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"Ritual and Social Change:A Javanese Ex The religion of Java Old Societies and New States Peddlers and Princes The Social History of an Indonesian Town "Religion as a Cultural System." In Banton, M.(ed.),

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Agricultural Involution,The Processe

1963 1964 1965 1966

"Ideology as a Cultural System." In Apter,D.(e

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Islam Observed : Religion Devel The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. 1999 1999 Kinship in Bali (with Hildred Geertz). 

1975 1975 1975 Scientist, 63: 47 1976 1979 1980 1983 : : 53.

"Common Sense as a Cultural System." Antioc

"From the Native's Point of View: On the Na "Art as a Cultural System.",MLN,91:1473-99

K.Basso and H. Selby (eds.), Approaches to Symbolic Anth

Meaning and Order in Moroccan Society (with 1999

Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth

Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Inter 2000 2002

1984 1988 1995 involution, 1. 2.Involution 3. involution

"Anti Anti Relativism." American Anthropologist,86(

Works and Lives: The Anthropologist

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1.Maurice J. Meisner, Mao's China and After (New York: The Free Press, 1986) 2.Clifford Geertz, Agricultural Involution (Berkeley: University of California 3. Elman Rogers Service 4. 5. 1994 1992 1986

y y

y y

y y

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6. 1995 7.Clifford Geertz, Peddlers and Princes: Social Development and Economic C (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1963). 8 10 25 Helen Siu, "Socialist Peddlers and Princes in a Chinese Market To 9.Prasenjit Duara, "State Involution: A Study of Local Finances in North Chin Society and History 29, no. 1 (1987): 132-61. 11. 1975 341-42 12.Myron Cohen, "Cultural and Political Inventions in Modern Ch 122, no. 2 (Spring 1993). 13. „ 1987 14. 1995 Samuel P. Huntington

y y y

15. 1985 65-69 16.Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization in Communist China (Berkel 17. 1994 12 20

y

y

y y

y y y y

18.Richard Wilk, Economies and Cultures: Foundations of Economic Anthropolo 1996). 19.Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice , trans. Richard Nice (Cam 1977). 20.Pierre Bourdieu, "Social Space and Symbolic Power", Sociological Theory 7, 21.Sherry Ortner, "Pattern of His-tory: Cultural Schemas in the Foundings of S Anthropological Approaches, ed. Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney (Stanford: Stanford U 22. 23. 24. 26. 1991 

Friedrich A. von Hayek 1995 Hermann Haken

y y

(http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ics/21c)

1998

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2007-12-16 21:35:32 http://www.blog.amei8.com/?uid-1-action-viewspace-itemid-3219

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Organizational Involution the CCP 02 2938-7286 


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408 QUOTE: http://www3.nccu.edu.tw/~emchao/book.htmTSSCI NSC91-2414-H004-045

2005/06 

  adaptability of the CCP, democratic centralism, inclusion and corporatism of the part organizational involution, structural reforms of the CCP .

Sin Party (CCP) has been distraught by a chronic problem: An unbalanced power distribu the status of the power structure, the CCPhas been trying to cope with the problem 2 These small measures of reforming have exposed contradictions between forc Chinese characteristics and self-perfecting has left many reserved areas inside 55 2 cardinal principles China has been strained between a promise to democracy and 007-3- party dictatorship.Relying onhistorical institutionalism and the concept of involu terms of CCP s organization and institutions. Specifically,the article explores the polic 25 ofsupport, including the issue of allowing the capitalist class into the party a difficulties that the Party has faced in the process of transition. The purpose is to pro

change that the Party has encountered since the introduction of market economy. (point of entry) (point of exit) (What is to be done) undone) 

(historical institutionalism)

(organization

.

development)

(involution)

(Guillermo O Donnell) 5 transplacement 6

(retrospective)

10 (MinxinPei) 11 12 (transformation)

„

1Karl Popper interviewed by Giancarlo Bosetti, The Lesson of This Century: With Routledge, 1997), pp. 42-43; Ken Jowitt, Gorbachev: Bolshevik or Menshevik ? in Developments in Soviet Politics (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 271-291. 2 Larry Vol. 7, No. 3 (July, 1996), p. 23. 3

