ANSYS FLUENT 12.

0 Tutorial Guide

April 2009

Copyright c 2009 by ANSYS, Inc. All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or otherwise used in any form without express written permission from ANSYS, Inc.

Airpak, Mechanical APDL, Workbench, AUTODYN, CFX, FIDAP, FloWizard, FLUENT, GAMBIT, Iceboard, Icechip, Icemax, Icepak, Icepro, Icewave, MixSim, POLYFLOW, TGrid, and any and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks or trademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries located in the United States or other countries. All other brand, product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners. CATIA V5 is a registered trademark of Dassault Syst`mes. CHEMKIN is a registered e trademark of Reaction Design Inc. Portions of this program include material copyrighted by PathScale Corporation 2003-2004.

ANSYS, Inc. is certified to ISO 9001:2008

See the on-line documentation for the complete Legal Notices for ANSYS proprietary software and third-party software. If you are unable to access the Legal Notice, contact ANSYS, Inc.

Contents

1 Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-5 1-9

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Launching ANSYS FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Step 4: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Step 5: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14 Step 6: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 Step 7: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21 Step 9: Displaying the Preliminary Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29 Step 10: Enabling Second-Order Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39 Step 11: Adapting the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-45 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-55 2 Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-3 2-3 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-9

Step 6: Periodic Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Step 7: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24 3 Modeling External Compressible Flow Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-9

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 6: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Step 7: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Step 8: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31

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4 Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-5 4-6 4-8 4-9

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Step 7: Solution: Steady Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Step 8: Enable Time Dependence and Set Transient Conditions . . . . . 4-23 Step 9: Solution: Transient Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 Step 10: Saving and Postprocessing Time-Dependent Data Sets . . . . . 4-29 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41 5 Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-8

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 Step 6: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16 Step 7: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23 Step 8: Compare the Contour Plots after Varying Radiating Surfaces . . 5-35 Step 9: S2S Definition, Solution and Postprocessing with Partial Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-42 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-45 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-45 6 Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-3 6-5 6-7 6-9

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11 Step 7: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18 Step 8: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21 Step 9: Iterate for Higher Pixels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-27 Step 10: Iterate for Higher Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-31 Step 11: Make the Reflector Completely Diffuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-39 Step 12: Change the Boundary Type of Baffle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-40 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-41 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-41

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7 Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-7 7-7 7-9

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Step 5: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10 Step 6: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11 Step 7: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12 Step 8: Mesh Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Step 9: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22 Step 10: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34 8 Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8-8

Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Step 7: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14 Step 8: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 9 Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-6 9-7 9-8

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 Step 7: Solution Using the Standard k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14

Step 8: Postprocessing for the Standard k- Solution . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21 Step 9: Solution Using the RNG k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27 Step 10: Postprocessing for the RNG k- Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33 10 Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 10-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2

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Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8 Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10 Step 7: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Step 8: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21 11 Using the Mixing Plane Model 11-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6 Step 4: Mixing Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7 Step 5: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 Step 6: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10 Step 7: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13 Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-29

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Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35 12 Using Sliding Meshes 12-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8 Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11 Step 7: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14 Step 8: Mesh Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15 Step 9: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16 Step 10: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-30 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-35 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-35 13 Using Dynamic Meshes 13-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3

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Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6 Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 Step 6: Solution: Steady Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 Step 7: Time-Dependent Solution Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15 Step 8: Mesh Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17 Step 9: Time-Dependent Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Step 10: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33 14 Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 14-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9 Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13 Step 6: Initial Solution with Constant Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19 Step 7: Solution with Varying Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-24 Step 8: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Step 9: NOx Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-34 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-44

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15 Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model

15-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14 Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Step 6: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-23 Step 7: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24 Step 8: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-29 Step 9: Energy Balances Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-34 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-34 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-34 16 Modeling Surface Chemistry 16-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8

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Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-16 Step 6: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21 Step 7: Non-Reacting Flow Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Step 8: Reacting Flow Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-24 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-30 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-36 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-36 17 Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 17-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9 Step 5: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-11 Step 6: Initial Solution Without Droplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-17 Step 7: Create a Spray Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-24 Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-30 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-36 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-39 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-39 18 Using the VOF Model 18-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1

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Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-6 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9 Step 5: Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11

Step 6: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-13 Step 7: User-Defined Function (UDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-14 Step 8: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15 Step 9: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19 Step 10: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-24 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-25 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-25 19 Modeling Cavitation 19-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-7 Step 5: Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-9

Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-12 Step 7: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16

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Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-17 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-21 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-24 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-24 20 Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 20-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-4 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6 Step 5: Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-7

Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9 Step 7: Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-13 Step 8: Solution Using the Mixture Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-14 Step 9: Postprocessing for the Mixture Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-18 Step 10: Setup and Solution for the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 Step 11: Postprocessing for the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-25 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-27 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-27 21 Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 21-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2

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Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10 Step 5: Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-12

Step 6: User-Defined Function (UDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-15 Step 7: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-16 Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-19 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-29 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-31 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-31 22 Modeling Solidification 22-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5 Step 4: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7 Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-9 Step 6: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-10 Step 7: Solution: Steady Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-18 Step 8: Solution: Transient Flow and Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-26 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-34 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-34

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23 Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 23-1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3 Step 3: Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-6 Step 4: UDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-7

Step 5: Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-8 Step 6: Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-10

Step 7: Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-13 Step 8: Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-21 Step 9: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-30 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-32 Further Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-32 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-32 24 Postprocessing 24-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-3 Step 3: Adding Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-5 Step 4: Creating Isosurfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-8

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Step 5: Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-11 Step 6: Velocity Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-16 Step 7: Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-20 Step 8: Pathlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-25 Step 9: Overlaying Velocity Vectors on the Pathline Display . . . . . . . 24-30 Step 10: Exploded Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-32 Step 11: Animating the Display of Results in Successive Streamwise Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-37 Step 12: XY Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-40 Step 13: Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-42 Step 14: Saving Hardcopy Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-44 Step 15: Volume Integral Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-45 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-45 25 Turbo Postprocessing 25-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1

Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2 Step 1: Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3 Step 2: General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3 Step 3: Defining the Turbomachinery Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-4 Step 4: Isosurface Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-7 Step 5: Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-9 Step 6: Reporting Turbo Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14 Step 7: Averaged Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15 Step 8: 2D Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-16 Step 9: Averaged XY Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-18

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-17 Release 12. . . . . . . . . . . 26-8 Step 3: Solution . . .CONTENTS 26 Parallel Processing 26-1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1 Setup and Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-3 Step 1A: Multiprocessor Machine . . . . . . . . . . 26-13 Step 4: Checking Parallel Performance . . . . 26-15 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2009 xvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-3 Step 1B: Network of Computers . . . . 26-5 Step 2: Reading and Partitioning the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2 Step 1: Starting the Parallel Version of ANSYS FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . March 12. . . . . 26-2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . 26-14 Step 5: Postprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS xviii Release 12. March 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .

Release 12. (Tutorials for mesh generation are provided with the mesh generator documentation. and 26 use existing case and data files. Where to Find the Files Used in the Tutorials Each of the tutorials uses an existing mesh file. and Tutorial 25 is devoted to turbomachinery-specific postprocessing. March 12. Tutorial 1 is a detailed tutorial designed to introduce the beginner to ANSYS FLUENT. solution. some steps will not be shown explicitly. If you want to look at the results immediately.) Some of the more complex tutorials may require a significant amount of computational time.Using This Manual What’s In This Manual The ANSYS FLUENT Tutorial Guide contains a number of tutorials that teach you how to use ANSYS FLUENT to solve different types of problems. All of the tutorials include some postprocessing instructions. without waiting for the calculation to finish. but Tutorial 24 is devoted entirely to standard postprocessing. you can find the case and data files associated with the tutorial on the User Services Center (in the same directory where you found the mesh file). (Note that Tutorials 24. or that you are already familiar with ANSYS FLUENT and its interface. In each tutorial. features related to problem setup and postprocessing are demonstrated. and postprocessing. In these tutorials. Inc. The “Preparation” step of each tutorial will tell you where to find the necessary files.) You will find the appropriate mesh file (and any other relevant files used in the tutorial) on the User Services Center.0 c ANSYS. 25. 2009 i . This tutorial provides explicit instructions for all steps in the problem setup. The remaining tutorials assume that you have read or solved Tutorial 1.

You may then want to try a tutorial that demonstrates features that you are going to use in your application. mesh scaling. Inc. For turbomachinery-specific postprocessing. You may want to refer to other tutorials for instructions on using specific features. For example. which is devoted entirely to postprocessing (although the other tutorials all contain some postprocessing as well). ii Release 12. You may want to refer to other tutorials for instructions on using specific features. you can use this tutorial guide in a variety of ways. For the Experienced User If you are an experienced ANSYS FLUENT user. To learn about postprocessing. you should look at Tutorial 15. To learn about postprocessing. if you are planning to solve a problem using the non-premixed combustion model. see Tutorial 25. For the Beginner If you are a beginning user of ANSYS FLUENT you should first read and solve Tutorial 1.Using This Manual How To Use This Manual Depending on your familiarity with computational fluid dynamics and the ANSYS FLUENT software. which is devoted entirely to postprocessing (although the other tutorials all contain some postprocessing as well). see Tutorial 25. For turbomachinery-specific postprocessing. even if the problem solved in the tutorial is not of particular interest to you. in order to familiarize yourself with the interface and with basic setup and solution procedures. you can look at Tutorial 24. such as custom field functions. you can read and/or solve the tutorial(s) that demonstrate features that you are going to use in your application. if you are planning to solve a problem using the non-premixed combustion model. mesh scaling. such as custom field functions. and so on. you can look at Tutorial 24. For example. March 12. and so on. you should look at Tutorial 15.0 c ANSYS. even if the problem solved in the tutorial is not of particular interest to you. 2009 .

2009 iii . Inc.g.0 c ANSYS. The words surrounded by boxes invoke menus (or submenus) and the arrows point from a specific menu toward the item you should select from that menu. which then opens the corresponding task page. Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit. • The text interface type style is also used when illustrating exactly what appears on the screen or exactly what you must type in the text window or in a dialog box.Using This Manual Typographical Conventions Used In This Manual Several typographical conventions are used in the text of the tutorials to facilitate your learning process.. • A mini flow chart is used to guide you through the navigation pane. which leads you to a specific task page or dialog box.... For example. a mini flow chart is used to indicate the menu selections that lead you to a specific command or dialog box... For example. indicates that the Injections. menu item can be selected from the Define pull-down menu. Define −→Injections. Multiphase is selected from the list. • Different type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items and text interface menu items (e.. Also. indicates that Models is selected in the navigation pane. Release 12. Additional information about a step in a tutorial appears in italicized type. Zone Surface dialog box. surface/zone-surface command). Clicking the Edit. • An informational icon ( • A warning icon ( ) marks an important note.. ! ) marks a warning. In the Models task page. button opens the Multiphase dialog box. • Instructions for performing each step in a tutorial will appear in standard type.. March 12.

Inc. 2009 . March 12.Using This Manual iv Release 12.0 c ANSYS.

• Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. • Enable the second-order discretization scheme for improved prediction of the temperature field. and so each step will be explicitly described. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. • Read an existing mesh file into ANSYS FLUENT. Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Introduction This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of a three-dimensional turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer problem in a mixing elbow. Prerequisites This tutorial assumes that you have little or no experience with ANSYS FLUENT. • Visually examine the flow and temperature fields using the postprocessing tools available in ANSYS FLUENT. • Set material properties and boundary conditions for a turbulent forced convection problem. • Adapt the mesh based on the temperature gradient to further improve the prediction of the temperature field. March 12.Tutorial 1. • Use mixed units to define the geometry and fluid properties. The mixing elbow configuration is encountered in piping systems in power plants and process industries. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Launch ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 1-1 . • Initiate the calculation with residual plotting. It is often important to predict the flow field and temperature field in the area of the mixing region in order to properly design the junction.

A cold fluid at 20◦ C flows into the pipe through a large inlet. Uy = 1. Density: Viscosity: Conductivity: Specific Heat: ρ µ k Cp = = = = 1000 kg/m3 8 x 10 −4 Pa−s 0. 2009 . and the fluid properties and boundary conditions are given in SI units. Note: Since the geometry of the mixing elbow is symmetric. so a turbulent flow model will be required.2 m/s T = 40oC I = 5% Figure 1. The Reynolds number for the flow at the larger inlet is 50. and mixes with a warmer fluid at 40◦ C that enters through a smaller inlet located at the elbow. 3" 8" 1" 1" Dia.4 m/s T = 20oC I = 5% 4" Dia.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Problem Description The problem to be considered is shown schematically in Figure 1.1. only half of the elbow needs to be modeled in ANSYS FLUENT. The pipe dimensions are in inches.800. Inc.1: Problem Specification 1-2 Release 12. March 12.0 c ANSYS.677 W/m−K 4216 J/kg−K 8" 4" Ux = 0.

Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Setup and Solution Preparation 1. FLUENT Launcher retains settings from the previous session. The file elbow. Download introduction. Inc. 2.0 c ANSYS. The screen shots and graphic images in the tutorials may be slightly different than the appearance on your system. This file can be found by using the Documentation link on the ANSYS FLUENT product page. March 12. Step 1: Launching ANSYS FLUENT 1.msh can be found in the introduction folder created after unzipping the file. based on your geometry and on your processing capabilities. 2. Release 12. 2009 1-3 .zip. Solution files created during the preparation of the tutorial are provided in a solution files folder. Click the ANSYS FLUENT icon ( ENT Launcher. Ensure that the proper options are enabled.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder. ) in the ANSYS program group to open FLU- ANSYS FLUENT Launcher allows you to decide which version of ANSYS FLUENT you will use. depending on the operating system or graphics card. Note: ANSYS FLUENT tutorials are prepared using ANSYS FLUENT on a Windows system. Unzip introduction.

you can click the browse button ( ) next to the Working Directory text box and browse to the folder. March 12. and disabled when the check box is empty. Note: An option is enabled when there is a check mark in the check box. (a) Click the Show More >> button. Extra: You can also restore the default settings by clicking the Default button. so that a green dot appears in the radio button. 1-4 Release 12. using the Browse For Folder dialog box. (c) Make sure that the Display Mesh After Reading. Alternatively. Embed Graphics Windows. and Workbench Color Scheme options are enabled. click the check box or the text. 3. Inc. (b) Select Serial from the Processing Options list. To change an option from disabled to enabled (or vice versa). (d) Make sure that the Double-Precision option is disabled.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Select 3D from the Dimension list by clicking the radio button or the text. 2009 .zip.0 c ANSYS. Set the working path to the folder created when you unzipped introduction. (b) Enter the path to your working folder for Working Directory by double-clicking the text box and typing.

. Read the mesh file elbow..0 c ANSYS.. to open the Select File dialog box. Release 12. 2009 1-5 .msh. Step 2: Mesh 1. then select Mesh.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 4. Inc. March 12. File −→ Read −→Mesh. Select Read from the File menu. Click OK to launch ANSYS FLUENT..

Extra: You can use the mouse to probe for mesh information in the graphics window.0 c ANSYS. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. Inc. You can perform any of the actions described in the following table: 1-6 Release 12. messages will appear in the console reporting the progress of the conversion. For this 3D problem. information about the associated zone will be displayed in the console. Alternatively. 2009 . along with a number of boundary faces with different zone identifiers. March 12. you can make it easier to probe particular nodes by changing the view.msh in the introduction folder created when you unzipped the original file. you can click the probe button ( ) in the graphics toolbar and click the left mouse button on any node.852 hexahedral fluid cells have been read.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Select the mesh file by clicking elbow. including the name of the zone. (b) Click OK to read the file and close the Select File dialog box. As the mesh file is read by ANSYS FLUENT. If you click the right mouse button with the pointer on any node in the mesh. ANSYS FLUENT will report that 13. Note: The mesh is displayed in the graphics window by default.

This action will cause a rectangle to appear in the display. counterclockwise) Translate view (not applicable) Press the middle mouse button once at any point in the display to center the view at that point. Zoom out from view Release 12. When you release the mouse button. When you release the mouse button. Roll view (clockwise. After clicking . press the left mouse button and drag the mouse to the left and up or down. Dragging side to side rotates the view about the vertical axis. Inc. Release horizontal) the mouse button when the viewing angle is satisfactory. Press the middle mouse button and drag the mouse to the right and either up or down. After clicking . press the left mouse button and drag the mouse up. After clicking . The new view will be centered at the center of the rectangle. press the left mouse button and drag the mouse until the view is satisfactory. March 12. the magnification of the view will be reduced by an amount that is inversely proportional to the size of the rectangle. This action will cause a rectangle to appear in the display. Alternatively. a new view will be displayed which consists entirely of the contents of the rectangle. 2009 1-7 . When you release the mouse button. This action will cause a rectangle to appear in the display. after clicking . press the left mouse button and drag the mouse up. after clicking . Press the middle mouse button and drag the mouse to the right and either up or down.0 c ANSYS. press the left mouse button and drag the mouse side to side to roll the view clockwise and counterclockwise. press the left mouse button and drag the mouse. When you release the mouse button. Rotate view Press the left mouse button (vertical. Zoom in on view After clicking . and drag the mouse. This action will cause a rectangle to appear in the display. Alternatively. a new view will be displayed which consists entirely of the contents of the rectangle.1: View Manipulation Instructions Action Using Default Mouse Button Settings Using Graphics Toolbar Buttons After clicking . press the left mouse button and drag the mouse to the right and up or down. and up and down rotates the view about the horizontal axis. a new view will be displayed which consists entirely of the contents of the rectangle.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Table 1.

