Causes of poverty Causes of poverty mainly concern reasons behind the low wealth and productivity of the poor

or, conversely, the shortage and inflation of the goods they consume. [edit] Obstacles to productivity

Street children sleeping in Mulberry Street - Jacob Riis photo New York, United States of America (1890)

People experiencing homelessness living in cardboard boxes in Los Angeles, California. The unwillingness of governments and feudal elites to give full-fledged property rights of land to their tenants is cited as the chief obstacle to development.[2] This lack of economic freedom inhibits entrepreneurship among the poor.[3] New enterprises and foreign investment can be driven away by the results of inefficient institutions, notably corruption, weak rule of law and excessive bureaucratic burdens.[3][4] It takes two days, two bureaucratic procedures, and $280 to open a business in Canada while an entrepreneur in Bolivia must pay $2,696 in fees, wait 82 business days, and go through 20 procedures to do the same.[3] Such costly barriers favor big firms at the expense of small enterprises, where most jobs are

such as .[15] In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. producing modernization theory and putting forward a process that all nations should follow to become advanced industrial nations.[9] Similarly substance abuse.[14] In New York. poverty rates can increase in recessions and decline in booms.[11][12][13] As a result of the business cycle. one child in every five was hungry. See also Health and intelligence.[4] War and political instability also discourage investment. Opportunities in richer countries drives talent away.[7] Indian students going abroad for their higher studies costs India a foreign exchange outflow of $10 billion annually.[10] Infectious diseases such as Malaria and tuberculosis can perpetuate poverty by diverting health and economic resources from investment and productivity.000 expatriate professionals annually.3-1.created. 25% of all workers and 37% of all nonfarm workers in the United States were unemployed.3% in some developing nations and AIDS decreases African growth by 0. Others expanded on Weber¶s ideas. [18] Cultural factors. Max Weber first suggested that cultural values could affect economic success. including for example alcoholism and drug abuse can consign people to vicious poverty cycles. researchers have gathered evidence that suggest that values are not as deeply ingrained and that changing economic opportunities explain most of the movement into and out of poverty. Lack of opportunities can further be caused by the failure of governments to provide essential infrastructure. In developing countries.[8] Poor health and lack of affordable education severely affects productivity.[3] In India before economic reforms. Brain drain has cost the African continent over $4 billion in the employment of 150. and saving to accumulate wealth. a hard work ethic. it is estimated that 40% of children aged 4 and younger suffer from anemia because of insufficient iron in their diets. businesses had to bribe government officials even for routine activities.[5] Inadequate nutrition in childhood undermines the ability of individuals to develop their full capabilities. malaria decreases GDP growth by up to 1. 2 billion people (one-third of the total global population) are affected by iodine deficiency. as opposed to shifts in values. arguing that the Protestant Reformation led to values that drove people toward worldly achievements. During the Great Depression. in 1933. [16][17] However.5% annually.[5][6]. leading to brain drains. which was a tax on business in effect. Lack of essential minerals such as iodine and iron can impair brain development.

if current trends of soil degradation continue. racial discrimination. stereotyping. and those near the poverty threshold can be particularly vulnerable to increases in Shocks to food prices. Rises in the costs of living make poor people poorer. caste discrimination. The World Bank warned that 100 million people were at risk of sinking deeper into poverty. As a result poor households. There are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia.[25] Threats to the supply of food may also be caused by Drought and the water crisis.[33] The drain has a damaging effect on the Philippine's health care system.[37] . It is estimated that approximately 100. can negatively affect productivity such as age discrimination. [30] [31] In Africa.discrimination of various kinds. according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.[32] Health care can be widely unavailable to the poor. Poor people spend a greater portion of their budgets on food than richer people.000 nurses emigrated between 1994 and 2006.[20] [edit] Shortage of basic needs Hardwood surgical tables are commonplace in rural Nigerian clinics. For example in late 2007 increases in the price of grains[21] led to food riots in some countries[22][23][24].[19] gender discrimination.[35][36] Note that population growth slows or even become negative as poverty is reduced due to the demographic transition.[29] Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025.[34] Overpopulation and lack of access to birth control methods.[26][27][28] Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and decline of agricultural yields.