92 Lowell Dittmer and Lu Xiaobo, Structural Transf Micropolitical Change, China Studies, No. 3(Spring 1997), p. 131; Xiaobo Lu, Cadr Chinese Communist Party (California: Stanford University Press, 2000).4 (rationaltotalitarianism) (degenerativetotalitarianism)

(post-totalitarianism authorita

Maria Hsia Chang, The Limits of Reform Sino-American Conference onMainland China, Charlottesville, Virginia, Juan 10-14,19 Fred I Greensteinand Nelson W. Polsby, eds., Handbook of Political Science, Vol. 3(R 336-350;Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death ofCommunism 255;John Burns, The People s Republic of China at 50: National PoliticalReform, Th 83 80-83;

93 11-30 5 Guillermo O Donnell and Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univer

The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America (Cambridge: Ca

Samuel P. Huntington,The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Ce 114. 7 Stathis N. Kalyvas, The Decay and Breakdown of Communist One-Party Syst 343; Jon Elster, Claus Offe, and Ulrich K. Preuss, eds.,Institutional Design in Post-C (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 2.8 .

the Transition Paradigm , Journal of Democracy, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Jan, 2002), pp. 5-21

zone) (electoral democracy) Consolidation (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1999), p. 22. 9 Carothers, 17; Howard J. Wiarda, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Comparative P European Poli ics and Societies, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2002), pp. 485-501. 15 16 (time and sequence) 17 (asymmetries of power) (premise) 18 


(Kathleen Thelen)

õ(Sven Steinmo)

(critical interven

neutral broker micro-foundational 20 bounded rationality macro-historical rational choice institutionalism

|

lock-in

2110

Reform to Revolution: TheDemise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union (Ma

25 200 Oksenberg,Policy Making in China: Leaders, Structures, andProcesses(Princeton, Ne Lampton, Policy Implementation in Post-Mao China(Berkeley: University of Califo eds., Bureaucracy, Politics, and DecisionMaking in Post-Mao China(Berkeley: Univers of EconomicReform in China(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). 14 University Press, 1988); Jean C.Oi, State and Peasant in Contemporary China: The P California Press, 1989).15 Andrew G. Walder, Communist Neo-Traditionalism California Press, 1986); Kevin J. O Brien, Reform Without Liberalization:China s Na (New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1990). 16 Nina P. Halpern, Studies of Chine Contemporary China (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993), pp. 120-137. 17 (formal) (informal)

Steinmo,Kathleen Thelen and Frank Longstreth, eds., Structuring Politics: Histo Cambridge University Press, 1992); Kathleen Thelen, Historical Institutionalism in (1999), pp. 369-401;Colin Hay and Daniel Wincott, Structure, Agency and Historical 957; Peter A. Hall and Rosemary C. R. Taylor, The Political of Historical Institu 46 (1998), pp. 958-962; Peter Hall,Governing the Economy: The Politics of State University Press, 1986), p. 19.18 Paul J. DiMaggio and Walter W. Powell, The Iron C Rationality in Organizational Fields, in Walter W. Powell and Paul J. Dimaggio, eds., The University of Chicago Press, 1991), p.80. involution involutm

23

Rosemary C. R. Taylor, Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms, Politic

Winckler, Explaining Leninist Transition, in Edwin A. Winckler, ed., Transition from (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999), p. 292. 21 Thelen, Historical Institutiona Accomplishment, Prospects, and Implications, American Economic Review, No. 84 1991
¦(Clifford Geertz) ®(Goldenweiser)

11 23 Dittmer and Lu ,

labor productivity development)

Clifford Geertz, Agricultural In 1994 25

(Berkeley: University of California Press,1963), pp. 99-104;

(

Prasenjit Duara, State Involution: A Study of Local Finances in NorthChina, Co 1987), pp. 132-161. 26

45 71

4 2002 6

91 91

7 8 152-155

43-74;

27 Xiaobo Lu, Cadres and Corruption, p. 263;

(self-conscious)

(goal-oriented)

