SWIMMING POOL DESIGN

Swimming Pool means any artificial basin of water modified, improved, constructed, or installed solely for the purpose of public swimming, wading, diving, recreation, or instruction. Swimming pool includes, but is not limited to, a pool serving a community, a subdivision, an apartment complex, a condominium, a club, a camp, a school, an institution, a park, a manufactured home park, a hotel, a motel, a recreational area, or a water park. Swimming pool includes a spa, hot tub, or whirlpool or similar device which (1) is designed for recreational use and not to be drained, cleaned, and refilled after each individual use and (2) may consist of elements, including, but not limited to, hydro jet circulation, hot water, cold water, mineral baths, air induction systems, or any combination thereof. Swimming pool also includes an artificial lake, a pool at a private residence, or a pool operated exclusively for medical treatment, physical therapy, water rescue training, or training of divers. In this post, we shall take a look at the mechanical services design of a typical swimming pool. Design for the mechanical services for a swimming pool is usually done in the following stages. a) Physical pool parameters and design considerations b) Piping Layout c) Pool Hydraulic Calculations d) Pool Equipment Selection e) Production of Final Design drawings The following gives a sample design of water reticulation system for a swimming pool, using the steps outlined above. Please note that this site is still undergoing construction, and some materials (resources) may not be uploaded at this time. Please feel free to contact me should the need arise for any clarification or further resource requirements. PHYSICAL POOL PARAMETERS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Consider a swimming pool with the following physical parameters. This will vary depending on the architectural design. These parameters are read/taken from the design.

. .2 . . Depth Volume = 15.84 cu. . . .) = 766. . .6 hours Skimmers o The recommended ideal flow rate through a conventional skimmer is usually about 5 cubic metres per hour . .1 . . . . . . Water Velocity in Pipework The velocity of water within a pipe is subjected to physical resistance due to friction and turbulence. .Total Perimeter = 122.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .about 1. .4 cu m Leisure Waters 1m to 1. . . . . . . . . .52 metres per second).5 hours Conventional Pools up to 25m long with a 1m shallow end . . . . . . . . .about 1650 imperial gallons per hour . m. . . .5m deep .5 . . . .93 m ) Total Pool Area = 541. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 cubic metres per hour .25m Width Min.425m = 9m = 1. .5m Children = 25. . . . y The maximum velocity in any suction pipe must not exceed 5 feet per second (1. . . . . . . . (Adult = 494 sq m = 168. . .based on standard swimming pool skimmers . .3 hours Competition Pools 50m long and 2m deep . The absolute maximum acceptable flow rate is around 7. . . . . . . . . . . . Depth Max. . .m (Adult = 738. . .4 Sq. . . . . . . .4 sq m ) Children = 28. . . . .4. . . . . . .100 imperial gallons per hour. . .6 hours Residential or Private pools . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . 3 . . 4 . . . .681 gallons DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS. . . . . . .44 cu m. .5 hours Leisure Pools over 1. . . .18 m (Adult = 96. . Recommended Pool Turnover Periods o o o o o o Children = 47. . .5 hours Diving Pools . .5m deep .1. . . . . . . . .

number of skimmers required for this area . of Skimmers = 351. PIPING LAYOUT Show the proposed layout for the swimming pool. provision is made for floor return pipes.4 sq m = 5834 sq ft. Total flow through skimmers = 0. Design Flow Rate = Pool Volume (Gal. In such cases. From the parameters given above.) Turnover time (Min.4 sq m = 541.56 gpm From STA-RITE U-3 skimmer recommendation. Skimmer Flow Rate: In some pool piping layouts.75 x 468.74 metres per second). = 468.y The maximum velocity in any pressure pipe must not exceed 9 feet per second (2. These are installed on the pool floors as part of the pool water reticulation.42 gpm Therefore flow per skimmer = Total Skimmer Flow No. POOL HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS.42 gpm = 494 sq m = 47.56 gpm = 351. ) = 168681 360) = 0.03687 m3 /s I. Take into consideration proper plumbing requirements. Number of Skimmers Required: Area of Pool Adult Pool Children s Pool TOTAL of pool is 12 II.75 x Design flow rate = 0. do the following calculations.

7 m3/h = 19 D = 0. Pipe Size Selection A. This gives pipe diameter Pipe size used Similarly. Skimmer Line Size: Skimmer flow rate Using the mass flow equation.52) = 4. Return Line Size: Design flow rate = 0.38 x 10^-3 sq m. Number of Inlets Required: (Maximum recommended spacing = 4.03687 m3/s No. Diameter of pipe B = 76 mm Diameter of Pipe C = 76 mm Diameter of Pipe D = 67 mm B.0746 m = 74. IV. Q Where Q = flow rate. of inlets = 132. A = effective area of pipe.22 x 10^-3 cu m/s = AV Maximum velocity in suction pipe = 5 fps = 1.3 gpm = 2. V = Velocity of flow Then A = Q/V Therefore for Pipe A. of inlets used based on 1 inlet per 6 m of perimeter as recommended Therefore number of inlets required is 19.3 gpm ( Must be at least 25 gpm ) III.6 mm = 76 mm = 29. (no.12 = 29.52 m/s . of skimmers served = 3) Area = 3 x 2.5 m) No.22 x 10^-3 /(1.