Armoede is die status waarin 'n indiwidu verkeer wanneer die persoon nie sy eie. se basiese behoeftes kan bevredig nie. wys sy vonds. Armoede en ontwikkeling [wysig] . is die kans veel groter dat hulle arm sal wees. Hierdie groep mense sluit gewoonlik die ouer geslag en mense met gestremdhede in.Armoede Spring na: navigasie. Oorsake [wysig] Vir indiwidue wat 'n ondergemiddelde vermoë het om geld te verdien. sowel as die mense wat afhanklik is van hom of haar. Indonesië. Lae ekonomiese ontwikkeling dra ook tot armoede by. Die gebrek aan onderwys dra grotendeels by tot die ontstaan van armoede. soek 'n Jong seun in 'n krotbuurt langs 'n stortterrein in Jakarta. en gevolglik nie 'n voldoende lewenstandaard handhaaf nie.

25.. E. 36-45. 3. 2. M.. veral onder die plattelandse bevolkings. Poverty has many causes. waaronder van Suid-Afrika se onmiddellike bure soos Mosambiek.Armoede kan ook aanleiding gee tot dakloosheid." School Psychology Review. J. P.. Talbott. C. (1996). terwyl dit in ontwikkelende lande vyfvuldig toegeneem het. "Traumatic stress and children." Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Portsmouth. M. some of them very basic. Harm.. 1. that the world has too many people. McKay. When Poverty¶s Children Write: Celebrating Strengths. ^ Atkins. Van die 48 minste ontwikkelde lande in die wêreld kom 33 in Afrika voor. 25. 274-283. (1993). Bobbie A. McKay. "The NIMH community violence project: Vol. (2005). Huston. "Chronic community violence: What is happening to our children?. D. Transforming Lives. (1991)." Psychiatry.. C. is dat ál hoe meer mense na die stede trek.. soos hierdie hawelose man in Parys (Frankryk). (1996). Citing: Osofsky. But such basic causes are quite . Vroeg in die 21ste eeu leef die helfte van Afrika se bevolking suid van die Sahara in armoede. M. "DSMIV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams. ^ Atkins. 5.. and not enough food. Talbott. & Arvantis. Citing: Bell. ^ a b Solley. 7-21. & Fick. Wewers. for instance. E. & Jenkins. Children as victims of and witnesses to violence. 175-185. S. Lesotho en Angola. A. Some experts suggest. "DSMIV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams. Richters. M. 56. and... A. E. Die gevolg van armoede. & Martinez. J." Psychiatry. S. P (1993). Daar word bereken dat 'n halfbiljoen mense daagliks honger ly en dat tussen 15 en 20 miljoen jaarliks weens hongersnood sterf.. D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. C. 274-283. & Arvantis. 4. 2. Inc." School Psychology Review. too few jobs. Die afgelope 40 jaar het die stedelike bevolking van ontwikkelde lande verdubbel. M. P. Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. references 1. C. E. J.. (1991). NH: Heinemann. 56. S.

usually expressed as numbers of persons per square kilometer or square mile) or from low amounts of resources. Overpopulation A 6. In countries where people live primarily by means of simple farming. In recent decades most of these countries have tried to develop their economies with industry and technology with varying levels of success. (3) inability to meet high standards of living and costs of living. (5) environmental degradation. herding. gardening. even large areas of land can support only small numbers of people because these labor-intensive subsistence activities produce only small amounts of food. (2) the unequal distribution of resources in the world economy. Excessively high population densities put stress on available resources. or from both. lack essential raw materials and the knowledge and skills gained through . In many developing countries. is closely associated with poverty. however.intractable and not easily eradicated. and Thailand. It can result from high population density (the ratio of people to land area. Malaysia. In most cases. Only a certain number of people can be supported on a given area of land. hunting. (4) inadequate education and employment opportunities. and (7) welfare incentives. and that number depends on how much food and other resources the land can provide. Some nations have become fairly wealthy. Singapore. the problems of poverty are massive and pervasive. so that what makes people poor also creates conditions that keep them poor. including the Republic of Indonesia. the causes and effects of poverty interact. the situation of having large numbers of people with too few resources and too little space. Many developing countries. (6) certain economic and demographic trends. Primary factors that may lead to poverty include (1) overpopulation. and gathering. Overpopulation. Global Distribution of Resources B 7. South Korea. Many experts agree that the legacy of colonialism accounts for much of the unequal distribution of resources in the world economy.