L Walder estabilished (devolutionary) neo-traditionalism 30

¦(Cl

(informal practices) patrimonial (extraordinary) ordinary 31 32

(status)

(organized dependence) (idealtype)

(principle ofparticularism)

„

organizational hero 35

81 Institutional Dynamics of One-Party Systems, in Samuel P.Huntington and Clement Dynamicsof Established One-Party Systems (New York: Basic Books, 1970), pp. 32-4 Transformation of the Chinese Danwei, p. 131; Lu, Cadres and Corruption, p.22 Theories of Change in Social Science(California: Stanford University Press, 1986), pp Corruption of a Leninist Regime, Soviet Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3(July 1983), p. 27 McGraw-Hill, 1952), pp. 18-25.34 Walder, Communist Neo-Traditionalism, pp. 242-2 Communist Neo-Traditionalism.

37
® Maria Hirszowicz

ruling institution political order 38

(legal-rational)

(rule by law)

(rule of law)

36 Xi

Maria Hirszowicz, Coercion and Control in Communist Society: The Visible Hand in a (adaptability)

39

.

(political regimes)

(methodology of research program)

44 (Kevin O Brien) 46

prote

„

(inclusion)
„

48

(boundary-spanning)

49

Control--China in Transition: No Law, No Order, Far Eastern Economic Review(June China , Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6,No. 4 (Oct. 1995), p. 66. 40 1997 4 (Imre Lakatos) 81 1993 255 41 469-470 43

(Alan

170-174 45 Kevin J. O Brien, Reform Without Liberalizatio 176 47 3-5

Institutional Change (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 4-5.46

72 2002 8 3 Mobilization in European Leninist Regimes, World Politics, Vol. 28, No. 1(Oct. 1975 Thomas B. Gold, After Comradeship: Personal Relations in China Since the Cultura 675;Richard Baum, Modernization and Legal Reform in Post-Mao China: The Re Communism, No. 19 (Summer 1986), pp. 94-95. (Giovanni Sartori)

51
„

52 53

54 13.1% 29.9% 1 17.1% 56 |

57 59
.

58

60 Quarterly, Vol. 115, No. 4 (Winter 2000/2001), pp. 517-540. 51 12.2% 132.3 6635.5 24.5% 5.2% 28.3% 2002 30.6% 31.6% 9 2 1 22.8% 1 53 4-8

50Bruce J. Dickson, Cooptation and Corpor

2003

Inquiry into the Fate of ChineseSocilism, 1978-1994 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1996 2002 2001 5 4-9 54 Richard Lowenthal, Development vs. Utopia in 2002 2001 5 26 2

Communist Systems (Stanford, Cal. : Stanford University Press, 1970), pp. 110-116.

13.1% http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/282306.htm.57 1991 598 584 58 .

2000 (party-as-a-system)

6

.

6360 2001 86
„

7 8

2

3 61 88 158-159 64

34

(ruling class) 66

68 63 http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/PRmeeting/64103.htm;

2002 11 9 A10 64 Political Parties: There Organization and Activity in the Modern State (Londonowe & Regimes: Patterns and Institutions (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986), p (dominant coalition) Political Parties, pp. 37-40 ; 1993 1961 26-28 2002 1994 2001 91 8 12 8 11 4-6 1999 123-128 1999 11 2 1 296-301 67 233 68 2001 11 9-18;

160 Tang Tsou, The Cu

Perspective (Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 309-318. 66

h

22

5

71 (agents)

. 75 . „ „

76

(heterogeneity)

oligarchy)

79

80

8169 Hannan and John Freeman, Organizational Ecology(Cambridge: Harvard University P Within: Institutional Analysis,Transition from Authoritarianism,and the Case of Hunga

http://61.15 ( ) 2001 5 32-34

21-34 71 ( ) Corporatism in China, pp. 519-521;Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald B.Salancik, The Ex Perspective (New York:Harper andRow, 1978), pp. 164-165. 73

5.9% · 74 Dickson Dorothy J. Solinger, China s Transition fromSocialism: Statist Legacies and Market R 75 Bob Jessop, State Theory: PuttingStates in Their Place(Cambridge: Polity P Century of Corporatism ? Review of Politics, Vol. 36,No.1(1974), pp. 93-111. 76

2001 7 2 3 2002 Transients in the Transition from Socialism and the Collapse of theCommunist Urban 1995), pp. 127-146. 78Robert Michels, Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the O Free Press, 1962). 79 56 9-14
.

82

83 (homogenization)

81 in Post-Mao China: Institutions, Processes andDemocratic Prospects (Oxford: Clarend Liberalization: China s National People s Congress and the Politics of Instit utional Cha Andrew Nathan, Chinese Democracy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985), Chapter. 10
,

The Politics of Lawmakingin Post-Mao China, pp. 55-56.
|

84 85

86

(fractionalism) 87 (ban on factions) 1997 203 85 9-14 86 2002 119-125

209-210 87 Michael Waller, Democratic Centralism (New York: St. Martin s Press, 1 Framework for Analysis (New York: Cambridge University Press,1976), p. 105.

89

. „

(Russell Bova)

(preferable alternative) (stabilizer)

90

(Lewin Moshe)

(breaks of continuity)

88

17

12

2003

3

24-29

14 1998 12 22 3 89 90Russell Bova, Comparative Perspective ,World Politics, Vol.44, No. 1 (Oct., 1991), pp. 122-123.mu Interpretation (Berkeley: University of lifor a Pr ss, 1988), . 133. Cani ep 11 1997 39 71 152-155 1995 12 6 1 22-24 3-6 2001 ( ) 2004 2002 ( 1997b 1999 2002a 3-5 72 33-45 2003 ) 5 2002 2-11 12 8-10 2002 4-6 2000 8 1-25 9-18 2002

20

4 1994

56-62 

, 2001

1996 4 ( ) 1 2002 1993 1998 21-34 1994 9-14 ) 5 1994 32-34

2

2 12-16 2001 Richard1986 Modernization and Legal Reform in Post-Mao China: The Rebirth o 103.Bova, Russell1991 Political Dynamics of Post-Communist Transition: A Com Zbigniew1990 The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in theT People s Republic of China at 50: National Political Reform. TheChina Quarterly 159 Paradigm. Journal of Democracy 13(1): 5-21.Collier, R. Berins1999 Paths Toward D South America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Diamond, Larry1996 Is the Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore: John Hopkins University China: The Logic of Party Adaptation. Political Science Quarterly 115(4): 517-540.Di the Chinese Danwei: Macropolitical Implications of Micropolitical Change. China Stud of Local Finances in North China. Comparative Studies in Society and History 29(1): There Organization and Activity in the Modern State.London: Lowe & Brydone.Geer Clifford1963 Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indon Rosemary C. R. Taylor1998 The Political of Historical Institutionalism: a Respon 962.Halpern, Nina P.1993 Studies of Chinese Politics. In American Studies of M. E. Sharpe.Hay, Colin and Daniel Wincott1998 Structure, Agency and Historica Maria1986 Coercion and Control in Communist Society: The Visible Hand in a Comm P.1991 The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norm Clement H. Moore1970 Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society: The Dynamics of Es Andrew C.1986 Politics and Paradigms: Changing Theories of Change in Socia N.1999 The Decay and Breakdown of Communist One-Party Systems. AnnualRevie Karl1997 The Lesson of This Century: With Two Talks in Freedom and the D Ken1975 Inclusion and Mobilization in European Leninist Regimes. World Politics28 the Political Corruption of a Leninist Regime. Soviet Studies 35(3): 275-297.199 in Soviet Politics. Edited by Stephen White, Alex Pravda and Zvi Gitelman.Hou 1970 Development vs. Utopia in Communist Policy. In Change in Communist Systems. Edit by Chalmers Johnson. Stanford, Cal. :Stanford Unive

the Organizational Involution of the ChineseCommunist Party. California: Stanford U Lewin1988 The Gorbachev Phenomenon: A Historical Interpretation. Berkeley:U J.1990 Reform Without Liberalization: China s National People s Congress </

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L'emplacement de Lawrenzo Huang Anfang Research

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