers

the

Goddess beneath

is the

situated deified

exactly George

W a s h i n g t o n , coming b e t w e e n him and the embattled viewing public gazing up from ground level. It is t h e graphic realization of P i o N o n o ’ s Ubi primum, w h i c h d e c r e e d t h e V i r g i n M a r y was “set u p b e t w e e n C h r i s t and his C h u r c h , always d e l i v e r i n g t h e C h r i s t ian p e o p l e from their greatest c a l a m i t i e s and from the snares and assaults of all their enemies.” The eagle gliding behind Mary explains the otherwise i n s c r u t a b l e seal o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Justice D e p a r t m e n t , w h i c h c o n t a i n s a w i n g s p r e a d eagle s u r r o u n d e d by t h e m o t t o “ Q U I PRO
DOMINA JUSTITIA SEQUITUR” ( “ H e w h o f o l l o w s t h e G o d d e s s Jus-

tice”). Persephone, or M i n e r v a the Mediatrix, w h e n judging the

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sinfully dead in Hades was called Justitia, or Jus tice. T h e “HE” of t h e Justice D e p a r t m e n t ’ s m o t t o identifies the eagle, symbol of R o m e . R o m e follows the G o d d e s s Justice – that is, the Immaculately C o n c e i v e d M o t h e r of G o d in her judicial capacity.

A

r a i n b o w sweeps across the l o w e r quadrant of t h e D o m e of t h e S k y from B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n to a y o u n g

b o y w e a r i n g a S m u r f - c a p and a t o g a . T h e b o y a t t e n d s a goddess w h o r e c l i n e s on a large h o r s e - d r a w n reaper. S h e is P e r s e p h o n e ’ s m o t h e r C e r e s , w h o was r e c o n s e c r a t e d by early missionary adaptat i o n as A n n a , m o t h e r of t h e V i r g i n Mary. T h e g o l d e n boy is officially designated “Young A m e r i c a . ” A l t h o u g h B r u m i d i has h i d d e n t h e boy’s face from us, he deserves our careful scrutiny for one very import a n t reason. B e a r i n g the n a m e “ A m e r i c a , ” he is the o n l y e l e m e n t in t h e sacred n a t i o n a l i c o n o g raphy that defines the character of the American
YOUNG AMERICA

person as perceived by government.

Y o u n g A m e r i c a ’ s Smurf-cap is a style of headgear k n o w n as the “ P h r y g i a n c a p . ” P h r y g i a was a district in t h e K i n g d o m of Per g a m u m . We r e m e m b e r P e r g a m u m . It was the m i d d l e p o i n t in the transfer of B a b y l o n i a n r e l i g i o n w e s t w a r d to R o m e . Phrygia is a G r e e k w o r d m e a n i n g “ f r e e m e n ” (our E n g l i s h w o r d “free” c o m e s from the first syllable, “phry-”). P h r y g i a n caps were g i v e n to freed R o m a n slaves t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r n e w l i b e r a t e d status. R o m a n law regards liberty as a c o n d i t i o n a l status. O n c e granted by a patron, it c o u l d be revoked at any t i m e for cause. P h r y g i a n - c a p f r e e d o m , t h e n , m e a n s liberty (freed R o m a n slaves, b y t h e way, were c a l l e d “liberti”) to please C a e s a r . We r e m e m b e r from C h a p t e r 8 h o w Ignatius described s u c h freedom in S e c t i o n 3 5 3 . 1 of his Exercises: “ W e must p u t aside all j u d g m e n t o f our o w n , and k e e p t h e m i n d e v e r ready and p r o m p t t o o b e y i n all t h i n g s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l C h u r c h . ” Of course, those liberti bold e n o u g h to protest w h a t their superiors c o m m a n d e d lost their freedom, no matter h o w lucid and

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reasonable their o w n judgment might h a v e been. T h e y were r e v e r t e d t o slavery. S i n c e t h e a d v e n t o f t h e F e b r o n i a n S t a t e C h u r c h , the reversion of protestant liberti, or Protestants, to slavery has b e e n so m e t h o d i c a l l y insidious t h a t it’s hardly n o t i c e a b l e . T h e shackles are psychological, h u m a n e l y fitted by increasing varieties of spiritual exercise. L i k e A e n e a s , A n c h i s e s , Julius A s c a n i u s and their Trojan followers, most A m e r i c a n s are indeed P h r y g i a n cap freemen, free to sacrifice their individuality to the greater glory of R o m e . T h e B l a c k O b e l i s k o f C a l a h , w h i c h stands i n the B a b y l o n i a n A s s y r i a n W i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m , records t h e great a c c o m plishments of the n i n t h - c e n t u r y BC g o d - k i n g S h a l m a n e s e r II. In a scene depicting various m o n a r c h s paying obeisance to B a b y l o n , we

THE FREEDOM C A P Jehu submitting to Shalmaneser

see o n e m o n a r c h k n e e l i n g before S h a l m a n e s e r , w o r s h i p i n g h i m . S h a l m a n e s e r in turn offers a sacrifice to an e i g h t - p o i n t e d star set w i t h i n a bird’s w i n g s and tail-feathers. I n s c r i p t i o n s identify this k n e e l i n g m o n a r c h as K i n g Jehu of Israel. R e m a r k a b l y , a c c o r d i n g to the N e w C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , Jehu’s likeness here is the only k n o w n c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y - r e n d e r e d portrait of a biblical personage. M o r e remarkably, Jehu is wearing the Phrygian cap. Like Brumidi’s Y o u n g A m e r i c a , Jehu’s liberty is subject to the m o o d of his god-king. T h e Bible confirms t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e B l a c k O b e l i s k . A t I I Kings 10:31 we read: “Jehu t o o k no h e e d to w a l k in the law of the Lord G o d of Israel w i t h all his heart.” Scripture further tells us that

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J e h u w o r s h i p e d t h e g o l d e n calf, a sacred B a b y l o n i a n i c o n m a d e f a s h i o n a b l e in t e n t h - c e n t u r y - B C Israel by Jehu’s predecessor, Jero b o a m . J e r o b o a m r e n o u n c e d “ t h e law o f t h e Lord G o d o f Israel” and instituted... democracy. D e m o c r a c y o p e n e d the Israelite priesth o o d , originally a p p o i n t e d by Y a h w e h e x c l u s i v e l y to t h e family of L e v i , t o all a p p l i c a n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Y a h w e h ’ s p r i e s t h o o d was infiltrated b y n o n - b e l i e v e r s and f o r e i g n s y m p a t h i z e r s . T h e y prepared t h e w a y for J e h u to m a k e of h i m s e l f a P h r y g i a n f r e e m a n , o b l i g a t e d t o c o n c u r w i t h o b e d i e n c e o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n all t h i n g s w h i c h his superior, S h a l m a n e s e r II, c o m m a n d e d – e x a c t l y as t h e B l a c k O b e l i s k e x p l a i n s in l u c i d visual t e r m s . As a d i r e c t result of Jehu’s d e p a r t u r e from t h e G o d of Israel, t h e Israelite n a t i o n b e g a n falling apart. It was ultimately destroyed by C a e s a r e an R o m e , the legitimate heir to Shalmaneser’s B a b y l o n i a n authority as it passed d o w n t h r o u g h Pergamum. R u n n i n g t h r o u g h o u t this c o s m i c Battle of the Faiths is a h i g h l y refined c a b a l a h i n v o l v i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f “ g o l d e n c a l f . ” T h e word “ c a l f ” in Hebrew, the language of Jehu and Jeroboam, is MCS, p r o n o u n c e d “eagle.” W h e r e a s Jehu g a v e his p e o p l e Shalmaneser’s golden MCSi to worship, the C h u r c h M i l i t a n t has trained the A m e r i c a n p u b l i c t o w o r s h i p R o m e ’ s g o l d e n eagle, w h i c h s u r m o u n t s e v e r y f l a g p o l e . C o u l d it be t h a t if we s h o w r e s p e c t , a f f e c t i o n , or loyalty toward the national eagle we create the presumption of worshiping the g o l d e n calf, and so alienate ourselves from the G o d of the Bible and in the v a c u u m find ourselves under the rule of the C h u r c h Militant?

A

C C O R D I N G to J . C . Judson, in his Biography of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, as G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n was plan-

n i n g his famous e x p e d i t i o n against C o r n w a l l i s a t Y o r k t o w n , “ t h e army was destitute, the g o v e r n m e n t treasury was empty, her credit s h i v e r i n g in t h e w i n d . ” S u d d e n l y , a m i r a c l e in t h e a n n a l s of p h i lanthropy occurred. Robert Morris, Superintendent of Finance, the highest officer in the U n i t e d States under the A r t i c l e s of C o n federation ( 1 7 8 1 ) , personally raised eighty c a n n o n and a h u n d r e d

p i e c e s of field artillery. In a d d i t i o n , he raised “all o t h e r necessary

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supplies n o t furnished from other sources” and b e c a m e personally responsible to the amount of $ 1 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 upon his own notes, which were promptly paid at maturity. This enabled the American army to give the finishing stroke to the revolution, and triumph, in victory complete, over a proud and merciless foe. S o goes a h i s t o r i a n ’ s v e r s i o n o f h o w R o b e r t M o r r i s s a v e d A m e r i c a . T h e official v e r s i o n is revealed in C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi’s “ A p o t h e o s i s of W a s h i n g t o n . ” H e r e we see S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Morris gazing up from his a c c o u n t s ledger at yet a n o t h e r R o m a n deity. We r e c o g n i z e t h e d e i t y from t h e familiar caduceus in his r i g h t h a n d , from t h e w i n g e d s a n d a l he’s thrust t o w i t h i n kissing d i s t a n c e o f M o r r i s ’ lips, a n d from t h e shadowy bag of gold dangles he in tantalizingly

M o r r i s ’ f a c e . T h e d e i t y is Mercury, the P s y c h o p o m p , t h e Trickster, t h e p a t r o n deity of commerce, dec e i v e r s , and t h i e v e s . M e r cury, t h e b r i l l i a n t , l o v a b l e P i e d - P i p e r d e i t y w h o dec e i v e s t h e souls of sinful humanity him into
Mercury & Robert Morris

into

following down of

exuberantly the

oblivion

H a d e s . Just as S e b a s t i a n o R i c c i ’ s p a i n t i n g subtly es-

tablished Mercury as the guiding spirit of m o d e r n R o m a n C a t h o l i cism, Brumidi’s p a i n t i n g a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e same deity’s a s c e n d a n cy o v e r the fulfillment of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . A m a z i n g stuff, t h e s e p i c t u r e s . A n d l i k e s o m a n y o f t h e testimonies presented in this b o o k – the supremacy of the C h u r c h M i l itant, the p u b l i c a t i o n of S u n - T z u a n strategies in a w e s t e r n language, the n a m e s , the numbers, the dates, the locus and layout of the federal city, the a r c h i t e c t u r e , the statuary, t h e m o n u m e n t s ,
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t h e e m b l e m s , the frescoes, t h e c e r e m o n i e s – t h e y c o m e n o t from t h e Trickster’s v i c t i m s , but from the Trickster himself. It’s as if the p o i n t of t h e trick is to w a r n t h e v i c t i m b e f o r e h a n d , in words and p i c t u r e s , t h a t he or she is a b o u t to be t r i c k e d . A c o n is m u c h sweeter w h e n the mark actually consents to the c o n . T h a t way, the Trickster’s c o n s c i e n c e is clear.

C

O N S T A N T I N O Brumidi c o n t i n u e d d e c o r a t i n g t h e D o m e o f the G r e a t S k y w e l l i n t o his s e v e n t i e s . I n 1 8 7 9 , a t t h e age o f 74,

while painting “Penn’s Treaty w i t h the Indians” on the Rotunda frieze, he slipped from a scaffold. D a n g l i n g fifty-eight feet from the marble floor, he h e l d on until h e l p c a m e . He escaped a deadly fall. But the shock of the e x p e r i e n c e killed h i m a few m o n t h s later.

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“The mark of C a i n is stamped upon our foreheads. Across the centuries, our brother A b e l has lain in blood which we drew, and shed tears we caused by forgetting T h y love.” — P o p e John X X I I I , A Prayer (1960),
cited in VICARS OF CHRIST

W

E L I V E I N T H E N e w W o r l d O r d e r , just a s p e o p l e u n d e r A u g u s t u s C a e s a r did. N o t a future t h i n g to be feared or avoided, the N e w W o r l d O r d e r is a present reality to be

identified, u n d e r s t o o d , a n d d e a l t w i t h in a w a y m o s t p l e a s i n g to

G o d . I t was G o d , after all, w h o established t h e N e w W o r l d Order. We c a n read a b o u t it in t h e B i b l e . In fact, t h e B i b l e is t h e o n l y record we h a v e that publicly and truthfully sets forth the essentials of the Order’s origins and d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h time. T h e B i b l e records t h e great d e c i s i v e e v e n t s i n t h e progress o f h u m a n life up to the close of the first century A D . C r e a t i o n of earth and t h e fullness thereof, c r e a t i o n o f m a n and w o m a n , t h e i r turning a w a y from G o d , t h e first c o n c e p t i o n , t h e first b i r t h , t h e first sacrifice, t h e first murder, t h e first insignia, t h e first city, t h e first and only great flood, the surviving family and its peculiar relationship t h r o u g h time w i t h G o d – all of this m o m e n t o u s data is g i v e n in the Bible w i t h a stark truthfulness t h a t is invariably supported,
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o f t e n to t h e surprise of many, by t h e results of s c i e n t i f i c inquiry. T h e writers o f t h e B i b l e , Israelite p r o p h e t s inspired b y their G o d Y a h w e h , h e l d n o m o n o p o l y o n r e p o r t i n g these e v e n t s . Priests o f o t h e r n a t i o n s reported t h e m , t o o . But in doing so, they c u n n i n g l y adapted t h e m to fit p r e v a i l i n g administrative needs. T h e result of their adaptations is w h a t we call mythology. O n e very persistent m y t h , based on a crucial e v e n t a c c o u n t e d for in t h e B i b l e , e x p l a i n e d to p e o p l e u n d e r B a b y l o n i a n rulership t h e d i v i n e origin of their g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s was the m y t h of Marduk.
1

T h e m y t h o f M a r d u k begins with A n n u , “the head deity of Babylonian mythology,”
2

look-

ing d o w n u p o n earth in dismay. T h e land is in c h a o s , o v e r r u n by f l o o d - w a t e r s and m o n s t r o u s serpents. Annu senses that b r i n g i n g order to s u c h c h a o s is a j o b for M a r d u k , the first-born son of the m o o n goddess Ea. So Annu summons Marduk and asks h i m to organize t h e e a r t h . M a r d u k agrees to t h e task, but “only on the condition that he be m a d e first a m o n g t h e gods and t h a t his w o r d shall h a v e
T h e N a r a m - S i n [Enoch] Stele, with Annu’s name over the mountain-top.

the

force
3

of Annu

the

decree

of

Annu.”

accepts

Mar-

duk’s terms and vests h i m w i t h “ t h e p o w e r s a n d insignia o f k i n g ship – and M a r d u k ’ s w o r d was d e c l a r e d to h a v e t h e a u t h o r i t y of A n n u . ” A r m e d w i t h d i v i n e power, M a r d u k goes to earth and separates dry land from sea. He polices t h e monsters, and any evildoer foolish e n o u g h to oppose h i m receives the wrath of G o d . T h e result of Marduk’s o r d i n a t i o n was depicted in t h e S t e l e of N a r a m - S i n , n o w i n t h e L o u v r e . I n this very a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n m o n u m e n t , A n n u i s s h o w n i m b u i n g N a r a m - S i n ( E n o c h t o the

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M a r d u k p o l i c i n g the evildoer T i a m a t w i t h thunderbolts. From a bas-relief on the walls of the palace of the Assyrian king Assur-nasir-pal (9th century bc at C a l a h , n o w in the British M u s e u m ) . N o t e the repeated A n n u signature in the s a c r e d h e m o f M a r d u k ’ s g a r m e n t . A n d t h e s c y t h e u n d e r h i s left a r m : i s t h e artist s u b t l y r e v e a l i n g t h a t M a r d u k w a s o n c e a farmer?

H e b r e w s ) w i t h p o w e r o v e r a mass o f o t h e r b e i n g s . A n n u ’ s n a m e , seen in t h e tip of the stele, is t h e c u n e i f o r m s y m b o l for “ h e a v e n , ” the double-cross, or M a r d u k wears the A n n u signature like a c o p w i t h his badge. It makes h i m a god. In fact, the o r d i n a t i o n - o f - p o w e r i c o n o g r a p h y of a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n n a t i o n s was n e v e r w i t h o u t it. E v e n today (see A p p e n d i x : “Fifty C e n t u r i e s of the A n n u S i g n a t u r e ” ) , we find it in the flag of G r e a t Britain, said to be the u n i o n of St. A n d r e w ’ s S c o t tish cross and S t . G e o r g e ’ s E n g l i s h cross. W e find i t p r o m i n e n t l y displayed in t h e d e c o r of g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g s , especially courtrooms. It forms the m o t i f for m u c h of t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e U . S . S u p r e m e C o u r t B u i l d i n g , interior a n d exterior. T h e p a v e m e n t surrounding the O b e l i s k of C a l i g u l a in S t . Peter’s Piazza, w h e r e t h e m u l t i t u d e s s t a n d to r e c e i v e p a p a l e d i c t s and blessings, is inlaid w i t h a gigantic A n n u signature. No doubt about it: a very a n c i e n t symbol has remained consistently identified w i t h the presence of rulership. C o u l d it be that a symbol of so m u c h p o w e r

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is based on a myth? Or is it based on the fact from w h i c h the m y t h sprang?

T

HE sensitive Bible-reader immediately sees in the m y t h of Marduk a missionary a d a p t a t i o n of t h e b i b l i c a l a c c o u n t of C a i n .

T h e t w o protagonists are remarkably similar. B o t h C a i n and Marduk were firstborn sons of mothers bearing almost the same name: Marduk, son of Ea; C a i n , son of E v e . B o t h firstborns were appointed to rule over evil, albeit for different reasons: M a r d u k because of his h e r o i s m , C a i n b e c a u s e o f his o w n w i c k e d n e s s . S o t h a t t h e y
4

m i g h t m o v e effectively a m o n g evildoers, b o t h were g i v e n protective seals of immunity by the G o d of H e a v e n . G o d said to C a i n , Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. A n d the Lord set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.
5

I n M a r d u k ’ s case, t h e e v i l d o e r s w e r e c h a o t i c b e i n g s r u i n i n g A n n u ’ s e a r t h . C a i n ’ s e v i l d o e r s w e r e persons w h o m i g h t slay h i m b e c a u s e h e h a d b e c o m e a h o m e l e s s trespasser. T h e B i b l e details e x a c t l y w h y C a i n b e c a m e homeless. His farm refused to yield harvests because he had defiled t h e soil w i t h the b l o o d of his brother. C a i n “rose u p against A b e l his b r o t h e r and slew h i m . ” W e ’ r e n o t told why. It may h a v e b e e n jealous rage, and it may n o t . N o t h i n g i n Scripture indicates that C a i n h a t e d A b e l . T h e most w e k n o w o f their relationship is that “ C a i n talked w i t h his brother,” and afterward, in a field, m u r d e r e d h i m . N o r are we g i v e n details of the
6

murder, e x c e p t that it was bloody. T h e b l o o d is an important clue
7

as to m o t i v e . W e k n o w t h a t C a i n was first crestfallen t h e n angry a t G o d for preferring A b e l ’ s sacrifice t o his o w n . A b e l , t h e s h e p h e r d , sacri8

ficed lambs from his flock. C a i n , t h e farmer, apparently t h i n k i n g
9

sacrifice was a b o u t r e t u r n i n g t h e best o f his p r o d u c t i v i t y t o G o d , sacrificed the best of his harvest. G o d found C a i n ’ s sacrifice offensive and A b e l ’ s p l e a s i n g .
10

Elsewhere in Scripture we learn why. It

i n v o l v e s a principle that is very difficult for many of us to compreh e n d . T h e p r i n c i p l e is this: without shedding of blood there is no
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remission of sin.