Governments of developing countries often cannot afford to provide for good public schools. electricity. Because these things are necessary for the development of industry. or formal health care. Thus. on average. They also often lack the infrastructure provided by. By the standards of developed countries. but they cannot afford much. people may be accustomed to not having plumbing. 9. most people cannot find . Because people in developed nations may have more wealth and resources than those in developing countries. and a house of thatch or mud-brick. In addition. may expect to make. especially in rural areas. about $30. such as cars. In contrast.formal education and training. Whereas virtually all children in industrialized countries have access to an education. their standard of living is also generally higher.000 each year. higher-priced foods. In rural areas. and entertainment. people who have what would be considered adequate wealth and resources in developing countries may be considered poor in developed countries. Illiteracy and lack of education are common in poor countries. to be able to afford to eat and dress well. such living conditions are considered hallmarks of poverty. purchases unessential to survival. transportation systems and powergenerating facilities. only about 60 percent of children in sub-Saharan Africa even attend elementary school. many people aspire to afford discretionary expenses²that is. People in the United States. some livestock. High Standards of Living and Costs of Living C 8. Inadequate Education and Employment D 10. developing countries generally must rely on trade with developed countries for manufactured goods. Without education. They also probably expect to rent an apartment or own a house with electricity and running water. for example. for example. and to receive quality health care. people in developing countries may consider themselves to be doing well if they have productive gardens.

and industrially produced and stored foods to buffer themselves from the effects of environmental degradation. developing countries tend to have few employment opportunities. In addition. Economic and Demographic Trends F 12. refined fuels. and forests²is an important cause of poverty. people may see little reason to go to school. Taking inflation into account.income-generating work. including the atmosphere. land. Individual Responsibility and Welfare Dependency G . People in developed countries. As a result. have technologies and conveniences such as air and water filters. air. bodies of water. and water are degraded. As forests. Poor people also often forego schooling in order to concentrate on making a minimal living. people who live directly off these natural resources suffer most from the effects. environmental degradation²the deterioration of the natural environment. especially for women. who may have difficulty finding jobs that pay enough to support themselves. and other essential resources. materials for shelter. Periods of economic recession tend to particularly affect young and less-educated people. In the 1950s and 1960s. soil. clean water. on the other hand. grew little while the cost of living increased. In many parts of the world. Environmental Degradation E 11. average family income almost doubled during this period. Environmental problems have led to shortages of food. between the early 1970s and the early 1990s typical incomes. adjusted for inflation. for example. However. Poverty in many developed countries can be linked to economic trends. most people in the United States experienced strong income growth.

