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# Principles of Communication (Web Course)

Faculty Coordinator(s):
Prof. V. Venkat Rao
Department of Electrical Engineering
Chennai - 600036
Email : vvrao@ee.iitm.ernet.in
Telephone : (91-44) 2257 8375 (Office)
(91-44) (Residence)

Detailed Syllabus:
Part I
CHAPTER 1
Representation of Signals
1.1 Introduction 1.1
1.2 Periodic Signals and Fourier Series 1.2
1.3 Aperiodic Signals and Fourier Transform 1.22
1.4 Properties of the Fourier Transform 1.31
1.5 Unified Approach to Fourier Transform 1.49
1.6 Correlation Functions 1.78
1.7 Hilbert Transform 1.95
1.8 Bandpass Signals 1.104
1.9 Bandpass (BP) Systems 1.119

## Appendix A1.3: Complex envelope of the output of a BP System 1.127

References 1.130
CHAPTER 2
PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES
2.1 Introduction 2.1
2.2 Basics of Probability 2.3
2.3 Random Variables 2.13
2.4 Transformation of Variables 2.27

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2.5 Statistical Averages 2.48
2.6 Some Useful Probability Models 2.59
Appendix A2.1: Proof of Eq. 2.36 2.75

## Appendix A2.2: Q ( ) Function Table 2.78

(
Appendix A2.3: Proof that N m X , σ2X ) is a valid PDF 2.80

References 2.81

CHAPTER 3
Random Signals and Noise
3.1 Introduction 3.1
3.2 Definition of a Random Process 3.3
3.3 Stationarity 3.8
3.4 Ensemble Averages 3.13
3.5 Systems with Random Signal Excitation 3.28
3.6 Power Spectral Density 3.30
3.7 Cross Spectral Density 3.37
3.8 Gaussian Process 3.41
3.9 Electrical Noise 3.46
3.10 Narrowband Noise 3.61
Appendix A3.1 Properties of Narrowband Noise: Some proofs 3.78
References 3.82
Part II
CHAPTER 4
LINEAR MODULATION
4.1 Introduction 4.1
4.2 DSB-SC Modulation 4.5
4.3 DSB-LC modulation (or AM) 4.29
4.4 Generation of AM and DSB-SC signals 4.41
4.5 Envelope Detector 4.52
4.6 Theory of Single Sideband 4.57
4.7 Generation of SSB Signals 4.64
4.8 Demodulation of SSB 4.71
4.9 Vestigial SideBand (VSB) Modulation 4.80
4.10 Envelope Detection of VSB+C 4.92

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Appendix A4.1: Analysis of ED with Tone Modulation 4.106
References 4.111

CHAPTER 5
Angle Modulation
5.1 Introduction 5.1
5.2 Bandwidth of FM 5.13
5.3 Tone Modulation 5.19
5.4 Phase Modulation 5.30
5.5 Generation of FM 5.36
5.6 Demodulation of FM 5.49
5.7 Bandpass Limiter (BPL) 5.68
Appendix A5.1: Table of Bessel Functions 5.76
Appendix A5.2: Phase Shift Discriminator 5.77
Appendix A5.3: Multitone FM 5.85
Appendix A5.4: RMS Bandwidth of WBFM 5.86
Appendix A5.5: Modulation techniques in TV 5.91
References 5.97
CHAPTER 6
DIGITAL TRANSMISSION OF ANALOG SIGNALS:
PCM, DPCM AND DM
6.1 Introduction 6.1
6.2 The PCM system 6.2
6.3 Sampling 6.4
6.4 Quantization 6.26
6.5 Encoding 6.56
6.6 Electrical waveform representation of binary sequences 6.59
6.7 Bandwidth requirements of PCM 6.61
6.8 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) 6.70
6.9 Delta Modulation 6.80

References 6.99

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Part III
CHAPTER 7

## 7.1 Introduction 7.1

7.2 Receiver Model and Figure of Merit: Linear Modulation 7.2
7.3 Coherent Demodulation 7.8
7.4 Envelope Detection 7.12
7.5 Receiver Model: Angle Modulation 7.21
7.6 Calculation of FOM 7.22
7.7 Pre-Emphasis and de-Emphasis in FM 7.40
7.8 Noise Performance of a PCM System 7.49
Appendix A7.1: PSD of noise for angle modulated signals 7.59
References 7.63