(a) Select front from the Views selection list.2. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. 2009 . Select Graphics and Animations in the navigation pane. in the Graphics and Animations task page.0 c ANSYS.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Note: After you have clicked a button in the graphics toolbar. 2. (b) Click Apply and close the Views dialog box. Note: A list item is selected if it is highlighted.... March 12. then click Views. and deselected if it is not highlighted. Manipulate the mesh display to obtain a front view as shown in Figure 1.. Figure 1. Inc. you can return to the default mouse button settings by clicking .2: The Hexahedral Mesh for the Mixing Elbow 1-8 Release 12.

607154e+002 Face area statistics: minimum face area (m2): 4. March 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 1-9 .134633e+000. max (m) = 8.017924e-001 Checking number of nodes per cell.000000e+000 z-coordinate: min (m) = 0. General 1.000000e+000. Check the mesh.330738e-002 total volume (m3): 1.000000e+000 Volume statistics: minimum volume (m3): 5.000000e+000. max (m) = 2.000000e+000 y-coordinate: min (m) = -9.865882e-003 maximum face area (m2): 1.098261e-004 maximum volume (m3): 2. Mesh Check Domain Extents: x-coordinate: min (m) = -8. Inc. Release 12. Checking number of faces per cell.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 3: General Settings Select General in the navigation pane to perform the mesh-related activities and to choose a solver. max (m) = 8. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will report the results of the mesh check in the console.

General −→ Scale.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Done. periodic boundaries. It will also report a number of other mesh features that are checked. nosolve face count. element type consistency.. Ensure that the minimum volume is not negative.. right-handed cells. Any errors in the mesh will be reported at this time. storage. 2009 . 2. The mesh check will list the minimum and maximum x and y values from the mesh in the default SI unit of meters. number of cells per face. Inc. 1-10 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. cell connectivity. Scale the mesh. face children. Note: The minimum and maximum values may vary slightly when running on different platforms. nosolve cell count. March 12. node count. bridge faces. face node order. boundary types: face pairs. face handedness. cell children. thread pointers. face cells. since ANSYS FLUENT cannot begin a calculation when this is the case.

Release 12. 4.. scale. or smooth and swap). 2009 1-11 . separate.e. in the General task page and make the appropriate change. (b) Select in from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list by first clicking the down-arrow button and then clicking the in item from the list that appears. millimeters). fuse. This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised. click Units. ! Be sure to click the Scale button only once. The choice of inches for the unit of length has been made by the actions you have just taken.g. (c) Click Scale to scale the mesh. Inc. If you want a different working unit for length. (e) Confirm that the domain extents are as shown in the previous dialog box. in the Set Units dialog box.. General −→ Check Note: It is a good idea to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. (d) Select in from the View Length Unit In drop-down list to set inches as the working unit for length.0 c ANSYS.. there is no need to change any other units in this problem. Check the mesh. The mesh is now sized correctly and the working unit for length has been set to inches. Domain Extents will continue to be reported in the default SI unit of meters. Retain the default settings in the Solver group box of the General task page. (f) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box. convert to polyhedra. March 12. other than inches (e. 3. Note: Because the default SI units will be used for everything except length.. add zones. merge.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Make sure that Convert Units is selected in the Scaling group box.

Inc. (b) Click OK to close the Energy dialog box.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 4: Models Models 1. Enable heat transfer by activating the energy equation. (a) Enable the Energy Equation option.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .. 1-12 Release 12. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit.. March 12.

. Inc. (b) Select Realizable from the k-epsilon Model list. Enable the k.0 c ANSYS. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. (c) Click OK to accept the model and close the Viscous Model dialog box..turbulence model. March 12. 2009 1-13 . (a) Select k-epsilon from the Model list. The Viscous Model dialog box will expand.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 2. Release 12.

.. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit. Create a new material called water.0 c ANSYS.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 5: Materials Materials 1. 1-14 Release 12. 2009 . Inc. March 12.

button). Release 12. you can edit the values in the Properties group box in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box and click Change/Create to update your local copy. March 12. Click No so that the new material water is added to the list of materials which originally contained only air.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Enter water for Name. 2009 1-15 .677 W/m − K 8e-04 kg/m − s Extra: You could have copied the material water-liquid (h2o<l>) from the materials database (accessed by clicking the FLUENT Database. asking if you want to overwrite air. Value 1000 kg/m3 4216 J/kg − K 0. (d) Make sure that there are now two materials (water and air) defined locally by examining the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list.0 c ANSYS.. (b) Enter the following values in the Properties group box: Property Density cp Thermal Conductivity Viscosity (c) Click Change/Create. (e) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Inc. If the properties in the database are different from those you wish to use.. Both the materials will also be listed under Fluid in the Materials task page. A Question dialog box will open. The original copy will not be affected.

Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid −→ Edit. Set the cell zone conditions for the fluid zone (fluid).Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 6: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 1.. March 12.. Inc. 1-16 Release 12. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

Step 7: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. Inc. Release 12..Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Select water from the Material Name drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. The information will be displayed in the ANSYS FLUENT console.. March 12. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-5 −→ Edit. Set the boundary conditions at the cold inlet (velocity-inlet-5). 2009 1-17 . and the zone you probed will be automatically selected from the Zone selection list in the Boundary Conditions task page. you can probe the mesh display using the right mouse button or the probe toolbar button ( ) as described in a previous step. Hint: If you are unsure of which inlet zone corresponds to the cold inlet. (b) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box.

(c) Retain the default value of 0 m/s for both Y-Velocity and Z-Velocity.0 c ANSYS.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. March 12. The Velocity Inlet dialog box will expand. The hydraulic diameter Dh is defined as: Dh = 4A Pw where A is the cross-sectional area and Pw is the wetted perimeter. 1-18 Release 12.4 m/s for X-Velocity. (f) Enter 4 inches for Hydraulic Diameter. (b) Enter 0. (g) Click the Thermal tab. Inc. 2009 . (e) Enter 5% for Turbulent Intensity. (d) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box.

using the values in the following table: Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-6 −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. 2. Inc..15 K for Temperature..2 m/s 0 m/s Intensity & Hydraulic Diameter 5% 1 inch 313. set the boundary conditions at the hot inlet (velocity-inlet-6).Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (h) Enter 293. (i) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.15 K Velocity Specification Method X-Velocity Y-Velocity Z-Velocity Specification Method Turbulent Intensity Hydraulic Diameter Temperature Release 12. March 12. 2009 1-19 . In a similar manner. Components 0 m/s 1.

1-20 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 4. Set the boundary conditions at the outlet (pressure-outlet-7)... Since backflow might occur at some point during the solution procedure. For the wall of the pipe (wall). Inc. retain the default value of 0 W/m2 for Heat Flux in the Thermal tab. March 12.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 3. as shown in the Pressure Outlet dialog box.. 2009 . Note: ANSYS FLUENT will use the backflow conditions only if the fluid is flowing into the computational domain through the outlet. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-outlet-7 −→ Edit. Boundary Conditions −→ wall −→ Edit.. you should set reasonable backflow conditions to prevent convergence from being adversely affected.

It is a good practice to also define a surface monitor that can help evaluate whether the solution is truly converged. 2009 1-21 . you will set up and run the calculation using the task pages listed under the Solution heading in the navigation pane. (c) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 8: Solution In the steps that follow.0 c ANSYS.. (a) Make sure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation.. You will do this in the next step. Inc. Note: By default. as shown in the Residual Monitor dialog box. Release 12. March 12. all variables will be monitored and checked by ANSYS FLUENT as a means to determine the convergence of the solution. 1. (b) Enter 1e-05 for the Absolute Criteria of continuity. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.

. (g) Select pressure-outlet-7 from the Surfaces selection list. The name and report type of the surface monitor you created will be displayed in the Surface Monitors selection list in the Monitors task page. (d) Set Get Data Every to 3 by clicking the up-arrow button. (b) Enable the Plot and Write options for surf-mon-1. 2009 . This setting instructs ANSYS FLUENT to update the plot of the surface monitor and write data to a file after every 3 iterations during the solution. (h) Click OK to save the surface monitor settings and close the Surface Monitor dialog box.out for File Name.0 c ANSYS. March 12. Monitors −→ Create. Define a surface monitor at the outlet (pressure-outlet-7).Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 2. (Surface Monitors) (a) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-1 for the Name of the surface monitor.. 1-22 Release 12.. (c) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-1. (f) Select Temperature. Inc. (e) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list.. and Static Temperature from the Field Variable drop-down lists.

March 12. 2009 1-23 . Inc. Note: While an initial X Velocity is an appropriate guess for the horizontal section. Release 12.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 3. using the boundary conditions settings at the cold inlet (velocity-inlet-5) as a starting point. (b) Enter 1. Solution Initialization (a) Select velocity-inlet-5 from the Compute from drop-down list. the addition of a Y Velocity component will give rise to a better initial guess throughout the entire elbow.0 c ANSYS.2 m/s for Y Velocity in the Initial Values group box. Initialize the flow field. (c) Click Initialize.

2009 . Save the case file (elbow1. File −→ Write −→Case.0 c ANSYS. This recommendation can be ignored for the time being. 1-24 Release 12. Inc.gz). Check to see if the case conforms to best practices..Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 4.cas.. as it will be performed in a later step. The only recommendation for this case file is to use discretization of a higher order. (b) Close the Case Check dialog box. Run Calculation −→ Check Case (a) Click the Solver tab and examine the Recommendation in the Manual Implementation group box. March 12. 5.

the introduction folder).e. so that a binary file will be written. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically save the file as elbow1. you are also starting to save the surface monitor data at the rate specified in the Surface monitors dialog box. Release 12.gz). if you enter elbow1.gz. 2009 1-25 .cas.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) (optional) Indicate the folder in which you would like the file to be saved. (c) Make sure that the default Write Binary Files option is enabled. Start the calculation by requesting 150 iterations. asking if you would like to append the new data to the existing file.cas in the extension (e.gz for Case File. Inc.gz to the end of the file name extension instructs ANSYS FLUENT to save the file in a compressed format.. 6. Click No in the Question dialog box. By default.0 c ANSYS. If a file already exists in your working folder with the name you specified in the Define Surface Monitor dialog box. The .gz extension can also be used to save data files in a compressed format.msh (i. (b) Click Calculate. and then click OK in the Warning dialog box that follows to overwrite the existing file. Adding the extension . You can indicate a different folder by browsing to it or by creating a new folder.g. Run Calculation (a) Enter 150 for Number of Iterations.cas.. Note: By starting the calculation. (b) Enter elbow1. March 12. then a Question dialog box will open. the file will be saved in the folder from which you read in elbow. (d) Click OK to save the case file and close the Select File dialog box. You do not have to include .

the plot that appears on your screen may not be exactly the same as the one shown here. the residuals will be plotted in the graphics window (Figure 1.3: Convergence History of the Mass-Weighted Average Temperature Note: The solution will be stopped by ANSYS FLUENT after approximately 140 iterations. Inc. 2009 .4). An Information dialog box will open to alert you that the calculation is complete. As the calculation progresses. March 12. Click OK in the Information dialog box to proceed. depending on the platform being used. 1-26 Release 12. when the residuals reach their specified values. The exact number of iterations will vary. Since the residual values vary slightly by platform.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1.0 c ANSYS.

Residuals continuity x-velocity y-velocity z-velocity energy k epsilon 1e+01 1e+00 1e-01 1e-02 1e-03 1e-04 1e-05 1e-06 1e-07 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Iterations Scaled Residuals FLUENT 12.4). by selecting it from the graphics window drop-down list. except the energy residual.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow You can display the residuals history (Figure 1. This could also be considered as convergence.4 and 1. Release 12. Note: There are no universal metrics for judging convergence. March 12. Examine the plots for convergence (Figures 1. There are three indicators that convergence has been reached: • The residuals have decreased to a sufficient degree. However.3). Inc. but also by monitoring relevant integrated quantities and checking for mass and energy balances. rke) Figure 1. Residual definitions that are useful for one class of problem are sometimes misleading for other classes of problems. for which the default criterion is 10−6 . Sometimes the residuals may not fall below the convergence criterion set in the case setup. 2009 1-27 . • The solution no longer changes with more iterations.0 c ANSYS. The default criterion is that each residual will be reduced to a value of less than 10−3 . The solution has converged when the Convergence Criterion for each variable has been reached.0 (3d. pbns.4: Residuals for the First 140 Iterations 7. Therefore it is a good idea to judge convergence not only by examining residual levels. monitoring the representative flow variables through iterations may show that the residuals have stagnated and do not change with further iterations.

9. (c) Click Compute. The net imbalance should be less than 0. You can examine the overall mass.gz). In later steps of this tutorial you will save additional case and data files with different prefixes.0 c ANSYS. (a) Make sure that Mass Flow Rate is selected from the Options list. 8. as well as in the console.. Examine the mass flux report for convergence. respectively. momentum.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow • The overall mass..2% of the net flux through the domain when the solution has converged. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. 2009 . The net results show that the imbalance in this case is well below the 0. The sum of the flux for the inlets should be very close to the sum of the flux for the outlets. energy. Inc.. and velocity-inlet-6 from the Boundaries selection list. 1-28 Release 12. (b) Select pressure-outlet-7. energy and scalar balances in the Flux Reports dialog box. In the next step you will check to see if the mass balance indicates convergence. The individual and net results of the computation will be displayed in the Results and Net Results boxes.2% criteria suggested previously. velocity-inlet-5.. March 12. Save the data file (elbow1. (d) Close the Flux Reports dialog box. and scalar balances are obtained.dat. momentum. File −→ Write −→Data. in the Flux Reports dialog box.

Extra: When you probe a point in the displayed domain with the mouse...Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 9: Displaying the Preliminary Solution In the steps that follow. (c) Select Velocity.5). you will visualize various aspects of the flow for the preliminary solution. (e) Click Display to display the contours in the active graphics window. the level of the corresponding contour is highlighted in the colormap in the graphics window.0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 1. and Velocity Magnitude from the Contours of drop-down lists.. (b) Make sure that Node Values is enabled in the Options group box. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. Release 12. Inc. March 12. using the task pages listed under the Results heading in the navigation pane. Display filled contours of velocity magnitude on the symmetry plane (Figure 1. and is also reported in the console.. 2009 1-29 . (d) Select symmetry from the Surfaces selection list.

Inc.0 c ANSYS. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists.5: Predicted Velocity Distribution after the Initial Calculation 2. Display filled contours of temperature on the symmetry plane (Figure 1.. 1-30 Release 12.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1...6). March 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 2009 .. (a) Select Temperature.

March 12. Release 12. 2009 1-31 .8). Figure 1. Inc..7 and 1.0 c ANSYS.. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.6: Predicted Temperature Distribution after the Initial Calculation 3.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Display velocity vectors on the symmetry plane (Figures 1.

refer to Table 1. This scaling sometimes creates vectors that are too small or too large in the majority of the domain. You can improve the clarity by adjusting the Scale and Skip settings. Figure 1. Inc.7). (d) Set Skip to 2. To zoom in.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (a) Select symmetry from the Surfaces selection list. 1-32 Release 12.1. thereby changing the size and number of the vectors when they are displayed.7: Resized Velocity Vectors (f) Close the Vectors dialog box. 2009 .8). (g) Zoom in on the vectors in the display.0 c ANSYS. The image will be redisplayed at a higher magnification (Figure 1. (e) Click Display again to redisplay the vectors (Figure 1. Note: The Auto Scale option is enabled by default in the Options group box. March 12. (c) Enter 4 for Scale. (b) Click Display to plot the velocity vectors.

Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. The image will be redisplayed at a lower magnification (Figure 1. Inc. March 12.. You also have the option of selecting the original view in the Views dialog box: select front from the Views selection list and click Apply. Release 12.1..8: Magnified View of Velocity Vectors (h) Zoom out to the original view.0 c ANSYS. 2009 1-33 .7). To zoom out or translate the view refer Table 1.

(d) Select pressure-outlet-7 from the From Surface selection list. Inc. (g) Close the Iso-Surface dialog box.. and Z-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.0 c ANSYS. 1-34 Release 12.. March 12.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 4. (a) Select Mesh. (e) Enter z=0 outlet for New Surface Name. The range of values in the z direction will be displayed in the Min and Max boxes.. (f) Click Create. (b) Click Compute. (c) Retain the default value of 0 inches for Iso-Values. Surface −→Iso-Surface. Create a line surface at the centerline of the outlet. 2009 . in case you would like to create another surface.. After the line surface z=0 outlet is created. a new entry will automatically be generated for New Surface Name.

Release 12. (c) Click Plot. and Static Temperature from the Y Axis Function dropdown lists. Click OK to save the temperature data and close the Select File dialog box. i. Inc. (e) Click Write. ii.. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. March 12. 2009 1-35 . to open the Select File dialog box..Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 5.. Display and save an XY plot of the temperature profile across the centerline of the outlet for the initial solution (Figure 1. Enter outlet temp1. (b) Select z=0 outlet from the Surfaces selection list... The button that was originally labeled Plot will change to Write. (d) Enable Write to File in the Options group box.0 c ANSYS.xy for XY File...9). (a) Select Temperature.. (f) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box..

