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Business Research


Term Paper (A research proposal)

Effectiveness and efficiency of Value Added Tax
(VAT) system in Bangladesh

Submitted to:
Dr. Shaker Ahmed
Department of Management Studies
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka

Submitted by:

Ahmed Munirus Saleheen # 3-08-14-031

Debashis Chandra Saha # 3-09-16-015
Marzuq Mohammad Hussain # 3-07-12-019
Md. Helal Uddin Talukder # 3-09-16-027
Md. Abdul Waresh Ansary # 3-09-15-037

Evening MBA Program

Department of Management Studies
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka
Date:31st December, 2010

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Title of the study:

Effectiveness and efficiency of Value Added Tax (VAT) system

in Bangladesh

1.1 Background

Bangladesh introduced the Value Added Tax (VAT) in 1991 by replacing the age-
old excise duty on the domestically produced goods and services and sales tax at the
importation stage. The study of the practice and problems of the VAT in different
countries shows that the VAT has been introduced not only because of its revenue raising
potentials but also because of its simplicity, effectiveness and efficiency, transparency,
equity, and progressiveness all of which complement the establishment of good

1.2 Rationale of the study/problem definition

The revenue-GDP ratio in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (8.5%) in the world. Of
all the tax revenues, VAT at present is the single largest contributor to GDP. It has been
found that VAT funds the government expenditure more than any other tax. In the very
first year of its introduction, VAT yielded a reve25.43% more than the previous year.
Starting from 3190 crore taka in FY 1991-92, VAT yielded 28,657 crore taka in FY
2008-09.VAT now accounts for 4.3% of GDP while the total contribution of tax revenue
to GDP is 8.36%. But still different stake holders raise the questions of efficiency and
effectiveness of the VAT system in Bangladesh. By efficiency and effectiveness we mean
“processes and institutions to produce results that meet the needs of society
(effectiveness) while making the best use of resources at their disposal (efficiency).” No
such study has so far been undertaken.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study are:

i. To examine to what extent VAT system is efficient in raising revenue by making

the use of its resources as compared to the tax system that it had replaced
ii. To examine the extent of the enforcement of principles of effectiveness and
efficiency as embodied in the VAT legalization
iii. To identify to what extent the stakeholders namely the taxpayers and consumers
view VAT as an effective and efficient tax system
iv. To find recommendations and suggestions for improving the VAT system as an
efficient and effective tax system

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1.4 Methodology

i. Source of data:
Mainly secondary data- published VAT legislations and statistics from the
National Board of Revenue (NBR) as well as from Bureau of Statistics will be
For assessing the stakeholders’ perception of Bangladesh VAT as regards its
efficiency and effectiveness primary data will be gathered from Bangladeshi
stakeholders like the taxpayers and general consumers.

ii. Sampling

Based on the target population, probability sampling (stratified sampling) will

be used.

iii. Sample size

The total sample size will be 100 (by choosing some strata (e.g. - from
consumers, from taxpayers, from the high dense and convenience place). Of
them, 50% will be from the taxpayers segment and the remaining 50% from
general consumers.

iv. Questionnaire

Two set of structured questionnaire with fixed alternative questions including

simple dichotomy. determinant choice, frequency determination will be
prepared for the target respondents for collecting primary data- one set for the
general consumers and the other for the taxpaying business representatives. In
order to ensure the accuracy and relevancy of data, questions will be in
Bangla. Questionnaire will be pre-tested before putting into use.

v. Data Collection

Researchers (members of the group) themselves will collect data the target
population staying in Dhaka and its neighborhood.

vi. Statistical tools for data processing and analysis

Appropriate statistical tools like tables, graphs and charts will be used to
process and analyze data and to arrive at the conclusion of the study.

1.5 Limitations

As VAT covers the whole of Bangladesh, the data to be truly representative

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needs to be gathered from a much bigger population. But due to time and resource
constraints, the sample size has been kept small.

1.6 Conclusion

Based on the findings and their interpretation, a report containing recommendations will
be prepared within the given time limit and presented to the concerned audience. #

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