74) Pipe size used C.03687)] /(2.03687)/2] /(1.7 mm = 76 mm HEAD LOSS CALCULATIONS Pressure Loss Calculation .0050 sq m.13 mm = 76 mm = 0.0652 m = 65mm Pipe size used = 76 mm Same was done for pipe Sb For Pipe Sc Area = [((7/19) x 0.03687)] /(2. Design flow rate = 0.11313 m = 113.0101 sq m. This gives pipe diameter D = 0. Q = AV For Pipe Ma Area = [((0. Area = [((6/19) x 0. This gives pipe diameter D = 0. 1.03687 cu m/s Velocity in drain pipe = 1. Q = AV For Pipe Sa . This gives pipe diameter D = 0.83) Pipe size used = 110 mm Same for Pipe Mb = 0.83 m/s Using the mass flow equation.83 m /s velocity at design flow rate.Using the mass flow equation.0707 m = 70.00425 sq m.74) = 0. Main Drain Size: Select pipe size which gives max.

and roughness of the pipe material). Fluid head loss of these fitting were calculated using: h = K x v ² / 2g K = manufacturer s published K factor for the fitting v = velocity of fluid g = acceleration due to gravity The above formulae was applied to sum the total loss from fittings associated with each pipe work. Many manufacturers of pipe work fittings and valves publish K factors for their products. Fluid head resistance was calculated using the Darcy Weisbach formula. length of the pipe. h = f (L/D) x (v ²/2g) f = friction factor (See Moody Friction Factor.Pressure Loss or Head Loss in a pipe can be calculated if the fluid data and the flow rate are known and specific attributes of the pipe are known (such as inner diameter of the pipe. .) L = length of pipe work D = inner diameter of pipe work v = velocity of fluid g = acceleration due to gravity Head Loss Through Fittings The fluid head resistance through various pipe work fittings can be calculated if the K factor of the fitting is known. Head Loss in Pipe Work The resistance to fluid flow is usually expressed in fluid head. This is the height of a column of fluid which would exert enough pressure on the fluid at the bottom of the column to make the fluid flow within the system.

44 m Floor Drain Line Loss = 5. required input power (BHP).51 m Skimmer Line Loss = 7.74 These head loss values were used in the pool equipment selection.31 / SG where: H = pump head. The Head refers to the differential head developed by a pump and expressed in feet of liquid: H = [Pd-Ps] x 2. impeller size. FT of liquid Pd = pump discharge pressure. POOL EQUIPMENT SELECTION Filtration Pump Selection: There are two main characteristics considered in determining the correct pump: y The right type of pump for the application and liquid which in this case is a centrifugal pump y The pump performance or characteristic requirements. PSIG Ps = pump suction pressure. efficiency (%). etc. and NPSHr (FT) The pump curve also shows its speed (in RPM) and other information such as pump size and type. PSIG SG = liquid specific gravity .Head loss for Return pipe Work = 13. A pump's performance is shown in its characteristics performance curve where its capacity (GPM) is plotted against its total developed head (FT).

hotels.94 m = 14.5 m = 13.the more effective the filtration. Delivery (Return pipe friction) Static delivery head Suction (Skimmer) Pipe friction Static suction head Total delivery head Total suction head Total Dynamic Head Required.5 m = 5. other commercial pools.73 m3/h Filter Selection: Filtration Rate The Filtration Rate is the speed or velocity of the water through the filtration media. H Flow Required. Q = 13.45 m = 132.51 m = 7.51 m =1m = 7. and heavily used private pools will usually have a MEDIUM filtration rate. The slower the Filtration Rate . The Filtration Rate is measured in cubic metres of water per square meter of filter surface area per hour .44 m = 1. y HIGH rate filtration is usually only suitable for private home pools.Following the above.1. Schools.44 . the filtration pumps can be selected from the manufacturer s chart on consideration of the following pump requirements resulting from the friction loss calculations.51 + 5.94 = 20.51 + 1 m = 14. y y Big or heavily used commercial pools will normally use LOW filtration Rates.(m3/m2/hr) OR gallons per square foot of filter surface area per hour.(gal/ft2/hr) .

The design was made to clear condensation by the introduction of fresh air.03687 x 3600 ) 10 = 13.) = 15840 3 = 5280 (ft3/min) . This was also used as a means of reducing temperature conditions in the plant room as controlling the room conditions helps the working of the plants. CFM required C (ft3/min) = ROOM VOLUME (ft3) MINUTES PER AIR CHANGE (min.31 m3/m2/hr to 50 m3/m2/hr (NOTE : .84 ft2) VENTILATION OF THE PLANT (PUMP) ROOM Adequate air changes are vital for the control of high humidity and excess condensation.Many Sand Filters have a maximum Filtration Rate of 45 m3/m2/hr) The filter was selected from the manufacturer s chart on consideration of the above filtration requirements: Filter area required = Design Flow rate Filtration Rate = ( 0.Filtration Rates for Sand Filters (Metric rates) y y y LOW RATE FILTRATION .Less than 10 m3/m2/hr MEDIUM RATE FILTRATION -11 m3/m2/hr to 30 m3m2/hr HIGH RATE FILTRATION . An exhaust ventilation guide will be used in selecting exhaust fans for the plant room.27 m2 (142.

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