11

A b e l pleased G o d b e c a u s e he shed b l o o d , t h e

blood of sacrificial animals. T h e great t e a c h i n g o f t h e B i b l e i s t h a t t h e d e a t h s e n t e n c e m a n k i n d has inherited from the original breaking of G o d ’ s Law by C a i n ’ s parents ( “ T h o u shalt n o t eat of t h e f r u i t . . . ” ) is p a r d o n a b l e o n l y by d e a t h , by t h e e x t r e m e a c t of shedding blood fatally. T h i s t e a c h i n g is the bedrock of the O l d T e s t a m e n t and the w h o l e point o f t h e N e w . I n t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t , t h e p e o p l e o f G o d w e r e pard o n e d t h e sinfulness i n h e r i t e d from A d a m b y s h e d d i n g t h e b l o o d of animals, as A b e l h a d dutifully d o n e . In t h e N e w , t h e p e o p l e of G o d w e r e p a r d o n e d this same sinfulness by d o i n g e x a c t l y as C a i n had d o n e , shedding the blood of a man. To this day, a c c o r d i n g to the S c r i p t u r e s , all w h o b e l i e v e t h a t Jesus Christ’s b l o o d has p o w e r t o remit sins are imputed sinless by G o d . g i v e n eternal life in H e a v e n .
13 1 2

Imputed sinless, their sen-

t e n c e o f e t e r n a l s e p a r a t i o n from G o d i s c o m m u t e d , and t h e y are N o w , S c r i p t u r e does n o t tell u s t h a t G o d e v e r e x p l a i n e d t h e purpose o f b l o o d sacrifice t o C a i n .
1 4

But w e k n o w t h a t G o d i s t h e

greatest o f all t e a c h e r s . A n d w e k n o w h e w a n t s t h e best for m a n k i n d . It’s u n t h i n k a b l e , t h e n , t h a t H e w o u l d w a n t C a i n ignorant o f t h e l i f e - s a v i n g effect o f b l o o d sacrifice. H e must h a v e taught C a i n a s thoroughly a s h e taught A b e l . A n d C a i n must h a v e listened a t t e n t i v e l y , for w e k n o w h e was a n x i o u s t o please G o d – otherwise, w h y would he h a v e b e e n angry and crestfallen at learning o f G o d ’ s dissatisfaction w i t h his sacrifice? B u t C a i n was more c r e a t i v e t h a n o b e d i e n t . It’s entirely c o n s i s t e n t w i t h his c h a r a c t e r for h i m to h a v e decided Okay, if it’s blood sacrifice He wants, I’ll give Him the sacrifice He deserves, a better sacrifice than lambs: I’ll give Him the blood of an innocent man! C a i n ’ s i n t e n t was e v i l o n l y in t h a t he s o u g h t to improve on what G o d had commanded, in the way Saul improved on God’s c o m m a n d m e n t to a n n i h i l a t e the A m a l e k i t e s by sparing their k i n g and c e r t a i n v a l u a b l e l i v e s t o c k .
15

C a i n k n e w the logic o f G o d – h e

was, after all, t h e first h u m a n b e i n g b o r n w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f
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g o o d and e v i l . A n d w e k n o w from w h a t h a p p e n e d t o Jesus t h a t G o d ’ s l o g i c calls for t h e sacrifice o f t h e o n l y O n e w h o s e perfect i n n o c e n c e o v e r c a m e d e a t h . In his obsession to please G o d , wouldn’t C a i n h a v e regarded spilling A b e l ’ s b l o o d as the ultimate godliness? W h a t I am suggesting is t h a t , in C a i n ’ s m i n d , A b e l was n o t so m u c h murdered as sacrificed, nailed to A n n u ’ s very n a m e —

— hanged upon a cross! W o u l d n ’ t this e x p l a i n w h y Scripture shows n o e v i d e n c e t h a t C a i n sensed any guilt? W o u l d n ’ t i t also e x p l a i n the hundreds o f a n c i e n t , p r e - C h r i s t i a n m y t h s o f y o u n g shepherds (such as Tammuz, B a c c h u s , A t t i s , Mithras) w h o were slain in cold b l o o d by v a r i o u s v i l l a i n s o n l y to rise from t h e d e a d , t h e i r shed b l o o d h a v i n g supposedly p r o p i t i a t e d o r i g i n a l sin and resurrected t h e m t o e t e r n a l life? T h e m y t h s , o b v i o u s l y based o n t h e fact o f Abel’s crucifixion, all p o i n t e d to a universally anticipated event foretold b y t h e Israelite p r o p h e t s : Messiah’s d e a t h a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n , w h i c h would pardon the sins of m a n k i n d and restore eternal life. T h u s e m e r g e s t h e possibility t h a t t h e “ l a m b slain from t h e foundation of the world” mentioned at R e v e l a t i o n 1 3 : 8 might h a v e indeed b e e n A b e l , G o d ’ s first o b e d i e n t servant. For it is a fact that “the W o r l d ” – by w h i c h the N e w T e s t a m e n t writers m e a n t the ordering o f h u m a n institutional systems w h i c h G o d admitted into existence – did actually begin, as we are about to see, in the immediate a f t e r m a t h of A b e l ’ s d e a t h . If this is t h e case, t h e n m a n k i n d owes a strange debt t o C a i n . N o C a i n , n o death o f A b e l . N o d e a t h of A b e l , no World. No World, no incarnation of G o d as only b e g o t t e n S o n . N o S o n o f G o d , n o true d e a t h and resurrection. N o true d e a t h and resurrection, no h o p e of m a n k i n d for e t e r n a l intimacy w i t h G o d .

I

T was t h e c o m p l a i n t of an e a r t h o u t r a g e d by A b e l ’ s spilt b l o o d t h a t m o v e d G o d t o b a n i s h C a i n f r o m his a c c u s t o m e d h a b i t a t

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forever. Just as M a r d u k d e m a n d e d p r o t e c t i o n from the monsters he had b e e n asked t o c o n t r o l , C a i n d e m a n d e d p r o t e c t i o n from possible assailants i n his e x i l e . G o d graciously a c c o m m o d a t e d C a i n b y “set[ting] a m a r k ” u p o n h i m w h i c h m a d e C a i n s e v e n t i m e s more powerful t h a n any mortal competitor. T h e mark served as the very “ p o w e r s and insignia o f k i n g s h i p ” A n n u h a d g r a n t e d M a r d u k . I t e m p o w e r e d C a i n t o rule all h u m a n b e i n g s likely t o c h a l l e n g e his p r o t e c t i v e mark, b e i n g s unafraid o f Y a h w e h ’ s n a m e ,
1 6

beings w h o
17

shared C a i n ’ s environs “out from the presence of the L o r d . ”

A r m e d w i t h his mark, C a i n b e g a n t h e rulership o f e v i l . T h e Bible accounts for Cain’s m o v e m e n t s after his ordination. He t o o k a wife and sired a son. T h e n , he built a city and n a m e d it after his son, “ E n o c h . ”
1 8

C e n t u r i e s later, E n o c h disappeared under t h e silt

of N o a h ’ s flood. It passed from m e m o r y to mystery to o b l i v i o n , until the 1 8 4 0 s , w h e n archaeologists f o l l o w i n g the Bible’s descriptions o f B a b y l o n i a b e g a n e x c a v a t i n g i n p r e s e n t - d a y Iraq. A l o n g the Euphrates River, near Al Khidr, they discovered numerous strata o f a n c i e n t settlements. T h e deepest stratum, b e n e a t h w h i c h there was n o t h i n g but bedrock, had called itself U n u k . “ U n u k was founded on the oldest bricks,” declared o n e of the leading archaeologists, a r e n o w n e d classical linguist from Q u e e n s C o l l e g e , O x ford, n a m e d A r c h i b a l d S a y c e . H a v i n g deciphered and evaluated large numbers of clay tablets from t h e site, Professor S a y c e issued t h e o p i n i o n i n 1 8 8 7 t h a t U n u k was i n d e e d b i b l i c a l E n o c h , t h e c i t y b u i l t b y C a i n a n d his son.
19

L e c t u r i n g a t O x f o r d , S a y c e also p o i n t e d o u t t h a t o n e o f
20

Cain’s m y t h o l o g i c a l names was M a r d u k

– an important contribu-

tion to the Marduk-equals-Cain hypothesis. Unuk’s dominant t e m p l e bore t h e t i t l e “ h o u s e o f A n n u , ” further e n h a n c i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t M a r d u k ’ s m y t h was spun from C a i n ’ s murder o f A b e l . As ruler of U n u k , C a i n was k n o w n as S a r g o n – or, as o t h e r translators h a v e rendered t h e spelling, S h a r g a n i , S a r r u k i n u , Sargoni, e t c . “Cain.”
2 2 21

T h e s e variations of S a r g o n are composites of t h e Babykinu, or goni, m e a n i n g

l o n i a n shar, m e a n i n g “ k i n g ” and gani, than “King Cain.”

I t w o u l d b e hard t o say S a r g o n m e a n s a n y t h i n g o t h e r

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U n u k h a d b e e n no p r i m i t i v e v i l l a g e . Encyclopedia Britannica n o t e d t h a t “ t r a n s p a r e n t glass seems to h a v e b e e n first i n t r o d u c e d in t h e r e i g n of S a r g o n . ”
23

S a r g o n b u i l t a m e t r o p o l i s of e n o r m o u s U n u k s e e m e d to h a v e

c o m p l e x i t y . B u t w h a t astonished t h e archaeologists most was the city’s m i r a c u l o u s h i s t o r i c a l suddenness. materialized from out of n o w h e r e : We have found, in short, abundant remains of a bronze culture, but no traces of preceding ages of development such as meet us on early Egyptian sites.
24

T h e suddenness factor severely c h a l l e n g e d those scholars w h o v i e w e d history t h r o u g h D a r w i n i a n a n t i - b i b l i c a l i s m , w h i c h h a d b e c o m e t h e f a s h i o n i n J e s u i t - i n f l u e n c e d a c a d e m i c c i r c l e s . T o fit e v o l u t i o n a r y theory, U n u k s h o u l d h a v e e v i d e n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t from a m u c h o l d e r c i v i l i z a t i o n . A s a c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e L o n d o n Times’ prestigious Historians’ History of the World grumbled, Surely such a people as this could not have sprung into existence as a Deus ex Machina [a person or thing introduced or appearing unexpectedly so as to provide an artificial or contrived solution to an otherwise insoluble problem]. It must have had its history – a history which presupposes development of several centuries more.
25

But U n u k as a social organization had no previous history. T h i s maddening circumstance drove the British Museum’s H. R. Hall t o rationalize t h a t its “ r e a d y - m a d e ” c u l t u r e must h a v e b e e n “brought into M e s o p o t a m i a from a b r o a d . ”
26

M o d e r n anti-biblicists

find it easier to a c c e p t t h a t U n u k ’ s sudden c o m p l e x i t y c a m e from o t h e r g a l a x i e s t h a n from s o m e t h i n g a s simple a s . . . a c q u i r i n g div i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e from b i t i n g i n t o a p i e c e o f f o r b i d d e n fruit. O f course, e a t i n g t h e fruit of d i s o b e d i e n c e is h o w t h e B i b l e e x p l a i n s t h e suddenness factor. C a i n h a d extraordinary powers because h e i n h e r i t e d from his parents t h e k n o w l e d g e o f g o o d and e v i l w h i c h t h e Trickster h a d e n c o u r a g e d t h e m t o o b t a i n a t t h e price o f eternal life.
27

In Mrs. Bristowe’s words: “ C a i n was born and bred in the

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atmosphere of the miraculous; his parents were possessed of supern a t u r a l k n o w l e d g e , s o m e o f w h i c h must h a v e b e e n i m p a r t e d t o their c h i l d r e n . ”
28

K i n g C a i n was n o p r i m i t i v e c h i e f t a i n . O n o n e o f his m a n y autobiographical inscriptions, he boasted that “in multitudes of bronze c h a r i o t s I rode o v e r rugged lands ... I g o v e r n e d t h e upper countries,” and “three times to the sea I h a v e a d v a n c e d . ”
29

A bril-

liant, well-organized military emperor – the p r o t o t y p i c a l C a e s a r – C a i n c o n t r o l l e d a “ v a s t e m p i r e . ” T h e C a m b r i d g e H i s t o r y tells u s he divided his imperium from the [Persian Gulf] to the [Mediterranean], from the rising to the setting of the sun into districts of five double hours march each, over which he placed the ‘sons of his palace.’ By these delegates of his authority he ruled the hosts of the lands together.
30

C a i n ’ s empire was f o u n d e d on slavery

31

– t h e i n e v i t a b l e result

of o n e man’s retributive power e x c e e d i n g all others sevenfold. For t h e most part, h o w e v e r , it appears t h a t C a i n exercised his a d v a n tage in the public interest. Professor S a y c e tells us that his empire was “full of schools and libraries, of teachers and pupils, and poets and prose writers, a n d o f the literary w o r k s w h i c h t h e y h a d c o m posed.” Furthermore, the empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service, and clay seals which took the place of stamps are now in the Louvre bearing the name of Sargon and his son.... It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon.
32

T h e insignia o f p o w e r and kingship did n o t v a n i s h w i t h C a i n ’ s d e a t h . T h a t C a i n built t h e original city w i t h his son implies t h a t the mark was i n t e n d e d to be an hereditary e n t i t l e m e n t . T h e son’s n a m e implies t h a t he r e c e i v e d t h e p o w e r of t h e mark from his father. “ E n o c h ” in Hebrew means “the initiated” – to be inducted by special rites, to be i n s t r u c t e d in t h e r u d i m e n t s or p r i n c i p l e s of

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s o m e t h i n g . ” S c r i p t u r e implies t h a t E n o c h and p e r h a p s C a i n i n turn initiated other deputies and successors. Four generations after Cain’s birth, we find Enoch’s great-great grandson L a m e c h still exercising, in fact augmenting, the prerogative of divine v e n g e a n c e : Lamech said to his wives, “ A d a h and Zillah, listen to me; wives of Lamech, hear my words. I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for injuring me. If C a i n is avenged seven times, then Lamech seventy-seven times.”
34

R e c e i v i n g a u t h o r i t y t o g o v e r n requires t a k i n g a n o a t h w h i c h binds the initiate to a c o d e of rights and responsibilities. Interestingly, our w o r d “ o a t h ” is c o g n a t e w i t h t h e H e b r e w WFA (pron o u n c e d “ o a t h ” ) , w h i c h is t h e w o r d translated “ m a r k ” at G e n e s i s 4 : 1 5 , “ t h e Lord set a mark u p o n C a i n . ” K n o w i n g this, we may accurately say “the Lord put C a i n under o a t h , ” an o a t h visibly repres e n t e d b y t h e v a r i o u s i n s i g n i a g o v e r n m e n t s display. T h e mark, t h e n , stands for a c o v e n a n t b e t w e e n G o d and C a i n . It is n o t t h e a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g sort o f c o v e n a n t w h i c h G o d struck w i t h t h e humbly obedient A b r a h a m – “ A n d I will establish my c o v e n a n t b e t w e e n me and t h e e and thy seed after t h e e in their g e n e r a t i o n s for an everlasting c o v e n a n t , to be a G o d u n t o thee, and to thy seed after t h e e . ”
35

C a i n ’ s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o o b e y t h e letter o f Y a h w e h ’ s
3 6

c o m m a n d m e n t s m a d e h i m unfit for i n t i m a c y w i t h t h e d i v i n e . I n C a i n ’ s o w n w o r d s , “from thy face shall I b e h i d . ” T h e exile c o v e n a n t was strictly limited to assuring G o d ’ s v e n g e a n c e against a n y o n e w h o would t h r e a t e n C a i n ’ s life. In matters of w i s d o m , correction, instruction in righteousness, C a i n was on his o w n . He was on his o w n , also, if he should try to a t t a c k t h e peaceful. The mark was a covenant of retribution only. Early o n , C a i n saw t h e r e was great profit in p r o v o k i n g assailants. T h e more e n e m i e s , t h e m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r t h e displays o f v e n g e a n c e . T h e more v e n g e a n c e , t h e more justice; t h e m o r e justice, the more power to C a i n ; a more powerful C a i n could do more e x c e l l e n t public works. T h u s , it b e c a m e essential to the self-interest of t h e bearer of t h e m a r k – w h i c h r e m a i n s to this day a first

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principle of ordered g o v e r n m e n t – to p r o v o k e and e n c o u r a g e evildoing, particularly the form that manifests itself in rebellion. C a i n terrorized evil w i t h awesome dependability. His faith that G o d w o u l d a v e n g e his e n e m i e s made h i m a h i g h l y reliable p u b l i c p r o t e c t o r . D o w n t h r o u g h t h e ages, r i g h t e o u s p e o p l e c o u l d l i v e secure in t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t the mark-bearer w o u l d stop at n o t h ing to p e r s e c u t e e v i l d o e r s . T h i s fact is m a r v e l o u s l y d e c l a r e d in S c r i p t u r e . I n the s e v e n t h century B C , the m a r k - b e a r i n g B a b y l o n i ans were a p p o i n t e d by G o d to capture t h e w a y w a r d Israelites and s h o w t h e m some harsh d i s c i p l i n e . Israel c o u l d n ’ t u n d e r s t a n d w h y G o d w o u l d put a v a i n , e v i l B a b y l o n i a n k i n g o v e r His o w n c h o s e n people. G o d e x p l a i n e d saying: “ S e e , he is puffed up, and his desires are n o t upright, but the righteous shall live by his faith.”
37

H

o w has t h e m a r k m a n a g e d t o r e m a i n v i b r a n t for n e a r l y six thousand years? G r a n d C o m m a n d e r A l b e r t Pike, in his influ-

e n t i a l Morals and Dogma, t h r e w v a l u a b l e l i g h t on the subject. He d e c l a r e d t h a t “from t h e earliest t i m e , ” F r e e m a s o n r y has b e e n t h e “ c u s t o d i a n and d e p o s i t o r y ” o f t h e “ s y m b o l s , e m b l e m s , a n d alle-

gories . . . erected b y E n o c h . ”

38

T h e C o m m a n d e r was careful t o say
3 9

h e m e a n t n o t C a i n ’ s s o n E n o c h , b u t t h e Bible’s o t h e r E n o c h , E n o c h - 2 , the good E n o c h , the E n o c h “ w h o walked with G o d . ” H o w e v e r , his a t t e m p t t o dissociate his i n s t i t u t i o n from C a i n puts the C o m m a n d e r a t v a r i a n c e w i t h M a s o n i c and b i b l i c a l c h r o n o l o gy. For if a b i b l i c a l E n o c h e r e c t e d t h e earliest imagery of Freemasonry, i t c o u l d n o t possibly h a v e b e e n E n o c h - 2 . I t h a d t o h a v e b e e n E n o c h - 1 . Let’s e x a m i n e the chronology. E n o c h - 2 was descended from S e t h , w h o m Eve c o n c e i v e d after the d e a t h of A b e l – “for G o d , said she, h a t h a p p o i n t e d me a n o t h e r seed instead o f A b e l , w h o m C a i n s l e w . ” S e t h , A d a m was 1 3 0 years o l d .
41 40

W h e n Eve conceived

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e scripturally

faithful c o m p u t a t i o n s of the A r c h b i s h o p of A r m a g h , James Ussher ( 1 5 8 1 – 1 6 5 6 ) , A d a m was created i n 4 0 0 4 B C . T h u s , S e t h was b o r n i n 3 8 7 4 B C . G e n e s i s 5 : 6 – 2 0 gives u s a n e x a c t toll o f t h e years b e t w e e n S e t h and his great-great-great-great grandson E n o c h - 2 :

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Father Seth Enos Cainan Mahaleel Tared

Son Enos Cainan Mahaleel Jared Enoch-2 Total years

Age of father at son’s birth 105 90 70 65 162 492

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e B i b l e , E n o c h - 2 was b o r n 4 9 2 years after the birth o f S e t h , o r i n 3 3 8 2 B C . N O W , C o m m a n d e r Pike’s book, Morals and Dogma, reckons its date of p u b l i c a t i o n in b o t h C h r i s t i a n ( 1 8 7 1 A D ) and M a s o n i c ( 5 6 8 0 A M ) chronology. T o find out the b e g i n n i n g of M a s o n i c history – t h a t “earliest t i m e ” in w h i c h E n o c h e r e c t e d his “ s y m b o l s , e m b l e m s , a n d a l l e g o r i e s ” – in terms of C h r i s t i a n chronology, we subtract the g i v e n C h r i s t i a n year from its M a s o n i c e q u i v a l e n t ( 1 8 7 1 from 5 6 8 0 ) . T h i s gives u s a first M a s o n i c year o f 3 8 0 9 BC.
4 2

B u t t h e figures s h o w t h a t E n o c h - 2 was n o t b o r n u n t i l

3 3 8 2 , some 4 2 7 years after Freemasonry’s “earliest t i m e ” ! E n o c h - 2 c o u l d n o t possibly h a v e e r e c t e d t h e p r o t o t y p i c a l s y m b o l i c d e v i c e s o f w h i c h F r e e m a s o n r y has e v e r b e e n c u s t o d i a n and depository. H o w e v e r , C a i n ’ s son, E n o c h - 1 , very well could h a v e ! C a i n b e g a n his w a n d e r i n g after A b e l ’ s d e a t h , w h i c h t h e B i b l e marks w i t h Seth’s c o n c e p t i o n and A d a m ’ s age, 1 3 0 years, i n about 3 8 7 6 B C . I f w e g i v e C a i n t e n years t o find a wife, settle d o w n , and sire a c h i l d , E n o c h - 1 w o u l d h a v e b e e n b o r n i n 3 8 6 6 B C . T h i s would m a k e h i m a 5 5-year-old m a n in the first M a s o n i c year, 3 8 0 9 . A t that age, E n o c h - 1 w o u l d h a v e b e e n fully equipped t o erect symbols and allegories m e m o r i a l i z i n g his father’s d i v i n e a p p o i n t m e n t to rule populations “out from the presence of the L o r d . ”
43

I n c i d e n t a l l y , Professor S a y c e p l a c e d C a i n i n M a s o n r y ’ s early years against his previous determinations. S a y c e a d m i t t e d to b e i n g c o m p e l l e d by t h e s c h o l a r l y d i l i g e n c e of a latter-day B a b y l o n i a n k i n g to a c c e p t the e v i d e n c e that S a r g o n lived as early as four thousand years before C h r i s t : T h e last king of Babylonia, Nabonidas, had antiquarian

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tastes, and busied himself not only with the restoration of the old temples of his country, but also with the disinterment of the memorial cylinders which their builders and restorers had buried beneath their foundation. It was known that the great temple of the Sun-god at Sippara ... had originally been erected by Naram-Sin [Enoch], the son of Sargon, and attempts had been already made to find the records which, it was assumed, he had entombed under its angles. W i t h true antiquarian zeal, Nabonidas continued the search until he had lighted upon ‘the foundation stone’ of Naram-Sin himself. This ‘foundation-stone’ he tells us had been seen by none of his predecessors for 3 2 0 0 years. In the opinion, accordingly, of Nabonidas, a king who was curious about the past history of his country, and whose royal position gave him the best possible opportunities for learning all that could be known about it, Naram-Sin and his father Sargon lived 3200 years before his own time, or 3 7 5 0 BC. W h a t w e see i n t h e Bible’s a c c o u n t o f h o w U n u k c a m e about is n o t h i n g less t h a n the foundation of the world’s legal system. T h a t G o d w o u l d o r d a i n a n e v i l m a n t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e law m a k e s sublime sense to me. In our final c h a p t e r , I shall ask your i n d u l g e n c e in a few personal reflections of my o w n as to h o w a system designed to process evil c a n do as m u c h good as it does.