Define −→ Custom Field Functions.0 c ANSYS.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1. and Density from the Field Functions drop-down lists... (b) Click the X button to add the multiplication symbol to the Definition field. March 12. 1-36 Release 12. Inc.. (a) Select Density.. and Velocity Magnitude from the Field Functions drop-down lists. (c) Select Velocity.9: Outlet Temperature Profile for the Initial Solution 6.. Define a custom field function for the dynamic head formula (ρ|V |2 /2). and click the Select button to add density to the Definition field. and click the Select button to add |V| to the Definition field. 2009 ..

if you have not already done so. After you have opened the drop-down list.. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. March 12. 2009 1-37 . Inc.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (d) Click y^x to raise the last entry in the Definition field to a power.. (e) Click the / button to add the division symbol to the Definition field. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS. (b) Make sure that symmetry is selected from the Surfaces selection list.. is at the top of the upper Contours of dropdown list. and dynamic-head from the Contours of dropdown lists.. (g) Click Define and close the Custom Field Function Calculator dialog box. (f) Enter dynamic-head for New Function Name. Hint: Custom Field Functions. 7.10). scroll up by clicking the up-arrow button on the scroll bar on the right. and click 2 for the power. (a) Select Custom Field Functions. and then click 2. Note: You may need to change the view by zooming out after the last vector display. Display filled contours of the custom field function (Figure 1.. Release 12..

Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1.10: Contours of the Dynamic Head Custom Field Function 8.cas. (b) Click OK to save the files and close the Select File dialog box. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.dat. (a) Ensure that elbow1.cas. as both will be saved.gz). March 12.0 c ANSYS.gz is entered for Case/Data File. 1-38 Release 12. Inc.dat extension.cas or .. Note: When you write the case and data file at the same time. it does not matter whether you specify the file name with a ..gz and elbow1. Save the settings for the custom field function by writing the case and data files (elbow1. 2009 .

2009 1-39 . Inc. You will now change to secondorder discretization for all listed equations.0 c ANSYS. Turbulent Kinetic Energy. as can be seen in the contour plots of temperature and velocity distribution. 2. Turbulent Dissipation Rate. and Energy drop-down lists. (optional) Check the case to confirm that there are no recommendations for revisions to the setup.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 10: Enabling Second-Order Discretization The elbow solution computed in the first part of this tutorial uses first-order discretization. The resulting solution is very diffusive. (b) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum. Run Calculation −→ Check Case Release 12. You will need to scroll the Spatial Discretization group box down to find Energy. March 12. Change the solver settings. mixing is overpredicted. 1. Solution Methods (a) Select Second Order from the Pressure drop-down list.

11). Inc. Figure 1.0 c ANSYS. you would need to change the File Name in the Surface Monitor dialog box to surf-mon-2. (b) Click Calculate.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 3.12. March 12. Continue the calculation by requesting 150 more iterations. 2009 .out prior to running the calculation. Run Calculation Extra: To save the convergence history of the surface monitor for this set of iterations as a separate output file. (a) Make sure that 150 is entered for Number of Iterations. The convergence history is shown in Figure 1. The solution will converge in approximately 63 additional iterations (Figure 1.11: Residuals for the Second-Order Energy Calculation 1-40 Release 12.

gz and elbow2.gz and elbow2. Save the case and data files for the second-order solution (elbow2..0 c ANSYS.dat. Inc.. March 12. Figure 1.gz for Case/Data File. (a) Enter elbow2. (b) Click OK to save the files and close the Select File dialog box. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.gz will be saved in your default folder.cas. The files elbow2.gz).dat.12: Convergence History of Mass-Weighted Average Temperature 4. Release 12. 2009 1-41 .Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Note: You should expect to see the residuals jump whenever you change the solution control parameters.cas.

Figure 1.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 5..13). March 12.6..0 c ANSYS. compare Figure 1. Examine the revised temperature distribution (Figure 1.13) and close the Contours dialog box.13 with Figure 1. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. (a) Make sure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. 1-42 Release 12. 2009 . To see the effects of second-order discretization. (c) Make sure that symmetry is selected from the Surfaces selection list.. Inc. (d) Click Display (Figure 1. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.13 shows the thermal spreading of the warm fluid layer near the outer wall of the bend.. (b) Select Temperature.

The button that was labeled Write. will change to Plot..13: Temperature Contours for the Second-Order Solution 6. Display and save an XY plot of the temperature profile across the centerline of the outlet for the second-order solution (Figure 1.14).. 2009 1-43 . Inc...Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1. (a) Disable Write to File in the Options group box. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Plots −→ XYPlot −→ Set Up. March 12.

and Static Temperature are selected from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists.. March 12. i. to open the Select File dialog box. (f) Click Write. 2009 ...Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (b) Make sure that Temperature.14: Outlet Temperature Profile for the Second-Order Solution (e) Enable Write to File in the Options group box. The button that was labeled Plot will change to Write.. Enter outlet temp2. Click OK to save the temperature data. Inc. (g) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. (c) Make sure that z=0 outlet is selected from the Surfaces selection list. ii. 1-44 Release 12. (d) Click Plot.. Figure 1.xy for XY File.0 c ANSYS...

. Inc. In the following steps. Adapt −→Gradient. and Static Temperature from the Gradients of drop-down lists. it is not necessary to deselect Coarsen in this instance.. March 12. (e) Click Mark. Adapt the mesh in the regions of high temperature gradient. (d) Enter 0. 1. you can continue the calculation. you will adapt the mesh based on the temperature gradients in the current solution. ANSYS FLUENT will report in the console that approximately 940 cells were marked for adaption.. ANSYS FLUENT will update the Min and Max values to show the minimum and maximum temperature gradient.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Step 11: Adapting the Mesh The elbow solution can be improved further by refining the mesh to better resolve the flow details. (b) Select Temperature. Release 12. (c) Click Compute.0 c ANSYS. 2009 1-45 ..004 for Refine Threshold. Hence. It is a good rule of thumb to use 10% of the maximum gradient when setting the value for Refine Threshold. Once the mesh is refined. ANSYS FLUENT will not coarsen beyond the original mesh for a 3D mesh. (a) Make sure that Refine is enabled in the Options group box.

15: Cells Marked for Adaption Extra: You can change the way ANSYS FLUENT displays cells marked for adaption (Figure 1. 2009 . ANSYS FLUENT will display the cells marked for adaption in the graphics window (Figure 1. Click Options. i.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (f) Click Manage.0 c ANSYS. Click Display. to open the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box..15). Figure 1.. 1-46 Release 12.16) by performing the following steps: A. in the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box to open the Adaption Display Options dialog box.. March 12. Inc..

C. Enable Filled in the Options group box in the Adaption Display Options dialog box. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. E.0 c ANSYS. Inc. Ensure that only the Edges option is enabled in the Options group box.16. F. H. I. Click OK to close the Adaption Display Options dialog box. Rotate the view and zoom in to get the display shown in Figure 1. G. Release 12. D. Enable Wireframe in the Refine group box. K. March 12. Click Display in the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box. Select all of the items except default-interior from the Surfaces selection list. Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box. 2009 1-47 . J. The Mesh Display dialog box will open. Select Feature from the Edge Type list.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow B.

rotate the view back and zoom out again to return to the angle and magnification shown in Figure 1. Note: There are two different ways to adapt. Click Yes to proceed. 1-48 Release 12. confirming your intention to adapt the mesh. or close this dialog box and perform the adaption using the Gradient Adaption dialog box. Therefore. use the Adapt button in it to save time. Inc. ii. After viewing the marked cells. when the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box is open. (g) Close the Gradient Adaption dialog box.13. A Question dialog box will open. Close the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box.0 c ANSYS. If you use the Adapt button in the Gradient Adaption dialog box.16: Alternative Display of Cells Marked for Adaption L. March 12. 2009 . iii.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1. ANSYS FLUENT will recreate an adaption register. Click Adapt in the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box. You can click Adapt in the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box as was just done.

(c) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. Inc.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 2. 2009 1-49 . (a) Make sure that All is selected from the Edge Type list.17: The Adapted Mesh Release 12. Figure 1. March 12.17). General −→ Display.. Display the adapted mesh (Figure 1..0 c ANSYS. (b) Deselect all of the highlighted items from the Surfaces selection list except for symmetry.

18: The Complete Residual History 1-50 Release 12. Inc.18 and 1. Run Calculation The solution will converge after approximately 100 additional iterations (Figures 1. Request an additional 150 iterations. Figure 1. March 12. Run Calculation −→ Check Case 4.19). 2009 .0 c ANSYS. (optional) Check the case to confirm that there are no recommendations for revisions to the setup.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 3.

2009 1-51 ..cas.19: Convergence History of Mass-Weighted Average Temperature 5. Figure 1.gz for Case/Data File.gz). (b) Click OK to save the files and close the Select File dialog box. 6. Examine the filled temperature distribution (using node values) on the revised mesh (Figure 1. The files elbow3.cas. File −→ Write −→ Case & Data.gz and elbow3. March 12.gz and elbow3... Save the case and data files for the second-order solution with an adapted mesh (elbow3.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Figure 1.0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Inc. (a) Enter elbow3.dat..20: Filled Contours of Temperature Using the Adapted Mesh Release 12.20).dat.gz will be saved in your default folder.

.. March 12. The button that was originally labeled Plot will change to Write. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up.21: Outlet Temperature Profile for the Adapted Second-Order Solution (e) Enable Write to File in the Options group box. 1-52 Release 12. will change to Plot. (b) Make sure that Temperature..21)...0 c ANSYS. Inc. Display and save an XY plot of the temperature profile across the centerline of the outlet for the adapted second-order solution (Figure 1..Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 7. (a) Disable Write to File in the Options group box.. and Static Temperature are selected from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. The button that was originally labeled Write. Figure 1. (d) Click Plot.. 2009 . (c) Make sure that z=0 outlet is selected from the Surfaces selection list..

Display the outlet temperature profiles for each of the three solutions on a single plot (Figure 1..Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow (f) Click Write.. button to open the Select File dialog box.. i. to open the Select File dialog box. Enter outlet temp3...xy for XY File. Plots −→ File −→ Set Up. 2009 1-53 . March 12. (g) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. Click OK to save the temperature data. Release 12. 8.. (a) Click the Add.22). Inc. ii.0 c ANSYS.

(b) Select the folder path ending in outlet temp1. Inc. (g) Click Plot and close the File XY Plot dialog box. (e) In a similar manner.xy.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow i. This legend entry will be displayed in the upper-left corner of the XY plot generated in a later step.xy. 2009 .xy to be Adapted Mesh. It is apparent by comparing both the shape of the profiles and the predicted outer wall temperature that the solution is highly dependent on the mesh and solution options.22 shows the three temperature profiles at the centerline of the outlet. Figure 1. March 12.xy. change the legend entry for the folder path ending in outlet temp3. (c) Enter 1st Order Soln in the lowest text-entry box on the right (next to the Change Legend Entry button). and outlet temp3.22: Outlet Temperature Profiles for the Three Solutions 1-54 Release 12. Each of these files will be listed with their folder in the XY File(s) list to indicate that they have been selected. ii.xy from the Files selection list. simply click the file in the XY File(s) list and then click Remove. Click once on outlet temp1.0 c ANSYS. further mesh adaption should be used in order to obtain a solution that is independent of the mesh. Specifically. Figure 1. (d) Click the Change Legend Entry button. Hint: If you select a file by mistake. Click OK to save the files and close the Select File dialog box. change the legend entry for the folder path ending in outlet temp2.xy to be 2nd Order Soln. (f) In a similar manner.xy will be changed to 1st Order Soln. outlet temp2. The item in the Legend Entries list for outlet temp1.

Inc. The resulting temperature profiles have been plotted with outlet temp2. temperature) and compared to determine mesh independence.23: Outlet Temperature Profiles for Subsequent Mesh Adaption Steps It is evident from Figure 1..e.0 c ANSYS.e. You will use the Equations dialog box to turn the solution of the equations on and off during such a procedure. an adapted mesh. without solving the flow equations). Summary A comparison of the filled temperature contours for the first solution (using the original mesh and first-order discretization) and the last solution (using an adapted mesh and second-order discretization) clearly indicates that the latter is much less diffusive. without solving the energy equation) and then solve for energy (i. Typically. In this problem. in which the mesh has undergone three more levels of adaption. it is more efficient to compute the flow-field solution first (i. If computational resources allow.2 K after mesh independence is achieved. it is always recommended to perform successive rounds of adaption until the solution is independent of the mesh (within an acceptable tolerance). the flow field is decoupled from temperature. Figure 1.gz and elbow4. since all properties are constant.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow Extra: You can perform additional rounds of mesh adaption based on temperature gradient and run the calculation to see how the temperature profile changes at the outlet.23.gz) has been provided in the solution files folder.xy and outlet temp3.xy in Figure 1. 2009 1-55 . If the adaption steps had not been performed.75 K.dat. optionally. March 12. profiles of important variables are examined (in this case..cas. the profiles converge on a mesh-independent profile. it is good practice to use your first-order solution as a starting guess for a calculation that uses a higher-order discretization scheme and. A case and data file (elbow4. Release 12.23 that as the mesh is adapted further. the wall temperature would have incorrectly been estimated at around 299. While first-order discretization is the default scheme in ANSYS FLUENT. For such cases. The resulting wall temperature at the outlet is predicted to be around 300.

March 12.Introduction to Using ANSYS FLUENT: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Mixing Elbow 1-56 Release 12. Inc. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

0 c ANSYS. • Plot temperature profiles on specified isosurfaces. Inc. with a Reynolds number of approximately 100. with symmetry applied to the outer boundaries. given a pregenerated mesh. The resulting mesh consists of a periodic module with symmetry. 2009 2-1 . Release 12. such as steam generation in a boiler or air cooling in the coil of an air conditioner.Tutorial 2. In the tutorial. and the flow is classified as laminar and steady. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Create periodic zones. • Define a specified periodic mass flow rate. • Model periodic heat transfer with specified temperature boundary conditions. the inlet boundary will be redefined as a periodic zone. only a portion of the geometry will be modeled in ANSYS FLUENT. and the outflow boundary defined as its shadow. Due to symmetry of the tube bank and the periodicity of the flow inherent in the tube bank geometry. Prerequisites This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS FLUENT and that you have completed Tutorial 1. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Introduction Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Many industrial applications. March 12. can be modeled as two-dimensional periodic heat flow. This tutorial illustrates how to set up and solve a periodic heat transfer problem. Both fluids are water. The mass flow rate of the cross flow is known and the model is used to predict the flow and temperature fields that result from convective heat transfer. The system that is modeled is a bank of tubes containing a flowing fluid at one temperature that is immersed in a second fluid in cross flow at a different temperature.

and 1 cm in the y direction. The temperature of the tube wall (Twall ) is 400 K and the bulk temperature of the cross flow water (T∞ ) is 300 K.5 cm 1 cm 3 ρ = 998.1.001003 kg/m-s c p = 4182 J/kg-K k = 0.05 kg/s ⋅ { Τ wall = 400 K 0. 4 cm Τ ∞ = 300 K m = 0.1. only a portion of the domain needs to be modeled. A schematic of the problem is shown in Figure 2.0 c ANSYS. The computational domain is shown in outline in Figure 2. A mass flow rate of 0. The bank consists of uniformly spaced tubes with a diameter of 1 cm.2 kg/m µ = 0.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Problem Description This problem considers a 2D section of a tube bank.05 kg/s is applied to the inlet boundary of the periodic module.6 W/m-K Figure 2. 2009 .1. The properties of water that are used in the model are shown in Figure 2. Their centers are separated by a distance of 2 cm in the x direction. which are staggered across the cross-fluid flow.1: Schematic of the Problem Because of the symmetry of the tube bank geometry. 2-2 Release 12. The bank has a depth of 1 m. March 12. Inc.

Therefore. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics windows. 2. Unzip periodic_flow_heat. March 12. Scale the mesh. Download periodic_flow_heat. 2. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Read the mesh file tubebank. File −→ Read −→Mesh. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the ANSYS FLUENT console window.msh. The file tubebank. 2009 2-3 . Check the mesh. Step 1: Mesh 1. Ensure that the minimum volume reported is a positive number. 3..Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Setup and Solution Preparation 1. once you read in the mesh.zip.1.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). Inc. 3. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. see Section 1.. General −→ Scale.2 in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. For more information about FLUENT Launcher.msh can be found in the periodic flow heat folder created after unzipping the file. Release 12...

