WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 2 : The Structure of Atom

CHAPTER 2 : THE STRUCTURE OF ATOM (ANSWER)
Activity 1 (refer text book pg 11, 12,)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. tiny, discrete molecules, ions smallest, take part atoms, chemically positively-charged in gas, liquid, solid, movement, different arrangement absorbed, released Solid Liquid Gas

Activity 2 (refer text book pg 13,14,15)
1. State of matter Draw the particles arrangement

Particles arrangement Particles movement Attractive forces between the particles Energy content of particles

The particles are packed closely together in an orderly manner Particles can only vibrate and rotate about their fix positions. Particles are attracted by a very strong forces between the partcles Very low energy

The particles are less closely packed but not in orderly arrangement Particles are attracted by very strong forces.

The particles are further apart from each other. Particles are attracted by moderately strong forces.

Particles are held The attraction forces together by strong between particles are forces but weaker weak forces than the forces in solid /(moderately) Moderately high Very high energy energy.

2. When heat energy is supplied to particles in matter, its kinetic energy (increase/decrease) and
the particles in matter vibrate ( faster/ slower) When matter loses heat energy, the kinetic energy of the particles (increase/decrease) and they vibrate ( faster/ slower).

3. A : Melting B :
D : Condensation

Boiling/ Evaporating C : Freezing E : Sublimation F : Sublimation

4. (a) solid, melting point, liquid, gas, absorbed, overcome, intermolecular
5. Point A to B States of matter Solid Explanation Heating causes the particles to absorb more energy and vibrate faster. The temperature of the substance

1

Thus the temperature remains unchanged. exactly balanced. The stronger bonds formed during freezing release energy. This constant temperature is called freezing point The solid is cooled. (a) Point P to Q Q to R State of matter Liquid Liquid and solid Explanation As cooling continues. The particles vibrate slower as the temperature decreases R to S Solid (b) liquid. Continuous heating causes the temperature of the liquid to increase. The atom was describe as a sphere of positive charge embedded with electrons.) Model Dalton’s atomic model (proposed by John Dalton in 1805 ) Thomson’s atomic model (proposed by J. 17.WAJA F4 Chemistry Chapter 2 : The Structure of Atom and the kinetic energy increases. This energy released is the same as the energy lost to the surroundings during cooling. which contains Rutherford’s atomic model (proposed by Ernest 2 .J Thomson discovered the electrons. a negatively-charged particle. The central region of atom has a very small positively-charged particles. J. B to C Solid and liquid Continuous heating does not cause the temperature of the substance to increase. Ernest Rutherford discovered proton. The energy absorbed is used to overcome the forces of attraction between the particles. particles lose more kinetic energy. move slower and the temperature decreases. The particles move faster because their kinetic energy increase. The constant temperature is called the melting point. a positively-charged particle in an atom.J Thomson in 1897 ) Structure (Refer text book pg 16. solid. C to D Liquid 6.17) Characteristic The atom was imagined as a small indivisible ball similar to a very tiny ball. Activity 3 (refer text book pg 16.

and the nucleus is surrounded by electrons. It can be written as follows: A Z X # A – Nucleon number Z – proton number X – symbol of element 3 . protons protons. neutrons. neutrons. 4. 5. Activity 4 1. The nucleus of the atom contains protons & neutrons. NUMBER OF NEUTRON = NUCLEON NUMBER -. Chadwick’s atomic model (proposed by James Chadwick in 1932 .WAJA F4 Chemistry Chapter 2 : The Structure of Atom Rutherford in 1911 ) Bohr’s atomic model (proposed by Neils Bohr in 1913 ) almost all the mass of the atom.) Chadwick proved the existence of neutrons. electrons Subatomic particle Proton Neutron Electron 3. neutrons The nucleon number is also known as the mass number. protons. the neutral particle in the nucleus. electrons 2. The electrons in an atom move in shells around the nucleus which contains protons.Z Symbol p n e Relative mass 1 1 1/1840 Relative electric charge +1 0 -1 Symbols Of Elements The standard representation for an atom of any element shows the proton number and the nucleon number of the element.PROTON NUMBER = A .

of electron 21 13 18 4 5 20 6 17 9 2 1 3 12 10 7 6 15 19 Nucleon number 45 27 40 9 11 40 12 35 19 4 1 7 24 20 14 16 31 39 No.WAJA F4 Chemistry Chapter 2 : The Structure of Atom 1 H 1 3 Li 7 4 Be 9 21 Sc 45 Proton number Nucleon number 5 B 11 13 Al 27 6 C 12 14 Si 28 7 N 14 15 P 31 8 O 16 16 S 32 9 F 19 17 Cl 35 2 He 4 10 Ne 20 18 Ar 40 11 12 Na Mg 23 24 19 K 39 20 Ca 40 21 Sc 45 6. of neutron 24 14 22 5 6 20 6 18 10 2 0 4 12 10 7 10 16 20 Standard representation 35 17 C l 1 6 8 O Activity 5 ( refer text book pg 20) 1. Consider part of the periodic table of the element above and complete the table below. Element Number of isotopes Symbol of isotopes Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons Name of isotopes 4 . different number 2. Element Scandium Aluminium Argon Beryllium Boron Calcium Carbon Chlorine Fluorine Helium Hydrogen Lithium Magnesium Neon Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Potassium Symbol Sc Al Ar Be B Ca C Cl F He H Li Mg Ne N O P K Proton number 21 13 18 4 5 20 6 17 9 2 1 3 12 10 7 6 15 19 No. same number.

8. Phosphorus-32 : to treat skin cancer/ to study the metabolism of phosphorus by plants d. Gamma rays of Cobalt-60 : to treat cancer b.8.1 23 x xx x x x xx x x Na 11 Number of proton Number of electron Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron arrangement 17 17 18 17 35 2.8.8 Number of proton Number of electron Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron arrangement 11 11 12 11 23 2.WAJA F4 Chemistry Chapter 2 : The Structure of Atom Hydrogen 3 1 1 H 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 8 8 6 6 6 17 17 35 35 0 1 2 8 9 10 6 7 8 18 20 44 46 Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3 Oxygen-16 Oxygen-17 Oxygen-18 Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14 Chlorine-35 Chlorine-37 Bromine-79 Bromine-81 Oxygen 3 1 6 8 O O 8 8 8 6 6 6 17 17 35 35 (refer text book pg 21) 1 8 8 Carbon Chlorine Bromine 3 1 4 6 C C l 2 2 35 17 3. Uses of isotopes in Our Daily Lives a. Sodium. Carbon-14 : to estimate the age of bone/ artifacts c. 2(a) 2.7 5 . Iodin -131 : to treat thyroid patients/ to diagnose thyroid glands Activity 6 1.24 : to detect the leakages of underground pipes e.

8.WAJA F4 Chemistry Chapter 2 : The Structure of Atom x x 3.7 2.3 2. Atom of Elements Oxygen Aluminium Chlorine Neon Potassium Magnesium carbon phosphorus helium Electron Arrangement 2.8. the outermost occupied 4.2 2.8.4 2.6 2.8.1 2.5 2 Number of valance electron 6 3 7 8 1 2 4 5 2 6 .8.8 2.8.

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