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“ T h e years pass so q u i c k l y – w h e r e do t h e y go? – so quickly, and t h e n w e get old. W e n e v e r k n e w w h a t any of it was about.” — W O O D Y ALLEN, RADIO DAYS

W
tells it.

H A T , TO M E , makes the Bible such an i n v i t i n g resource is t h e vigor w i t h w h i c h t h e rulers o f e v i l h a v e suppressed its u n l i c e n s e d r e a d i n g . It’s b e e n my e x p e r i e n c e t h a t as

p r e d i c t a b l y as s u c h rulers play w i t h t r u t h , t h e B i b l e f o r t h r i g h t l y T h e previous chapters h a v e been written in the presumption that ruling institutions are w h a t they say they are (under the C a i n c o v e n a n t they must truthfully identify their origins, w h i c h they do w i t h c a b a l a h ) . It’s o n l y fair, t h e n , t h a t I write this c h a p t e r in t h e p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e B i b l e really is w h a t it says it is. It c l a i m s to b e t h e u n i q u e , r e v e a l e d W o r d o f G o d , and t h e v e r i t a b l e literary
1

e m b o d i m e n t of Jesus C h r i s t . If we d i s b e l i e v e t h a t c l a i m , we must
2

d i s b e l i e v e all t h e m o t t o e s , insignia, bulls, e n c y c l i c a l s , laws, acts, ordinations, constitutions, oaths, and decrees of the rulers of evil. A c c o r d i n g t o G o d (as g i v e n i n S c r i p t u r e ) , t h e purpose o f law is to regulate evildoers. H e a r the apostle Paul:
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We also know that law is made not for the righteous but for lawbreakers and rebels, the ungodly and sinful, the unholy and irreligious; for those who kill their fathers or mothers, for murderers, for adulterers and perverts, for slave traders and liars and perjurers – and for whatever else is contrary to the sound doctrine that conforms to the glorious gospel of the blessed God.
3

I n o t h e r words, any b e h a v i o r n o t c o n f o r m i n g t o “ t h e glorious gospel” of G o d b e l o n g s to t h e law, w h i c h , o b v i o u s l y from its subj e c t matter, is a jurisdiction foreign to Jesus C h r i s t . Scripture teaches us that the glorious gospel c o m m a n d s (1) rep e n t i n g of sinful lifestyles, (2) l o v i n g n e i g h b o r as oneself, (3) lov4 5

ing and blessing one’s e n e m i e s , (4) g i v i n g freely w i t h o u t t h o u g h t
6

of reward, (5) forgiving debts and injuries, and (6) preaching that
7 8

w h o e v e r believes the e v i d e n c e of Christ’s life, death, and resurrect i o n enters the royal family of G o d for all eternity. N o t every per9

sonality is d r a w n to t h e glorious g o s p e l ,

10

a l t h o u g h Scripture tells
11

us t h a t e v e r y o n e is asked ( i n some w a y ) to k n o w i t .

For t h e pro-

t e c t i o n of those d r a w n to the glorious gospel, and for t h e m a n a g e m e n t of t h o s e foreign to it, t h e r e exists t h e “rule of law.” R u l e of law is the system by w h i c h authorities bearing C a i n ’ s “powers and insignia of kingship” rule the W o r l d . Very briefly, it compares w i t h the glorious gospel in the following ways:
Glorious gospel R e p e n t o f sinful lifestyle Love neighbor as oneself L o v e a n d bless o n e ’ s e n e m i e s G i v e freely w i t h o u t t h o u g h t o f r e w a r d F o r g i v e d e b t s a n d injuries Preach that whoever believes the evid e n c e o f C h r i s t ’ s life, d e a t h , a n d resurrection enters the royal family of G o d for all e t e r n i t y Rule of law M a n a g e sinful lifestyle A c h i e v e advantage over neighbor C o n q u e r one’s e n e m i e s by legal m e a n s G i v e requiring reward E n f o r c e p a y m e n t o f d e b t s a n d injuries w i t h interest Preach the absentee, impersonal G o d of C a i n , D e i s m , a n d o t h e r faiths

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T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s h o w s h o w readily t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h - S t a t e organism conforms to the rule of law:
Secular Rule of law M a n a g e sinful lifestyle Government Legislation, police, criminal justice, philanthropy, media Competition: Achieve advantage over neighbor Self-interested political a c t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n , partisanism, nationalism C o n q u e r one’s enemies by legal means W a r and emergency powers, D a r w i n i a n s u r v i v a l ism, p a t r i o t i s m Roman Catholicism Pontification, Inquisitioi the Holy Sacraments, media Self-interested political a c t i o n in the guise of eci m e n i s m (e.g., T r e n t ) “ E n d justifies t h e means” rationale of the C h u r c h M i l i t a n t (Regimini militantis G i v e , requiring reward Profit-based trade and commerce ecclesiae)

Salvation earned by g o o d works; the selling of indulgences

Enforce p a y m e n t of debts a n d injuries w i t h i n t e r e s t

Judiciary, p o l i c e

F o r g i v e n e s s o f sins i n e x c h a n g e for p a y m e n t s and penances

Preach the absentee, impersonal G o d of C a i n , D e i s m , and o t h e r faiths

Preaching “In G o d We Trust” while prohibiting Bibles in schools

P r a y i n g t o s a i n t s for intercession with an absentee, impersonal Saviour

T h e rule of law is w h a t Scripture calls a “ m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o n demnation.”
1 2

T h e “ s t r e n g t h ” of t h e rule of law is s i n .

13

T h i s is

o b s e r v a b l e in h o w law is at its most v i b r a n t w h e n ferreting o u t , p r o s e c u t i n g , a n d p u n i s h i n g c r i m e . O f f i c i a l s of t h e rule of law are called “ministers of righteousness, w h o s e e n d shall be according to their works.”
14

( I t a k e this t o m e a n “ G o o d w o r k s , g o o d e n d ; bad
13

works, bad end.”) As m i g h t be e x p e c t e d of a ministry appointed to C a i n , w h o Scripture tells us was “of that w i c k e d o n e , ” the ministration of c o n d e m n a t i o n – the rule of law – belongs to S a t a n . It is a s h o c k i n g t h i n g to realize that, a c c o r d i n g to Scripture, world law is Satan’s p r o v i n c e . B u t surprisingly, Scripture also t e a c h e s t h a t a certain degree of cordiality exists b e t w e e n G o d and Satan.
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We learn from the b o o k of Job that S a t a n is w e l c o m e in G o d ’ s heavenly throne room, out.
17 1 6

e v e n t h o u g h h e h a s led a r e b e l l i o n i n

H e a v e n for w h i c h o n e third o f t h e a n g e l i c p o p u l a t i o n w e r e cast His business consists of “ g o i n g to and fro in the earth, walk18

ing up and d o w n in i t . ”

S i n c e he is an angel, and therefore inca-

pable of a bodily e x i s t e n c e , S a t a n c a n only affect h u m a n affairs by ( i ) p r o v i d i n g spiritual d i r e c t i o n t o h u m a n beings w h o c o n s e n t t o h i m a s “ t h e g o d o f this w o r l d , ”
19

and ( 2 ) m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e forces
20

of n a t u r e as “ p r i n c e of t h e p o w e r of t h e air.”

To secure p o p u l a r
21

c o n s e n t to his spiritual direction, he employs his supernatural abilities to make himself irresistibly attractive. He’s an angel of l i g h t , t h e a u t h o r of t h e h u m a n i s t e x t r a v a g a n z a – p o m p and c i r c u m stance, breathtaking visual e x p e r i e n c e , disorienting emotionalism, architecture that overwhelms. He means to c o n v i n c e us ( 1 ) that he wields the power of G o d A l m i g h t y on earth, and ( 2 ) that we are t h e r e f o r e b o u n d to f o l l o w his m o r a l g u i d a n c e .
22

Jesus C h r i s t

agreed w i t h t h e first p r o p o s i t i o n (and in so d o i n g affirmed, in my o p i n i o n , t h e c o v e n a n t b e t w e e n G o d and C a i n ) , but a d m o n i s h e d S a t a n that only the written word of God is fit to guide m a n k i n d and Trickster alike.
23

Q u i t e apart from its infallible moral guidance, the

w r i t t e n w o r d of G o d appears to be the only truthful disclosure of Satan’s origin, scope, and purpose. Its p o t e n t i a l for d a m a g i n g his appeal is w h y the h i g h e s t rulers of law h a v e traditionally prohibited, or at least n o t diligently encouraged, Bible reading.

T

H E earliest C h r i s t i a n s w e l l u n d e r s t o o d R o m e ’ s i n d i s p e n s a b l e

satanic role in h u m a n affairs. In the legal process w h i c h C h r i s t

established for m e m b e r s o f his C h u r c h , t h e harshest s e n t e n c e a n offender could receive was a b a n d o n m e n t to C a e s a r e a n authority: If your brother sins against you, go and show him his fault, just between the two of you. If he listens to you, you have won your brother over. But if he will not listen, take one or two others along, so that ‘every matter may be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.’ If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, treat him as you would a pagan or a tax collector.
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W r i t i n g about “ H y m e n a e u s and A l e x a n d e r , w h o m I h a v e handed over to Satan to be t a u g h t n o t to b l a s p h e m e , ”
25

the apostle Paul

was n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t c o m m i t t i n g unruly c h u r c h m e n t o s o m e s a t a n i c c u l t . N o r did h e m e a n b y t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l t h a t t h e c h u r c h at C o r i n t h should engage in d e m o n i c incantations: W h e n you are assembled in the name of our Lord Jesus and I am with you in spirit, and the power of our Lord Jesus is present, hand this man over to Satan, so that the sinful nature may be destroyed and his spirit saved on the day of the Lord.
26

I n b o t h cases, Paul was h e e d i n g C h r i s t ’ s c o m m a n d m e n t c o n c e r n i n g b r e t h r e n w h o r e j e c t e d b o t h t h e glorious gospel a n d t h e rule of law: turn t h e m o v e r to t h e C a e s a r e a n c r i m i n a l justice syst e m for their own good and for the good of the church. T h u s , the earliest C h r i s t i a n s w e r e k e e n l y aware t h a t R o m e ’ s purpose, as t h e spiritual heir of C a i n and the i n c a r n a t i o n of the satanic spirit, was ( 1 ) t o t e a c h t h e p e o p l e o f G o d n o t t o b l a s p h e m e , ( 2 ) t o destroy t h e sinful n a t u r e , t h e r e b y ( 3 ) t o save man’s spirit from e t e r n a l d a m n a t i o n o n j u d g m e n t day. T h i s v i o l e n t g o o d - w o r k i n g spirit i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d at Psalm 2:9 and again at R e v e l a t i o n 2 : 2 7 as a “rod of iron” w i t h w h i c h C h r i s t rules nations and dashes t h e m to pieces. T h e Judaean p o l i t i c a l leaders, a n t i c i p a t i n g a M e s s i a h w h o w o u l d o v e r t h r o w Caesar, didn’t understand that Rome was Christ’s rod of iron. B e c a u s e H e w o u l d n o t dash R o m e t o p i e c e s , t h e y d e c l a r e d H i m an impostor, d e m a n d e d His crucifixion, and gloated w h e n He failed t o c o m e off t h e cross. T h e y c o u l d n o t f a t h o m His c o n s e n t ing t o suffer u n d e r t h e v i o l e n t justice o f H i s o w n rod. N o r c o u l d they foresee t h a t H e w o u l d use this same rod o n S e p t e m b e r 8 , 7 0 in the person of the R o m a n general Vespasianus Titus, w h o captured their rebellious city, Jerusalem, and dashed it to pieces. P a u l , w h o m his n o n - b e l i e v i n g Israelite b r e t h r e n c o n t i n u a l l y mugged, persecuted, jailed, tortured, and h o u n d e d t h r o u g h o u t his M e d i t e r r a n e a n and A e g e a n ministry, u n d e r s t o o d t h e rod o f iron. It was in his l e t t e r to t h e R o m a n s t h a t we find p e r h a p s t h e most e l o q u e n t s t a t e m e n t o n t h e N e w W o r l d O r d e r e v e r w r i t t e n ( I cite from the N e w International V e r s i o n ) :
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Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. T h e authorities that exist [“powers that be” in the King James Version] have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what G o d has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? T h e n do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God’s servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God’s servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience. This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. G i v e everyone what you owe him: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor. Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellowman has fulfilled the law.
27

Since the epoch of Emperor C o n s t a n t i n e , the R o m a n papacy has fostered t h e c o n c e p t t h a t t h e ruler w h o terrorizes w r o n g d o e r s is necessarily a C h r i s t i a n . Pope Sylvester, the Bishop of R o m e w h o supposedly c o n v e r t e d C o n s t a n t i n e t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , saw n o t h i n g strange in a warrior c o m i n g to faith in a crucified C h r i s t by slaught e r i n g his e n e m i e s . ”
28

T h i s t h i n k i n g p e r v a d e d Sylvester’s succes-

sors, as w e l l as t h e C r u s a d e s , t h e H o l y R o m a n E m p i r e , E u r o p e a n n a t i o n a l i s m , the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , t h e W a r o f S o u t h e r n S e cession, and the wars of the t w e n t i e t h century. Indeed, perhaps the b l a c k papacy’s m o s t a d m i r a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n q u e s t is t h a t Protestants generally agree that armed rulership is an authority instituted by G o d for C h r i s t i a n s to exercise. S i n c e there is no scrip-

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tural authority for a m e m b e r of the Body of C h r i s t to bear any kind of armament whatsoever other t h a n the figurative weaponry of G o d ’ s W o r d , a g r e e i n g to s u c h a p r i n c i p l e signifies prima facie adh e r e n c e t o t h e m o r a l g u i d a n c e o f h i m w h o bears t h e p o w e r o f A l m i g h t y G o d o n e a r t h , t h e p e r s o n w h o l e g i t i m a t e l y bears the mark of C a i n in a long succession begun w i t h Peter. Yes, the popes c a n truthfully declare t h a t “ P e t e r ” is t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n by h o l d i n g i n m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e H e b r e w D J r , p r o n o u n c e d “payter,” m e a n s . . . firstling, w h i c h of course is C a i n ’ s primary attribute
29

as firstborn of E v e . Supporters of the argument favoring lethal-force Christian rulership usually stand on a single scriptural passage. It’s that verse in L u k e 22 w h e r e i n , as t h e b e t r a y a l nears, C h r i s t a d m o n i s h e s his disciples, “If you don’t h a v e a sword, sell your cloak and buy o n e . ”
30

I h a v e often heard C h r i s t i a n m i l i t i a m e n (some of w h o m I am n o t a s h a m e d to call my friends) use this to justify a r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s against the m i n i o n s of unjust rulers. But Jesus e x p l a i n e d otherwise in the very n e x t verse: “It is w r i t t e n : ‘And he was n u m b e r e d w i t h t h e transgressors’ [see Isaiah 5 3 : 1 2 ] ; and I t e l l y o u t h a t this must be fulfilled in m e . ” In order to fulfill p r o p h e c y , C h r i s t h a d to be n u m b e r e d a m o n g l a w b r e a k e r s , w h i c h b e a r i n g swords w o u l d certainly m a k e of the disciples of any true Prince of Peace. As soon as the disciples produced t w o swords – the m i n i m u m n u m b e r constit u t i n g t h e plural “transgressors” – p r o p h e c y was fulfilled. C h r i s t t h e n told t h e m “It is e n o u g h . ” From t h e n o n , no more cloaks were sold, no more swords bought.

R

O M A N C h r i s t i a n i t y ’ s success at a v e n g i n g e v i l has resulted in a w o r l d t h a t s e v e r e l y mistrusts t h e C h r i s t i a n g o s p e l . It’s to

Rome’s a d v a n t a g e t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n gospel be mistrusted, for any soul t h a t mistrusts C h r i s t is R o m e ’ s lawful prey. It’s to R o m e ’ s advantage that g o v e r n i n g bodies be rebelled against as tyrannical, for r e b e l l i o n against tyrants is d i s o b e d i e n c e to t h e glorious gospel. M u c h as I despaired o v e r the vicious taking of i n n o c e n t life in the W a c o massacre, I h a d no c h o i c e but to see it as a rather standard C h u r c h - M i l i t a n t inquisitorial procedure against p e r c e i v e d rebel-

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liousness. A T F S p e c i a l A g e n t D a v y Aguilera’s affidavit,

31

w h i c h re-

sulted i n the w a r r a n t u n d e r w h i c h g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s i n v a d e d the D a v i d i a n c o m p o u n d , dutifully listed the scriptural errors of David Koresh. A c c o r d i n g to the affidavit, V e r n o n H o w e l l adopted the n a m e D a v i d K o r e s h b e c a u s e h e “ b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e n a m e h e l p e d designate h i m as the messiah or the a n o i n t e d o n e of G o d ” ( p 2 ) . Yet o n e group m e m b e r stated t h a t Koresh’s t e a c h i n g “did n o t always c o i n cide w i t h the B i b l e ” ( p 1 1 ) . T h i s a l l e g a t i o n i s supported b y A g u i l era’s finding t h a t t h e “ a n o i n t e d o n e of G o d ” and his followers h a d s p e n t a t least $ 4 4 , 0 0 0 o n guns and e x p l o s i v e s during 1 9 9 2 a l o n e , i n c l u d i n g h a n d grenades and rifle grenades, g u n p o w d e r and potass i u m n i t r a t e ( p 6 ) . W h e r e i n S c r i p t u r e are t h e a n o i n t e d o n e s o f C h r i s t told to stock up on destructive weaponry? A c c o r d i n g to Aguilera’s inquisition, “ D a v i d Koresh stated that the Bible gave h i m t h e right to bear arms” ( p 1 5 ) . W h e r e in t h e glorious gospel is a n a n o i n t e d o n e o f G o d g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o bear arms? K o r e s h p r o p h e s i e d t h e i m m a n e n t e n d of t h e w o r l d , “ t h a t it w o u l d be a ‘ m i l i t a r y t y p e o p e r a t i o n ’ and t h a t all t h e ‘ n o n - b e l i e v e r s ’ w o u l d h a v e t o suffer” ( p 9 ) . W h e r e i n Scripture are C h r i s t i a n s c o m m a n d ed to m a k e war against non-believers? From the Inquisition’s s t a n d p o i n t , the D a v i d i a n s paid lip-service to Jesus C h r i s t b u t d e m o n s t r a t e d a s u b s t a n t i v e i n f i d e l i t y to H i m b y i n f r i n g i n g u p o n t h e a n c i e n t C a i n f r a n c h i s e – t h e mark – w h i c h flows t h r o u g h the U n i t e d States g o v e r n m e n t from the black papacy. A g a i n s t C h r i s t ’ s c o m m a n d m e n t , e v e n w h i l e professing scriptural k n o w l e d g e , t h e D a v i d i a n s c h o s e t o b r a n d i s h d e a d l y weapons – weapons that C a i n could envision pointed at himself someday. H o w c o u l d any m a r k - b e a r i n g ruler resist m o b i l i z i n g seve n f o l d v e n g e a n c e i n self-defense? H o w c o u l d C a i n resist h o l d i n g t h e s e professed C h r i s t i a n s r e s p o n s i b l e u n d e r C h r i s t ’ s w a r n i n g a t R e v e l a t i o n 1 3 : 1 0 : “ H e t h a t k i l l e t h b y the sword must b e k i l l e d b y the sword”? Is it any w o n d e r t h a t g o v e r n m e n t regards m e m o r i e s of W a c o as little more t h a n a n n o y a n c e s to be stonewalled?