5. Inc. or smooth and swap. If you click the right mouse button on any node in the mesh. (c) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box.0 c ANSYS.2).2). The quadrilateral cells provide better resolution of the viscous gradients near the tube walls.e.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer (a) Select cm (centimeters) from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list in the Scaling group box. including the name of the zone. 4. March 12. 2009 . Extra: You can use the right mouse button to probe for mesh information in the graphics window. (b) Click Scale to scale the mesh. information will be displayed in the ANSYS FLUENT console about the associated zone. fuse. Figure 2. resulting in a hybrid mesh (see Figure 2.2: Mesh for the Periodic Tube Bank Quadrilateral cells are used in the regions surrounding the tube walls and triangular cells are used for the rest of the domain. Examine the mesh (Figure 2. 2-4 Release 12. The remainder of the computational domain is filled with triangular cells for the sake of convenience. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. separate.) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised. General −→ Check Note: It is a good idea to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. scale. add zones.. merge. Check the mesh. convert to polyhedra.

Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer 6.000000 all 26 faces matched for zones 9 and 12. The inlet (wall-9) and outflow (wall-12) boundaries currently defined as wall zones need to be redefined as periodic using the text user interface. March 12. Inc. (b) Enter the text command and input the responses outlined in boxes as shown: > mesh/modify-zones/make-periodic Periodic zone [()] 9 Shadow zone [()] 12 Rotational periodic? (if no.040000 0.0 c ANSYS. translational) [yes] no Create periodic zones? [yes] yes Auto detect translation vector? [yes] yes computed translation deltas: 0. (a) Press <Enter> in the console to get the command prompt (>). Release 12. Create the periodic zone. 2009 2-5 . zone 12 deleted created periodic zones. The wall-9 boundary will be redefined as a translationally periodic zone and wall-12 as a periodic shadow of wall-9.

General Step 3: Models Models 1. Inc. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. 2-6 Release 12. March 12. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Step 2: General Settings General 1. (b) Click OK to close the Energy dialog box.. Retain the default settings for the solver.. Enable heat transfer. (a) Enable Energy Equation.

Inc. you will make sure that this material is available for selecting in future steps. Selecting this item will display the default properties in the dialog box. March 12.. (a) Click FLUENT Database. Add water to the list of fluid materials by copying it from the ANSYS FLUENT materials database. Scroll down the list to find water-liquid (h2o<l>). ii. 2009 2-7 .. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit.0 c ANSYS. In this step. Release 12.. Click Copy and close the Fluent Database Materials dialog box. i.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Step 4: Materials Materials The default properties for water defined in ANSYS FLUENT are suitable for this problem.. Select water-liquid (h2o<l>) in the Fluent Fluid Materials selection list. 1. in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box to open the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box.

0 c ANSYS.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer The Create/Edit Materials dialog box will now display the copied properties for water-liquid. 2-8 Release 12. Inc. 2009 . (b) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. March 12.

Inc.. March 12. (a) Select water-liquid from the Material Name drop-down list. Release 12. (b) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. 2009 2-9 .Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 1..0 c ANSYS. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-16 −→ Edit. Set the cell zone conditions for the continuum fluid zone (fluid-16).

0 c ANSYS. This will allow you to specify the Mass Flow Rate..Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Step 6: Periodic Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. Define the periodic flow conditions. (c) Click OK to close the Periodic Conditions dialog box. (a) Select Specify Mass Flow in the Type list. Inc.05 kg/s for Mass Flow Rate. 2009 . (b) Enter 0. 2-10 Release 12. March 12. Boundary Conditions −→ periodic-9 −→ Periodic Conditions..

Boundary Conditions −→ wall-3 −→ Edit. ii. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.. Release 12. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-21 −→ Edit. (a) Enter wall-bottom for Zone Name. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions list. These settings will specify a constant wall temperature of 400 K.. (b) Click the Thermal tab. (b) Click the Thermal tab. 2009 2-11 . Enter 400 K for Temperature. Set the boundary conditions for the bottom wall of the left tube (wall-21).. 2. i. Enter 400 K for Temperature. ii.. Inc. Select Temperature from the Thermal Conditions list.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Set the boundary conditions for the top wall of the right tube (wall-3).Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Step 7: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. March 12. (a) Enter wall-top for Zone Name. i.

2-12 Release 12. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default setting of Least Squares Cell Based for the Gradient in the Spatial Discretization group box. March 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Set the solution parameters. Inc. (b) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum and Energy drop-down lists.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer Step 8: Solution 1.

9 for Energy in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. (a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Inc.0 c ANSYS... Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. Release 12. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0. 2009 2-13 . Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer 2. March 12. 3. Set the solution controls.

Solution Initialization (a) Retain the default setting of 300 K for Temperature in the Initial Values group box.. Initialize the solution. (b) Click Initialize. The values shown in the task pane will be used as the initial condition for the solution. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.cas). Save the case file (tubebank. File −→ Write −→Case. March 12.Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.. 2-14 Release 12. 4. 5. Inc.

Modeling Periodic Flow and Heat Transfer

6. Start the calculation by requesting 350 iterations. Run Calculation

(a) Enter 350 for Number of Iterations. (b) Click Calculate. The energy residual curve that is displayed in the graphics window will begin to flatten out as it approaches 350 iterations. For the solution to converge to the recommended residual value of 10−6 , you need to reduce the under-relaxation factor for energy. 7. Change the Under-Relaxation Factor for Energy to 0.6. Solution Controls 8. Continue the calculation by requesting another 300 iterations. Run Calculation After restarting the calculation, the plot of the energy residual will display an initial dip as a result of the reduction of the under-relaxation factor. The solution will converge in a total of approximately 580 iterations. 9. Save the case and data files (tubebank.cas and tubebank.dat). File −→ Write −→Case & Data...

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Step 9: Postprocessing
Graphics and Animations 1. Display filled contours of static pressure (Figure 2.3). Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up...

(a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. (b) Retain the default selection of Pressure... and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Click Display.

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Figure 2.3: Contours of Static Pressure (d) Change the view to mirror the display across the symmetry planes (Figure 2.4). Graphics and Animations −→ Views...

i. Select all of the symmetry zones (symmetry-18, symmetry-13, symmetry11, and symmetry-24) in the Mirror Planes selection list by clicking on the shaded icon in the upper right corner. Note: There are four symmetry zones in the Mirror Planes selection list because the top and bottom symmetry planes in the domain are each comprised of two symmetry zones, one on each side of the tube centered on the plane. It is also possible to generate the same display shown in Figure 2.4 by selecting just one of the symmetry zones on the top symmetry plane, and one on the bottom.

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ii. Click Apply and close the Views dialog box. iii. Translate the display of symmetry contours so that it is centered in the graphics window by using the left mouse button (Figure 2.4).

Figure 2.4: Contours of Static Pressure with Symmetry The pressure contours displayed in Figure 2.4 do not include the linear pressure gradient computed by the solver. Thus, the contours are periodic at the inlet and outflow boundaries.

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2. Display filled contours of static temperature (Figure 2.5). Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up...

(a) Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.

Figure 2.5: Contours of Static Temperature

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The contours in Figure 2.5 reveal the temperature increase in the fluid due to heat transfer from the tubes. The hotter fluid is confined to the near-wall and wake regions, while a narrow stream of cooler fluid is convected through the tube bank. 3. Display the velocity vectors (Figure 2.6). Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up...

(a) Enter 2 for Scale. This will increase the size of the displayed vectors, making it easier to view the flow patterns. (b) Retain the default selection of Velocity from the Vectors of drop-down list. (c) Retain the default selection of Velocity... and Velocity Magnitude from the Color by drop-down lists. (d) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. (e) Zoom in on the upper right portion of one of the left tubes to get the display shown in (Figure 2.6), by using the middle mouse button in the graphics window. The magnified view of the velocity vector plot in Figure 2.6 clearly shows the recirculating flow behind the tube and the boundary layer development along the tube surface.

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Figure 2.6: Velocity Vectors

4. Create an isosurface on the periodic tube bank at x = 0.01 m (through the first column of tubes). This isosurface and the ones created in the steps that follow will be used for the plotting of temperature profiles. Surface −→Iso-Surface...

(a) Select Mesh... and X-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. (b) Enter 0.01 for Iso-Values. (c) Enter x=0.01m for New Surface Name.

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(d) Click Create. 5. In a similar manner, create an isosurface on the periodic tube bank at x = 0.02 m (halfway between the two columns of tubes) named x=0.02m. 6. In a similar manner, create an isosurface on the periodic tube bank at x = 0.03 m (through the middle of the second column of tubes) named x=0.03m, and close the Iso-Surface dialog box. 7. Create an XY plot of static temperature on the three isosurfaces (Figure 2.7). Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up...

(a) Enter 0 for X and 1 for Y in the Plot Direction group box. With a Plot Direction vector of (0,1), ANSYS FLUENT will plot the selected variable as a function of y. Since you are plotting the temperature profile on cross sections of constant x, the temperature varies with the y direction. (b) Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Y-Axis Function dropdown lists. (c) Select x=0.01m, x=0.02m, and x=0.03m in the Surfaces selection list. Scroll down to find the x=0.01m, x=0.02m, and x=0.03m surfaces. (d) Click the Curves... button to open the Curves - Solution XY Plot dialog box. This dialog box is used to define plot styles for the different plot curves.

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i. Select + from the Symbol drop-down list. Scroll up to find the + item. ii. Click Apply to assign the + symbol to the x = 0.01 m curve. iii. Set the Curve # to 1 to define the style for the x = 0.02 m curve. iv. Select x from the Symbol drop-down list. Scroll up to find the x item. v. Enter 0.5 for Size. vi. Click Apply and close the Curves - Solution XY Plot dialog box. Since you did not change the curve style for the x = 0.03 m curve, the default symbol will be used. (e) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.

Figure 2.7: Static Temperature at x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 m

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Summary
In this tutorial, periodic flow and heat transfer in a staggered tube bank were modeled in ANSYS FLUENT. The model was set up assuming a known mass flow through the tube bank and constant wall temperatures. Due to the periodic nature of the flow and symmetry of the geometry, only a small piece of the full geometry was modeled. In addition, the tube bank configuration lent itself to the use of a hybrid mesh with quadrilateral cells around the tubes and triangles elsewhere. The Periodic Conditions dialog box makes it easy to run this type of model with a variety of operating conditions. For example, different flow rates (and hence different Reynolds numbers) can be studied, or a different inlet bulk temperature can be imposed. The resulting solution can then be examined to extract the pressure drop per tube row and overall Nusselt number for a range of Reynolds numbers.

Further Improvements
This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1.

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Tutorial 3.
Introduction

Modeling External Compressible Flow

The purpose of this tutorial is to compute the turbulent flow past a transonic airfoil at a nonzero angle of attack. You will use the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Model compressible flow (using the ideal gas law for density). • Set boundary conditions for external aerodynamics. • Use the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. • Use Full Multigrid (FMG) initialization to obtain better initial field values. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based coupled solver. • Use force and surface monitors to check solution convergence. • Check the near-wall mesh resolution by plotting the distribution of y + .

Prerequisites
This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1, and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.

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Problem Description
The problem considers the flow around an airfoil at an angle of attack α = 4◦ and a free stream Mach number of 0.8 (M∞ = 0.8). The flow is transonic, and has a fairly strong shock near the mid-chord (x/c = 0.45) on the upper (suction) side. The chord length is 1 m. The geometry of the airfoil is shown in Figure 3.1.
α = 4°

M∞ 0.8 = 1m

Figure 3.1: Problem Specification

Setup and Solution Preparation
1. Download external_compressible.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). 2. Unzip external_compressible.zip. The file airfoil.msh can be found in the external compressible folder created after unzipping the file. 3. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. For more information about FLUENT Launcher, see Section 1.1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. Therefore, once you read in the mesh, it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.

Step 1: Mesh
1. Read the mesh file airfoil.msh. File −→ Read −→Mesh... 2. Check the mesh. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number.

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Mesh

FLUENT 12.0 (2d, pbns, lam)

Figure 3.2: The Entire Mesh

3. Examine the mesh (Figures 3.2 and 3.3). Quadrilateral cells were used for this simple geometry because they can be stretched easily to account for different flow gradients in different directions. In the present case, the gradients normal to the airfoil wall are much greater than those tangent to the airfoil. Consequently, the cells near the surface have high aspect ratios. For geometries that are more difficult to mesh, it may be easier to create a hybrid mesh comprised of quadrilateral and triangular cells.

Figure 3.3: Magnified View of the Mesh Around the Airfoil

A parabola was chosen to represent the far-field boundary because it has no discontinuities in slope, enabling the construction of a smooth mesh in the interior of the domain.

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Extra: You can use the right mouse button to probe for mesh information in the graphics window. If you click the right mouse button on any node in the mesh, information will be displayed in the ANSYS FLUENT console about the associated zone, including the name of the zone. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. 4. Reorder the mesh. Mesh −→ Reorder −→Domain This is done to reduce the bandwidth of the cell neighbor number and to speed up the computations. This is especially important for large cases involving 1 million or more cells. The method used to reorder the domain is the Reverse Cuthill-McKee method.

Step 2: General Settings
General 1. Set the solver settings.

(a) Retain the default selection of Pressure-Based from the Type list. The pressure-based coupled solver is a good alternative to density-based solvers of ANSYS FLUENTwhen dealing with applications involving high-speed aerodynamics with shocks. Selection of the coupled algorithm is made in the Solution Methods task page in Step 7: Solution.

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Step 3: Models
Models 1. Select the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit...

(a) Select Spalart-Allmaras (1 eqn) in the Model list. (b) Select Strain/Vorticity-Based in the Spalart-Allmaras Production list. (c) Retain the default settings in the Model Constants group box. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. Note: The Spalart-Allmaras model is a relatively simple one-equation model that solves a modeled transport equation for the kinematic eddy (turbulent) viscosity. This embodies a relatively new class of one-equation models in which it is not necessary to calculate a length scale related to the local shear layer thickness. The Spalart-Allmaras model was designed specifically for aerospace applications involving wall-bounded flows and has been shown to give good results for boundary layers subjected to adverse pressure gradients.

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Step 4: Materials
Materials The default Fluid Material is air, which is the working fluid in this problem. The default settings need to be modified to account for compressibility and variations of the thermophysical properties with temperature. 1. Set the properties for air, the default fluid material. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit...

(a) Select ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list. The Energy Equation will be enabled. (b) Select sutherland from the Viscosity drop-down list to open the Sutherland Law dialog box.

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Scroll down the Viscosity drop-down list to find sutherland. i. Retain the default selection of Three Coefficient Method in the Methods list. ii. Click OK to close the Sutherland Law dialog box. The Sutherland law for viscosity is well suited for high-speed compressible flows. (c) Click Change/Create to save these settings. (d) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. While Density and Viscosity have been made temperature dependent, Cp and Thermal Conductivity have been left constant. For high-speed compressible flows, thermal dependency of the physical properties is generally recommended. For simplicity, Thermal Conductivity and Cp are assumed to be constant in this tutorial.

Step 5: Boundary Conditions
Boundary Conditions

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1. Set the boundary conditions for pressure-far-field-1. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-far-field-1 −→ Edit...

(a) Retain the default value of 0 Pa for Gauge Pressure. (b) Enter 0.8 for Mach Number. (c) Enter 0.997564 and 0.069756 for the X-Component of Flow Direction and Y-Component of Flow Direction, respectively. These values are determined by the 4◦ angle of attack: cos 4◦ ≈ 0.997564 and sin 4◦ ≈ 0.069756. (d) Select Turbulent Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box. (e) Retain the default value of 10 for Turbulent Viscosity Ratio. The viscosity ratio should be between 1 and 10 for external flows. (f) Click the Thermal tab and retain the default value of 300 K for Temperature.

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The operating pressure should be set to a meaningful mean value in order to avoid round-off errors. 2009 3-9 ..0 c ANSYS. Inc. Release 12. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions. Set the operating pressure. The Operating Conditions dialog box can also be accessed from the Cell Zone Conditions task page. (a) Retain the default value of 101325 Pa for Operating Pressure. March 12. Step 6: Operating Conditions 1.Modeling External Compressible Flow (g) Click OK to close the Pressure Far-Field dialog box..

3-10 Release 12. Step 7: Solution Solution 1. Momentum. see Section 8. Scroll down the Spatial Discretization group box to find the Energy drop-down list. Modified Turbulent Viscosity. (c) Retain the default selection of Standard from the Pressure drop-down list. (b) Retain the default selection of Least Squares Cell Based from the Gradient dropdown list in the Spatial Discretization group box.14 in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Set the solution parameters. For information about setting the operating pressure. (d) Select Second Order Upwind from the Density. and Energy drop-down lists. Inc. Solution Methods (a) Select Coupled from the Scheme drop-down list in the Pressure-Velocity Coupling group box. March 12.Modeling External Compressible Flow (b) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box.

Larger under-relaxation factors (i. (b) Enter 0. 2009 3-11 . closer to 1) will generally result in faster convergence.9 for Modified Turbulent Viscosity. Set the solution controls.. 2.5 for Momentum and Pressure in the Explicit Relaxation Factors group box.0 c ANSYS. Under-relaxing the density factor is recommended for high-speed compressible flows.Modeling External Compressible Flow The second-order scheme will resolve the boundary layer and shock more accurately than the first-order scheme.5 for Density in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. instability can arise that may need to be eliminated by decreasing the under-relaxation factors. (d) Enter 0. Inc.e. Release 12. Under-relaxing the momentum and pressure factors is recommended for higherorder discretization schemes. However. March 12. (c) Enter 0. Solution Controls (a) Retain the default value of 200 for Courant Number.