but might be remedied if appropriate policies were enacted.13. en meer as die helfte van die Swart bevolking leef tans onder die broodlyn. Nogtans toon groot dele van die land die kenmerke van 'n ontwikkelende land. Some people believe that poverty is a symptom of societal structure and that some proportion of any society inevitably will be poor. However. Honderdduisende blankes het hulle reeds in oorsese lande gevestig. Suid-Afrika het in die jare ná die algemene verkiesing van 1994 in die rigting van 'n vrye markekonomie beweeg. Die ekonomiese gelykstelling van voorheenbenadeeldes soos vroue. nie-blankes en gestremdes en breë-basis Swart Ekonomiese Bemagtiging geniet tans besondere aandag. Daarnaas gooi die VIGS-pandemie en die hoë vlakke van misdaad en geweldpleging 'n skadu oor die land se ekonomiese toekoms. en sommige stedelike gebiede beskik reeds oor die infrastruktuur van 'n tipiese nywerheidsland. if people voluntarily choose to use drugs and this leads them to poverty. en die regering spits hom tans veral op die bestryding van armoede en werkloosheid toe. Other people feel that the poor intentionally behave in ways that cause or perpetuate their poverty. These people feel that poverty is beyond the control of those who experience it. Die transformasie van die ekonomie is nog nie afgesluit nie. such as the labor market and schools. it can be argued that they are to blame for their situation. Nogtans word die meeste Suid-Afrikaners volgens internasionale standaarde as arm beskou. Met sy strewe om meer geleenthede aan hierdie benadeeldes te bied en daarmee gepaardgaande maatreëls soos regstellende aksie loop die regering egter ook gevaar om die steun van baie hoogs opgeleide blankes te verloor. Others feel that poverty results from a failure of social institutions. Die bestryding van armoede [wysig] Suid-Afrika word as 'n middelinkomsteland geklassifiseer. There are differing beliefs about individual responsibility for poverty. en sedert 1994 het 'n bykomende nege . Die inkomste van Swart huishoudings het tussen 2000 en 2005 met sowat 9 persent gestyg. For instance. 14. wat ook sy sosiale verantwoordelikheid teenoor minderbevoorregtes erken. 15. such an argument cannot completely explain cases in which poverty leads to drug dependence. Suid-Afrika word vandag as een van die gevorderde ontwikkelende lande gereken.

Tussen 1970 en 1990 het die Blanke bevolking se aandeel aan die totae inkomste van 71 tot 54 persent gedaal. 166 3. Der Fischer Weltalmanach 2007. in 1996 egter nog net 22 persent. Daar het wél 'n herverdeling van inkomste plaasgevind. 457 2. en Krugell. terwyl Swartmense se aandeel tot 33 persent gestyg het. Meer as ¶n miljoen Suid-Afrikaanse werkloses kon dalk ¶n werk gehad het as Suid-Afrika nie die laaste paar jaar ¶n toestroming van hoofsaaklik onwettige immigrante ervaar het nie.miljoen mense toegang tot skoon water en 1. Ramings dui daarop dat enigiets van 1 miljoen tot 2. WriteStuff Publishing 2000. verwysings 1.8 miljoen van hulle poste beklee wat dalk aan Suid-Afrikaners werk kon gegee het. (Noordwes-Universiteit. bl.5 miljoen huishoudings toegang tot elektrisiteit gekry. 9. bl.249-250 6. Gries. Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in Africa. Omdat Statistieke Suid-Afrika (SSA) nie onwettige immigrante in sy bevolking. In: Gilroy/Gries/Naudé (2005). Bernard Michael. bl. Dit is die resultate van ramings wat ekonome vir Sake-Rapport gedoen het oor die invloed wat onwettige immigrante op die arbeidstoneel in Suid-Afrika het. South African Perspectives. ^ Gilroy. bl. W. bl. Suid-Afrika): Human Resource Development: A Sine Qua Non for Foreign Direct Investment in South Africa. 7. Thomas en Naudé.en arbeidsyfers insluit nie. Die rykste tien persent van die bevolking was in 1975 merendeels Blankes (95 persent). (uitgewers): Multinational Enterprises. 88 5. 249 4. Willem A. 8. ^ Gilroy/Gries/Naudé (2005). W. 4de uitgawe. ^ Naudé. dit lei na armoede in ons land . Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag 2006. en ag miljoen van sy 43 miljoen inwoners het geen regstreekse toegang tot skoon water nie.7 miljoen huishoudings het in 2005 meer as drie miljoen nog steeds geen toegang tot elektrisiteit. ^ South African Business Guidebook 1999-2000. Heidelberg (Duitsland): Physica 2005. is die kans goed dat die aantal werkgeleenthede in Suid-Afrika deur die amptelike statistieke onderskat word. Van Suid-Afrika se 10.

Dobbelary : rook drank drugs Werkloosheid Onwettige immigrante Hoë standaard van lewenskoste Belasting Oorpopulasie Geen opleiding of opvoeding .

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