Y

ET o n e c a n live intelligently, freely, and safely in a W o r l d legitimately g o v e r n e d by the Trickster. T h e secret is revealed in the

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resource w h i c h the Trickster has labored so tirelessly to marginalize: the H o l y Bible. I cite again that remarkable verse in H a b a k k u k ( 2 : 4 ) , i n w h i c h G o d tells u s t h a t a l t h o u g h g o v e r n i n g bodies h a v e the w r o n g desires, we c a n live safely in their faith that G o d will not punish t h e m for annihilating their mortal enemies. S c r i p t u r e reduces all h u m a n i n t e r a c t i o n t o t w o great m i n istries: t h e ministry of C o n d e m n a t i o n ” onciliation.
33 3 2

and the ministry of R e c -

C o n d e m n a t i o n is t h e rulership of e v i l by law; it

judges and does justice. S i n c e its subject is the criminal m i n d (“the strength of the law is s i n ” ) , C o n d e m n a t i o n requires t h e brilliance o f t h e firstling, C a i n , a l o n g w i t h t h e d e v i o u s n e s s o f Jesuitry a n d S u n - T z u . C o n d e m n a t i o n enforces its authority w i t h deadly force – it “does n o t bear the sword for n o t h i n g . ” T h e ministry o f R e c o n c i l i a t i o n t e a c h e s a n d a d m i n i s t e r s t h e glorious gospel of C h r i s t . R e c o n c i l i a t i o n does n o t judge executably or do justice. Rather, it judges spiritually, it loves, nurtures, suffers patiently, forgives, and rejoices in the truth. R e c o n c i l i a t i o n n e v e r fails because its strength is n o t sin but the power of G o d . T h e ministry o f C o n d e m n a t i o n operates “ o u t from t h e prese n c e of t h e L o r d . ” Its o n l y p r o o f of d i v i n e a s s o c i a t i o n is an inert substance, a seal, a p a l l i u m , a miter, a collar, a badge, the mark of C a i n , t h e insignia o f its authority t o terrorize evildoers. T h e m i n istry of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n is directly a n i m a t e d by the Lord o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n . It proves d i v i n e association by e v e r y t h i n g it does: its mere existence is its seal. T h e r e are e x c e p t i o n s , o f course: C o n d e m n o r s w h o R e c o n c i l e and R e c o n c i l e r s w h o C o n d e m n . M a n y l o v i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c priests d e d i c a t e their lives to a form of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , C o n f e s s i o n and A b s o l u t i o n . B u t aren’t these s a c r a m e n t s really a process of C o n d e m n a t i o n in w h i c h t h e c o n f e s s a n t pleads guilty a n d is sent e n c e d on the spot by the priestly judge to certain p e n i t e n t i a l acts w h i c h pardon the guilt? R e c o n c i l i a t i o n according to Scripture forgives the sin free of charge and directs t h e confessant’s energies n o t to p u n i s h m e n t s b u t t o w a r d a r e p e n t a n t , c o n s t r u c t i v e life w i t h i n the m i n d of C h r i s t . I suspect there are lots of C a t h o l i c priests w h o do true R e c o n c i l i a t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h it’s t e c h n i c a l l y h e r e t i c a l . My

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elderly British Jesuit friend stationed at the G e s u was a R e c o n c i l e r of sorts: he t o o k confession every w e e k d a y afternoon by the c l o c k in Italian, a language he didn’t understand. My father was a g o o d lawyer w h o denied himself many a handsome legal fee by trying to reconcile marriages out of divorce court. He was a minister of C o n d e m n a t i o n by trade, yet the word of G o d w r i t t e n on his heart m a d e a R e c o n c i l e r o u t of h i m almost in spite of himself. T h i s , I b e l i e v e , is w h a t S c r i p t u r e calls “ e v e r y k n e e bow[ing] at the n a m e of Jesus C h r i s t , in h e a v e n and on earth, and under the earth.”
34

It’s p r o o f of t h e great p o w e r of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n

that the W o r l d h i g h l y esteems C o n d e m n o r s w h o R e c o n c i l e , C o n demnors for w h o m the n a m e of Jesus C h r i s t may n o t be important or e v e n credible. ( M y private o p i n i o n is that many w h o find C h r i s t u n i n t e r e s t i n g h a v e b e e n sold a n inferior gospel b y h y p o c r i t i c a l preaching. I tend to agree w i t h G . K . C h e s t e r t o n ’ s remark, “It’s n o t t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y h a s b e e n tried and f o u n d w a n t i n g , b u t t h a t it’s hardly b e e n tried at all.”) D e s p i t e crossovers, C o n d e m n a t i o n and R e c o n c i l i a t i o n w o r k t o g e t h e r as o p p o s i t e s , like m a l e and f e m a l e , sea and l a n d , n i g h t and day, y i n and y a n g . C o n d e m n a t i o n p u n i s h e s us for a l i e n a t i n g G o d ; R e c o n c i l i a t i o n l o v i n g l y brings u s t o g e t h e r w i t h G o d . C o n d e m n a t i o n c a n n o t b r i n g us to G o d , but it c a n d r i v e us to H i m . R e c o n c i l i a t i o n c a n n o t p u n i s h u s for a l i e n a t i n g G o d , but i t c a n release us to C o n d e m n a t i o n , w h i c h w a l k s to and fro in s e a r c h of c o r r u p t R e c o n c i l e r s t o p e r s e c u t e a l o n g w i t h t h e usual suspects. R e l e a s e is a c o n c i l i a t o r y o p e r a t i o n . T h e spiritual j u d g m e n t s of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n are e x e c u t e d i n release, w h i l e t h e n a t u r a l judgm e n t s of C o n d e m n a t i o n are e x e c u t e d by t h e opposite of release: r e s t r i c t i o n – r e s t r i c t i o n of body, c o m f o r t , f r e e d o m , property, options, life. R e s t r i c t i o n is the flexure of C o n d e m n a t i o n ’ s muscle, and this is g o o d for R e c o n c i l i a t i o n . It p r o v i d e s G o d a c a p t i v e a u d i e n c e . I saw it in a dozen jail cells in Tennessee, O k l a h o m a , G e o r g i a , Mississippi, and C a l i f o r n i a . C o n d e m n a t i o n c a n so restrict that its subj e c t cries out for R e c o n c i l i a t i o n . In jail, G o d is not a philosophical proposition to be deliberated at leisure. He’s a v i v i d benefit grasped

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as t h o u g h He w e r e a k e y to t h e j a i l h o u s e l o c k . I h a v e s e e n it so often, u n d e r so m a n y c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h a t I h a v e to regard it as a principle: T h e More Restriction, the Closer to G o d .
3 5

So even

t h o u g h t h e ministry of C o n d e m n a t i o n is d i r e c t e d by S a t a n to do justice a m o n g e v i l d o e r s ( a n d w h a t c o u l d b e more just t h a n for S a t a n t o rule e v i l ? ) , t h e u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r y i s H e w h o o r d a i n e d the w h o l e system in the first place. For, just as Paul says, S a t a n is an a n g e l of light and his ministers are ministers of righteousness w h o s e end shall be a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r w o r k s . S c r i p t u r e is a c a t a l o g of s a t a n i c ministers w h o w e r e absolutely necessary for C h r i s t to perform His finished work: t h e S e r p e n t , C a i n a n d E n o c h , H a m , N i m r o d , Esau, P h a r a o h , t h e Amalekites, Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, Cyrus, Ahasueras, H a m a n , Judas, and many, m a n y o t h e r s . S o m e w e r e d e p l o r a b l y w i c k e d , o t h e r surprisingly moral – it was Judas’ sense of guilt that drove h i m to suicide. T h e Jesuit priest w h o inaugurated my prosec u t i o n on the Feast D a y of St. Ignatius was a satanic minister, and he was absolutely necessary for my maturity as a C h r i s t i a n . He sent me on a fifteen-year journey that has brought me to this page.

O

N C E I understood the t w o ministries, hard questions answered t h e m s e l v e s . W h a t c a n a responsible c i t i z e n d o t o restore

moral, fair, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ? First, realize that no judgm e n t that g o v e r n m e n t is immoral, unfair, or u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c a n be e x e c u t e d unless by an authorized person. O n l y C o n d e m n a t i o n has authority to alter government’s patterns of c o n d u c t . To c h a n g e g o v e r n m e n t by c o n v e n t i o n a l means, I must b e c o m e a C o n d e m n o r . ( C a n a n y o n e n a m e a true R e c o n c i l e r w h o is great in the W o r l d ? ) To g a i n i n f l u e n c e a m o n g C o n d e m n o r s , I must master t h e arts of S u n - T z u and the Trickster. Little good this will do, for as my invest i g a t i o n has t e n d e d t o show, always t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f C o n d e m n a t i o n ’ s resources go i n t o k e e p i n g t h e system e v i l . If I build forces capable of meaningfully altering the system, the masters will t e r m i n a t e me b e c a u s e t h e y are authorized by G o d to a v e n g e seve n f o l d t h o s e w h o w o u l d slay C a i n . I n short, t h e p o t e n t i a l for i m p r o v e m e n t within t h e system of C o n d e m n a t i o n appears to be

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l i m i t e d to c y c l i c a l periods of pretty g o o d times, pretty bad times. Isn’t this obvious from history and the news? Of course, G o d could c h a n g e g o v e r n m e n t by a simple miracle, a n d R e v e l a t i o n says H e w i l l , o n t h e “last day,” t h e fearful day o f cosmic shakedown w h e n unrepentant evildoers will burn with t h e i r beast and o n l y t h e perfect w i l l r e m a i n . S c r i p t u r e is silent as to w h e n that day will c o m e . In the m e a n t i m e , R e c o n c i l e r s are told that i m p r o v i n g h u m a n rulership is their responsibility. N o t by taking c o n t r o l of t h e system, a n d n o t by s e a l i n g t h e m s e l v e s off in well-fortified c o m m u n e s , either. R e c o n c i l e r s i m p r o v e t h e system by m a k i n g t h e m s e l v e s . . . available. R e c o n c i l e r s are a t t r a c t i v e to C o n d e m n a t i o n because t h e y d o n ’ t judge o r a t t e m p t t o d o justice. T h e y d o n ’ t p u t d o w n , a t t a c h b l a m e , o r p i n guilt. C o n s e q u e n t l y , R e c o n c i l e r s are n o t p e r c e i v e d as a threat. T h e y are wise as serpents and harmless as d o v e s .
36

T h i s is n o t to say that R e c o n c i l e r s c o n d o n e evil. T h e i r posture t o w a r d sin is this: P e o p l e k n o w r i g h t from w r o n g . P e o p l e d o n ’ t n e e d t o b e told they’re sinful. P e o p l e k n o w . G o d ’ s law w r i t t e n o n t h e i r hearts c o n t i n u a l l y r e m i n d s t h e m . W h a t t h e W o r l d n e e d s i s t h e friendship of s o m e o n e w h o is G o d - m i n d e d (if n o t w e l l - v e r s e d i n t h e W o r d o f G o d ) , s o m e o n e c o n f i d e n t i n t h e Love o f G o d w h o c a n patiently and n o n - j u d g m e n t a l l y h o l d the most e v i l of souls in friendship w h i l e h e l p i n g i t w o r k t h r o u g h r e p e n t a n c e t o h e a l t h i e r values at its o w n pace. M a n y years i n C o n d e m n a t i o n h a v e d r i v e n m e i n t o t h e m i n istry of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n , a n d t h e h e a r t of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n is l o v e . I n o w a p p r e c i a t e t h e simple w i s d o m i n F e l i x M e n d e l s s o h n ’ s quest i o n , “ W h y should any m a n offend t h e p e o p l e i n power?” O f f e n d ing p e o p l e in p o w e r – o f f e n d i n g a n y o n e – is no l o n g e r a t t r a c t i v e to me. I do g o o d , or at least try to w i t h our Lord’s h e l p . T h e most reliable instruction I’ve yet found for this purpose is the Bible w i t h its glorious gospel, a n d t h e B i b l e tells me t h a t if I do g o o d ( n o t g o o d as I see it, but g o o d as the gospel defines it: Love God with all your heart, soul, and mind; love your neighbor as yourself), t h e rulers of evil will c o m m e n d me. A n d so I freely subject myself to C o n d e m n a t i o n for e x a m i n a -

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tion of my c o n s c i e n c e . W h o knows? I m i g h t just interest the e x a m iner in t h e joys of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Taxes? I c o n t i n u e to pay every tax for w h i c h I am liable, and n o n e for w h i c h I’m not. Finally, I anticipate that some may disagree w i t h certain of the c o n c l u s i o n s in this and o t h e r c h a p t e r s . I w e l c o m e d i s a g r e e m e n t . D i s a g r e e m e n t is t h e m o t h e r of this b o o k . N o b o d y is p a y i n g me to market any particular doctrine. I’m n o t the kind of person w h o has to be right. I let t h e e v i d e n c e lead m e . T h e e v i d e n c e s h a p e d my conclusions. T h e e v i d e n c e wrote this book. T o a n y o n e w h o k n o w s of c o u n t e r v a i l i n g e v i d e n c e , e v i d e n c e that m i g h t point me in a different d i r e c t i o n , this is my request to see it. I’m n o t a b o v e repenting a g a i n , n o r w o u l d I s h r i n k from p r i n t i n g r e t r a c t i o n s . I w a n t R e c o n c i l i a t i o n , and I w a n t Truth. If S t . Francis X a v i e r c a n say “I w o u l d n o t e v e n b e l i e v e in the Gospels w e r e the H o l y C h u r c h to forbid it,” w i t h no less c o m m i t m e n t I c a n say that I w o u l d n o t b e l i e v e e v e n t h e Bible were T r u t h to forbid it.

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Appendix A

FIFTY CENTURIES OF THE ANNU SIGNATURE

A b o v e . T h e h e m o f M a r d u k ’ s g a r m e n t (see page 267) consists of t h e A n n u signature, a u t h o r i z i n g M a r d u k t o rule e v i l d o e r s .

Right. A n c i e n t Babylonian cylinder in the British Museum depicts the Q u e e n of H e a v e n , Ishtar, e m p o w e r e d b y four A n n u s i g n a t u r e s .

Left. S t o n e t a b l e t i n the British M u s e u m depicts N a b o n i d a s , the scholarly Babylonian Pontifex Maximus, s u p e r v i s i n g t h e placement of the a n c i e n t A n n u signature d u r i n g t h e restoration of A n n u ’ s temple at Sippara eight or nine centuries before C h r i s t .

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Left. S t . Peter’s Piazza a t R o m e , where throngs gather to give audience to the popes, is inlaid w i t h the A n n u signature

Below. Front and back-side of an ancient Assyrio-Babylonian bronze tablet “ r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e w o r l d i n t h e c l u t c h e s o f a n e v i l d e m o n ” ( 1 9 5 9 Britannica V o l . 7 , p 1 9 0 ) . T h e “ d e m o n ” i s j u s t a d o g , w h o s h e p h e r d s u n r u l i n e s s for A n n u , a s d o e s S a t a n for Y a h w e h “ b y g o i n g t o a n d fro i n t h e e a r t h , and walking up and d o w n in it.” N o t e t h e A n n u s i g n a t u r e just b e l o w a n d t o t h e left o f t h e dog’s g a p i n g m o u t h . C a n i n e s are a f a v o r i t e m e t a p h o r for C a i n . T h e r e ’ s n o b r i g h t e r star i n t h e h e a v e n s t h a n t h e “ d o g star,” n a m e d C a n i s M a j o r after C a i n . T h e Egyptians called C a n i s the “ s e c o n d s u n ” b e c a u s e i t ruled the mysterious world of night, a ruler o f w h a t P a u l c a l l s “ t h e d a r k n e s s o f t h i s w o r l d ” ( E p h e s i a n s 6 : 1 2 ) . H o m e r c a l l e d C a n i s “ t h e e v i l star” b e c a u s e its rising b r o u g h t o n t h e h o t s u m m e r s e a s o n a n d its a t t e n d a n t p e s t i l e n c e . H u m a n sacrifices w e r e offered t o a p p e a s e t h e d o g star, b e l i e v e d b y m a n y s c h o l a r s t o b e t h e “ L u c i f e r ” o f Isaiah 1 4 : 1 2 .

Right. T h e A n n u signature declares the entrance to Harvard Law School.

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FIFTY C E N T U R I E S O F T H E A N N U S I G N A T U R E

Left. A s the C o m m a n d e r A l b e r t Pike attested, the A n n u signature and other emblems representing C a i n ’ s a u t h o r i t y t o rule h a v e b e e n protected by Freemasonry since their creation by E n o c h . Every M a s o n i c t e m p l e p r o c l a i m s its devotion to A n n u .

B e l o w . T h e U . S . S u p r e m e C o u r t B u i l d i n g r e v e a l s t h e A n n u s i g n a t u r e i n its e x t e r i o r s t o n e a n d b r o n z e w o r k , a s w e l l a s its i n t e r i o r t h r o u g h o u t . A m e r i c a n j u s t i c e a v e n g e s its o f f e n d e r s a t least s e v e n f o l d n o t b e c a u s e i t i s c o r r u p t b u t b e c a u s e i t h a s i n h e r i t e d C a i n ’ s d i v i n e e m p o w e r m e n t t o d o so.

295

RULERS OF E V I L

1. Ignatius Loyola, 1 April 1 5 4 1 – 31 July 1 5 5 6 (65 yrs at death) 2. Diego Laynez, 2 July 1 5 5 8 – 10 Jan 1 5 6 5 ( 5 3 ) 3. Francis Borgia, 2 July 1 5 6 5 – 1 October 1 5 7 2 (62) 4. Everard Mercurian, 23 April 1 5 7 3 – 1 August 1580 (?) 5. Claudius Aquaviva, 19 Feb 1 5 8 1 – 31 Jan 1 6 1 5 ( 7 2 ) 6. Mutius Vitelleschi, 15 N o v 1 6 1 5 – 9 Feb 1 6 4 5 (82) 7. Vincent Caraffa, 7 Jan 1 6 4 6 – 8 June 1 6 4 9 (65) 8. Francis Piccolimini, 21 Dec 1 6 4 9 – 17 June 1 6 5 1 (69) 9. Alexander Gottifred, 21 January 1 6 5 2 – 13 March 1 6 5 2 (58) 10. Goswin Nickel, 17 March 1 6 5 2 – 31 July 1 6 6 4 (82) 1 1 . John Paul Oliva, who had been elected Vicarius Generalis perpetuus cum jure succedendi 7 Junii 1661 was immediately invested with the government of the Society at Nickel’s death. He died 96 November
1681 (81)

1 2 . Charles de Noyelle, 5 July 1682 – 12 Dec 1686 1 3 . Thyrsus Gonzales, 6 July 1687 – 19 N o v 1 7 0 5 (78) 14. Michaelangelo Tamburini, 31 Jan 1 7 0 6 – 28 February 1 7 3 0 1 5 . Francis Retz, 30 N o v 1 7 3 0 – 19 N o v 1 7 5 0 (78) 16. Ignatius Viconti, 4 July 1 7 5 1 – 4 May 1 7 5 5 1 7 . Luigi Aloysius Centurioni, 30 November 1 7 5 5 – 2 October 1 7 5 7 18. Lorenzo Ricci, 21 May, 1 7 5 8 – 24 N o v 1 7 7 5 ( 7 2 ) The brief of Clement XIV for suppressing the Society, dated 21 July 1 7 7 3 was put in execution 16 August.