Modeling External Compressible Flow 3. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. (a) Make sure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box and click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 3-12 Release 12. Inc... Enable residual plotting during the calculation. 2009 . March 12.0 c ANSYS.

where no CFL ramping is necessary. Accept the default values by pressing <Enter> when no input response is given: Release 12. Enter the text commands and input responses as shown in the boxes. ii. (b) Click Initialize to initialize the solution. 2009 3-13 . Solution Initialization (a) Select pressure-far-field-1 from the Compute from drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. i. (c) Run the Full Multigrid (FMG) initialization. Inc. Press <Enter> in the console to get the command prompt (>). Initialize the solution. March 12. FMG initialization often facilitates an easier start-up. thereby reducing the number of iterations for convergence.Modeling External Compressible Flow 4.

001 * number of cycles on level 3 is: 100 * residual reduction on level 4 is: 0.001] number of cycles on level 3 is: [100] residual reduction on level 4 is: [0.001] Number of FMG (and FAS geometric multigrid) levels: 5 * FMG customization summary: * residual reduction on level 0 [finest grid] is: 0. March 12.001] number of cycles on level 2 is: [50] 100 residual reduction on level 3 is: [0.75] enable FMG verbose? [no] yes > solve/initialize/fmg-initialization Enable FMG initialization? [no] yes 3-14 Release 12.Modeling External Compressible Flow > solve/initialize/set-fmg-initialization Customize your FMG initialization: set the number of multigrid levels [5] set FMG parameters on levels .001] number of cycles on level 1 is: [10] 100 residual reduction on level 2 is: [0.001 * number of cycles on level 5 is: 500 * FMG customization complete set FMG courant-number [0.001 * number of cycles on level 1 is: 100 * residual reduction on level 2 is: 0.001 * number of cycles on level 4 is: 500 * residual reduction on level 5 [coarsest grid] is: 0.001 * number of cycles on level 0 is: 1 * residual reduction on level 1 is: 0.. Inc. residual reduction on level 1 is: [0.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .001 * number of cycles on level 2 is: 100 * residual reduction on level 3 is: 0.001] number of cycles on level 4 is: [500] residual reduction on level 5 [coarsest grid] is: number of cycles on level 5 is: [500] [0.

It is good practice to save the case and data files during several stages of your case setup. Inc. This will reduce the axes range and make it easier to judge the convergence. For information about FMG initialization. Run Calculation (a) Enter 50 for Number of Iterations. 5.0 c ANSYS. 2009 3-15 . March 12. (b) Click Calculate. which are plotted in the console window will give you an idea of the convergence of the FMG solver.Modeling External Compressible Flow Note: Whenever FMG initialization is performed.dat). see Section 26. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. 6. By performing some iterations before setting up the force monitors.. Start the calculation by requesting 50 iterations. you will avoid large initial transients in the monitor plots.10 in the separate User’s Guide. it is important to inspect the FMG initialized flow field using postprocessing tools of ANSYS FLUENT. Monitoring the normalized residuals.cas and airfoil. Release 12. including convergence strategies.. You should notice that the value of the normalized residuals decreases. Save the case and data files (airfoil.

ANSYS FLUENT will update the Reference Values based on the boundary conditions at the far-field boundary. and moment coefficients. and moment coefficients. 3-16 Release 12. drag. 2009 . Inc.Modeling External Compressible Flow 7. Reference Values The reference values are used to nondimensionalize the forces and moments acting on the airfoil. The dimensionless forces and moments are the lift.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select pressure-far-field-1 from the Compute from drop-down list. March 12. Set the reference values that are used to compute the lift. drag.

(e) Select wall-bottom and wall-top in the Wall Zones selection list. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. the history information will be lost when you exit ANSYS FLUENT.9976 for X and 0. Define a force monitor to plot and write the drag coefficient for the walls of the airfoil.Modeling External Compressible Flow 8. Monitors −→ Drag −→ Edit. which is 4◦ off of the global coordinates. (a) Enable Plot in the Options group box. 2009 3-17 . These X and Y values ensure that the drag coefficient is calculated parallel to the free-stream flow. March 12.. (b) Set Window to 3. (f) Enter 0. (d) Retain the default entry of cd-history for File Name. (c) Enable Write to save the monitor history to a file. (g) Click OK to close the Drag Monitor dialog box. Inc. Note: If you do not enable the Write option.06976 for Y in the Force Vector group box..

2009 . The X and Y values shown ensure that the lift coefficient is calculated normal to the free-stream flow. March 12... 3-18 Release 12. Similarly. Monitors −→ Lift −→ Edit.Modeling External Compressible Flow 9. define a force monitor for the lift coefficient. Inc. which is 4◦ off of the global coordinates.0 c ANSYS.

define a force monitor for the moment coefficient..Modeling External Compressible Flow 10.. Release 12. Monitors −→ Moment −→ Edit. Inc. 2009 3-19 . March 12. In a similar manner.0 c ANSYS.

.Modeling External Compressible Flow 11. 2009 . Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 3-20 Release 12. (b) Enable Draw Mesh to open the Mesh Display dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Retain the default settings.. Inc.4 and 3. Display filled contours of pressure overlaid with the mesh in preparation for defining a surface monitor (Figures 3.5). March 12. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. i.

89e+0 -1.0 c ANSYS.25e+0 -1.23e+03 -1.91e+0 -3.69e+0 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) FLUENT 12. as shown in Figure 3. S-A) Figure 3.87e+04 4.58e+0 -5. 5. where the pressure jumps to a higher value downstream of the low pressure area.5.65e+04 2.0 (2d. Close the Mesh Display dialog box.Modeling External Compressible Flow ii.33e+0 -6.03e+0 -4.20e+04 2. until individual cells adjacent to the upper surface (wall-top boundary) are visible.36e+0 -2.43e+04 4.09e+04 1.31e+04 3.4: Pressure Contours After 50 Iterations The shock is clearly visible on the upper surface of the airfoil.14e+0 -5.5: Magnified View of Pressure Contours Showing Wall-Adjacent Cells Release 12. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. March 12. Figure 3. 2009 3-21 .76e+04 3.53e+04 9. Inc. Note: The color indicating a high pressure area near the leading edge of the airfoil is obscured by the overlaid green mesh.79e+03 4. simply disable the Draw Mesh option in the Contours dialog box and click Display. To view this contour. (d) Zoom in on the shock wave. pbns.80e+0 -2.47e+0 -4.

Note: You have entered the exact coordinates of the point surface so that your convergence history will match the plots and description in this tutorial. however. In the following step. In general. 2009 . Surface −→Point. (b) Retain the default entry of point-4 for New Surface Name.. 12. so you will need to select the desired location in the graphics window as follows: (a) Click the Select Point with Mouse button. 3-22 Release 12. downstream of the shock (see Figure 3.051 m for y0 in the Coordinates group box.6). March 12. Inc. (b) Position the mouse pointer to a point located inside one of the cells adjacent to the upper surface (wall-top boundary). (a) Enter 0.53 m for x0 and 0. (c) Click the right mouse button. you will not know the exact coordinates in advance. which you will use to define a surface monitor. you will create a point surface inside a wall-adjacent cell.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Create and close the Point Surface dialog box.. Create a point surface just downstream of the shock wave.Modeling External Compressible Flow The magnified region contains cells that are just downstream of the shock and adjacent to the upper surface of the airfoil. (d) Click Create to create the point surface and close the Point Surface dialog box.

Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.Modeling External Compressible Flow Figure 3. 2009 3-23 ..0 c ANSYS.. (a) Make sure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. March 12. Inc. (c) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. Enable residual plotting during the calculation. (b) Select none from the Convergence Criterion drop-down list so that automatic convergence checking does not occur.6: Pressure Contours after Creating a Point with the Mouse 13. Release 12.

and Velocity Magnitude from the Field Variable drop-down list. Define a surface monitor for tracking the velocity magnitude value at the point created in the previous step. (a) Enable Plot and Write. 15. define a monitor at a point (just downstream of the shock) where there is likely to be significant variation. (e) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box.Modeling External Compressible Flow 14. (c) Select Velocity.. 16. (d) Select point-4 in the Surfaces selection list.8 and 3. Since the drag.. Inc. indicating certain overall conditions. Run Calculation The force monitors (Figures 3. they may converge while local conditions at specific points are still varying from one iteration to the next..dat).. and moment coefficients are global variables. and monitor the value of the velocity magnitude. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create. lift. Scroll down the Report Type drop-down list to find Vertex Average.. Continue the calculation for 200 more iterations.9) show that the case is converged after approximately 200 iterations. Save the case and data files (airfoil-1. March 12.. 3-24 Release 12. To account for this. (b) Select Vertex Average from the Report Type drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .cas and airfoil-1. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.

0000 32.0000 12. S-A) Figure 3.0000 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Iteration Convergence history of Velocity Magnitude on point-4 FLUENT 12.5000 10.0000 17. March 12.5000 20. pbns.5000 15.0000 27.0000 Average of Surface Vertex Values (m/s) 22.7: Velocity Magnitude History Figure 3.0 (2d.8: Drag Coefficient Convergence History Release 12.5000 25. Inc.5000 30. 2009 3-25 .Modeling External Compressible Flow surf-mon-1 35.0 c ANSYS.

Modeling External Compressible Flow Figure 3. 2009 .10: Moment Coefficient Convergence History 17.9: Lift Coefficient Convergence History Figure 3.0 c ANSYS. Save the case and data files (airfoil-2. March 12.cas and airfoil-2. 3-26 Release 12.dat)... Inc. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.

y + > 30 and for much of these regions it does not drop significantly below 30. and are defined only in wall-adjacent cells.. and Wall Yplus from the Y Axis Function drop-down list. Plot the y + distribution on the airfoil (Figure 3. 2009 3-27 .11 indicates that. Therefore. Release 12. (a) Disable Node Values in the Options group box. ρ is the density of the air. Wall Yplus is available only for cell values. When you use the Spalart-Allmaras model. you should check that y + of the wall-adjacent cells is either very small (on the order of y + = 1). The value of y + in the wall-adjacent cells dictates how wall shear stress is calculated. The equation for y + is y√ ρτw µ where y is the distance from the wall to the cell center. y+ = Figure 3..0 c ANSYS. Note: The values of y + are dependent on the resolution of the mesh and the Reynolds number of the flow. you can conclude that the near-wall mesh resolution is acceptable. (d) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. and τw is the wall shear stress. March 12. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. or approximately 30 or greater. you should modify your mesh. except for a few small regions (notably at the shock and the trailing edge). (c) Select wall-bottom and wall-top in the Surfaces selection list. Inc.Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 8: Postprocessing 1. µ is the molecular viscosity..11).. (b) Select Turbulence. Otherwise.

2009 . (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.0 c ANSYS.12. (d) Zoom in on the region around the airfoil. as shown in Figure 3. Inc.12: Contour Plot of Mach Number 3-28 Release 12. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. and Mach Number from the Contours of drop-down list.12). March 12.Modeling External Compressible Flow Figure 3. (b) Select Velocity... Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.11: XY Plot of y + Distribution 2. Figure 3. Display filled contours of Mach number (Figure 3...

Figure 3. Flow reversal is indicated here by negative values of the x component of the wall shear stress.13: XY Plot of Pressure Notice the effect of the shock wave on the upper surface in Figure 3.. (c) Click Plot. the large. adverse pressure gradient induced by the shock causes the boundary layer to separate. on the upper surface of the airfoil in Figure 3.12 at about x/c ≈ 0. (c) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. The point of separation is where the wall shear stress vanishes.. and Pressure Coefficient from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. Plot the x component of wall shear stress on the airfoil surface (Figure 3. Plot the pressure distribution on the airfoil (Figure 3. and X-Wall Shear Stress from the Y Axis Function dropdown lists. (b) Select Wall Fluxes.45. Inc. in this case a shock. (a) Enable Node Values.13)..Modeling External Compressible Flow Note the discontinuity. 3. Release 12..14). (b) Select Pressure. As shown in Figure 3. March 12.13. 4. (a) Disable Node Values... 2009 3-29 .14. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS.

Scroll up in the Contours of drop-down list to find X Velocity.Modeling External Compressible Flow Figure 3. (b) Select Velocity. Display filled contours of the x component of velocity (Figure 3.. and X Velocity from the Contours of drop-down lists.. March 12. Note the flow reversal downstream of the shock in Figure 3.14: XY Plot of x Wall Shear Stress 5.0 c ANSYS. Figure 3.. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. 2009 .15: Contour Plot of x Component of Velocity 3-30 Release 12. Contours −→ Set Up.15). Inc..15. Graphics and Animations −→ (a) Enable Filled.

Modeling External Compressible Flow 6..16: Plot of Velocity Vectors Downstream of the Shock Flow reversal is clearly visible in Figure 3. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. It showed how to monitor convergence using force and surface monitors. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. (c) Zoom in on the flow above the upper surface at a point downstream of the shock. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. Inc. Figure 3. Summary This tutorial demonstrated how to set up and solve an external aerodynamics problem using the pressure-based coupled solver and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model.16).16. 2009 3-31 . Plot velocity vectors (Figure 3.16. Vectors −→ Set Up. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.. and demonstrated the use of several postprocessing tools to examine the flow phenomena associated with a shock wave. (b) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. as shown in Figure 3. Graphics and Animations −→ (a) Enter 15 for Scale.

March 12. Inc. 2009 .Modeling External Compressible Flow 3-32 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.

and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. • Define a transient boundary condition using a user-defined function (UDF). Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. • Calculate a transient solution using the second-order implicit transient formulation and the density-based implicit solver. • Create an animation of the transient flow using ANSYS FLUENT’s transient solution animation feature. Inc. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Calculate a steady-state solution (using the density-based implicit solver) as an initial condition for a transient flow prediction.Tutorial 4. Release 12. a steady-state solution is generated to provide the initial values for the mass flow rate at the nozzle exit. As an initial condition for the transient problem. ANSYS FLUENT’s density-based implicit solver is used to predict the time-dependent flow through a two-dimensional nozzle. • Use dynamic mesh adaption for both steady-state and transient flows. Introduction Modeling Transient Compressible Flow In this tutorial. 2009 4-1 . Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. March 12.0 c ANSYS.

Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Due to symmetry. Download unsteady_compressible. only half of the nozzle is modeled. The files nozzle.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1. 4-2 Release 12. Flow through a simple nozzle is simulated as a 2D planar model. Unzip unsteady_compressible.2 in the separate User’s Guide. once you read in the mesh.2 m p (t ) exit p = 0. 2. Therefore. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.9 atm inlet p = 0. March 12.0 c ANSYS. and the nozzle contours have a sinusoidal shape that produces a 20% reduction in flow area.msh and pexit. 3. Inc. see Section 1. The nozzle has an inlet height of 0.zip. For more information about FLUENT Launcher.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Problem Description The geometry to be considered in this tutorial is shown in Figure 4.2 m.7369 atm exit Figure 4.c can be found in the unsteady compressible folder created after unzipping the file. plane of symmetry 0. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default.1. 2009 .zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).1.

3. File −→ Read −→Mesh.. 2009 4-3 .msh. Inc. Read the mesh file nozzle. March 12. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console window. (a) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box.0 c ANSYS. General −→ Scale. Release 12.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 1: Mesh 1.. 2. Check the mesh. Verify that the mesh size is correct. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number...

Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 4. Mirror the view across the centerline (Figure 4.2: 2D Nozzle Mesh Display with Mirroring 4-4 Release 12. Figure 4.. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. (b) Click Apply to refresh the display. (a) Select symmetry in the Mirror Planes selection list. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.. (c) Close the Views dialog box. March 12. Inc.2).

Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 2: General Settings General 1. Note: You will solve for the steady flow through the nozzle initially. Also. The density-based implicit solver is the solver of choice for compressible. Release 12. 2009 4-5 . the pressure-based solver is preferred. transonic flows without significant regions of low-speed flow. March 12. for transient cases with traveling shocks. Inc.0 c ANSYS. you will use these initial results as a starting point for a transient calculation. General (a) Select Density-Based from the Type list in the Solver group box. In later steps. In cases with significant low-speed flow regions. Select the solver settings. the density-based explicit solver with explicit time stepping may be the most efficient. (b) Retain the default selection of Steady from the Time list.

which is not the default unit in ANSYS FLUENT. 4-6 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.. change the unit of measurement for pressure.. The pressure for this problem is specified in atm. Scroll down the list to find pressure. Enable the energy equation. For convenience. March 12. 2009 . (b) Select atm in the Units selection list.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 2. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit.. Inc. General −→ Units. Step 3: Models Models 1. (c) Close the Set Units dialog box.. You will need to redefine the pressure unit as atm. (a) Select pressure in the Quantities selection list.

0 c ANSYS. (a) Select k-omega (2eqn) in the Model list. 2009 4-7 . (c) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.. Release 12. March 12. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit.. Select the k-omega SST turbulence model. Inc.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 2. (b) Select SST in the k-omega Model group box.

so that the ideal gas law is used to calculate density.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 4: Materials Materials 1. (a) Select ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list.. (c) Click the Change/Create button to save your change. Inc. Note: ANSYS FLUENT automatically enables the solution of the energy equation when the ideal gas law is used. 4-8 Release 12. the default fluid material. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. (b) Retain the default values for all other properties.0 c ANSYS. (d) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Set the properties for air. in case you did not already enable it manually in the Energy dialog box. March 12.. 2009 .

Set the operating pressure.. Since you have set the operating pressure to zero. Inc. March 12. you will specify the boundary condition inputs for pressure in terms of absolute pressures when you define them in the next step..0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box. Release 12. (a) Enter 0 atm for Operating Pressure. 2009 4-9 . Boundary condition inputs for pressure should always be relative to the value used for operating pressure.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 5: Operating Conditions 1. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions.

Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1..9 atm for Gauge Total Pressure.7369 atm for Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet −→ Edit. This value will be used during the solution initialization phase to provide a guess for the nozzle velocity.. Inc. Set the boundary conditions for the nozzle inlet (inlet). The inlet static pressure estimate is the mean pressure at the nozzle exit. (c) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box. (e) Enter 10 for Turbulent Viscosity Ratio. (f) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .5% for Turbulent Intensity. (b) Enter 0. (a) Enter 0. March 12. 4-10 Release 12. (d) Enter 1.

Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit.. (a) Enter 0. March 12.. Set the boundary conditions for the nozzle exit (outlet). (c) Enter 1. If substantial backflow occurs at the outlet. Release 12.5% for Backflow Turbulent Intensity. (d) Enter 10 for Backflow Turbulent Viscosity Ratio.0 c ANSYS. you may need to adjust the backflow values to levels close to the actual exit conditions. (b) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box.7369 atm for Gauge Pressure.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 2. Inc. 2009 4-11 . (e) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 .Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 7: Solution: Steady Flow In this step. March 12. Set the solution parameters. 1. 4-12 Release 12. you will generate a steady-state flow solution that will be used as an initial condition for the time-dependent solution. (b) Select Second Order Upwind from the Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Specific Dissipation Rate drop-down lists. Second-order discretization provides optimum accuracy. Inc. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default selection of Least Squares Cell Based from the Gradient dropdown list in the Spatial Discretization group box.

(b) Retain the default values for the under-relaxation factors.0 c ANSYS. Modify the Courant number. Release 12. March 12. 2009 4-13 . Inc. Solution Controls (a) Set the Courant Number to 50.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 2.

0 c ANSYS. Enable the plotting of residuals. 2009 .. (c) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. (a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. (b) Select none from the Convergence Criterion drop-down list.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 3.. March 12. Inc. 4-14 Release 12.

(d) Select outlet in the Surfaces selection list. the history information will be lost when you exit ANSYS FLUENT.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 4. Monitors (Surface Monitors) −→ Create. Note: When Write is enabled in the Surface Monitor dialog box. 5. (a) Enable Plot and Write.. Save the case file (noz ss. March 12.. Inc..cas). (e) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box. (b) Enter noz ss. the mass flow rate history will be written to a file.out for File Name.. Release 12. If you do not enable the write option. 2009 4-15 . (c) Select Mass Flow Rate in the Report Type drop-down list. File −→ Write −→Case.0 c ANSYS. Enable the plotting of mass flow rate at the flow exit.

Solution Initialization (a) Select inlet from the Compute from drop-down list. (b) Click Initialize. March 12. Initialize the solution. Inc.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 6. 2009 . 4-16 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.

Adapt −→Gradient. or the normalized value (by its maximum in the domain). (d) Enter 100 for the Interval.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 7. You will enable dynamic adaption so that the solver periodically refines the mesh in the vicinity of the shocks as the iterations progress. the scaled gradient is used. the gradient is used as the adaption criterion. a considerably smaller interval must be used. (e) Retain the default selection of Pressure. which would necessitate a readjustment of the coarsen and refine thresholds. it is recommended to use either the scaled or normalized value because the raw values will probably change strongly during the computation.. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Mesh adaption can be controlled by the raw (or standard) value of the gradient.. the scaled value (by its average in the domain). Perform gradient adaption to refine the mesh. 2009 4-17 . March 12. (b) Select Scale from the Normalization group box.. Inc. In this case. and Static Pressure from the Gradients of drop-down lists.. The shocks are identified by their large pressure gradients. For steady-state flows. Because strong shocks occur inside the nozzle. The mesh adaption criterion can either be the gradient or the curvature (second gradient). (a) Select Gradient from the Method group box. it is sufficient to only seldomly adapt the mesh—in this case an interval of 100 iterations is chosen. (c) Enable Dynamic in the Dynamic group box. For time-dependent flows. For dynamic mesh adaption.

Enter 20000 for Max # of Cells. ii. Click OK to close the Mesh Adaption Controls dialog box. As the refined regions of the mesh get larger.3 for Coarsen Threshold. (i) Click the Controls. and maximum level of refinement.3 and a refine threshold of 0. (h) Click Apply to store the information.7 for Refine Threshold. 2009 . If this limit is violated during the adaption. Inc. March 12. (g) Enter 0. 4-18 Release 12. the coarsen and refine thresholds should get smaller. i. Retain the default selection of fluid in the Zones selection list. minimum number of cells. the coarsen and refine thresholds are adjusted to respect the maximum number of cells. button to open the Mesh Adaption Controls dialog box. A coarsen threshold of 0. iii. Additional restrictions can be placed on the minimum cell volume.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow (f) Enter 0. (j) Close the Gradient Adaption dialog box.7 result in a “medium” to “strong” mesh refinement in combination with the scaled gradient...0 c ANSYS. the maximum number of cells can be limited. To restrict the mesh adaption.

3: Mass Flow Rate History 9.dat). Inc. March 12.0 c ANSYS. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.cas and noz ss. Start the calculation by requesting 500 iterations. Release 12.. 2009 4-19 .Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 8.. Run Calculation Figure 4. Save the case and data files (noz ss.

Display the steady flow contours of static pressure (Figure 4.4: Contours of Static Pressure (Steady Flow) 4-20 Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.4).0 c ANSYS. (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. Figure 4.. Inc.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 10. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. 2009 . March 12.

with low pressure near the nozzle throat. March 12.4 shows the expected pressure distribution..with peak velocity of approximately 300 m/s through the nozzle. (a) Retain all default settings. Release 12. 11.5).0 c ANSYS.. 2009 4-21 . Display the steady-flow velocity vectors (Figure 4. Inc. You can zoom in to view the recirculation of your velocity vectors.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow The steady flow prediction in Figure 4. (b) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box.5 shows the expected form. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. The steady flow prediction in Figure 4.

5: Velocity Vectors (Steady Flow) 12.0 c ANSYS. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. you should also check the mass flux throughout the domain to ensure that mass is being conserved. Inc. March 12. ! Although the mass flow rate history indicates that the solution is converged. (a) Retain the default selection of Mass Flow Rate. 2009 . Check the mass flux balance..Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Figure 4. 4-22 Release 12..

.0 c ANSYS.1%) of the total flux through the system. in preparation for defining the transient condition for the nozzle exit. The imbalance is displayed in the lower right field under kg/s. 0. ! The net mass imbalance should be a small fraction (e. The pressure at the outlet is defined as a wave-shaped profile.c). If a significant imbalance occurs. General (a) Select Transient in the Time list. Inc. and is described by the following equation: Release 12. 2. Read the user-defined function (pexit. March 12. 2009 4-23 . Define −→ User-Defined −→ Functions −→Interpreted. you should decrease your residual tolerances by at least an order of magnitude and continue iterating. Enable a time-dependent flow calculation. (d) Close the Flux Reports dialog box.g.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow (b) Select inlet and outlet in the Boundaries selection list... 1. Step 8: Enable Time Dependence and Set Transient Conditions In this step you will define a transient flow by specifying a transient pressure condition for the nozzle. (c) Click Compute and examine the values displayed in the dialog box.

(a) Enter pexit. 4-24 Release 12. More details about user-defined functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. (4. and pexit = 0. the function pexit. Note: To input the value of Equation 4.c for Source File Name.1 in the correct units. ω = 2200 rad/s.1) required for the pressure profile.12 sin(ωt) + pexit where ω = circular frequency of transient pressure (rad/s) pexit = mean exit pressure (atm) In this case.1) A user-defined function (pexit.7369 atm.0 c ANSYS. but it needs to be compiled within ANSYS FLUENT before it can be used in the solver.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow pexit (t) = 0. 2009 . (b) Click Interpret.c has to be written in SI units. Inc. (c) Close the Interpreted UDFs dialog box. The user-defined function has already been defined.c) has been written to define the equation (Equation 4. March 12.

(a) Select udf transient pressure (the user-defined function) from the Gauge Pressure drop-down list. i.. Adapt −→Gradient. Release 12. (b) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.. to open the Mesh Adaption Controls dialog box. the mesh adaption will be done every 10 time steps.. (e) Click Controls. Enter 8000 for Min # of Cells. Set the transient boundary conditions at the nozzle exit (outlet). Inc. The refine and coarsen thresholds have been changed during the steady-state computation to meet the limit of 20000 cells. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit. March 12. you need to reset these parameters to their original values.0 c ANSYS. (b) Enter 0. Update the gradient adaption parameters for the transient case. (d) Click Apply to store the values. For the transient case.. 2009 4-25 .7 for Refine Threshold. (a) Enter 10 for Interval in the Dynamic group box. Therefore.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 3... (c) Enter 0.3 for Coarsen Threshold. 4.

Because each time step requires 30 iterations. 4-26 Release 12. (d) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box. iii. 2009 . Monitors (Surface Monitors) −→ surf-mon-1 −→ Edit. Click OK to close the Mesh Adaption Controls dialog box. (f) Close the Gradient Adaption dialog box. because it is not desired to have a coarse mesh during the computation (the current mesh has approximately 20000 cells). Inc.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow ii. You need to increase the maximum number of cells to try to avoid readjustment of the coarsen and refine thresholds. Modify the plotting of the mass flow rate at the nozzle exit. (b) Select Time Step from the X Axis drop-down list.. you need to limit the minimum number of cells to 8000. Step 9: Solution: Transient Flow 1. a smoother plot will be generated by plotting at every time step. Additionally.out for File Name.. (c) Select Time Step from the Get Data Every drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. (a) Enter noz uns. March 12. Enter 30000 for Max # of Cells.

85596e-5 s for Time Step Size.85596 × 10−5 seconds. Release 12.. Modify the plotting of residuals. File −→ Write −→Case.. The pressure cycle begins and ends with the initial pressure at the nozzle exit. March 12. (b) Enter 600 for Number of Time Steps. (a) Enter 2. 3. (b) Make sure none is selected from the Convergence Criterion drop-down list. 2009 4-27 . Inc..cas). Using a time step of 2. (d) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 4. Run Calculation The selection of the time step is critical for accurate time-dependent flow predictions. (c) Set the Iterations to Plot to 100. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. Save the transient solution case file (noz uns.0 c ANSYS. Set the time step parameters.. 100 time steps are required for one pressure cycle. (a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 2.

0 c ANSYS.6: Mass Flow Rate History (Transient Flow) 5. The mass flow rate history is shown in Figure 4.. Inc. By requesting 600 time steps. Save the transient case and data files (noz uns.gz) with the precalculated solution.6.dat). (d) Click Calculate to start the transient simulation. you can read the data file (noz uns. ! Calculating 600 time steps will require significant CPU resources. Instead of calculating the solution.cas and noz uns.dat. Figure 4. 4-28 Release 12.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. March 12.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow (c) Enter 10 for Max Iterations/Time Step. This data file can be found in the folder where you found the mesh and UDF files. you are asking ANSYS FLUENT to compute six pressure cycles. 2009 .

noz anim.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Step 10: Saving and Postprocessing Time-Dependent Data Sets At this point. which will instruct ANSYS FLUENT to save the case and data files in compressed format. you will use the solution animation playback feature to view the animated pressure and Mach number plots over time. Optionally. and the autosave feature to save case and data files every 10 time steps.gz). 2009 4-29 .dat) will also be appended.. it will append the time step value to the file name prefix (noz anim). Calculation Activities (Autosave Every)−→ Edit. March 12. yielding file names of the form noz anim0640. where 0640 is the time step number. (a) Enter 10 for Save Data File Every. Inc..cas and . (d) Enter noz anim for File Name. Request the saving of case and data files every 10 time steps. the solution has reached a time-periodic state. 1. Release 12.gz to the end of the file name (e.g. After the calculation is complete. This will yield file names of the form noz anim0640.0 c ANSYS. When ANSYS FLUENT saves a file. To study how the flow changes within a single pressure cycle. you will now continue the solution for 100 more time steps. (b) Select Each Time for When the Data File is Saved.dat. The standard extensions (. You will use ANSYS FLUENT’s solution animation feature to save contour plots of pressure and Mach number at each time step. Save the Case File.cas. (c) Retain the default selection of time-step from the Append File Name with dropdown list.gz.cas and noz anim0640. (e) Click OK to close the Autosave dialog box.. you can add the extension .

. this instructs ANSYS FLUENT to update the animation sequence at every time step. 2009 . (a) Set Animation Sequences to 2.. (d) Click the Define. you can restrict the number of files saved by ANSYS FLUENT by enabling the Retain Only the Most Recent Files option and setting the Maximum Number of Data Files to a nonzero number. Create animation sequences for the nozzle pressure and Mach number contour plots. 4-30 Release 12. button for pressure to open the associated Animation Sequence dialog box. (c) Select Time Step from the When drop-down lists for both sequences. Inc. With the default value of 1 for Every. Calculation Activities (Solution Animations)−→ Create/Edit. 2. (b) Enter pressure for the Name of the first sequence and mach-number for the second sequence.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Extra: If you have constraints on disk space. March 12...0 c ANSYS.

The In Memory option is acceptable for a small 2D case such as this.25 atm for Max.0 c ANSYS. March 12. E. Select In Memory from the Storage Type group box. Enter 0. C. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. Inc. to avoid using too much of your machine’s memory. iii.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow i. ii. D. A.. For larger 2D or 3D cases. Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. 2009 4-31 . Make sure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. B. Retain the default selection of Pressure. Release 12. Disable Auto Range. Set Window to 3 and click the Set button. saving animation files with either the Metafile or PPM Image option is preferable.25 atm for Min and 1. This will set a fixed range for the contour plot and subsequent animation. Select Contours from the Display Type group box to open the Contours dialog box..

Make sure that Filled is enabled from the Options group box. March 12.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Figure 4.00 for Min and 1. Inc. Select Velocity. C. iii. 4-32 Release 12. Set Window to 4 and click the Set button. Make sure that In Memory is selected in the Storage Type list. D. B.. i. and Mach Number from the Contours of drop-down lists. Click OK to close the Animation Sequence dialog box associated with the pressure sequence. A.7 shows the contours of static pressure in the nozzle after 600 time steps. E... Figure 4.. Select Contours in the Display Type group box to open the Contours dialog box. ii.017136 s iv. 2009 . Enter 0.0 c ANSYS. Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Disable Auto Range. (e) Click the Define. button for mach-number to open the associated Animation Sequence dialog box.30 for Max.7: Pressure Contours at t = 0.

(f) Click OK to close the Solution Animation dialog box. Release 12.8: Mach Number Contours at t = 0.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Figure 4. March 12. Inc.8 shows the Mach number contours in the nozzle after 600 time steps. 2009 4-33 . Figure 4.017136 s iv. Click OK to close the Animation Sequence dialog box associated with the mach-number sequence.0 c ANSYS.

March 12.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 3.0028 seconds. Continue the calculation by requesting 100 time steps. With the autosave and animation features active (as defined previously).0 c ANSYS. you will play back the animation sequences and examine the results at several time steps after reading in pairs of newly saved case and data files. animation files will be saved every 0. you will march the solution through an additional 0. or roughly one pressure cycle. 4-34 Release 12. When the calculation finishes.00028 seconds of the solution time. the case and data files will be saved approximately every 0. In the next few steps. Run Calculation By requesting 100 time steps. you will have ten pairs of case and data files and there will be 100 pairs of contour plots stored in memory. 2009 .000028 seconds of the solution time. Inc.

March 12..Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 4. (c) Click the Set button. Double buffering will allow for a smoother transition between the frames of the animations.. Inc. Graphics and Animations −→ Options.0 c ANSYS. Change the display options to include double buffering. Release 12. 2009 4-35 . (b) Set Active Window to 3. (d) Click Apply and close the Display Options dialog box. (a) Enable the Double Buffering option.

(c) Close the Playback dialog box. 6.11 and 4. Examples of Mach number contours at t = 0.10. Inc.12. Examples of pressure contours at t = 0.. 2009 .9 and 4.017993 s (the 630th time step) and t = 0. Graphics and Animations −→ Solution Animation Playback −→ Set Up. March 12.017993 s and t = 0.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 5. select the appropriate active window and sequence name for the Mach number contours. and 5. 4-36 Release 12. (b) Click the play button (the second from the right in the group of buttons in the Playback group box).019135 s (the 670th time step) are shown in Figures 4.0 c ANSYS.. Play the animation of the pressure contours. (a) Retain the default selection of pressure in the Sequences selection list. In a similar manner to steps 4.019135 s are shown in Figures 4..

10: Pressure Contours at t = 0.0 c ANSYS. Inc.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Figure 4.019135 s Release 12.017993 s Figure 4. 2009 4-37 . March 12.9: Pressure Contours at t = 0.

2009 . Inc.017993 s Figure 4. March 12.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Figure 4.11: Mach Number Contours at t = 0.019135 s 4-38 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.12: Mach Number Contours at t = 0.

The MPEG file will be saved in your working folder. or other hardcopy files. saving each frame to a separate file in your working folder. you can select Animation Frames as the Write/Record Format and click Write. Click the Picture Options. click the Write button. it will be lost if you exit ANSYS FLUENT without saving it in one of the formats described previously.0 c ANSYS. Note that only the animation-frame format can be read back into the Playback dialog box for display in a later ANSYS FLUENT session. You can view the MPEG movie using an MPEG player (e. button to open the Save Picture dialog box and set the appropriate parameters for saving the hardcopy files. Windows Media Player or another MPEG movie player).g. In the Playback dialog box. 7. Release 12. Click Apply in the Save Picture dialog box to save your modified settings. ANSYS FLUENT will replay the animation.. Inc. To save a series of TIFF. If you want to view the solution animation in a later ANSYS FLUENT session. Read the case and data files for the 660th time step (noz anim0660. PostScript. ! Since the solution animation was stored in memory. select MPEG from the Write/Record Format drop-down list in the Playback dialog box and then click the Write button.cas and noz anim0660..Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Extra: ANSYS FLUENT gives you the option of exporting an animation as an MPEG file or as a series of files in any of the hardcopy formats available in the Save Picture dialog box (including TIFF and PostScript). select Picture Frames in the Write/Record Format drop-down list in the Playback dialog box. March 12. 2009 4-39 ..dat) into ANSYS FLUENT. To save an MPEG file.

0 c ANSYS.13).018849 s (Figure 4. Inc. (a) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. 4-40 Release 12.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 8. Plot vectors at t = 0. March 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.. (b) Select Auto Range under Options.. 2009 .

and 8. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to generate a second-order solution. Summary In this tutorial. read the case and data files saved for other time steps of interest and display the vectors.018849 seconds. Finally. using file autosaving to automatically save solution information as the transient calculation proceeds.. you modeled the transient flow of air through a nozzle. Release 12. with peak velocity of approximately 241 m/s through the nozzle at t = 0. you learned how to use ANSYS FLUENT’s solution animation tool to create animations of transient data.018849 s The transient flow prediction in Figure 4. You learned how to generate a steady-state solution as an initial condition for the transient case. You also learned how to manage the file saving and graphical postprocessing for timedependent flows. Inc. In a similar manner to step 7.13: Velocity Vectors at t = 0. and how to view the animations using the playback feature. 2009 4-41 .0 c ANSYS. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. You may be able to increase the accuracy of the solution even further by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh further.13 shows the expected form. 9.Modeling Transient Compressible Flow Figure 4. and how to set solution parameters for implicit time-stepping. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. March 12.

Modeling Transient Compressible Flow 4-42 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 . March 12.

This means the flow is most likely laminar. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1.5 × 0.003. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. All walls are black. A three-dimensional box (0. Inc. The working fluid has a Prandtl number of approximately 0. • Set the boundary conditions for a heat transfer problem involving natural convection and radiation.1. March 12. 2009 5-1 .5) has a hot wall at 473 K and all other walls at 293 K. using the surface-to-surface (S2S) model available in ANSYS FLUENT. The objective is to compute the flow and temperature patterns in the box. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. and the Rayleigh number based on L (0. and radiation heat flux. and measures the relative importance of conduction to radiation. • Display velocity vectors and contours of wall temperature. Introduction Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection In this tutorial combined radiation and natural convection are solved in a three-dimensional square box on a mesh consisting of hexahedral elements.71. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Use the surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation model in ANSYS FLUENT. The medium contained in the box is assumed to be absorbing and emitting. Gravity acts downwards.5 × 0. The Planck number 3 k/(4σLT0 ) is 0. as well as the wall heat flux. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Release 12. Problem Description The problem to be considered is shown schematically in Figure 5. surface cluster ID. so that the radiant exchange between the walls is attenuated by absorption and augmented by emission in the medium.0 c ANSYS.5) is 5×108 .Tutorial 5.

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As the mesh is read. 3. 5 m 0.. Therefore. March 12.000 cells.5 m . For more information about FLUENT Launcher.msh. see Section 1. File −→ Read −→Mesh. Download radiation_natural_convection.0 c ANSYS. Unzip radiation_natural_convection.1.gz.2 in the separate User’s Guide.1: Schematic of the Problem ted Heaall W 0. Read the mesh file rad. 1. Z Y X Figure 5.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).gz can be found in the radiation natural convection folder created after unzipping the file.msh. The mesh size will be reported as 64. after you read the mesh. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Inc. 2009 0.zip..5 m Release 12.

2. March 12. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. Figure 5. Check the mesh. Inc.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Step 2: General Settings General 1. 2009 5-3 . General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console.0 c ANSYS.2: Graphics Display of Mesh Release 12. Examine the mesh.

5-4 Release 12. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. 2009 . Enable the energy equation.. Inc. Enable Gravity. Step 3: Models Models 1..Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 3.81 m/s2 for Gravitational Acceleration in the Y direction. (a) Enter -9. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Retain the default solver settings. General 4.

Therefore only “surface-to-surface” radiation is considered for analysis. diffuse.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. These parameters are accounted for by a geometric function called a “view factor”. if a certain amount of radiation is incident on a surface. March 12. The surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation model can be used to account for the radiation exchange in an enclosure of gray-diffuse surfaces. then a fraction is reflected. The energy exchange between two surfaces depends in part on their size. For gray. (a) Select Surface to Surface (S2S) in the Model list. emission. For most applications the surfaces in question are opaque to thermal radiation (in the infrared spectrum). and opaque surfaces it is valid to assume that the emissivity is equal to the absorptivity and that reflectivity is equal to 1 minus the emissivity. and orientation.. a fraction is absorbed. Enable the Surface to Surface (S2S) radiation model. Thus according to the gray-body model. The S2S model assumes that all surfaces are gray and diffuse. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 2. so the surfaces can be considered opaque. 2009 5-5 . and a fraction is transmitted. The main assumption of the S2S model is that any absorption.. or scattering of radiation by the medium can be ignored. The Radiation Model dialog box will expand to show additional inputs for the S2S model. Inc. separation distance.

2009 .0 c ANSYS. The surface clusters are made by starting from a face and adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a specified number of faces per surface cluster is collected. (b) Click the Set. button in the Parameters group box to open the View Factor and Cluster Parameters dialog box. Retain the value of 1 for Faces per Surface Cluster for Flow Boundary Zones in the Parameters group box. The main advantage of this option is to speed up the view factor calculation and the radiosity calculation... 5-6 Release 12. Click Apply to All Walls. The number of radiating surfaces is reduced by clustering surfaces into surface “clusters”. The S2S radiation model is computationally very expensive when there are a large number of radiating surfaces. March 12. you also have the option to define a “partial enclosure” which allows you to disable the view factor calculation for walls with negligible emission/absorption or walls that have uniform temperature.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection When the S2S model is used. Inc. i. ii. You will define the view factor and cluster parameters.

(c) Click Compute/Write.. ANSYS FLUENT will print an informational message describing the progress of the view factor calculation in the console.). Click OK to close the View Factor and Cluster Parameters dialog box. However.s2s extension after the name.Z extension after the name (i. instead of Compute/Write. Enter rad 1. Release 12.. iii. for Methods in the View Factors group box to open the Select File dialog box and to compute the view factors. March 12. Note: The size of the view factor file can be very large if not compressed. iv.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection For a small 2D problem. this is at the cost of some accuracy. 2009 5-7 . For subsequent calculations you can read the view factor and cluster information from an existing file (by clicking Read. Inc. This tutorial illustrates the influence of clusters. Select Ray Tracing in the Method list in the View Factor group box.gz as the file name for S2S File.Z).gz or rad 1.. ii. Click OK in the Select File dialog box. the default value of 1 for Faces per Surface Cluster for Flow Boundary Zones is acceptable. The file created in this step will store the cluster and view factor parameters.gz or ..s2s.0 c ANSYS.. you can provide the .. i. It is highly recommended to compress the view factor file by providing . (d) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box. This may also lead to some reduction in the computational expense. rad 1.e. For a large problem you can increase this number to reduce the memory requirement for the view factor file that is saved in a later step. You need to perform this step if the problem is being solved for the first time. For small files.

5-8 Release 12. March 12. (f) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.485e-05 kg/m-s for Viscosity. Inc..0 c ANSYS. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. Set the properties for air. (a) Select incompressible-ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list.966 kg/kgmol for Molecular Weight. (c) Enter 0. 2009 ..Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Step 4: Materials Materials 1. (b) Enter 1021 J/kg-K for Cp (Specific Heat). (e) Retain the default value of 28.0371 W/m-K for Thermal Conductivity. (d) Enter 2.

(f) Click No in the Question dialog box to retain aluminum and add the new material (insulation) to the materials list. 2009 5-9 .Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 2. Release 12. asking if you want to overwrite aluminum. A Question dialog box will open. (a) Enter insulation for Name and delete the entry in the Chemical Formula field. (e) Click Change/Create. (d) Enter 0..09 W/m-K for Thermal Conductivity.0 c ANSYS.. insulation. (b) Enter 50 kg/m3 for Density. Materials −→ Solid −→ Create/Edit. Define the new material. (c) Enter 800 J/kg-K for Cp (Specific Heat). March 12. Inc.

2009 . (g) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Inc. 5-10 Release 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection The Create/Edit Materials dialog box will be updated to show the new material. insulation. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Step 5: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. in the FLUENT Solid Materials drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions for the front wall (w-high-x).

95 for Internal Emissivity. (b) Select insulation from the Material Name drop-down list. Release 12. (h) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. (g) Enter 0.75 for External Emissivity. (f) Enter 0.15 K for both Free Stream Temperature and External Radiation Temperature. (c) Enter 5 W/m2 − K for Heat Transfer Coefficient. Inc. 2009 5-11 . March 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Boundary Conditions −→ w-high-x −→ Edit. (e) Enter 0.05 m for Wall Thickness.0 c ANSYS.. (a) Click the Thermal tab and select Mixed in the Thermal Conditions group box.. (d) Enter 293.

(d) Click OK in the Warning dialog box. asking if you want to copy the boundary conditions of w-high-x to w-high-z and w-low-z. (e) Close the Copy Conditions dialog box. Boundary Conditions −→ Copy. 5-12 Release 12.. March 12. (b) Select w-high-z and w-low-z from the To Boundary Zones selection list. 2009 . Inc.. (c) Click Copy. Copy boundary conditions to define the side walls w-high-z and w-low-z.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 2.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select w-high-x from the From Boundary Zone selection list. A Warning dialog box will open.

Release 12. (c) Enter 473... (b) Retain the default selection of aluminum from the Material Name drop-down list. Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ w-low-x −→ Edit. Set the boundary conditions for the heated wall (w-low-x).0 c ANSYS.95 for Internal Emissivity. (d) Enter 0. (a) Click the Thermal tab and select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions group box.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 3. March 12. (e) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. 2009 5-13 .15 K for Temperature.

(f) Enter 0. (g) Enter 0. (e) Enter 0. March 12. (d) Enter 293..0 c ANSYS. Set the boundary conditions for the top wall (w-high-y). Inc.15 K for both Free Stream Temperature and External Radiation Temperature.75 for External Emissivity. 2009 . 5-14 Release 12. (h) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. (b) Select insulation from the Material Name drop-down list.05 m for Wall Thickness.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 4.. (a) Click the Thermal tab and select Mixed in the Thermal Conditions group box. Boundary Conditions −→ w-high-y −→ Edit.95 for Internal Emissivity. (c) Enter 3 w/m2 − K for Heat Transfer Coefficient.

. A Warning dialog box will open. (a) Select w-high-y from the From Boundary Zone selection list. (c) Click Copy. Copy boundary conditions to define the bottom wall (w-low-y). March 12.0 c ANSYS. asking if you want to copy the boundary conditions of w-high-y to w-low-y. (b) Select w-low-y from the To Boundary Zones selection list. Boundary Conditions −→ Copy. Inc.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 5.. Release 12. (d) Click OK in the Warning dialog box. 2009 5-15 . (e) Close the Copy Conditions dialog box.

Solution Methods (a) Select Body Force Weighted from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box.0 c ANSYS. Set the solution parameters.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Step 6: Solution 1. March 12. (b) Retain the default selection of First Order Upwind from the Momentum and Energy drop-down lists. 2009 . Inc. 5-16 Release 12.

A good starting point for momentum would be 0. March 12. Inc. Set the under-relaxation factors.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 2.4 for Momentum. Buoyancy driven cases will need stiffer relaxation for better results.0 c ANSYS. Release 12.4. 2009 5-17 . Solution Controls (a) Enter 0.

Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 3. (b) Click Initialize. Initialize the solution. March 12. 5-18 Release 12. Inc. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Solution Initialization (a) Enter 450 K for Temperature.

. March 12. 2009 5-19 .Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 4.. (c) Enter zz center z for New Surface Name. and Z-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. Inc..cas. Run Calculation Release 12.. Start the calculation by requesting 100 iterations Figure 5. 5.gz) File −→ Write −→Case. (d) Click Create and close the Iso-Surface dialog box. 6.. (b) Click Compute and retain the value 0 in the Iso-Values field. Save the case file (rad a 1. Create the new surface. Surface −→Iso-Surface.3.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select Mesh. zz center z..

3: Scaled Residuals (a) Enter 100 for Number of Iterations. 5-20 Release 12. 2009 . This can be a common problem with natural convection (buoyancy driven) flows which tend to be unstable in their physical nature. March 12.0 c ANSYS. An inspection of the residual plot at this stage suggests that the solution is not converging in a stable manner. (b) Click Calculate. Inc.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5.

(c) Select zz center z from the Surfaces selection list. ii. near horizontal bands of similar temperature.. Select Outline in the Edge Type list. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. (d) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. Inc. A regular check for most buoyant cases is to look for evidence of stratification in the temperature field. For this case you can expect reasonable stratification with some disturbance at the vertical walls where the air is driven Release 12.4)... i.15 for Max. (Figure 5. (e) Disable Auto Range. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (f) Enter 421 for Min and 473. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. (h) Close the Contours dialog box. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. (g) Click Display and rotate the view as shown in Figure 5.4.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 7.0 c ANSYS. 2009 5-21 .. March 12. (b) Select Temperature. These may be broken or disturbed by buoyant plumes. Display contours of static temperature.

4: Contours of Static Temperature round.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5. Request 100 more iterations. avoid this type of stiff relaxation as it will slow down the solution speed. 9. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0. Run Calculation 5-22 Release 12. The relaxation factor on momentum was already reduced to 0. We shall now drop it even further to 0. the results show very little evidence of this. However. This is most likely due to the physical instability of the flow process. Change the under-relaxation factor for Momentum.1. In general. However. 2009 .4 before solving.0 c ANSYS. make use of relaxation to damp out the instabilities. but in cases like this it is necessary.1 for Momentum. March 12. 8. avoid reducing the relaxation factor much further. To help overcome this. Inc.

0.25. (a) Enter (-0.25) for (x1. 2009 5-23 .. 0.25) for (x0. z1) respectively. March 12. Surface −→Line/Rake. y0. zz x side. (d) Click Create and close the Line/Rake Surface dialog box.25. 0. y1. (c) Enter zz x side for New Surface Name. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 0. Release 12. Create the new surface. (b) Enter (0.. z0) respectively.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Step 7: Postprocessing 1.

(b) Disable Node Values. Display contours of wall temperature (outer surface). 5-24 Release 12. (g) Click Display and rotate the view as shown in Figure 5. (f) Enter 413 for Min and 473.. (d) Select all surfaces except default-interior and zz x side... (c) Select Temperature. (e) Disable Auto Range and Draw Mesh. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. March 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 2..5. (a) Make sure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. and Wall Temperature (Outer Surface) from the Contours of drop-down lists.15 for Max. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Inc.

and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. Release 12.5: Contours of Wall Temperature 3.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 2009 5-25 .0 c ANSYS.. (b) Select Temperature... Inc. (a) Make sure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. Display contours of static temperature. March 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5.

(e) Enable Node Values.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (c) Deselect all surfaces and select zz center z from the Surfaces selection list.0 c ANSYS.15 for Max. (f) Disable Auto Range. (g) Enter 421 for Min and 473. 2009 . ii. (h) Click Display and rotate the view as shown in Figure 5.6. displaying good stratification with disturbance at the walls. Make sure that Outline in the Edge Type list is selected. March 12. Inc. (d) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. Figure 5. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. 5-26 Release 12. i.6: Contours of Static Temperature The temperature field now ties in with expectations.

March 12.0 c ANSYS. Display contours of radiation heat flux. and Radiation Heat Flux from the Contours of drop-down list. (c) Select Wall Fluxes... (f) Close the Contours dialog box. (a) Make sure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. (d) Select all surfaces except default-interior and zz x side. Inc..7. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. (b) Disable both Node Values and Draw Mesh in the Options group box.7 shows the radiating wall (w-low-x) with positive heat flux and all other walls with negative heat flux. Figure 5. 2009 5-27 . (e) Click Display and rotate the view as shown in Figure 5. Release 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 4.

5-28 Release 12.7: Contours of Radiation Heat Flux 5. Display vectors of velocity magnitude.. March 12.0 c ANSYS.. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. Inc.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5. (a) Retain the default selection of Velocity from the Vectors of drop-down list. 2009 .

Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (b) Retain the default selection of Velocity. 2009 5-29 . (e) Enter 7 for Scale. (c) Deselect all surfaces and select zz center z from the Surfaces selection list.0 c ANSYS. (d) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. Figure 5. Make sure that Outline is selected in the Edge Type list.8: Vectors of Velocity Magnitude Release 12. i. March 12. ii.8.. (f) Click Display (Figure 5.8) and rotate the view as shown in Figure 5.. (g) Close the Vectors dialog box. and Velocity Magnitude from the Color by drop-down list. Inc.

The computed values of the Views Factors and Incident Radiation are displayed in the console..2 for each wall is a good value for the square box. (b) Enable Incident Radiation. 2009 . Inc. Report −→S2S Information. March 12.. Compute view factors and radiation emitted from the front wall (w-high-x) to all other walls.0 c ANSYS. A view factor of approximately 0. (d) Select all zones except w-high-x from the To selection list. 5-30 Release 12. (c) Select w-high-x from the From selection list. (e) Click Compute and close the S2S Information dialog box.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 6. (a) Make sure that View Factors is enabled in the Report Options group box.

Note: The energy imbalance is approximately 0..08%... (a) Select Total Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. (c) Click Compute..0 c ANSYS. 8. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. (b) Select all boundary zones except default-interior from the Boundaries selection list. Release 12. Compute the total heat transfer rate for w-low-x. March 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 7. Inc. Compute the total heat transfer rate. 2009 5-31 .

Compute the radiation heat transfer rate. (b) Deselect all boundary zones and select w-low-x from the Boundaries selection list.. 2009 .. (c) Click Compute.0 c ANSYS.12 W. 5-32 Release 12.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (a) Retain the selection of Total Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box. Note: The net heat load is approximately -0. Note: The net heat load is approximately 251..55 W 9. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. (a) Select Radiation Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box. March 12. (b) Select all boundary zones except default-interior from the Boundaries selection list. Inc. (c) Click Compute.

(b) Deselect all boundary zones and select w-low-x from the Boundaries selection list.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 10. 2009 5-33 . Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up.. Compute the radiation heat transfer rate for w-low-x. March 12. Release 12.08 W. After comparing the total heat transfer rate and radiation heat transfer rate.0 c ANSYS. (a) Retain the selection of Radiation Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box.. Inc. it can be concluded that radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. The net heat load is approximately 208.

March 12.. (g) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.xy for XY File.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select Temperature. Enter tp 1. 2009 . (d) Click Plot (Figure 5. ii.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 11. (c) Select zz x side from the Surfaces selection list. and Wall Temperature (Outer Surface) from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists... Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. (b) Retain the default selection of Direction Vector from the X Axis Function dropdown list.. 5-34 Release 12.9).. Inc. (e) Enable Write to File and click the Write. Display temperature profile for the side wall. i. button to open the Select File dialog box. (f) Disable the Write to File option. Click OK in the Select File dialog box..

Enter 10 for Faces per Surface Cluster for Flow Boundary Zones in the Parameters group box...gz and rad b 1. Increase the number of faces per cluster to 10. Release 12. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit..0 c ANSYS. March 12. Save the case and data files (rad b 1. 2009 5-35 .Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5.. ii..gz). Step 8: Compare the Contour Plots after Varying Radiating Surfaces 1.9: Temperature Profile Along Side Wall 12. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Click Apply to All Walls and close the View Factor and Cluster Parameters dialog box.. i. Inc.cas. button in the Parameters group box to open the View Factor and Cluster Parameters dialog box.dat. (a) Click the Set.

0 c ANSYS. Save the case and data files (rad 10. Figure 5. Start the calculation by requesting 650 iterations.. for 100. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 612 iterations. 4. Enter rad 10. Solution Initialization 3. tp 100. 7. display the temperature profile for the side wall and write it to a file named tp 10.gz and rad 10... In a manner similar to the steps described in Step 7: 11. Initialize the solution.gz). 2009 . ii. for Methods in the View Factors group box to open the Select File dialog box and to compute the view factors..cas.gz) and temperature profile files (e. 5.xy. in the manner described in Step 7: 2.g. Inc. i. 400. (a)–(g).–5..xy). 2.dat... 6.10: Contours of Wall Temperature (Outer Surface): 1 Face per Surface Cluster 5-36 Release 12. Click OK in the Select File dialog box.cas. Specify a file name where the cluster and view factor parameters will be stored.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (b) Click Compute/Write.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. rad 100.s2s. 800. Display contours of wall temperature (outer surface) for all six cases. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.gz for S2S File. and 1600 faces per surface cluster and save the respective case and data files (e. March 12. Repeat the procedure outlined in Step 8: 1.g. (c) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box.

12: Contours of Wall Temperature (Outer Surface): 100 Faces per Surface Cluster Figure 5. 2009 5-37 . March 12.0 c ANSYS.13: Contours of Wall Temperature (Outer Surface): 400 Faces per Surface Cluster Release 12.11: Contours of Wall Temperature (Outer Surface): 10 Faces per Surface Cluster Figure 5. Inc.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5.

Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5.15: Contours of Wall Temperature (Outer Surface): 1600 Faces per Surface Cluster 5-38 Release 12. March 12. Inc. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.14: Contours of Wall Temperature (Outer Surface): 800 Faces per Surface Cluster Figure 5.

(a) Make sure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. Inc. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (c) Select Radiation.. 2009 5-39 .0 c ANSYS...16. (d) Select all surfaces except default-interior and zz x side.. Release 12. March 12. (f) Close the Contours dialog box. and Surface Cluster ID from the Contours of drop-down lists. Display contours of surface cluster ID for 1600 faces per surface cluster (Figure 5. (b) Make sure that Node Values is disabled. (e) Click Display and rotate the figure as shown in Figure 5.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 8.16).

800.gz and. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS.cas. 100. Figure 5.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Figure 5. (b) Make sure that Temperature.16: Contours of Surface Cluster ID—1600 Faces per Surface Cluster (FPSC) 9. in a similar manner to the previous step... display contours of surface cluster ID (Figure 5.17 shows contours of Surface Cluster ID for 400 FPSC. and 1600 FPSC. This case shows better clustering compared to all of the other cases.17: Contours of Surface Cluster ID—400 FPSC Figure 5. 2009 . Display the temperature profile plot for 400 FPSC on a plot that includes the temperature profile plots for 1. 5-40 Release 12. March 12.. 10. Read rad 400. Inc.gz and rad 400. (a) Make sure that Write to File in the Options group is disabled.17). and Wall Temperature (Outer Surface) are selected from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists.dat. 10.. (c) Retain the default selection of Direction Vector from the X Axis Function dropdown list.

. You will see similar changes in Figure 5. Release 12. (f) Click the Load File. and plot the temperature profiles. Inc. tp 800. (i) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. button to read the files tp 10. Click OK to close the Select File dialog box. click the Load File. (h) In a similar manner.xy.18 have been changed for display purposes.19.xy.18: A Comparison of Temperature Profiles along the Side Wall Note: The legend entries in Figure 5.. tp 100.xy. i. You do not need to make these changes. March 12.18)..xy. 2009 5-41 . button to open the Select File dialog box. Figure 5. and tp 1600. ii. Select tp 1.0 c ANSYS.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (d) Make sure that zz x side is selected from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Click Plot (Figure 5.xy.. (g) Click Plot.

1. In the steps that follow. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. i.e. The partial enclosure option may not yield accurate results in cases that have multiple wall boundaries that are not participating in S2S radiation and that each have different temperatures.. Set the partial enclosure parameters for the S2S model. 2009 . This is because the a single partial enclosure temperature is applied to all of the non-participating walls. 2. Consequently. File −→ Read −→Case. Even though the view factor will not be computed for these walls..gz). Solution and Postprocessing with Partial Enclosure As mentioned previously. you can disable the view factor calculation for walls with negligible emission/absorption. Boundary Conditions −→ w-low-x −→ Edit.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection Step 9: S2S Definition. 5-42 Release 12. March 12. Read the case file saved previously for the S2S model (rad b 1.0 c ANSYS.. (a) Click the Radiation tab. they will still emit radiation at a fixed temperature called the “partial enclosure temperature”. you will specify the partial enclosure temperature for the wall. Inc.. you will specify the radiating wall (w-low-x) as a boundary zone that is not participating in the S2S radiation model.cas. The main advantage of this is to speed up the view factor and the radiosity calculation. (b) Disable Participates in S2S Radiation in the S2S Parameters group box.. when the S2S model is used. you also have the option to define a “partial enclosure”. or walls that have uniform temperature.

s2s. ANSYS FLUENT will use the view factor file stored previously for calculating a solution.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 3.. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit. Compute the view factors for the S2S model. the changes that you made to the model will not be used for the calculation. The view factor file will store the view factors for the radiating surfaces only. Note: You should compute the view factors only after you have specified the boundaries that will participate in the radiation model using the Boundary Conditions dialog box. the time required to compute the view factors will reduce as only the view factors for radiating surfaces will be calculated. Release 12. Furthermore.. This may help you control the size of the view factor file as well as the memory required to store view factors in ANSYS FLUENT..gz as the file name for S2S File. for Methods in the View Factors group box to open the Select File dialog box and to compute the view factors. Click OK in the Select File dialog box. March 12. Enter rad partial. 2009 5-43 . Inc. i. (b) Click Compute/Write. Therefore. in which case. If you first compute the view factors and then make a change to the boundary conditions. ii..0 c ANSYS. you should recompute the view factors and save the case file whenever you modify the number of objects that will participate in radiation. (a) Enter 473 K for Temperature in the Partial Enclosure group box.

. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up.gz and rad partial.dat. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 631 iterations. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. 5-44 Release 12. (a) Make sure that Radiation Heat Transfer Rate ia selected in the Options group box.cas. Compute the radiation heat transfer rate... Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. Initialize the solution. 4. Inc... 7. 6. Solution Initialization 5. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Save the case and data files (rad partial. Compare the temperature profile for the side wall to the profile saved in tp 1.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (c) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box. 8. (a) Select all of items in the File Data selection list and click Free Data.gz).xy. Start the calculation by requesting 650 iterations.. (b) Select all boundary zones except default-interior from the Boundaries selection list. March 12.

Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. (c) Read and display the temperature profile saved in tp 1. in a manner similar to the instructions shown in Step 7: 11.xy. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution.Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection (b) Display the temperature profile and write it to a file named tp partial. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. (f)–(g).0 c ANSYS. see Section 13.xy. (a)–(f). Figure 5. March 12. 2009 5-45 . in a manner similar to the instructions shown in Step 8: 10. For more information about the surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation model. Release 12. Inc. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.3 in the separate User’s Guide. (d) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. The S2S radiation model is appropriate for modeling the enclosure radiative transfer without participating media whereas the methods for participating radiation may not always be efficient.19: Temperature Profile—With and Without Partial Enclosure (1 FPSC) Summary In this tutorial you studied combined natural convection and radiation in a three-dimensional square box and compared the performance of surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation models in ANSYS FLUENT for various radiating surfaces.

Inc.0 c ANSYS. March 12. 2009 .Modeling Radiation and Natural Convection 5-46 Release 12.

Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Read an existing mesh file into ANSYS FLUENT.Tutorial 6. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. • Solve for the energy and flow equations. Inc. Problem Description The problem to be considered is illustrated in Figure 6. Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Introduction This tutorial illustrates the set up and solution of flow and thermal modelling of a headlamp. Release 12. the heat output will only be considered from the bulb surface rather than the filament of the bulb.0 c ANSYS. • Understand the effect of pixels and divisions on temperature predictions and solver speed. The key components to be included are the bulb. • Initialize and obtain a solution. • Postprocess the resulting data. showing a simple two-dimensional section of a headlamp construction. • Set up material properties and boundary conditions. The radiant load from the bulb will cover all thermal radiation . March 12. • Set up the DO radiation model.this includes visible (light) as well as infra-red radiation. and housing.1. For simplicity. reflector. The discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model will be used to model the radiation. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. 2009 6-1 . baffle. lens.

see Section 1. The mesh file do.1: Schematic of the Problem Setup and Solution Preparation 1. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. 3. 2.gz can be found in the do rad folder created after unzipping the file. The purpose of the baffle is to shield the lens from direct radiation.1 Lens Inner RI = 1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. convection and radiation. The lens is made from glass and has a refractive index of 1. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. their combined effect should distribute the light and heat from the bulb across the lens. Both the reflector and baffle are made from polished metal having a low emissivity and mirror-like finish. after you read in the mesh.0 c ANSYS.81m/s Housing εinside = 0.5 q = 0 W/m2 Bulb ε = 0.5 h = 20 W/m 2 K 2 Tsurround = 20ο C Figure 6. The rear reflector is assumed to be well insulated and heat losses will be ignored. Inc. Download do_rad. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. to your working folder (as 6-2 Release 12. Unzip do_rad. Heat exchange between the lamp and the surroundings will occur by conduction.msh.1 Q = 100 W/m Lens Outer h = 20 W/m 2 K Baffle ε = 0.1. 2009 .zip.zip from the User Services Center described in Tutorial 1).5.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model The ambient conditions to be considered are quiescent air at 20C.1 g=−9. March 12. Reflector ε = 0. Therefore.

fuse. or smooth and swap)... Check the mesh.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Scale and close the Scale Mesh dialog box. General −→ Scale. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT will report the progress in the console. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console. 2009 6-3 . General −→ Check Note: It is good practice to check the mesh after manipulating it (scale. (b) Select mm from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list. Release 12. As the mesh file is read. 2. Check the mesh... Read the mesh file do.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Step 1: Mesh 1. merge. add zones. convert to polyhedra. 3. Step 2: General Settings General 1.msh. Scale the mesh. (a) Select mm from the View Length Unit In drop-down list. File −→ Read −→Mesh.gz. separate. March 12. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. The Domain Extents will be reported in mm.

March 12. 6-4 Release 12. General −→ Units.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 4. Inc.0 c ANSYS.2: Graphics Display of Mesh 5. (b) Select c from the Units selection list.. Figure 6. Change the unit of temperature to centigrade. 2009 .. (a) Select temperature from the Quantities selection list. Examine the mesh. (c) Close the Set Units dialog box.

Retain the default solver settings.0 c ANSYS. (a) Enter -9. Release 12.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 6. Step 3: Models Models 1. Inc.81 m/s2 for Gravitational Acceleration in the Y direction.. General 7. Enable Gravity.. Enable the energy equation. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. 2009 6-5 . March 12.

0 c ANSYS. Enable the DO radiation model. An Information dialog box will appear. March 12. For this small 2D case we will reduce it to 1. Inc. (e) Click OK in the Information dialog box. The Radiation Model dialog box expands to show the related inputs. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit. (c) Retain the default settings for Angular Discretization. As radiation will be the dominant mode of heat transfer. (a) Select Discrete Ordinates (DO) in the Model list. it is beneficial to reduce the interval between calculations. (d) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box. 6-6 Release 12. informing that material properties have changed..Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 2. 2009 .. (b) Set the Flow Iterations per Radiation Iteration to 1.

Since pressure variations are insignificant compared to temperature variation. (a) Select incompressible-ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list. Release 12.. Set the properties for air. (c) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. (b) Retain the default settings for all other parameters.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Step 4: Materials Materials 1.. 2009 6-7 . Inc. March 12.0 c ANSYS. we choose incompressible-ideal-gas law for density.

Inc. (d) Enter 1. (c) Enter 830 J/Kg-K for Cp (Specific Heat). Create a new material. (a) Enter lens for Name and delete the entry in the Chemical Formula field.0 c ANSYS. (e) Enter 200 1/m for Absorption Coefficient. 2009 . 6-8 Release 12. (b) Enter 2200 Kg/m3 for Density.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 2.5 W/m-K for Thermal Conductivity. lens. (f) Enter 1. Materials −→ Solid −→ Create/Edit.. March 12..5 for Refractive Index.

Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions Release 12. asking if you want to overwrite aluminum. (h) Click No in the Question dialog box to retain aluminum and add the new material (lens) to the materials list. in the FLUENT Solid Materials drop-down list. The Create/Edit Materials dialog box will be updated to show the new material. Inc.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (g) Click Change/Create. A Question dialog box will open. March 12. (i) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. 2009 6-9 .0 c ANSYS. lens.

March 12.. Ensure that air is selected for fluid..0 c ANSYS.. Set the cell zone conditions for the lens. (b) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box.. 6-10 Release 12. Inc. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid −→ Edit. 2009 .Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 1. (a) Retain the default selection of air from the Material Name drop-down list. 2. Cell Zone Conditions −→ lens −→ Edit.

0 c ANSYS.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (a) Select lens from the Material Name drop-down list. 2009 6-11 . (c) Click OK to close the Solid dialog box. March 12. Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions Release 12. Inc. (b) