Networking Based Patient Monitoring System


Electronics & Telecommunication Department

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

1.1 INTRODUCTION:Patient monitor or "multiparameter monitor" or also referred to as "physiological monitor" is a clinical use electronic machine designed to display and minimally interpret, a person's vital signs. Some monitors can warn of pending fatal cardiac conditions before visible signs are noticeable to clinical staff .The parameters (or measurements) usually consist of Pulse Oximetry (measurement of the saturated percentage of Oxygen in the blood referred to as SPO2), ECG (electroCardiograph of the P-QRS-T wave of the heart w/wo pacemaker), Blood pressure (either invasively through an inserted blood Pressure-to-transducer assembly or non-invasively with an Inflatable blood pressure cuff) ,and temperature (usually Skin temperature through an adhesive pad. There are more parameters such as cardiac output, CO 2 measurement (referred to as ETCO2 or end-tidal carbondioxide), respiration (through ECG channel or via ETCO2, when it is called AWRR or Airway Respiratory Rate), anaesthetic gas measurement, etc. Patient monitors can be broadly categorized as standalone or multiparameter. Standalone monitors continue to be used in developing countries like India mainly due to cost restraints and also because they are easy to manufacture and maintain.In developed part of the world, multiparameter monitors have supplanted them, in some cases because of statutory requirements (for example the us FDA) and also because if a clinician requires to monitor one channel then other channels are also needed to complement the data and get a complete picture of the patient's vital situation. Example: “ECG+SPO2+respiration”,”SPO2+NIBP”,”ECG+SPO2+resporecg+SPO2+resp+NIBP+temp+pre ssure with or without ETCO2”. Companies are working to integrate the physiological data from the isolated patient monitoring networks into the Emerging hospital digital charting systems using hl7. This Newer method of charting patient data reduces the likelihood of human documentation error and will eventually reduce overall paper consumption.

Electronics & Telecommunication Department

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System


1.2 ABSTRACT:Electronics & Telecommunication Department

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Networking Based Patient Monitoring System

Networking based patient monitoring system is used to monitor the different parameters of patients remotely and simultaneously. In this system the doctor can monitor different parameters of many patients by sitting in his room. Parameters of each patient are recorded with the help of a microcontroller. In our system we are going to use RS485 based networking system. It uses one master and three slave system which are connected to each other using RS485 protocol. Master unit consists of a microcontroller, serial communication cable to PC, RS485 communication module. The Slave unit consists of a microcontroller, sensors and RS485 communication cable. The slave unit reads the analog values from sensors and stores them into memory. When master sends a command for data then that particular slave has to send these values to the master. The master then sends these values to PC. The serial communication of the master with the computer is achieved by means of RS232 protocol.A visual basic program is used to display these values on screen. This program also stores these values on hard disk for future analysis. This project provides real-time update of the patient’s health to the doctor. It reduces the frequent visits of the doctors to the patient in person.This project helps in conserving paper and thus saving very important trees. In our project, the number of patients can be increased depending upon the number of drivers allowed by RS485 protocol. Thus the project provides the facility of virtual supervision for the doctors. This kind of monitoring system can be applied to the private rooms, semi-private rooms as well as general wards.


Electronics & Telecommunication Department

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These bedside monitors are local the room in which they are installed.2 Sonography instrument The pictures Fig 1.2 show the current bedside monitors available in the hospitals.1 and Fig1. Here the doctor or the central nurse who is incharge of the ward has to visit every patient to check his/her health status and verify the parameter values.1 Fig 1. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 5 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.

1.3 As shown in the sketch various sensors are connected to the patient’s body.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System The current scenario can be represented in a more simplified manner with the help of following sketch.  In a life threatening condition. Fig 1. The parameter values obtained from the sensors are shown on the bedside monitors. for example in the case of a drug overdose or anaesthesia. But these monitors are local to the room only and hence arises a need for remote monitoring.4 NEED OF MONITORING: In unstable physiological regulatory systems. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 6 . for example where there are indications of a heart attack.

5 CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 7 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM 1.

For convinience only one slave is shown.4 The previous sketch can be replaced by the conceptual diagram shown above.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 8 . Here instead of displaying the parameter values on the bedside monitors. they are given to the remote master who takes the responsibility of displaying the values on the doctor’s computer. Also the networking between master and slave is shown.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System SPECIFICATIONS 1.6 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE PROJECT:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 9 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS:  230V AC mains  Regulated power supply using voltage regulator LM7805  Diodes for bridge rectifier 1N4007 SLAVE SPECIFICATIONS:  Microcontroller 16F877A SENSORS:  Temperature Sensor : LM35  Bottle Level Sensor: Tx.bright LED. Rx Heart rate sensor: MASTER SPECIFICATIONS:  Microcontroller 16F877A  RS232 protocol for serial communication with PC  MAX 232 used to convert RS232 voltage levels to TTL and vice-versa NETWORKING SPECIFICATIONS:  RS485 networking protocol  IC 75176 used to convert RS485 voltage levels to TTL and vice-versa  Termination resistances of 120ohm and 870ohm SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION:  Visual Basic 6 Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 10 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System BLOCK DIAGRAM 1.7 BLOCK DIAGRAM:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 11 .

5 The figure represents block diagram of the project. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 12 . It clearly indicates the data acquisition and the networking part.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.

1 MICROCONTROLLER:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 13 .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 1.8 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:1.8.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.  Contains built in serial peripheral interface.  It has brown out reset.6 The microcontroller used is PIC16F877A.  It can control upto 10 interrupt sources.  Uses Harvard architecture. Features: High performance RISC processor. 1.  Register files/data memory can be accesed directly or indirectly.8.  It has built in 10 bit ADC.  It has two ports to drive output.2 RS485 PROTOCOL:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 14 .reset.on.  It has built in power.

Therefore it is not needed to have delays between the data packets on the RS485 bus. Depending on the information in the sent data. Default. RS-485 allows for serial connections between more than 2 devices on a networked system. With such an implementation of a RS485 network it is necessary that there is error detection implemented in the higher level protocol to detect the data corruption and resend the information at a later time. RS485 drivers automatically return to their high impedance tri-state within a few microseconds after the data has been sent. There are other implementations of RS485 networks where every node can start a data session on its own.There is no need for the senders to explicitly turn the RS485 driver on or off. Therefore RS485 will be in use for many years in the future. It is the protocol or specifications that need to be followed to allow devices that implement this standard to speak to each other. zero or more nodes on the line respond to the master. This is comparable with the way ethernet networks function. including Profibus and Modbus. While the original RS-232 standard allowed for the connection of two devices through a serial link.This protocol is an updated version of the original serial protocol known as RS232. one of the nodes is defined as a master who sends queries or commands over the RS485 bus.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System RS-485 is a telecommunications standard for binary serial communications between devices.7 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS PROTOCOL STANDARDS:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 15 . In higher level protocols. The graph below shows potentials of the '+' and '−' pins of an EIA-485 line during transmission of one byte (0xD3) of data using anasynchronous start-stop method.All other nodes receive these data. Fig 1. RS485 is used as the electrical layer for many well known interface standards. all the senders on the RS485 bus are in tri-state with high impedance.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 16 .

The steps involved in the designing power supply are Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 17 .1 POWER SUPPLY:The basic step in the designing of any system is to design the power supply required for that system.9.9 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND INTERFACING DETAILS:1.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System DESIGN AND INTERFACING 1.

8 a) Transformer Selection:Minimum input required for LM7805 IC is given by the equation below.4V Minimum secondary voltage required is = 1.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System i. Vin =Vreg + drop out voltage across LM7805 IC = 5V + 2V = 7V The drop across diodes in the bridge rectifier is 1. Determine the total current that the system sinks from the supply. Vr (ripple voltage) = 10% of output voltage = 0. Fig 1.4 + 7 = 8.9V Frequency = 50Hz Time Period =1/50 = 20ms b) Diode Design :- PIV = Vm Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 18 . unregulated power supply design is for 9V. ii.4V Hence. Determine the voltage rating required for the different components.

 Input voltage range: – 8V to 35V  Drop out voltage: – 2V  Output rating: – 5V 1. We choose capacitor as a filter as it is cost effective.812 as compared to the full wave rectifier.  Output of bridge rectifier is not pure DC.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATION:DB-9 connector female Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 19 .The sink current of the system is not more than 200mA. Hence we select regulator IC LM7805. It contains some AC ripples in it. which smoothens the output voltage.  The PIV across each diode is Vm and not 2Vm as in case of two diode rectifier.Selection of capacitance depends on the current rating of the supply and selection of voltage rating for capacitor on the secondary voltage of the transformer.9. c) Regulator Selection:- PIC16F877A requires a supply of +5V.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Vm = 9V Hence we select diode 1N4007 PIV = 100V. To remove these ripples we have used a capacitor as a filter. If = 1A Reasons for choosing bridge rectifier: The TUF is increased to 0. readily available and portable. The sensors also require the same voltage supply.

It was initially developed by the EIA to standardize Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 20 .0 RS232 Protocol:The RS-232 interface is the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard for the interchange of serial binary data between two devices.9 DB-9 connector male Fig 2.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 1.

21 pins which are used in the complete standard. The standard RS232-C connector has 25 pins. but gives complete freedom to the user. so that appreciable attenuation along the line can be tolerated. from 5 to 25 volts. seven or eight data bits. Three wires are sufficient: send data. Greater distance and data rates are possible with good design. Electrical Characteristics:The RS-232-C specifies the signaling rate between the DTE and DCE.. requiring two voltages. and signal ground. Compliance to RS-232 does not imply that the devices will be able to communicate or even acknowledge each other's presence. but it is reasonable to assume that these limits apply in practice as well as in theory. 19. Below 150 baud. The remaining lines can be hardwired on or off permanently.The standard allows as many as 20 signals to be defined. receive data. an optional parity bit and one or two stop bits. Communication Standards:The industry custom is to use an asynchronous word consisting of: a start bit. and not more than 2500pF.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System the connection of computers with telephone line modems. they may be able to be connected.The load impedance of the terminator side of the interface must be between 3000 and 7000 ohms. ranging from 0 to 7 (150. The RS-232 standard specifies that logic "1" is to be sent as a voltage in the range -15 to -5 V and that logic "0" is to sent as a voltage in the range +5 to +15 V. Many of the modem signals are not needed when a computer terminal is connected directly to a computer. The baud rate at which the word sent is device-dependent.200). Specifying compliance to RS-232 only establishes that the signal levels in two devices will be compatible and that if both devices use the suggested connector. and a digital signal is used on all interchange circuits. many system-unique rates are used. Working:Data is transmitted and received on pins 2 & 3 respectively Data Set Ready (DSR) is an indication for the data set that it is ON. The standard specifies that voltages of at least 3 V in amplitude will always be recognized correctly at the receiver according to their polarity. The signal transmission is bipolar. The baud rate is usually 150 times an integer power of 2. of opposite polarity. 600.Similarly DTR indicates to the data set that the DTE is Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 21 .. The transfer rate is rated > 20 kbps and a distance of < 15m. 300.

Typical Waveform:- Fig 2.Clear to send from the data set) are used for handshaking purposes. MAX232:Communication between PC and microcontroller is done using IC MAX232. It converts +5V signal to +/-9V signal. Data Carrier Detect (DCD) indicates that a good carrier is being received from the remote modem.1 Waveform Explanation:The bit by bit serial transmission is as shown above. In most aynchronous situations the RTS and CTS are continuously ON throughout the communication session. it drops RTS and modem drops CTS and carrier together.Pins 4 (RST-Request to send from transmitting computer) and 5 (CTS.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System ON.The DTE transmits when it sees CTS up. It is a TTL to RS232 level converter. When the station has finished it’s transmission.The transmission starts with a “start” bit followed by 8 data bits (LSB to MSB) and ending with a “stop” bit. The serial signals provided on Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 22 .

A standard serial interfacing for a PC. C1+. 5 ):External capacitor connection pins. C2. +5V. MAX232 requires negative logic i.(Pins 1.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System these pins by the microcontroller are TTL signal levels and must be boosted and inverted through a suitable converter to comply with RS232 standard. 4. T1I. iv. iii. Connection Diagram:- Fig 2. logic’1’ is -3V to -25V. ii. T2I (Pins 11.2 Pin Description:i. 10):Electronics & Telecommunication Department v. V. V+ (Pin 2):Positive supply for TIA/EIA-232-E drivers. C1-.(Pin 6):Negative supply for TIA/EIA-232-E drivers. Page 23 . 3.e. C2+. Vcc (Pin16):Power supply pin for the device.

 Available in plastic DIP. 1. vi. viii.Output will be low for open inputs.Internal input resistor 4.2 drivers and 2 receivers. GND (Pin 15):Ground pin. typically 5MW) pulls input HIGH. T2O (Pins 14. R1O. R2O (Pins 12. R1I. an internal active pull-up resistor (500kW min. R2I (Pins 13.Unused receiver input pins may be left open.  Receiver noise filter. 7):Driver output pins conform to TIA/EIA-232-E levels.  Package efficiency: . ix. T1O. narrow and wide SOIC package.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Driver input pins are TTL/CMOS compatible. 9):Receiver output pins are TTL/CMOS compatible.  Low power Icc 3.Inputs of unused drivers may be left open.7kW pulls input low. providing a failsafe high output.Receiver output high voltage is specified for both CMOS and TTL load conditions.9. Features: Single +5V power supply. 8):Receiver input pins accept TIA/EIA-232-E input voltages ( + 25V).0 mA maximum.3 LCD INTERFACING:A typical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is as shown below Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 24 . vii. Receivers feature a noise filter and guaranteed hysteresis of 100mV.

4 Various terminals for LCD and the connections required are as shown in Fig 2. LCD connection diagram:- Fig 2. This is in contrast to LEDs.3 In recent years LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED. which are limited to numbers and few characters.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. and graphics.  Declining prices of LCD. With the help of this trim pot we can vary the brightness and intensity of LCD.  Ability to display numbers.  Ease of programming for character and graphics. characters.4. In our project we are using the LCD for debugging purpose. This is due to the following reasons. The LCDs can be connected to either of the slaves and the readings of the sensors and those being displayed on screen can be Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 25 . The trim pot for intensity variation of LCD is shown.

D0 to D7.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System verified. we send ASCII codes for the letters. Following table lists the instruction command codes. LCD Pin Description:- Pin 1 2 3 4 Symbol Vss Vcc Vee RS (Register Select) I/O ---I 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 R/W (Read/Write) E DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 I I I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O Description Ground +5V Power Supply Power supply to control contrast RS=0 to select command register RS=1 to select data register R/W=0 for write R/W=1 for read Enable Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin Data pin D0-D7:The 8 bit data pins. A-Z and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. Main advantage of using LCD is that the application becomes very user friendly and it serves as a very good debugging tool. There are also instruction command codes that can be sent to clear the display or force the cursor to the home position or blink the cursor. To display letters and numbers. CODE (HEX) Command to LCD instruction register Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 26 . are used to send information to the LCD or read the content of the LCD internal registers.

Note that we must put along delay between issuing data or command to the LCD.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor Increment cursor Shift display left Shift display right Display off. cursor off Display off. cursor on Display on. cursor on Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift entire display to left Shift entire display to right Force cursor to the beginning of first line Force cursor to the beginning of second line Two lines and 5x7 matrix By using the table. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 27 . However a much better way is to monitor the busy flag before issuing a command or data to the LCD. cursor off Display on. Following fig shows interfacing with the microcontroller. programming is done and the generated code is sent to the LCD.

The driver differential outputs and the receiver differential inputs are connected internally to form differential input/output (I/O) bus ports that are designed to offer minimum loading to the bus when the driver is disabled or VCC = 0. The driver and receiver have active-high and active-low enables. . .They are designed for balanced transmission lines and meet ANSI Standards TIA/EIA-422-B and TIA/EIA-485-A.27. The SN65176B and SN75176B combine a 3-state differential line driver and a differential input line receiver.11 and X.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System 8 33 40 PIC16F87 7 29 D0 Vcc D7 Vee Vss LCD 1k Pot RS Fig 2. The receiver features a minimum input impedance of 12 k. Features: Bidirectional Transceivers  Meet or Exceed the Requirements of ANSI Standards TIA/EIA-422-B and TIA/EIA-485-A and ITU Recommendations V. The driver features positive and negative current limiting and thermal shutdown for protection from line-fault conditions.11 and X. both of which operate from a single 5-V power supply.4 SN75176B:The SN65176B and SN75176B differential bus transceivers are integrated circuits designed for bidirectional data communication on multipoint bus transmission lines. an input sensitivity of 200 mV. Thermal shutdown is designed to occur at a junction temperature of approximately 150oC. The driver is designed for up to 60 mA of sink or source current. that can be connected together externally to function as a direction control. They also meet ITU recommendations V.9. respectively.5 1.27  Designed for Multipoint Transmission on Long Bus Lines in Noisy Environments  3-State Driver and Receiver Outputs  Individual Driver and Receiver Enables  Wide Positive and Negative Input/Output Bus Voltage Ranges  Driver Output Capability . ±60 mA Max Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 28 .

Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 29 . . ±200 mV Receiver Input Hysteresis .6 Differential wires are connected to the input terminals A and B of the IC. . . The IC can be interfaced with PIC microcontroller as shown above. . . 50 mV Typ Operate From Single 5-V Supply Connection Diagram:- Fig 2. 12 k Min Receiver Input Sensitivity .Networking Based Patient Monitoring System       Thermal Shutdown Protection Driver Positive and Negative Current Limiting Receiver Input Impedance . This figure shows only single configuration of SN75176B but it can be used in multipoint configuration which can be clearly represented with the help of following diagram. .

and at Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 30 . By using high-impedance receivers. with one unit load equivalent to an input impedance of 12k. and the need to conserve power. but RS-422 allows just one driver with multiple receivers whereas RS-485 supports multiple drivers and receivers. Also.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. number of nodes. but there’s no discussion of connector pinouts or software protocols (as there is for RS-232). There are brief suggestions relating to terminations and wiring. An RS-485 network can have up to 32 unit loads. and National Semiconductor’s DS3695. microcontrollers. you can have as many as 256 nodes. or any devices capable of asynchronous serial communications. there are options for methods of terminating and biasing the line and controlling the driverenable inputs. at 1 Mbps it drops to 400’. a TTL driver input and receiver output. the maximum cable length is 4000’. RS-485’s hardware and protocol requirements are simpler and cheaper. data rate.The specification document (TIA/EIA-485-A) defines the electrical characteristics of the line and its drivers and receivers. receivers.Compared to Ethernet and other network interfaces.7 The figure shows that the networking employed by RS485 protocol and SN75176B transreceiver can support upto 32 transreceivers.5 RS485:When a network needs to transfer small blocks of information over long distances. and TTL enable inputs for the driver and receiver.Several vendors offer RS-485 transceivers with various combinations of features.9. and other components depending on the cable length. At 90 kbps. An RS-485 link can extend as far as 4000’ and can transfer data at up to 10 Mbps. RS-485 is often the interface of choice. The RS-485 standard is flexible enough to provide a choice of drivers. but not both at the same time. 1. RS-485 is similar to RS-422. The interface popularly known as RS-485 is an electrical specification for multipoint systems that use balanced lines. Maxim’s MAX485. Texas Instruments SN75176B transceiver that interfaces between RS-485 and TTL logic levels.The network nodes can be PCs. Similar chips include Linear Technology’s LTC485.The chip has a two-wire RS-485 interface.

Maxim.Most serial-communications tools. If A is at least 200 mV greater than B. the voltage difference must be at least 1.Two ways to add RS-485 to a PC are on an expansion card and by attaching an RS-485 converter to an existing port.The receiver detects the voltage difference between a signal voltage and a common ground. Advantage using twisted pair cable:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 31 . And noise on the ground wire can cause the receiver to misread transmitted logic levels. At the driver. along with whatever other noise has entered the wire from other sources.On microcontrollers. An RS-485 receiver must see a voltage difference of just 200 mV between A and B. and Texas Instruments. For differences less than 200 mV. and a stop bit. including Visual Basic’s MSComm. Ports designed for RS-232 communications can use the RTS output. The datasheets for interface chips label the noninverted RS-485 line as line A and the inverted line as line B. In contrast.The receiver detects the difference between the two. most RS-485 links use the familiar asynchronous protocols supported by the UARTs in PCs and other computers. If that’s not available. you can connect an RS-485 transceiver to any asynchronous serial port. signals. the output is a logic low.5 V. you can use repeaters that regenerate the signals and begin a new RS-485 line.For more nodes or long distances. the output is undefined. support RS-485 communications with RTS controlled in software. interfaces like RS-232 use unbalanced. National Semiconductor.or differential. any spare output bit will do. RS-485 is designed to be wired in a daisy-chain or bus topology. it cancels out. Many network circuits also require a port bit to control each transceiver’s driver-enable input. Two wires (usually a twisted pair) carry the signal voltage and its inverse. If B is at least 200 mV greater than A. The ground wire tends to be noisy because it carries the return currents for all of the signals in the interface.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System 10 Mbps it drops to 50’. Because most noise that couples into the wires is common to both wires. or single-ended. Any stubs that connect a node to the line should be as short as possible. A transmitted word consists of a start bit followed by data bits. also available from B&B Electronics. Vendors for RS-485 transceivers include Linear Technology. signals. Most links use twisted pairs because of their ability to cancel magnetically and electromagnetically coupled noise. Converters for RS-232 are widely available and Inside Out Networks has developed a USB–to–RS-485 converter. Although the RS-485 standard says nothing about protocols. the receiver’s output is logic high. The main reason why RS-485 links can extend so far is their use of balanced. so the interface tolerates a fair amount of non-commonmode noise and attenuation. These companies are also excellent sources for application notes containing circuit examples and explanations of the theory behind them. an optional parity bit. The COMM-DRV serialport drivers from WCSC have automatic RTS control built-in.

RS485 Network Topology:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 32 . often a combination of twisting and shielding is used as for example in STP. If high noise immunity is needed. The magnetic fields are allowed to pass. we see that in some parts of the signal lines the direction of the noise current is the opposite from the current in other parts of the cable. The picture      shows the magnetic field lines and the noise current in the RS485 data lines that is the result of that magnetic field. With RS485 communication distances of 1200 m are possible. practically generating a looping current just like in an ordinary transformer. Because of this. Differential signals and twisting allows RS485 to communicate over much longer communication distances than achievable with RS232. noise is generated by magnetic fields from the environment.8  In the picture above. Shielding which is a common method to prevent noise in RS232 lines tries to keep hostile magnetic fields away from the signal lines. In the straight cable.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. When the cable is twisted. foiled twisted pair networking cables. Twisted pairs in RS485 communication however add immunity which is a much better way to fight noise. but do no harm. shielded twisted pair and FTP. all noise current is flowing in the same direction. the resulting noise current is many factors lower than with an ordinary straight cable.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 2. adequate termination is not possible anymore and signal quality may degrade significantly.9 The RS485 network topology is as shown above.  For higher speeds and longer lines. N nodes are connected in a multipoint RS485 network. Although total cable length maybe shorter in a star configuration. Various transreceivers are connected in a multidrop fashion as shown.  The general network topology of RS485 is shown. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 33 .  The RS485 network must be designed as one line with multiple drops. not as a star. Use 100 Ω resistors on both ends. the termination resistances are necessary on both ends of the line to eliminate reflections.

A typical value for 24-AWG twisted pair is 120 W. The receiver’s input can absorb only a fraction of the current. the characteristic impedance is mostly resistive. its magnetic field collapses and induces a voltage on the line. As the current reverses direction.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Fig 3.The terminations reduce voltage reflections that can cause the receiver to misread logic levels. The value varies with the wires’ diameters. For digital signals (which consist mainly of frequencies greater than 100 kHz). the receiver’s input impedance. at or just beyond the final node at each end of the link.The receiver sees reflected voltages as output switches.0 The circuit has two 120-W terminating resistors connected in parallel. On a line without a termination. the inductive and capacitive components are small. the initial current is greater than the final current because the characteristic impedance is less than the receiver’s combined input impedance. The initial current is a function of the line’s characteristic impedance. The final current is a function of the line termination. and the line settles from its initial current to its final current. The termination eliminates reflections by making the initial and final currents equal. the spacing between them. which is the input impedance of an infinite open line. The rest reflects back to the driver. the first reflection occurs when the initial current reaches the receiver. the receiver initially sees a greater voltage than Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 34 . One end of the link also has two 560-W biasing resistors. and the line’s series impedance. As a result. and the insulation type. In a typical RS-485 line without a termination.

For lower power consumption and a greater differential voltage on a driven line. the biasing resistors hold line A more positive than line B. This reflection is of opposite polarity to the first reflection and causes the receiver to see a reduced voltage. the difference between A and B shrinks to a few millivolts. the drivers drive two lines with each ending at a termination. the receiver’s output is high impedance. and a 100-kW pulldown from line B to ground. much less than the required 200 mV. The reflections bounce back and forth like this for a few rounds before they die out and the line settles to its final current. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 35 . as Figure 3.0 shows.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System what was transmitted. When you add two 120-W terminations. Most RS-485 transceivers have internal biasing circuits. To comply with the specification. The RS-485 specification recommends connecting a 100-W resistor of at least 0. it sees exactly what it was expecting—a load equal to the line’s characteristic impedance. If the output doesn’t connect to a input with an internal pullup. which has a lower impedance than the line. In a network with two parallel terminations. one driver will be a little stronger and one receiver will have a slightly larger input impedance. A typical internal circuit is a 100-kW pullup from line A to V+. but the energy from the imbalance has to go somewhere and may dissipate as electromagnetic radiation. components don’t balance perfectly.The biasing resistors hold the line in a known state when no drivers are enabled. the circuit may work. In real life. When the initial current reaches the termi. the driver absorbs some of the reflection and bounces the rest back to the receiver. opposite currents. This way. The entire transmitted voltage drops across the load. The ground wire provides a path for the current those results from small imbalances in the balanced line. if the ground potentials of two nodes vary.The size of the biasing resistors is a tradeoff. but adding a termination defeats their ability to bias the line. adding a pullup here ensures that the node doesn’t see false start bits when its receiver is disabled. If the line terminates with a resistor equal to the line’s characteristic impedance.5 W in series between each node’s signal ground and the network’s ground wire.nation. With no termination and when no drivers are enabled. For a greater voltage difference and higher noise immunity on an idle line. use smaller values. If the A and B outputs balance exactly with equal. there are no reflections. use larger values. the resistors limit the current in the ground wire. the two currents in the ground wire cancel each other out and the wire carries no current at all. When the receiver is disabled. Without a common ground. all of the nodes must share a common ground connection. This ground may be isolated from earth ground. The solution is to add smaller resistors in parallel with the internal biasing so that a greater proportion of the series voltage drops across the termination.When the reflected voltage reaches the driver.

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Circuit Diagram of Master:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 36 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Circuit Diagram of Slave:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 37 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Artwork/PCB Layout of Master:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 38 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Artwork/PCB Layout of Slave:- Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 39 .

Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Working:Slave side – Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 40 .

Upon receiving the code from the previous slave. Port ‘B’ as output. stores it in ram and displays on LCD. This register is of one byte length. then ADC registers. It then issues a special hex code to the next slave to indicate that now it is his turn to send the data to the master. Thus all the slaves form a loop and continue sending data to the master. At present microcontroller programs port ‘A’ as all analog inputs. Each port has a tris register. For this it uses tris registers. If the pin is to be used as input the corresponding bit must be set to “1” and if the pin is to be used as output it must be set to “0”. then serial port for 9600 baud rate. The heart rate sensor is connected to timer/counter 0. This software displays the data from all patients on the Screen. Then master microcontroller repeats this procedure for all other slaves. Then it intialises serial communication for 9600 baud rate. It goes into the receiving mode and it receives full data from slave1. Then it converts this value in BCD and then converts this value in ASCII and displays on LCD. On Screen Display:Visual basic software is used to display data received from serial port. After power on microcontroller first initialises various port pins as input or output. now it sends the received data to PC using RS 232 level converter.Then it reads the temperature sensor value which is connected to analog channel 1 of port ‘A’. the successor slave reads the data from the sensors and sends this data to the master similarly as the preceding slave. Electronics & Telecommunication Department Page 41 . Then it stores this value in ram. Now microcontroller initialises LCD. It then issues a special hex code to the next slave in the ring. Master side– The microcontroller masterside after power on intialises port pins for input or output using tris register similar to slave microcontrollers. port ‘C’ and ‘D’ as combination of input and output. Next microcontroller displays welcome message on LCD. Micrcontroller counts the number of pulses in one second and stores it in ram and displays on LCD. Microcontroller 16F877A is used. All tris registers are in bank1. Now the microcrcontroller sends this data through RS485 link to the master.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System Each slave consists of a microcontroller based system which is connected to the master side with the help of RS485 link. All slaves continue this procedure. Then microcontroller reads the blood level and saline levels.

slave Electronics & Telecommunication Department Slave no.1 will and PC accept input from the sensors and send it to master.Networking Based Patient Monitoring System FLOWCHART Start Initialise master. Page 42 .

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