296

APPENDIX B

SUPERIOR G E N E R A L S OF T H E SOCIETY OF JESUS

Superior Generals of the Society of Jesus
according to The Historical Catechism, chiefly relating to the English Province of the Society, Ed. by G e o r g e O l i v e r , St N i c h o l a s Priory, Exeter, 1 8 3 8 ; amplified by current research)

IN

RUSSIA

1 9 . Stanislaus Czerniewicz, permitted by Catherine the Great to feign for life as “Superior General for Russia” 17 O c t 1 7 8 2 – 21 Oct, 1 7 8 5
(57)

20. Gabriel Lenkiewisz, 8 October, 1 7 8 5 – 21 October 1 7 9 8 ( 7 7 ) 2 1 . Francis Karew, 12 Feb 1 7 9 9 – 4 Aug 1802 ( 7 1 ) 22. Gabriel Gruber, 22 O c t 1802 – 6 April 1805 ( 6 7 ) 2 3 . Thaddeus Brzozowski, elected in 1 8 0 5 , would serve as head of the whole Society when it was restored 7 August 1 8 1 4 by the Bull of Pope Pius VII Solicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum, but would never remove to Rome because the Russian G o v e r n m e n t refused him permission to leave, died 5 Feb 1820 24. Aloysius Fortis, 18 O c t 1820 – 29 Jan 1 8 2 9 ( 8 1 ) 25. John Roothaan 1 8 2 9 – 1 8 5 3 26. Pieter Jean Beckx, 1 8 5 3 – 1887 27. Ludovico Martin, 1892 – 1901 28. Franz XavierWernz, 1907 – 1 9 1 4 29. Vladimir Ledochowski, 1 9 1 5 – 1942 30. Jean-Baptiste Janssens, 1 9 4 6 – 1 9 6 4 3 1 . Pedro Arrupe, 1 9 6 5 – 1 9 8 1 (removed by Pope John Paul II) 3 2 . Paolo Dezza, Giuseppe Pittau, 1 9 8 1 – 1 9 8 3 (appointed by John Paul II) 3 3 . Peter Hans Kolvenbach, 1983 –

297

Appendix

C

GLOSSARY

absolution: a r e m i s s i o n of sins p r o n o u n c e d by a priest acronym: a w o r d f o r m e d f r o m t h e i n i tial l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s o f e a c h o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e parts o r m a j o r parts o f a c o m p o u n d term anathema: a b a n or c u r s e s o l e m n l y pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by excommunication Assyria: a n a n c i e n t w e s t A s i a n empire extending along the midd l e Tigris R i v e r a n d o v e r f o o t h i l l s t o t h e east, i d e n t i f i e d w i t h B a b y lonia autocracy: g o v e r n m e n t i n w h i c h o n e p e r s o n possesses u n l i m i t e d p o w e r Babylon: t h e a n c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n spawned on foundations built by the historical C a i n and his son E n o c h ; a m e t a p h o r for R o m e black pope: i n f o r m a l n a m e for t h e Superior G e n e r a l of the Society of Jesus

bull: a s o l e m n p a p a l l e t t e r s e a l e d w i t h a b u l l a or w i t h a r e d - i n k i m p r i n t of the device on the bulla cabalah: ( c a b a l a , q a b b a l a , e t c ) : a syst e m o f signs, letters, n u m b e r s , and images believed to put one in private c o m m u n i c a t i o n with G o d and like-minded persons; a gnostic system marked by mysticism, m a g i c , a n d a b e l i e f in c r e a t i o n through emanation; esoteric doct r i n e or m y s t e r i o u s art Caesar: a p o w e r f u l , a u t o c r a t i c ruler, dictator, h e a d of religious and civil governments but limited in M a t t h e w 22:21 t o t h e c i v i l p o w e r . First t o h o l d t h e t i t l e w a s G a i u s Julius M a r i a ( 1 0 0 - 4 4
B C

)

Calvinism: t h e t h e o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f J o h n C a l v i n (c. 1570) a n d h i s followers marked by strong emphasis on the sovereignty of G o d , the depravity of mankind, and the doctrine of redestination casuistry: a r e s o l v i n g of specific cases o f c o n s c i e n c e , duty, o r c o n d u c t

t h r o u g h g e n e r a l l y false i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o r religious doctrine; specious argument, rationalization Christendom: t h e p a r t o f t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h Christianity prevails Christian: o n e w h o professes b e l i e f i n t h e t e a c h i n g s o f Jesus C h r i s t Christianity: t h e r e l i g i o n d e r i v e d f r o m Jesus C h r i s t , b a s e d o n t h e B i b l e a s sacred s c r i p t u r e , a n d p r o fessed b y E a s t e r n , R o m a n C a t h o l i c , Protestant, and n o n denominational bodies condemnation: a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y j u d g ing a matter and rendering an enforceable opinion Deism: a m o v e m e n t or s y s t e m of t h o u g h t a d v o c a t i n g n a t u r a l relig i o n i n d e p e n d e n t of scriptural revelation, emphasizing morality, and denying the personal involvement of the Creator in h u m a n affairs o r w i t h t h e laws o f the universe Diet: ( f r o m M i d d l e E n g l i s h diete, day’s j o u r n e y , d a y set for a m e e t ing, f r o m M e d i e v a l L a t i n dieta, daily r e g i m e n ) : a f o r m a l d e l i b e r a tive assembly of princes or estates; any of various n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l legislatures ecumenical: of, r e l a t i n g t o , or r e p r e senting the w h o l e of a b o d y of churches; promoting or tending toward worldwide Christian unity or cooperation

empire: f r o m L a t i n imperium, a b s o l u t e authority; a major political unit h a v i n g a territory o f g r e a t e x t e n t or a n u m b e r of t e r r i t o r i e s or p e o ples u n d e r a s i n g l e s o v e r e i g n authority encyclical: a p a p a l l e t t e r to t h e b i s h ops Encyclopedists: t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e French Encyclopedia of Sciences, Arts and Trades ( 1 7 4 3 – 5 1 ) w h o were identified w i t h the Enlighte n m e n t and advocated deism and scientific r a t i o n a l i s m Enlightenment: a p h i l o s o p h i c m o v e ment of the 18th century marked by a r e j e c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l social, religious, and political ideas a n d a n e m p h a s i s o n r a t i o n alism equivocation: to use t r i c k y l a n g u a g e especially with intent to deceive; to avoid committing oneself in w h a t o n e says; l y i n g extirpate: to d e s t r o y c o m p l e t e l y , to wipe out, to pull up by t h e roots, t o c u t o u t b y surgery, t o e x t e r m i nate fascism: a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , m o v e m e n t , or regime that exalts nation above the individual and t h a t stands for a c e n t r a l i z e d a u t o c r a t i c g o v e r n m e n t h e a d e d by a d i c t a t o r i a l leader, s e v e r e e c o n o m ic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition G e s u , the: t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l h e a d quarters o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus, a t

299

RULERS OF E V I L

N o . 5 Borgo S a n c t o Spiritu, Rome gnosticism: t h e t h o u g h t a n d p r a c t i c e e s p e c i a l l y o f v a r i o u s c u l t s o f late pre-Christian and early C h r i s t i a n centuries distinguished by the c o n v i c t i o n that matter is evil and that emancipation comes through gnosis ( “ k n o w i n g ” ) gospel: s a c r e d w r i t i n g , t h e m e s s a g e o r t e a c h i n g s of a r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r , s o m e t h i n g a c c e p t e d as infallible t r u t h or as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e ; the message c o n c e r n i n g Christ, the k i n g d o m of G o d , and salvation hierarchy: a r u l i n g b o d y of c l e r g y organized into orders or ranks each subordinate to the one a b o v e it: a b o d y of p e r s o n s in a u t h o r i t y ; t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a group of people a c c o r d i n g to ability o r t o e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , o r p r o fessional standing H o l y Roman Empire: t h e c o m m o n w e a l t h of Europe ruled by papacy and Holy R o m a n Emperor as coordinate sovereigns. A t various times, the Emperor claimed a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e G e r m a n states and Hungary, Poland, France, Spain, the Scandinavian peninsula, a n d t h e B r i t i s h Isles. H o w ever, t h e “ e f f e c t i v e e m p i r e ” e m b r a c e d o n l y G e r m a n y , Burgundy, a n d t h e o l d L o m b a r d k i n g d o m i n Italy’s P o V a l l e y Ignatian: n o u n : a p e r s o n u n d e r spec i a l o a t h t o p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s , usually c l a n d e s t i n e , for t h e S u p e r i o r

G e n e r a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus Illuminati: a n y o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s c l a i m i n g special religious enlighte n m e n t ; p e r s o n s w h o are o r w h o claim to be unusually enlightened illuminism: b e l i e f in or c l a i m to a personal enlightenment not accessible to m a n k i n d in general Inquisition: a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n d u c t e d w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d for i n d i v i d u a l rights; a s e v e r e questioning; a R o m a n Catholic t r i b u n a l for t h e d i s c o v e r y a n d p u n i s h m e n t o f heresy, p r e s e n t l y f u n c t i o n i n g under t h e title C o n g r e g a t i o n for t h e D o c t r i n e o f t h e Faith Israel: a c o m p l e x identifier, b e i n g (1) the n a m e given by Y a h w e h to J a c o b , s i g n i f y i n g Jacob’s a c q u i r i n g h i s t w i n b r o t h e r Esau’s b i r t h r i g h t t o lead G o d ’ s c h o s e n p e o p l e ; ( 2 ) the ancient Hebrew nation w h i c h , after t h e d e a t h o f Solomon, divided into two kingd o m s , Israel t o t h e n o r t h , J u d a h to the south; (3) the biological n a t i o n o f w h i c h t h e m a n Jesus Christ was a descendant through h i s m o t h e r ; ( 4 ) a m o d e r n state occupying the rough geographical perimeters of C a e s a r e a n Judaea a n d S a m a r i a , h a v i n g a n official policy of denying the N e w Testament Gospel; (5) the amorphous b o d y o f t h o s e w h o , t h r o u g h stud i o u s b e l i e f i n a n d l o v e for Jesus C h r i s t , h a v e b e e n grafted b y d i v i n e surgery t o t h e a n c i e n t Hebrew nation

300

APPENDIX B

GLOSSARY

Judaea: G r e e k t e r m for J u d a h , t h e southern Hebrew kingdom whose i n h a b i t a n t s w e r e c a l l e d Jews learning against learning: c o n c e p t advanced by Cardinal Thomas W o l s e y that pitted humanist doctrine against scriptural C h r i s t i a n teaching liberation theology: a r e l i g i o u s m o v e ment especially a m o n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c clergy in L a t i n A m e r i c a that combines political philosop h y usually of a M a r x i s t o r i e n t a tion w i t h a theology of salvation as liberation from injustice Majesterium: t h e t e a c h i n g a u t h o r i t y of the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h mental reservation or reserve: i n t e n tional withholding of truth w h e n it is r e g a r d e d as i n c o n v e n i e n t to d i s c l o s e i t (as f r o m p e o p l e w h o are r e g a r d e d a s u n a b l e t o u n d e r stand it or receive it w i t h benefit) missionary adaptation: p r o c e s s by

o v e r the chasuble by a p o p e or a r c h b i s h o p as a s y m b o l of full episcopal authority papacy: t h e office of p o p e ; a s u c c e s sion or line of popes; the term of a pope’s r e i g n ; t h e s y s t e m of g o v ernment of the R o m a n Catholic C h u r c h of w h i c h the pope is the supreme head Papal States: l a n d s ruled d i r e c t l y by t h e p o p e s i n c e n t r a l Italy b e t w e e n 755-1870 penance: a n a c t o f s e l f - a b a s e m e n t , m o r t i f i c a t i o n , o r d e v o t i o n performed to show sorrow or repent a n c e for sin philosophes: t h e d e i s t i c o r m a t e r i a l i s tic w r i t e r s a n d t h i n k e r s o f t h e 18th c e n t u r y F r e n c h E n l i g h t e n ment Pontifex Maximus: a n c i e n t title first applied to head of Babylonian civil and religious g o v e r n m e n t , m e a n i n g “ s u p r e m e (or s o v e r e i g n ) bridgebuilder;” first assumed by R o m a n a u t o c r a t s a t t h e deificat i o n o f G a i u s M a r i a a s Julius C a e sar i n 4 8 B C ; t i t l e o w n e d b y t h e R o m a n popes

w h i c h p o p u l a t i o n s are b r o u g h t under subjection to the R o m a n papacy by harmonious cultural integration notariqon: c a b a l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e in w h i c h t h e initials o f a n a c r o n y m create a word that e n h a n c e s the acronym’s meaning pagan: a f o l l o w e r of a p o l y t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o n (as i n a n c i e n t R o m e ) ; o n e w h o delights in sensual pleasures a n d m a t e r i a l g o o d s pallium: a w h i t e w o o l e n b a n d w i t h pendants in front and b a c k w o r n

Protestant: o n e w h o m a k e s o r e n t e r s a p r o t e s t ; a n y of a g r o u p of G e r m a n princes and cities presenting a defense of freedom of c o n s c i e n c e a g a i n s t a n e d i c t i n 1529 i n t e n d e d t o suppress t h e L u t h e r an m o v e m e n t ; a m e m b e r of any of several c h u r c h denominations denying the universal authority o f t h e P o p e a n d affirming t h e

301

RULERS OF E V I L

R e f o r m a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s o f justific a t i o n b y f a i t h a l o n e , t h e priesth o o d o f all b e l i e v e r s , a n d t h e primacy of the Bible as the only s o u r c e of r e v e a l e d t r u t h ; a C h r i s t ian n o t of a C a t h o l i c or Eastern church Psychopomp: f r o m G r e e k psychopompas, “ s o u l d i r e c t o r ; ” a n a m e often applied to Mercury, R o m a n god of commerce, communication, and thievery ratio studiorum: L a t i n “ m e t h o d of study;” the e d u c a t i o n a l process by w h i c h t h e Jesuit s c h o o l s a n d c o l leges obscure the moral supremac y o f t h e H o l y B i b l e a n d secure tacit o b e d i e n c e to the will of the black papacy reconciliation: r e s t o r a t i o n o f h a r m o ny and friendship; in R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m : p e n a n c e , t h e result of the sacrament of absolution salvation: d e l i v e r a n c e f r o m t h e p o w e r a n d effects o f sin; t h e a g e n t o r m e a n s t h a t effects s a l v a t i o n

sacrament: a C h r i s t i a n rite ( i n R o m a n Catholicism: baptism, H o l y Eucharist or Mass, penance, m a t r i m o n y , a n o i n t i n g o f t h e sick, confirmation by the C h u r c h , and h o l y orders) t h a t i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n ordained by C h r i s t and that the Magisterium holds to be a m e a n s of d i v i n e grace sodality: f r o m L a t i n sodalitas, “ c o m radeship”: an association of R o m a n C a t h o l i c laity Sibylline prophecies: u t t e r a n c e s of a n y o f s e v e r a l p r o p h e t e s s e s usually accepted as ten in n u m b e r and c r e d i t e d t o w i d e l y s e p a r a t e parts o f t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d (as B a b y l o nia, Egypt, G r e e c e , and Italy) Spiritual Exercises: L o y o l a ’ s 3 0 - d a y intensive program of psychological indoctrination designed to align individual thought with papal authority Vulgate: a L a t i n v e r s i o n o f t h e B i b l e a u t h o r i z e d a n d used b y t h e Roman Catholic Church

302

Appendix

D

NOTES
PP

1-16

Chapter 1: Subliminal R o m e 1. “Holy Alliance: How Reagan and the Pope conspired to assist Poland’s Solidarity movement and hasten the demise of C o m m u n i s m . ” Time, February 24, 1992. 2. An updating of this list will not reflect a significant change in the presence of R o m a n C a t h o l i c lay-persons in the higher legislative reaches. A c c o r d i n g to the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, in the 1 o 6 t h Congress there are 40 Jesuit alumni w h o graduated from 17 Jesuit institutions. T h e r e are 5 alumni in the U S . Senate and 35 alumni in the House of Representatives. O u t of these 40 alumni, 23 received graduate or professional degrees from Jesuit Universities. Georgetown University has the most graduates, boasting 15 alumni in the U . S . Congress. President William J. C l i n t o n is a graduate of G e o r g e t o w n University and Secretary of C o m m e r c e , William M. Daley, is a graduate of Loyola University of C h i c a g o . 3. Scharf, History of Western Maryland, Baltimore (1882), pp 2 7 - 3 0 4. We, the People: The Story of the United States Capitol: Its Past and Its Promise, U . S . C a p i t o l Historical Society, p 56. Chapter 2: Missionary Adaptation 1. 1989 C a t h o l i c A l m a n a c , p 175. 2. U . S . C o u r t of Appeals for the Third Circuit, Case N o . 85–1309. 3. Just as the R o m a n priests traditionally took as their o w n the name of the god or goddess they served, judges on the United States Supreme C o u r t ceremonially adopt the appelation of the goddess Justitia, as in “Mr. Justice A n t o n i n Scalia.” 4. A l e x a n d e r del Mar, Middle Ages Revisited, California 90250: Hawthorne, O m n i Book C l u b (orig. pub. 1899), pp 101–102. 5. Ibid., p 86 6. Ibid., pp 144–146 7. C h a d w i c k , The Early Church, Eerdmans ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p 243 8. T h e N e w C a t h o l i c Encycyclopedia, “Missionary Adaptation.” Chapter 3: Marginalizing the Bible 1. J. Edwin Hendricks, Charles Thomson and the Making of A New Nation 1729-1824, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ( 1 9 7 9 ) , pp 1 3 6 - 1 3 7

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PP. 1 6 - 3 8

2. C o u n c i l of Toulouse, 1229. 3. Peter de Rosa, SJ, Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy, N e w York: C r o w n Publishers (1988), p 162 ff. 4. Pontifex Maximus has laundered the Inquisition’s name twice. In 1908, Pope Pius X renamed it “the Holy Office,” which Paul VI transformed into “Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith” in 1965, Chapter 4: Medici Learning 1. Peter de Rosa, Vicars of Christ, p 116—118 2. Ibid. 3. De Rosa, Vicars of Christ, p 120 4. “Since printing cannot be put down, it is best to set up learning against learning, and by introducing all persons to dispute, to suspend the laity between fear and controversy. T h i s at most will make them attentive to their superiors and teachers.” Quoted in Lord Herbert’s Life of Henry VIII. Chapter 5 : Appointment A t Cyprus 1. In constructing this brief biography of Loyola, I draw from the following sources: Barthel’s Jesuits, Martin’s Jesuits, Aveling’s Jesuits, Meissner’s Ignatius, Caraman’s Ignatius, Letson & Wiggins’ The Jesuit Mystique, Paris’ Secret History of the Jesuits, Catholic Encyclopedia, N e w C a t h o l i c Encyclopedia, and Encyclopedia Britannica. In certain needful instances, an individual source will be endnoted. 2. W.W. Meissner, SJ, M D , Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of A Saint, N e w Haven, London: Yale University Press (1992), P55. 3. Louis J. Puhl, The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, Westminster, M D : T h e N e w m a n Press (1959) 4. Ibid. 5. Manfred Barthel, transl. by Mark Howson, The Jesuits: History and Legend of the Society of Jesus, N e w York: Quill, William Morrow ( 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 ) , p 29. 6. Michelet, Life of Luther, p 70, 71 7. Philip Caraman, SJ, Ignatius Loyola: A Biography of the Founder of the Jesuits, San Francisco: Harper & Row (1990), p 48 Chapter 6: T h e Epitome of Christian Values 1. W h i l e the unanimously-acclaimed Celestine II was being installed, “the Frangipani family, with the c o n n i v a n c e of C h a n c e l l o r Aimeric, broke into the assembly and at sword-point had Cardinal Lamberto acclaimed Honorius II.” The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p 165 ff. 2. Encyclopedia Britannica, “China.” 3. Piquet, Des Banqiers au Moyen Age: les Templiers, Paris, ( 1 9 3 1 ) , as cited in Holy Blood, Holy Grail, p 451 4. Daraul, History of Secret Societies, pp 46ff. 5. J. M. Ragon, Cours Philosophique et Interpretatif des Initiations anciennes et modernes, edition sacree a l’usage des Loges et des Macons SEULEMENT (Masonic year 5,842) p 37.

304

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6. J. B. Fabre Palaprat, Recherches historiques sur les Templiers, (1835) p 31 7. Michelet, Procès des Templiers, II, 404. T h i s work largely consists of the publication in Latin of the Papal bulls and trials of the Templars before the Papal Commission in Paris. 8. Jules Loiseleur, La doctrine secrète des Templiers, p 141 9. Leviticus 16:6–10 10. I Kings 11:4 1 1 . T h e Zohar, Section A h r e M o t h , folio 70a. 12. I Kings 3:12. 13. Ibid, 11:4. Chapter 7: T h e Fingerstroke of G o d 1. T h e Statute of Uses (27 Henry VIII, c. 10) Parliament concurred in Henry’s assumption of Rome’s clerical power with its A c t of Supremacy, w h i c h stated: “ A l b e i t the king’s Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the C h u r c h of England, and so is recognized by the clergy of this realm in their convocations, yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, and for increase of virtue in Christ’s religion within this realm of England, and to repress and extirpate all errors, heresies, and other enormities and abuses heretofore used in the same, be it enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that the king, our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the C h u r c h of England, called Anglicans Ecclesia; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm, as well the title and style thereof, as all honors, dignities, pre-eminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity of the supreme head of the same C h u r c h belonging and appertaining; and that our said sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, record, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offenses contempts and enormities, whatsoever they be, w h i c h by any manner of spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may lawfully be reformed, repressed, ordered, redressed, corrected, restrained, or amended, most to the pleasure of Almighty G o d , the increase of virtue in Christ’s religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, and tranquillity of this realm; any usage, foreign land, foreign authority, prescription, or any other thing or things to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.” [From: Milton Viorst, ed., The Great Documents of Western Civilization ( N e w York; Barnes and N o b l e , 1965) pp. 97-98] 2. Peter de Rosa, Vicars of Christ, page 28 3. Part IX, Sections 764 and 765 4. J. Huber, Les Jesuites, Paris: Sandoz et Fischbacher ( 1 8 7 5 ) , pp 7 1 f f Chapter 8: M o v i n g In 1. Fourth session, April 8, 1546, The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, translated by H.J Shroeder, Rockford IL: T A N Books (1978)

305

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2. Barthel, The Jesuits, p 101 3. II Timothy 3:16. 4. Encyclopedia Brittanica, Livy ii, 21, 7; 27,5. 5. Barthel, The Jesuits, p 49 Chapter 9: Securing Confidence 1. La Chaize probably directed the King through the Fifth Exercise, the famous “meditation on hell,” w h i c h became the centerpiece of Protestant “hellfire and brimstone” preaching. T h e Fifth Exercise, in its entirety, is as follows: “First point. T h i s will be to see in imagination the vast fires, and the souls enclosed, as it were, in bodies of fire. Second point. To hear the wailing, the howling, cries, and blasphemies against Christ our Lord and against His saints. Third point. W i t h the sense of smell to perceive the smoke, the sulphur, the filth, and corruption. Fourth point. To taste the bitterness of tears, sadness, and remorse of conscience. Fifth Point. W i t h the sense of touch to feel the flames w h i c h envelop and burn the souls. C o l loquy. Enter into conversation with Christ our Lord. Recall to memory that of those w h o are in hell, some came there because they did not believe in the coming of Christ; others, though they believed, because they did not keep the C o m m a n d ments. Divide them all into three classes: 1. T h o s e who were lost before the coming of Christ; 2. T h o s e w h o were lost during His lifetime; 3. T h o s e w h o were lost after His life here on earth. Thereupon, I will give thanks to G o d our Lord that He has not put an end to my life and permitted me to fall into any of these three classes. I shall also thank H i m for this, that up to this very moment He has shown Himself so loving and merciful to me. C l o s e with an Our Father.” 2. Samuel Smiles, The Huguenots, N e w York: Harper & Brothers (1869), p 153 3. James J. Walsh, M D , American Jesuits, N e w York: T h e Macmillan C o m p a n y (1934), P 174 4. Manfred Barthel, The Jesuits, p 125 5. Henry Foley, SJ, Records of the English Province SJ, VII, Part 2, London ( 1 8 7 7 - 1 8 8 3 ) , pp 1162ff. 6. Garry Wills, Witches & Jesuits: Shakespeare’s Macbeth, N e w York: Oxford University Press ( 1 9 9 5 ) , p 20. 7. Barthel, The Jesuits, page 42 8. Ibid. 9. Edmond Paris, The Secret History of the Jesuits (translated 1975, original publisher and publication date u n k n o w n ) , distributed by C h i n o C A : C h i c k Publications, pp 127-8 10. Peter de Rosa, Vicars of Christ, p 5 1 1 . Ibid., p 138 12. Barthel, The Jesuits, p 260 13. Education Reporter, May 1996, published monthly by Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund, St. Louis, MO 63105 Chapter 1 1 : T h e Thirteen Articles Concerning Military A r t 1. Estimation in 1784 of then Father Superior of the A m e r i c a n Mission, John Carroll,

306

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pp. 8 7 - 1 4 4

a Jesuit priest and brother of Daniel Carroll, upon whose land, “Rome,” the U . S . Capitol building was erected. 2. M. Martin, SJ, The Jesuits: The Society of Jesus and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church, N e w York: Simon & Schuster ( 1 9 8 7 ) , p 490. Prof. Martin concludes that since the currently-reigning Supetior General, Peter Hans Kolvenbach, “sanctions” a book by Jesuit Juan Luis Segundo, Theology and the Church ( 1 9 8 5 ) , the book constitutes Kolvenbach’s “ultimate answer to the continued dissatisfaction of Popes with the new Society.” Chapter 1 2 : Lorenzo Ricci’s War 1. J . C . H . Aveling, The Jesuits, p 225 2. H y n e m a n and Lutz, editors, American Political Writing During the Founding Era 1 7 6 0 - 1 8 0 5 , Indianapolis: Liberty Press (1983), Vol. I, p 383. 3. Ibid. T h e anonymous author of this 1776 material on the Penn Charter and the city of Philadelphia was, in the editors’ opinion “probably a lawyer – or at least had considerable knowledge of legal matters.” 4. Aveling, The Jesuits, p 225 5. Martin, The Jesuits, p 215 6. Aveling, p 278 7. Barthel, The Jesuits, p 208 8. Martin, p 212 9. Catholic Encyclopedia, “Lorenzo Ricci” Chapter 1 3 : T h e Secret Bridge 1. Martin, The Jesuits, p 23 2. Oxford Book of Popes 5. Sidney Hayden, Washington and His Masonic Compeers, N e w York: Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing C o m p a n y (1868) 3. Hendricks, Charles Thomson and the Making of A New Nation, p. 189 4. Rush, Autobiography, p. 155 Chapter 1 5 : T h e Madness of King George III 1. K o c h and Peden, The Selected Writings of John & John Quincy Adams, N e w York: Alfred A. Knopf (1946), letter of July 3, 1776 2. In 1 7 7 9 , they would divide Bute C o u n t y into two new counties, named Warren and Franklin, after patriots Joseph and Benjamin. Bute C o u n t y no longer exists. 3. John G. Miller, Origins of the American Revolution, N e w York: Little, Brown (1943), p 190 4. S. Bullock, Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1 7 3 0 - 1 8 4 0 , C h a p e l Hill: University of N o r t h Carolina Press, (1996), p 106 5. David S. Muzzey, Our Country’s History, Boston: G i n n & C o m p a n y ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p 92

307

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PP. 1 4 7 - 1 8 1

Chapter 1 6 : Tweaking the Religious Right 1. Denis G w y n n , Bishop Challoner, London:Douglas O r g a n ( 1 9 4 6 ) , p 192 2. G w y n n , Challoner, p 191 3. Finke & Stark, The Churching of America, N e w Jersey: Rutgers University Press ( 1 9 9 3 ) , p 25 4. T h e o d o r e Sedgwick, Jr., A Memoir of the Life of William Livingston, N e w York (1844), p 136 5. The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles, N e w York ( 1 9 0 1 ) , Vol I, p 490 6. Jonathan Boucher, in Miller, Origins, p 195 7. T h o m a s O ’ G o r m a n , History of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States, N e w York ( 1 8 9 5 ) , p 208 8. Sidney Hayden, Washington and his Masonic Compeers, N e w York: Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing C o . , (1868), p 3 7 1 . Before the Provincial G r a n d Lodge of N e w York, Rev. Seabury delivered an address December 27, 1782, as seen by the following record of that body: “Resolved unanimously, that the thanks of this Lodge be given to our Rev. Bro. Dr. Seabury, for his sermon delivered this day, before this and other Lodges, c o n v e n e d for the celebration of St. John the Evangelist.” 9. Ahlstrom, Religious History of the American People, pp 3 6 8 - 7 0 Chapter 1 7 : A Timely Grand Tour 1. T h e Barony of Stourton, according to Burke’s Peerage, is “the oldest surviving barony created by Letters Patent.” A “letter patent” is a royal grant. 2. T h e John Catroll Papers, G e o r g e t o w n University, 3. J.C. Papers, Letter to T h o m a s Ellerker, O c t o b e r 26, 1772 4. Matthew 24:24 5. Garcia’s manuscript translation from the French of Amiot’s Thirteen Articles Concerning Military Art, used by permission of La Belle Eglise. Chapter 18: T h e Stimulating Effects of Tea 1. As such, East India seems likely to h a v e been the source of funding for Amiot’s translation of Sun-Tzu. Perhaps someday this c o n n e c t i o n can be investigated. 2. Country Life, O c t o b e r 10, 1968 3. Ibid. 4. Geoffrey Holt, S.J, St. Omers and Bruges Colleges, nary, London (1979) 5. Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th edition, page 709 6. Pat Shannan, w h o investigates clandestine government involvement in great public catastrophes such as the bombing of the Murrah Building in O k l a h o m a City, suggests that the mysterious shot might have been fired by S a m A d a m s himself. W h e n I spoke with S h a n n a n in July 1999, he had just returned from several weeks of sleuthing around L e x i n g t o n G r e e n . He told me the following: “Sam A d a m s and John H a n c o c k had big prices on their heads and were hiding out during the early morning hours of 19 A p r i l in the home of Rev. Jonas Clarke. Clarke’s house is less 1593-1773: A Biographical Dictio-

308

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PP. 1 8 8 - 2 3 1

than a quarter mile from Lexington Green. A d a m s delivered many of his rabblerousing speeches at the meeting-house near the G r e e n . It was from behind this meeting-house shortly after daybreak that the initial shot was fired on the redcoats. As to w h o was responsible for firing that shot, really the first of the Revolution, my number one suspect since my first visit to Lexington years ago has always been Sam Adams. He had motive, he had access, and he, more than anyone else, had been in the King’s face for a long time with his firebrand speeches. He was always urging the people to value liberty more than life itself – w h i c h is really what that shot was about.” Chapter 19: T h e D e a t h & Resurrection of Lorenzo Ricci 1. Hall, The Secret Teachings,etc., p C L X V I I I 2. Ibid., CC Chapter 20: American Griffiti 1. C o u n c i l of Trent, Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures, Fourth Session. 2. T h e best-documented, most reasoned, and certainly most energetic analysis of the conflict between R o m a n Catholicism and Scripture is regularly published by Dave Hunt, of Bend, Oregon. His monthly newsletter, “ T h e Berean C a l l , ” is studiously researched, wonderfully written, and free for the asking. O t h e r finely reasoned works on the subject are James R. White’s The Roman Catholic Controversy, and Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: Agreements and Differences by N o r m a n Geisler and Ralph MacKenzie. 3. Dictionary of Symbols, Malmo, Sweden: Merkur International KB 4. Pennsylvania Gazette, June 8, 1769 5. Hislop, The Two Babylons, pp 240,241. Hislop cites the Phocica of Pausanius (Book x, chap xv, p 833) 6. Daniel 5:25, 26 7. Del Mar, The Worship of Augustus Caesar, p 306. “In all the earlier works referring to [Julius] he is called Caius Caesar, and sometimes simply Caius.” 8. Syme, The Roman Revolution, p 218 ff 9. Del Mar, Worship of Augustus Caesar, p 318 Chapter 2 1 : Jupiter’s Earthly Abode 1. As published in Senate Document 332, 71st Congress, 3d Session, and available through the Library of Congress as “Johnson’s Map of G e o r g e t o w n and Washington.” T h i s p h e n o m e n o n was first pointed out to me by Daniel Salmons, who has explored the cabalism of the federal city’s layout with incredible fervor and imagination. 2. Maryland Gazette for September 26, 1793 3. A c c o r d i n g to the office of the A r c h i t e c t of the Capitol, the silver plaque has been lost, along with the cornerstone, despite two scientific excavations in recent years.

309

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PP. 2 3 7 - 2 6 9

Chapter 22: T h e Immaculate Conception 1. National Republic, March 1960 2. Chiniquy, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome: The Conversion of a Priest, orig. pub. London, 1886, by Protestant Literature Depository. Abridged version published 1985 by C h i c k Publications, C h i n o C A . For refusing to obey his bishop’s order to send a rich parishioner to a nunnery (thereby expropriating her wealth for the C h u r c h ) , Rev. C h i n i q u y was first excommunicated, then criminally prosecuted in Urbana, Illinois, on trumped-up sexual impropriety charges. Young A b r a h a m Lincoln won his acquittal in 1856 by exposing perjury in the testimony of several priests. Chiniquy and Lincoln remained good friends. 3. I was personally informed by the A r c h i t e c t of the Capitol in 1992 that “no groundlevel photographs of Freedom are k n o w n to exist.” Chapter 23: T h e D o m e of the Great Sky 1. See The Dome of the United States Capitol: An Architectural History ( U . S . G o v e r n ment Printing Office, 1992), and We, the People: The Story of the United States Capitol ( U . S . Capitol Historical Society, in association with the National Geographic Society, 1985). Most of the material relative to Brumidi’s association with the Capitol project is derived from these two handy resources. 2. Chiniquy, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, p 3 1 2 3. Ibid. 4. Brig. G e n . T h o m a s Harris, Rome’s Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, orig. pub. 1897, repub. by Petersburg OH 44454: Pilgrim Brethren Press (1989), p 19. 5. John Cottrell, Anatomy of an Assassination, N e w York: Funk & Wagnalls (1966) Chapter 2 4 : T h e Mark of Cain 1. S.H. Hooke, Babylonian and Assyrian Religion, N o r m a n O K : University of OklahomaPress (1963), p 15 2. George Smith, The Chaldean Account of Genesis, N e w York: Scribner, Armstrong & C o . ( 1 8 7 6 ) , pp 54–55 3. Hooke, Babylonian Religion, p 61 4. Genesis 4:7. G o d cautioned C a i n that if he failed to do well, the Evildoer would lie at his door. “ A n d unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.” 5. Genesis 4:15 6. Genesis 4:8 7. Genesis 4:10 8. Genesis 4:5 9. Genesis 4:2 10. Genesis 4:4 1 1 . Hebrews 9:22 12. Matthew 26:28, A c t s 20:28, Romans 3:25, 5:9, Ephesians 1:7, 2:13, Colossians 1:14, Hebrew 9:12, 9:20, 10:19, 13:12, I Peter 1:2, 19, I John 1:7, Revelation 1:5, 7:14, 1 2 : 1 1 .

310

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PP. 2 6 9 - 2 7 6

13. Ephesians 2:6 14. Genesis 4:6, 7 15. I Samuel 15:9 16. Genesis 4:26. O n l y upon the birth of Seth’s son Enosh did “men [begin] to call on the name of the Lord.” Up to that time, most of humanity apparently ignored or denied the Holy N a m e . T h e s e were Cain’s lawful subjects. 17. Genesis 4:16 18. Genesis 4:17 19. Sayce, The Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion ( 1 8 8 7 ) , p 185 20. Mrs. Sidney Bristowe, Sargon the Magnificent, C a n a d a : Burnaby, B.C., Association of the C o v e n a n t People (undated, but estimated c. 1925), p 83. Sayce used the term Merodach, w h i c h is the Hebrew variant of Marduk. 21. H. S. Williams, Editor, The Historians’ History of the World, A Comprehensive Narrative of the Rise and Developlment of Nations As Recorded by the Great, London: T h e Times (1980), Vol I, p 3 7 3 . See also George S m i t h , The Chaldean Account of Genesis: Containing the description of the creation, the fall of man, the deluge, London: Sampson Low ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p 295. 22. Ibid. See also Bristowe, Sargon, for a well-documented presentation favoring the identification of C a i n with Sargon and numerous mythological personages. 23. Edition 2, Vol. 3, “Babylonia” 24. Leonard King, Egypt, Babylon and Palestine, p 28 (noted in Bristowe) 25. Williams, Times History, Vol. I p 356. 26. H.R. Hall, The Ancient History of the Near East, London: M i t h u e n & C o . ( 1 1 t h Edition, 1950), p 172 27. Genesis 3 28. Bristowe, Sargon, pp 3 9 - 4 0 29. Ragozin, Zenaide A . , Chaldea from the Earliest Times to the Rise of Assyria, London: T. Fisher U n w i n (1886), pp 205-207 30. Cambridge History, Vol I, p 406 (noted in Bristowe) 3 1 . “Slavery was part of the foundation upon w h i c h Babylonian society rested.” Sayce, Babylonia and Assyria, p. 67 32. [London] Times History, Vol. I, p 362 33. Webster’s definition. 34. Genesis 4:23-24 35. Genesis 1 7 : 7 - 8 36. Genesis 4:14 37. Habakkuk 2:4 38. Pike, Morals and Dogma, p 210 39. Genesis 5:17 40. Genesis 4:25 4 1 . Genesis 5:4 42. T h e r e is a discrepancy of 191 years between Pike’s reckoning and that inscribed into the plaque of the C a p i t o l Cornerstone (1793 AD from 5793 A M ) I am inclined to believe Pike’s is more scientifically determined. 43. Genesis 4:16

311

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PP. 2 7 9 - 2 9 0

Chapter 2 5 : T h e T w o Ministries 1. Hebrews 1:1 2. John 1 : 1 - 1 4 3. 1 Timothy 1:9-10 ( N I V ) 4. Matthew 3:8 5. Matthew 19:19 6. Matthew 5:44 7. Matthew 10:8 8. Matthew 6:12; 18:22 9. Mark 16:15 10. John 6:44 1 1 . I Timothy 2:4 12. II Corinthians 3:9 13. I Corinthians 15:56 14. II Corinthians 1 1 : 1 5 15. I John 3:12 16. Job 1:6,7 17. Isaiah 14:12, Revelation 12:12 18. Job 1:7 19. II Corinthians 4:4 20. Ephesians 2:2 21. II Corinthians 1 1 : 1 3 22. Matthew 4 : 1 - 1 0 23. Ibid. 24. Matthew 1 8 : 1 4 - 1 7 . In other words, “Respect his wish to avoid you, as the pagans do.” T h e tax collectors k n o w n to the Israelites were disloyal brethren hired by Romans to tax other Israelites for personal profit. Today’s equivalent might be undercover agents working to create tax liability for a church. 25. 1 Timothy 1:20 26. 1 Corinthians 5:4-5 27. Romans 1 3 : 1 - 8 28. De Rosa, Vicars of Christ, p 36 29. Strong’s Hebrew Lexicon, no. 6363 30. Luke 22:36 3 1 . U . S . District Court, Western District of Texas, filed February 26, 1993, N o . W93-15M. 32. II Corinthians 3:9 33. II Corinthians 5:18 54. Philippians 2:10 35. T h e principle is proved by its reverse: T h e Less Restriction, the Farther from G o d , which is borne out by high recidivism statistics. T h e free world tends to dilute the intimacy with G o d w h i c h restriction has established. 36. Matthew 10:16

312

Appendix E

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A h l s t r o m , S y d n e y E., A Religious History of the American People, N e w H a v e n & L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press ( 1 9 7 2 ) A v e l i n g , J . C . H u g h , The Jesuits, N e w Y o r k : S t e i n 6 k D a y ( 1 9 8 1 ) B a r t h e l , Dr. M a n f r e d , transl. by M a r k H o w s o n , The Jesuits: History and Legend of the Society of Jesus, N e w Y o r k : Q u i l l , W i l l i a m M o r r o w ( 1 9 8 2 - 8 4 ) B a i g e n t , M i c h a e l , R i c h a r d L e i g h a n d H e n r y L i n c o l n , Holy Blood, Holy Grail, N e w Y o r k : D e l a c o r t e Press ( 1 9 8 2 ) Black’s Law Dictionary, 5 t h edition B r i s t o w e , M r s . S i d n e y , Sargon the Magnificent, C a n a d a : B u r n a b y , B . C . , A s s o c i a tion of the C o v e n a n t People (undated, but estimated c. 1925) Bullock, Steven C., Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transforma-

tion of the American Social Order, N o r t h C a r o l i n a Press ( 1 9 9 6 )

1 7 3 0 - 1 8 4 0 , C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of

C a r a m a n , P h i l i p , SJ, Ignatius Loyola: A Biography of the Founder of the Jesuits, San Francisco: Harper & R o w (1990) C a r r o l l , J o h n ( e d i t e d by T h o m a s O ’ B r i e n H a n l e y ) , The John Carroll Papers, 1755-1791, i n 3 v o l u m e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e D a m e Press ( 1 9 7 6 )

313

RULERS OF E V I L

Catholic

Almanac

C h a d w i c k , The Early Church, E e r d m a n s ( 1 9 6 7 ) C h i n i q u y , R e v . C h a r l e s , My Fifty Years in the Church of Rome: The Conversion of a Priest, orig. p u b . L o n d o n , 1 8 8 6 , by P r o t e s t a n t L i t e r a t u r e D e p o s i t o r y . Abridged version published 1985 b y C h i c k Publications, C h i n o C A C o t t r e l l , J o h n , Anatomy of an Assassination, N e w Y o r k : F u n k & W a g n a l l s (1966) D a r a u l , A r k o n , A History of Secret Societies, C i t a d e l Press ( 1 9 9 5 ) D e l M a r , A l e x a n d e r , Middle Ages Revisited, C a l i f o r n i a 9 0 2 5 0 : H a w t h o r n e , O m n i B o o k C l u b (orig. p u b . 1 8 9 9 ) ; The Worship of Augustus Caesar, H a w t h o r n e , C A : Christian Book Club of America (1976) De R o s a , Peter, Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy, N e w Y o r k : C r o w n Publishers (1988) Dictionary o f Symbols, M a l m o , S w e d e n : M e r k u r I n t e r n a t i o n a l K B D i l l e n b e r g e r , J o h n , ed., Martin Luther: Selection from his writings, N e w Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y A n c h o r Press ( 1 9 6 1 ) Dome of the United States Capitol, The: An Architectural History, U.S. Govern-

m e n t Printing Office (1992) “Education Reporter,” published monthly by Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund, St. Louis, M O 63105 F a b r e P a l a p r a t , J . B , Recherches historiques sur les Templiers, ( 1 8 3 5 ) F i n k e & S t a r k , The Churching of America, N e w Jersey: R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y Press (1993) Foley, H e n r y , SJ, Records of the English Province SJ, L o n d o n ( 1 8 7 7 - 1 8 8 3 ) Geisler & MacKenzie, Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: Agreements and Differ-

ences, G r a n d R a p i d s : B a k e r B o o k H o u s e , ( 1 9 9 5 ) G w y n n , D e n i s , Bishop Challoner, L o n d o n : D o u g l a s O r g a n ( 1 9 4 6 ) H a l l , H . R . , The Ancient History of the Near East, L o n d o n : M i t h u e n Edition, 1950) H a l l , M a n l y P., The Secret Teachings of All Ages: an Encyclopedic Outline of & Co. (11th

314

APPENDIX D

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Masonic,

Hermetic,

Qabbalistic

&

Rosicrucian

Symbolical

Philosophy,

Philosoph-

ical R e s e a r c h S o c i e t y , ( 1 9 8 8 ) Harris, Brig. G e n . T h o m a s , Rome’s Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham

Lincoln, orig. p u b . 1 8 9 7 , r e p u b . b y P e t e r s b u r g O H 4 4 4 5 4 : P i l g r i m B r e t h r e n Press ( 1 9 8 9 ) H a y d e n , S i d n e y , Washington and His Masonic Compeers, N e w Y o r k : M a s o n i c Publishing and Manufacturing C o m p a n y (1868) H e n d r i c k s , J. E d w i n , Charles Thomson and the Making of A New Nation 1 7 2 9 - 1 8 2 4 , F a i r l e i g h D i c k i n s o n U n i v e r s i t y Press ( 1 9 7 9 ) H e r b e r t of C h e r b u r y , E d w a r d , L o r d , The Life and Raigne of King Henry the Eighth, L o n d o n : P r i n t e d b y E . G . for T h o m a s W h i t a k e r ( 1 6 4 9 ) H i s l o p , A l e x a n d e r , Two Babylons, N e p t u n e , N e w Jersey: L o i s e a u x B r o t h e r s (1916) Holt, SJ, G e o f f r e y , London St. Omer’s and Bruges Colleges, 1593-1773: A Biographical

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H o o k e , S a m u e l H . , Babylonian and Assyrian Religion, N o r m a n O K : U n i v e r s i t y o f O k l a h o m a Press ( 1 9 6 3 ) H u b e r , J., Les Jesuites, Paris: S a n d o z et F i s c h b a c h e r ( 1 8 7 5 ) H u n t , D a v e , Editor, “ T h e B e r e a n C a l l , ” P . O . B o x 7 0 1 9 , B e n d , O r e g o n 9 7 7 0 8 H y n e m a n a n d L u t z , e d i t o r s , American Political Writing During the Founding Era 1 7 6 0 - 1 8 0 5 , I n d i a n a p o l i s : L i b e r t y Press ( 1 9 8 3 ) , t w o v o l u m e s Kaster, J o s e p h , Putnam’s Concise Mythological Dictionary, T h e P u t n a m P u b l i s h -

ing G r o u p ( 1 9 6 3 ) Kelly, J . N . D . , T h e O x f o r d Dictionary of Popes, O x f o r d & N e w York:Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press ( 1 9 8 6 , 1 9 8 9 ) K i n g , L e o n a r d W . , A History 0f Babylon, L o n d o n : C h a t t o a n d W i n d u s ( 1 9 1 9 ) K o c h a n d P e d e n , The Selected Writings of John & John Quincy Adams, N e w York: Alfred A. Knopf (1946) L e t s o n & W i g g i n s , The Jesuit Mystique, C h i c a g o : T h e L o y o l a Press ( 1 9 9 5 ) M a r t i n , M a l a c h i , SJ, T h e Jesuits: The Society of Jesus and the Betrayal of the

315

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&

Schuster (1987)

M e i s s n e r , W . W . , SJ, M D , Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of A Saint, N e w H a v e n , L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press ( 1 9 9 2 ) M i c h e l e t , M . , Life of Luther, written by himself, L o n d o n : D a v i d B o g u e ( 1 8 4 6 ) . Luther’s texts collected, arranged, and translated by M i c h e l e t M i l l e r , J o h n G . , Origins of the American Revolution, N e w Y o r k : L i t t l e , B r o w n (1943) M u z z e y , D a v i d S . , Our Country’s History, B o s t o n : G i n n & C o m p a n y ( 1 9 6 1 ) Needham, Guil. ( I m p r i m a t u r ) , A Brief Historical Account of the Behaviour of the Elizabeth’s Reign,

jésuites and their Faction, for the First twenty five Years of Q.

with an Epistle of W. Watson, a Secular Priest, shewing, How they were thought of by the other Romanists of that Time, L o n d o n : J a m e s A d a m s o n ( 1 6 8 9 ) N e w Catholic Encycyclopedia (1967) O ’ G o r m a n , T h o m a s , History of the Roman Catholic Church in the N e w York (1895) Paris, E d m o n d , The Secret History of the Jesuits ( t r a n s l a t e d 1975, o r i g i n a l p u b lisher a n d p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e u n k n o w n ) , d i s t r i b u t e d b y C h i n o C A : C h i c k P u b lications P i q u e t , Des Banqiers au Moyen Age: les Templiers, Paris, ( 1 9 3 1 ) P i k e , A l b e r t C o m m a n d e r , Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, R i c h m o n d , V i r g i n i a : J e n k i n s , I n c . ( 1 8 7 1 , 1 9 2 3 ) P u h l , L o u i s J., The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, W e s t m i n s t e r , M D : T h e N e w m a n Press ( 1 9 5 9 ) R a g o n , J . M . , Cours Philosophique et year 5,842) R a g o z i n , Z e n a i d e A . , Chaldea from the Earliest Times to the Rise of Assyria, L o n d o n : T . Fisher U n w i n ( 1 8 8 6 ) R u s h , B e n j a m i n (Ed. by G e o r g e W. C o m e r ) , The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, ( 1 9 4 8 ) S a y c e , A r c h i b a l d , The Hibbert Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Interpretatif des Initiations anciennes et modUnited States,

ernes, e d i t i o n s a c r e e a l’usage des L o g e s e t des M a c o n s S e u l e m e n t ( M a s o n i c

316

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, L o n d o n : W i l l i a m s & N o r gate, ( 1 9 0 9 ) S c h a r f , History of Western Maryland, Baltimore (1882)

S e d g w i c k , Jr., T h e o d o r e , A Memoir of the Life of William Livingston, N e w Y o r k (1844) S h r o e d e r , H.J., trans., The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, R o c k f o r d IL: T A N B o o k s ( 1 9 7 8 ) S m i l e s , S a m u e l , The Huguenots, N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s ( 1 8 6 9 ) S m i t h , G e o r g e , The Chaldean Account of Genesis, N e w Y o r k : S c r i b n e r , A r m strong & C o . ( 1 8 7 6 ) S t i l e s , Ezra, The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles, N e w Y o r k ( 1 9 0 1 ) Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance with Hebrew & Greek Lexicons

S y m e , R o n a l d , The Roman Revolution, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press ( 1 9 6 6 ) U . S . C o u r t o f A p p e a l s for t h e T h i r d C i r c u i t , C a s e N o . 8 5 - 1 3 0 9 We, the People: The Story of the United States Capitol: Its Past and Its Promise,

U . S . Capitol Historical Society V i o r s t , M i l t o n , ed., The Great Documents of Western Civilization, Barnes and N o b l e , 1965 W a l s h , J a m e s J., M D , American Jesuits, N e w Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y (1934) W h i t e , J a m e s R., The Roman Catholic Controversy, M i n n e a p o l i s : B e t h a n y H o u s e Publications (1996) W i l l i a m s , H. S., Editor, The Historians’ History of the World, A Comprehensive Narrative of the Rise and Development of Nations As Recorded by London: T h e Times (1908) W i l l s , G a r r y , Witches v e r s i t y Press ( 1 9 9 5 ) & Jesuits: Shakespeare’s Macbeth, N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i the Great, N e w York;

317

Appendix

E

INDEX
A Abel 268, 269,270,271,275,276 Abigail 198, 200 Adams 196 abolition 239 Abraham 77 Abraham Lincoln 240, 241, 244, 251 Acadia 150 Acquaviva, Superior General Claudio 69 actors 72, 207, 251 Adams, John 104, 139, 140, 179, 184, 194, 196, 198, 200, 203, 208, 232 Adams, Samuel 140, 143 Addison, Judge 151 Admiralty 139, 141, 184 adultery 80 Aeneas 15, 121,216, 228, 256, 259 Aeneid, The 15, 16, 216, 231 Aguilera, ATF Special Agent Davy 286 Ahlstrom Sydney E. 242 Aimeric of Santa Maria Nuova, Cardinal 36 Alacoque, Ste. Margaret-Marie 108, 197 Albany congress 122 Alissiardi, Fathers 70 American colonists 85, 89, 126, 133, 139, 141, 142, 143, 148, 149, 161, 184, 195 American Inquisition xvi American Jewish Congress 9 American Revolution 66, 85-86, 109, 115, 125, 129-131, 140, 156, 159, 173, 176, 261, 284 Americans United for Separation of Church and State 9 Amiot, Josef-Marie 86, 87, 88 Anacostics 176 Anathema 57 Anathematized 57 Andrea Gritti 32 Anglican 148, 151, 152, 184 annals 260 Annapolis 178 Annu 210, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271 Annuit Coeptis 5, 15, 214, 217, 218 Annunciation Day 197 Annunzio, Frank 3 Antietam 242 Antioch, Ignatius of 44 Apollo 11, 60, 217, 220, 223 Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See 9 apotheosis 35, 69, 250, 256, 261 Appeal to the Ruling Classes 24, 65 Aquinas, St. Thomas 130 Aragon 110 Aranda, Count de 118 Aranzazu, Virgin of 30 Archbishop John Hughes 247 Archibald Sayce 271 Aristotle 14, 130 Ark 175 Articles of Confederation 260 artillery 111, 150, 231,261 Arundell, Earl of (Thomas Howard) 123 Arundell, Lord (Henry Howard) 172 Asher 77 assassination 115, 215, 219, 224, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255 Athens 23, 237 Atonement, Day of 39 Augsburg Confession 55 Peace of 56 Augusta of Saxony 135 Avignon 38 B Bacchus 11, 12,213 Baltimore 146, 151, 152, 174, 201, 235, 250 banking 37, 57, 161, 169, 188 Baptist Joint Committee on Public Affairs 9 Barcelona 30, 32, 43, 44 Barton, William 124, 209 Basel, Council of 197 Basque country 24

318

APPENDIX E

INDEX

Batso Furnace 179 Bavaria 64, 70, 170 Beauregard, Gen. Pierre 240 Beckx, Superior General Pieter Jean 233 Beijing 167 Belgium 44, 67, 123 belli legum dormit 82 Benjamin, Judah P. 241 Berkeley Square 139, 168, 208 Berkeley, Dr. Edmund xiii, xiv Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux 35 Bernstein, Carl 1, 2 Berthier, the Jesuit 107 Beza, Theodore 130 Biden, Sen.Joseph 2, 3 Bidermann, Jacob 66 Bishop of Rome (pope) 85, 104, 207 Black Madonna of Montserrat 30, 70 Black Papacy 57, 82, 95, 97, 103, 120, 123, 133, 137, 139, 152, 159, 161, 177, 187, 194, 196, 232, 233 Black Pope 6, 47, 59, 71, 87, 103, 184 blood 20, 29, 39, 50, 51, 94, 121, 162, 182, 240, 241, 265, 268, 269, 270 Bohemia 31, 176 Boleyn, Anne 46 Boling, Kenneth 124 Booth, John Wilkes 251, 253 Bordeaux 38, 170 Boscawen, Admiral Edward 100 Boston 140, 141, 142, 143, 150, 162, 171, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 184, 185, 190, 193,238 Boston Massacre 143 Boston Tea Party 171, 173, 178, 185 Bourbon(s) 109, 111, 112, 118 Braddock, General Edward 100 Brady, Matthew 242 Branch Davidians 286 Braschi, Cardinal Giovanni 180 Brent, mayor Robert 4, 232 Briand, Bishop 194 Bristowe, Mrs. Sidney 272 Britannus Americanus 142 British colonies 82, 85, 147 British Empire 88, 89, 138, 140 broadcasting 70, 71, 72 Brown 1 Bruges 155, 157, 164, 171, 172, 177, 184 Brumidi, Constantino 5, 247, 248, 249, 250, 255, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262 Buddha 59 Bullinger, E. W. 198

Busenbaum, Hermann 79, 81 Bute, third Earl of (Lord Bute) 134, 136 137, 138, 139, 140, 155, 168, 184 Butterbriefe (indulgence) 21 C cabalah 23, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39, 175, 196, 199 209, 230, 260 Caesar Augustus 5, 221, 224, 256 Julius 6, 152, 210, 218, 219, 220 Cain 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 286, 287, 289 Caius Maecenas 5, 219 Calvert 174, 175, 176, 177 Calvert, Cecilius 175, 176 Calvert, George (Lord Bute) 174 Calvert, Leonard 175 Calvin, John 44, 130 Cambridge 130, 177, 182, 189, 190, 191, 195 Campbell, Robert Allen 189,190 Canada 98, 100, 185, 194, 195, 253 canonization 10, 69, 245 Capitol (capitolium), U.S. 70, 234 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 23, 102, 117 Carroll Charles 104, 156, 177, 178, 179, 181, 194 Daniel 227, 230, 231, 232 John xvii, 65, 123, 146-164, 169, 172, 88, 193,227,232,244 Casey, William 2 Cassio 150, 188 Castel Sant’Angelo 114, 171, 180, 185, 187, 188, 190 Castille 110 Castle William 143 Casuist 78, 81 casuistry 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 120, 150, 157 Catholic Action 70, 71, 72 Catholic Almanac 12 Catholic Church of the United States 152 Catholic Encyclopedia 1902 edition 4 New (1967) 4 Celebrano, Father 70 Cenodoxus 66 Centurioni, Superior General Luigi 103 Ceres 5, 258 Chaize, Francois de la 64 Challoner, Bishop Richard 147 Champagne 36 Charles Habsburg 18, 27, 30, 32, 55

RULERS OF E V I L

Charles Stuart 137, 174 Charleston 141, 171, 240 Chase, Samuel 194 Chattanooga, Tennessee xiv, xv, 243 children 24, 27, 46, 64, 93, 102, 103, 135, 206,221 Chinese 37, 86, 87, 88 Chiniquy, Rev. Charles 241, 252, 254 Christ, Jesus 15, 49, 50, 62,68, 150, 151, 205, 213, 231, 237 Christian Corurot’ers)’ (Bellarmine) 130 Christianity xvi, 11, 12, 71, 208 Christopher Columbus 27, 235 Christopher Dodd 2, 3 Church Militant 51, 74, 103, 260, 261 Church of England 101, 102, 103, 129, 136, 148, 149, 152, 158, 174 Cincinnatus 249, 250 cinema 70, 71, 72 Civil War, American 239 Civitavecchia 111 Clark Mills 239, 240,250 Clark, Judge William 2 Clinton, William J. 3 coadjutors (lay agents) 52, 191 coin xvii, 59, 212, 222 College of Cardinals 112 Collegio Anti-Bellarminianum 130 Colombière, Claude de la 108 Columbine murders 73 commerce 2, 37, 57, 58, 59, 65, 167, 188, 196, 261 Company of Jesus 42, 45 condemnation 68, 121, 281, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291 Confederacy 240, 241, 242, 243, 251, 252, 253 Confederate States of America 240 confession 10, 28, 57, 63, 64, 107, 205 confessor, Jesuit 64, 98, i l l Confucius 118 Congregation for the Propaganda 97 Congregationalist 148 Connecticut 152, 173, 178, 227 Constantine, Emperor 11, 16, 206, 284 Constitution of the United States 66 Constitution of the United States Article VI, section 3 86 Constitution of the United States First Amendment 86 Conte, Silvio Rep. 3 contemplativus in actione 47 Continental Congress 124, 178, 179, 181,

185, 194 cowboys 70 Coxe, Jr., Daniel xix, 121-122 Coxe, Sr., Dr. Saniel 122 Crawford, Thomas 5, 238, 250, 257 Creighton, Bishop Mandell 1 critics 72 Crown 52, 94, 99, 101, 102, 106, 122, 142, 149, 156, 160, 169, 172, 173, 182,203 Cuellar, Juan de 44, 45 Cybele 11 Cyprus 12, 27, 29,31,32,33 D Dark Ages 16 Darnall, Eleanor 104, 174, 176 David 12, 217, 286 Davidians 286 Davis, Jefferson 238, 240, 250 Declaration and Resolves of October 14, 1774 179 Declaration of Independence 40, 66, 78, 132, 133, 185, 193, 195, 198, 199, 200, 203,214, 260 Declaration of the Causes 182 Declaratory Act 142 Deism 118 Delaware 85, 124, 211 Diatriba theologica 112 Diet of Nuremberg 22 Dionysus 10, 12, 223 Directorium inquisitorum 57, 254 Discourses concerning Government (Locke) 131 Disestablishment 94, 114, 118, 169, 170, 180, 187, 188 divine right 120, 129, 130, 133 Dominus ac Redemptor noster 113, 169 Dorset coast 151 Douglas, Stephen A. 240 Dove 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 150, 175, 251 Dover, Treaty of 122 Dr. Benjamin Rush 125 Dred Scott vs. Sanford 239 Due de Choiseul 118 Duties 141, 143, 172, 179, 184 E Ea 266, 268 eagle 5, 210, 213, 231, 232, 257, 258, 260 East India Company 164, 167, 168, 169, 171, 173, 185, 186, 192, 193, 194 Edinburgh 40

320

APPENDIX E

INDEX

Edison, Thomas Alva 70 education 4, 10, 41, 44, 66, 73, 102, 138 Egham races 136 emotional 73, 74, 82, 137, 183 emotions 74 Encyclopedia of Sciences, Arts, and Trades 117 Encyclopedists 117 England ii, 4, 23, 31, 36, 44, 45, 46, 49, 64, 67, 68, 69, 89, 94, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 108, 111, 113, 114, 121, 122, 123, 131, 132, 133, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 143, 148, 149, 151, 155, 157, 160, 161, 164, 168, 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 180, 182, 184, 185, 195, 196, 197 English College 114, 170, 171, 177, 185 Enlightenment, the 102, 117, 119, 120, 126 Enoch (Unuk) 59, 266, 272-276, 294 entertainment 66, 73 Episcopal Church 153, 241 equivocation 78, 79, 80, 82, 101, 120, 157 Erasmus, Desiderius 20 Escobar, Antonio 81 esoteric experience 43 Eton 136 Etruscans 6, 219 euse 138, 141, 142, 143, 164, 168, 169, 182 Evangeline 150 Eve 31, 236, 268,275 evil 21, 22, 31, 39, 70, 72, 73, 123, 150, 170, 205, 206, 213, 217, 223, 229 Exercises 29 Exercises, Spiritual 28, 30, 31, 43, 45, 47, 66, 73, 108, 157 F Family Compact 109 Farnese, Alessandro (Paul III) 46 Farnese, Giulia 46, 167 Farnese, Ranuccio 59 fasces 6, 153, 224, 256 Fascism 6 Faust, Dr. Johannes 19 Fazio, Rep. Vic 3 Feast Day of St. Ignatius Loyola xiv, 289 Febronianism 158, 159 Febronius, Justinius (see Hontheim) 113, 154, 157 Fillmore, Millard 248 Filmer, Sir Robert 130, 131, 133 Fiorentini 188 Firth of Clyde 136 Fitch, Ralph 168 Flag Committee 189, 193, 199

Flanders 4, 36, 164, 175 Floquet, Father Pierre 194 Florence 23, 157, 164,216 Florida vii, 98, 122 Florio, Rep.James 3 flying money (fei-chi’en) 37 Foley, Rep. Thomas 2 Fort Sumter 240 founding fathers 5, 66, 201, 204, 218, 224, 228,229 Fourteenth Amendment 239 Fox, George 101 France 11, 12, 28, 31, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 64, 71, 85, 98, 102, 106, 108, 109, 122, 137, 138, 139, 170, 174, 177, 184, 223, 241 Franciscan 112, 152 Franklin, Benjamin 100, 103, 107, 122, 139, 142, 172, 179, 180, 189, 190, 194, 195, 203, 208, 257, 258 Frederick II of Hesse-Hanover 160 Frederick William, Prince of Wales 135 “Freedom” 234 “Freedom” (see Libera, Justitia) 5 Freemason 36, 118, 123, 124, 152, 160, 169, 191, 195, 227, 237, 248, 252 Freemasonry 40, 58, 98, 100, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 135, 140, 155, 160, 170, 173,194, 200,212,231,240 Freemasons 119, 120, 168, 170, 173, 185 French and Indian War 100 French, Benjamin B. 242, 249 fresco 5, 247, 249, 250, 251 Fromm vs. Carroll 152 Fullam, Judge John 10 G Gadsden, Christopher 139 Ganganelli, Lorenzo 112 Garcia, Hermine F. 87 Garza, Rep. Kika De la 3 George William (George III) 137 Georgetown College 232 Georgetown University 81, 146, 170, 232 Germanicum, the 56 Germany xiv, 31, 36, 40, 45, 49, 56, 63 Gesu 114, 120, 175, 188, 238, 288 glorious gospel 280, 283, 285, 286, 287, 290 Gnosticism 23, 101 Goa 168 goat 39, 210, 226, 228 god 5, 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 51, 57, 59, 69, 72, 82,93, 101, 105, 110, 1 13, 1 15, 125,

321

RULERS OF E V I L

129, 130, 132, 159, 161, 169, 193, 194, 196, 197, 198, 200, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 213, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 227, 229, 236, 237, 238, 243, 244, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260 Gonzalez, Henry 3 Got, Bertrand de 38 Governor Richard Penn 178 Governor Thomas Hutchinson 143 Grand Union Flag of Great Britain 192 Grant, Ulysses S. 251 Great Britain vii, 68, 71, 82, 86, 95, 98, 99, 104, 122, 126, 139, 140, 142, 149, 178, 184, 191, 192, 195 Guillotin, Dr. Josef 112 guillotine 112 Gulf of Mexico 98, 122 Gunpowder Plot 68, 69 Gury, Father 80, 81 Gutenberg, Johannes 17,19 H Hades 60, 234, 237,258, 261 Haifa 32 Haig, Alexander 2 Hall, Manly P. 123, 199 Hamilton, Alexander 157 Harkin, Sen. Thomas 3 Harnett, Cornelius 139 Harris, Brigadier General M. Thomas 253 Harrison, Benjamin 189 Harriton 124 Harvard 149, 150 Hayden, Sidney 122 heaven 5, 30, 39, 45, 48, 62, 69, 212, 213, 216, 220, 222, 223, 228, 256 Hebrew 77, 118, 218, 229, 260 hell 24, 29, 50, 64, 73, 232 Hendricks, J. Edwin 124 Henry, Patrick 139, 142, 143, 181, 184 Hermes 59 Hesse-Hanover 160, 161, 180 Hierarchy 57, 70, 106, 121, 148, 218, 223, 224 High Church Party 174 Historians 22, 40, 44, 74, 106, 111, 115, 131, 176,194,199, 229, 231,235,239 history ix, x, xii, xvii, xix, 22, 46, 71, 73, 74, 109, 123, 124, 125, 136, 169, 171, 174, 190, 196, 223, 232, 237, 242, 249 Hitler, Adolf 40, 71 Holland 49, 143

Holy Land 30, 35, 36,37,45 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 32, 40, 44 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian 27 Hontheim, Nikolaus von xix, 154, 157, 158, 159, 160 Howard, Edward 155 Howard, Rev. Simeon 150 Howard, Thomas 123, 135 Huguenots xiii, xiv, xvi, 49, 85 humanism 65, 159 humanist 46, 69, 121, 159, 216 Hunter Commission 251, 252, 253 I Iago 150 idolatry 80, 149, 207 Illuminati 31, 40, 68, 170 illuminism 44 Immaculate Conception 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 250 In eminenti 119 Indian 99, 100, 107, 139, 168, 176, 184, 208 indulgences 21, 22, 57 infallibility 236 Ingolstadt College 70 Inquisition American xvi Roman xvi, 52, 57 Spanish 44, 52 Inter mirifica 72, 73 Intolerable Acts 174, 185 IRS, income tax system xv, xvi Isaiah 15, 219 Islam 32 J Jacobite 137, 152 Jacobite Rebellion 137 Jerusalem 30, 32, 40, 43, 45 Jesui 77 Jesuit drama 67 Jesuit schools and colleges 65, 68 Jesuit theatre 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73 Jesuit warfare 83, 104 Jesuited78, 106, 120, 159, 184 Jesuitess 78 Jesuitic 78, 89, 121, 195,239 Jesuitry 78, 107 Jesuits xviii-xvi, xix, 45, 51, 52, 56, 57, 58, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 72, 77, 78, 82, 83, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 120, 123, 126, 131, 133, 137, 147, 150, 157,

322

APPENDIX E

INDEX

160, 161, 167, 169, 171, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 184, 185, 187, 191, 192, 195, 204, 208, 224, 227, 232, 233, 237, 239, 241,244, 247,286, 289 Johannites 38 John MacCoon xiv, xv, xvi, xix John Mattingly 170, 185 John the Baptist 38, 197 Johnson, Andrew 251 journalists 72 Jupiter 5, 11, 67, 210, 213, 215, 216, 217, 220, 221, 223, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 238, 256, 257 Justinian, Emperor 23 Justitia 10, 258 K Kao-tsung, Emperor 37 Kaunitz, Prince von 118 Kennedy, Sen. Edward 3 Kerry, Sen. John 2, 3 Keystone Cops 107 King Charles I (England) 4, 133, 174, 175 Charles I (Spain) 27 Charles II (England) 101, 131 Charles III (Spain) 184 Ferdinand V (Spain) 40 Francis I (France) 46 Frederick the Great (Prussia) 118 George II (England) 100 George III (England) 113, 166 Henry III (England) 37 Henry III (France) 63 Henry VIII (England) 46, 129 James I (England) 68, 99, 174 James II (England) 152 Louis XIV (France) 64, 85, 122, 131 Louis XV (France) 63, 98, 108, 112, 113, 118, 184 Philip IV (France) 37, 109 William of Orange 152 Kino, Eusebio 70 Kircher, Athenasius 69 Knights Hospitallers of St. John 32 Knights of Christ 35, 40 Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 40 Koffler, Father 111, 112 Koresh, David 286 L LaFalce, Rep. John 3 Lainez, Diego 56

Lambeth 148 LaValette, Father 106, 107, 108 laypersons 3, 10, 70 Leahy, Patrick 3 Ledochowski, Superior General Vladimir 71 LeFevre 46, 56 Leicester House 136, 137, 138 LeJay, Claude 56 Lexington Green 181, 185 Libera 10, 238 liberation theology 130, 132, 133, 150, 157, 197, 205, 251 line of demarcation 167 Liturgical Calendar xvi, 12, 196, 197 liturgical year 175 Livy 59 Llull, Raimon 33 Locke, John 131 London 37, 97, 100, 101, 103, 104, 121, 137, 142, 148, 152, 153, 162, 164,167, 172, 175, 177, 182, 184, 185, 239 London Coffee House (Philadelphia) 142 Longfellow, H.W. 150 Lorenzo Ricci’s War 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, 111, 113, 115, 139 Louis-le-Grand (college) 104, 107, 177 Loyola St. de Ignatius 44, 46, 51, 69 Ludolph of Saxony 28 Luis Vives 44, 45 Luken, Rep. Charles 3 Lulworth Castle 151 Lynch, Thomas 189 M mace 5 Madigan, Rep. Edward 3 magic lantern (laterna magia) 70 Magnificat 197 Main Street Journal xvi-xvii Mainz (mentz) 20, 40, 156, 157, 160, 161 Majorca 33 Malone, Bishop James W. 10 Malta 32, 111 Manes, Grand Master Diego 32, 33 Manresa 31, 40 Maraniss, David 81 Marco Polo 168 Marduk 59 Maria-Theresa, Empress 111 Marie-Antoinette 112 Maritime War 100, 139 Mark of Cain 265, 267, 269, 271, 273, 275, 277, 285, 287

323

RULERS OF E V I L

Markey, Rep. Edward 3 Mars 11, 161 Marshall, Justice John 239 Martin Luther 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 65, 199 Martin, Malachi 87 Martinique 106, 108 Mary, Virgin 22, 28, 48, 175, 197, 198, 212, 235, 236, 237, 238, 257, 258 Maryland 4, 86, 104, 147, 151, 156, 170, 174, 175, 176, 177, 184, 185, 196, 197, 198, 230, 235, 242, 244 Masons 119, 121, 123 Massachusetts 1, 8, 10, 138, 142, 173, 178, 181, 182, 185, 189, 227 Mayhew, Rev. Jonathan 149, 150 Mazzini, Giuseppe 248 McDade, Rep. Joseph 3 Medici learning 33, 68, 124 Medici Library 23, 24, 73, 120, 216 d’Medici Catherine xii Cosimo 23 Giulio (Clement VII) 18, 23 Lorenzo “the Magnificent” 22, 46 Medulla theologiae moralis 79 megaphone 69 Meigs, Montgomery C. 249-250 Mein Kampf 71 Mendelssohn, Felix 290 mental reservation 50, 78, 79, 80, 82, 101, 120, 187 merchants 47, 51, 63, 82, 141, 142, 143, 144, 161, 164, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173 Mercury 5, 59, 60, 67, 240, 261 Merodach 59 Merrie Land 175 Messiah 38, 197 Michaelangelo 24, 247 Mifflin, Thomas 179 Mikulski, Sen. Barbara 3 milice du Christ 187, 199 militiamen 100, 181, 285 Miller, Rep. George 3 Miracle On Main Street xii, xvii-xviii Miranda prorsus 71, 72 missionary adaptation 11, 13, 208, 211, 238, 256, 258 Mitchell, Rep. George 2 Molay, Jacques de 40 Moliere 67 Moneta 10 monetary system xii, xvii-xviii, 82

Montaigu 44 Montgomery C. Meigs 249 Montreal 194, 195 Morals and Dogma 118 Moses 203, 205 Mount Rothesay 137 Moynihan, Sen. Daniel P. 2 Mozart 67 Munich 40, 66,67, 156, 238 Murtha, Rep John 3 Muslim 35, 36 N Nabonidas 276, 277 Najera, Duke of 28, 30 Nantes, Edict of 64, 85 Naples 40, 111 Naram-Sin 266-267, 277 National Association of Evangelicals 9 National Association of Scholars 73 National Council of Churches 9 National Portrait Gallery (UK) 152 Navarette 30 Navarre 30, 110 Negrona 32 New Deal 107 New England 98, 104, 111, 122, 140, 164, 184, 195 New France 98 New Orleans xv, 139 New Testament 20, 22, 29, 31, 32, 39 New Wardour Castle 172 new world order 15, 220, 224, 265, 283 New York 142, 147, 148, 173, 178, 240, 243, 247, 248 Niccolo Machiavelli 23 Ninety-five Theses 22, 29 Noah Webster 78 nonjuring bishops 152 Norfolk, Eighth Duke of 123, 135 Norfolk, Ninth Duke of 135, 136 North Carolina 139 North, Lord 143, 174, 185 notariqon 51, 161 Nova Scotia 150 Novus ordo seclorum 15, 214, 220, 256 Number In Scripture 198 nuncios 97 O O’Gorman, Thomas 152 Oakar, Rep. Mary Rose 3 oath xiv, 40, 4 8 , 5 1 , 5 2 , 5 7 , 9 5 , 119, 121,

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INDEX

152, 168, 187, 251, 274 oath of obedience 48, 51, 187 Obey, Rep. David 3 Odin 59 Ohio 99, 100, 108, 138 Oliva, Superior General John Paul 133 Olive Branch Petition 182, 185 On the State of the Church 113, 157, 159 opium 167 Osiris 11 Oswald, Lee Harvey 251 Othello 150 Otis, James 138 Our Flag 189, 192 Oxford 23, 102, 103, 112, 1 15, 177, 218 P Paine, Tom 180, 185, 229 Pamplona 28, 32 Papal States 106, 111 paper currency 37, 100, 141 Paraguay 106 Paris 12, 19, 37, 40, 44, 67, 97, 104, 106, 139, 140, 157, 162, 164, 169, 170, 177, 184, 185, 208, 209 Paris, Treaty of 139, 141, 168 Parlement 106, 107, 108, 184 Parliament 68, 94, 106, 138, 141, 142, 143, 169, 171, 173, 175, 178, 181, 184, 185 Parma 111 Pascal, Blaise 79, 107, 232 Pastoral Letters 79, 106 Patriarcha (Robt. Filmer) 130, 131, 132, 133 Patuxents 176 Payen, Hugh de 35 Peculari quadam 70 Pell, Sen. Claiborne 3 penances 31, 43, 184 Penn, Admiral Sir William 101 Perm, William 100, 101, 102 Pennsylvania 85, 86, 100, 103, 121, 124, 139, 147, 152, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 184, 185, 211 pentagram 39, 210, 211, 213, 228, 257 Persephone 5, 234, 237, 238, 244, 258 personal liberty 85, 150 Petty, Robert (Lord Shelburne) 139, 168, 208 Pharaoh 203, 205, 206 Philadelphia 9, 102, 103, 141, 142, 162, 171, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 185, 194, 195, 197, 199, 211, 237, 244 Philadelphia, Charter for the City of 102

philosopher’s death 190 philosophes 117, 118, 120, 129, 190 Pike, Albert Grand Commander 118 Piscataways 176 Poland 64, 103 Politics of Witchcraft, The xviii Pombal, Sebastian the Marquis de 105 Pompadour, Madame de 108 Pontifex Maximus 6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 37, 82, 85, 86, 119, 120, 180, 182, 215, 216, 220, 221, 231, 256 Pontifical Institute 87 Popes Adrian I 21 Adrian VI 22, 32 Alessandro VI 167 Alexander VI 46 Boniface VIII 4, 37 Clement V 38, 40 Clement VII 18 Clement VIII 1 30 Clement XII 119 Clement XIII 106, 110, 184, 185 Clement XIV 179, 185 Eugenius III 36 Gelasius I 47 Gregory IX 14, 16 Gregory XIII 57 Gregory XV 69 Honorius II 36 John Paul II 1,6 John XXIII 71 Leo I 11 Leo III 21 Leo X 21, 199 Paul III 42, 46, 204 Paul VI 72 Pius IX 235, 252 Pius V 113 Pius VII 232 Pius XII 80 Sylvester 284 Innocent VII 21 population, Roman Catholic 86 Portugal 36, 40, 64, 65, 105, 106, 112, 118, 119, 122, 168, 175, 184 powder plays 68 preachers 57, 148 Prefect of the Sodality 156, 161, 177, 195 Presbyterian 148 Primitive Christian Church 38 Princeton University 132 Proclus 237

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RULERS OF E V I L

Professor, the 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 199, 200 Ptoprietors, the 100 Protagoras 23 Protestant xiii, xv, 5, 46, 49, 55, 56, 57, 58, 64, 65, 71, 77, 85, 94, 104, 113, 118, 124, 129, 130, 131, 133, 137, 144, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159, 160, 162, 175, 176, 182, 188, 199, 200, 206, 210, 241,242,248,253,259, 284 Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States 153 Protestantism 18, 23, 29, 32, 44, 57, 66, 86, 87,95, 111, 120, 157, 159, 254 Protestants xiii, xv, 5, 49, 50, 52, 55, 58, 67, 87, 102, 113, 121, 147, 152, 159, 176, 184, 233, 242, 254, 259 Psychopomp, the (Mercury) 54, 60, 261 purgatory 22, 57 pyramid 58, 118, 121, 136, 214, 222 Pyrenees 28 Q Quaker(s) 100, 101, 102, 103, 181 Quebec 194 Quebec Act 173, 178 Queen Catherine of Aragon (England) 44 Catherine of Braganza (England) 122 Elizabeth I (England) 67, 130, 167 Henriette-Marie (England) 174, 175 Isabella 27, 28 of Heaven 30, 212, 216, 256 R radio 70, 72, 74 Rager, John Clement 132 Rangel, Charles 3 Raphael 249 ratio studiorum (method of study) 65, 66, 74, 120, 129, 159, 177, 180, 182 Ray, James Earl xviii Reagan, Ronald 1, 9 Reconciliation 287, 288, 290, 291 Red Room 151 redcoats 143, 160, 181, 185, 194 Regimini militantis ecclesiae 51, 52, 82, 93, 95, 160, 201 Religious History of the American People 242 Remus 11 resurrection 23, 29, 39, 187, 189, 191, 193, 195, 197, 201, 213, 223, 224, 232 Rev. Samuel Seabury 152

Revere, Paul 177 Rhodes 32 Ricci, Superior General Lorenzo xix, 86, 87, 88, 94, 95, 97, 98, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 122, 138, 140, 144, 148, 149, 150, 153, 156, 159, 161, 164, 170, 171, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 199, 200,201 Ricci, Sebastiano 54, 59, 261 Rock Creek Farm 176 Rogers, Will 107 Roman College 80, 103, 190 Rome 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 10 “Rome” (District of Columbia) 4 Romulus 11 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 107 Roothaan, Superior General John 247 Rosicrucian 68, 123, 160, 170 Rostenkowski, Rep. Dan 3 rosy cross (rose croix) 36 Rothesay, Isle of Bute 136 Rothschild 160 Rothschild, Meyer 161 Royal Proclamation of 1763 139 Roybal, Rep. Edward 3 rule of law 280, 281,283 S Sacraments, the seven Roman Catholic 21, 57 Sacred College 10 Sacred Heart 108, 109, 150, 184, 197, 213, 214, 223, 256 sacrifice 6, 15, 57, 69, 93, 216, 231, 232, 259, 265, 268, 269 Sacy, de 98 St. Alphonse Liguori 80 St. Apollinaris 11 St. Catherine 28, 30 St. Cecilia 197 St. Denis 12, 45 St. Francis Xavier45, 48, 291 St. Isaac’s Cathedral 242 St. John 39, 40, 173 St. John’s Lodge 173 St. Martina 11 St. Omer’s Jesuit College 4, 67, 101, 104, 170ff St. Omer, Godfroi de 35 St. Paul 11, 48, 255 St. Peter 11, 22, 28, 38, 46, 114, 247

326

APPENDIX E

INDEX

St. Peter’s Cathedral (Basilica) 22 Salmeron, Alfonso 56 Salzburg 67 Sarbanes, Sen. Paul 2 Sargon 271, 272, 273, 276, 277 Satan 16, 20, 236, 281-283, 289, 292 Satanael 39 Saturn 11, 67, 93, 220, 221, 224, 229, 234, 237, 238, 244, 256 Scottish Rite Freemasonry 40, 240 Scripture 13, 14, 15, 16, 21, 30, 39, 46, 59, 65, 66, 70, 73, 120, 150, 159, 204, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 212, 218, 223, 229, 260 Second Continental Congress 181, 194 Secret Teachings of All Ages (Hall) 123 Seventh Day Adventists 9 Sewanee, Tennessee xiii Shakespeare 66, 67, 68 Sharpsburg 242 Shelburne, Lord (Robert Petty) 139, 168, 208 Sibylline 15, 59 Sidney, Algernon 130, 131 smuggling 141, 184 social communication 72, 73 Society of Dissenters 149 Society of Jesus xiv, xvi, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 60,77,78, 79,81,82,86, 94, 97,104, 106, 107, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 117, 121, 136, 137, 159, 167, 168, 169, 187, 188, 198, 199, 201, 204, 232 Solomon, King 30, 39 South Carolina 139, 240 Spain 18, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 40, 43, 44, 109, 110, 111, 112, 168, 175, 184 Spinelli, Cardinal 148 Spiritual Exercises 45, 66 Stamp Act 141, 142, 147, 148, 184 Stamp Act Congress 142, 184 Ste. Barbe, College of 44 Steinmayer, Father Ferdinand (alias Farmer) 147 Stevens, Rev. Thomas 168 Stourton, Charles Philippe 155, 157, 161, 164, 171, 177 Stuart monarchs 113 Sun-Tzu vii, 86-94, 98, 104, 105, 111, 113, 120-121, 130, 135, 149, 162, 185, 189, 286, 287, 289 Surratt, John H. 253 Surratt, Mary 253, 254 Swieten, Gerard von 118

Switzerland 30, 31,49, 106 T Tammuz 11 Taney, Justice Roger Brooke 239, 240 Tea Act 169, 172, 177, 185 television 71, 72, 74 Templarism 68 Tennessee Waltz: The Making of A Political Prisoner xviii Terminator II 60 Test Act 148 Teutonic Knights 40, 58 Teutons 59 thirteen xix, 27, 38, 40, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91,93,95, 122, 162, 172, 176, 177, 182, 189, 192, 193, 194, 195, 200, 210, 214, 233, 239, 257 Thirteen Articles Concerning Military Art 86, 87,89,91,93,95 Thirteenth Amendment 239 Thomson, Charles 123, 124, 125, 140, 142, 143, 177, 179, 181, 182, 183, 209, 211, 217 Thorpe, Francis xix, 172, 188 Thoth 59 “Tiber” 4 Tillot, Minister de 118 Tisbury 123, 172 Torgau 21 Townshend Acts 143, 168, 184, 185 Townshend, Charles 142 Trafalgar Square 152 Treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber 179, 184 Trent, Council of 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 65, 160, 204 Trickster 60, 82, 261, 282, 286-287 Trier 154, 156, 157, 158, 160 Troyes 36, 37 Turks 20, 32 tyranny 115, 117, 123, 133, 141, 143, 148, 149,150,179,185, 198, 203,251,257 U U.S. Catholic Conference 10 United States foreign policy 1 United States Supreme Court 239 United States, Great Seal of the 16 University of Paris 44 University of Saumer 102 University of the South xiii University of Trier 157

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RULERS OF E V I L

Unknown Superior 59, 98, 120, 137, 138, 191,200,223,252 Unuk 271,272,277 usury 81, 107 V Valladolid 28 Vatican 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 32, 38, 46, 70, 104, 114, 120, 159, 160, 171, 180, 185, 194, 237, 241, 247, 248, 249, 255 Vatican II (1964) 3, 4 Venice xix, 32, 169 Vernon Howell 286 Vicar of Christ 21,47, 125, 195,200 Vienna 40, 66, 104 Virgil 5, 15, 183,216,217,219,256 Virginia 99, 140, 175, 177, 178, 184, 244 Virginia Declaration of Rights 132 Visitandines 197 Visitation 197 Voltaire 102, 107, 117, 177, 184 Voragine 28 Vox clamantis 40 Vulcan 5, 257 W Waco 224, 285, 286 Waite, Arthur Edward 173 Walsh, Dr. James 227 Walter, Thomas U. 239, 242, 244, 250 Walters, Vernon 2 Wardour Castle 123, 174, 185 Wartburg Castle 22, 29

Washington and His Compeers (Hayden) 122 Washington, D.C. 8, 9, 248 Washington, George 153, 181, 182, 189, 193, 230, 245 Webster’s Dictionary 78, 79, 82, 250 Weishaupt, Adam 170 Welds 151 West Indies 67, 141 West Point 240 White House 176, 226, 227, 228, 230, 241, 245, 254 White, Andrew 175, 176, 197, 235 Wiget, Father B.F. 253 Wills, Garry 68 Wilson, William 2 Wiltshire 123, 172, 185 Wittenburg castle 22 Woody Allen 279 World War II 71 Worms, Edict of 55 Wotan 59 writers 12, 72, 100, 117, 212, 222, 232 WWWebster 79, 81, 138, 139, 140, 184 Y Yahweh 59, 205, 206, 212, 217, 260 Yom Kippur 39 Young, Notley 4, 232 Z Zohar (“Book of Splendor,”) 39 Zoroaster 118 Zwingli 56

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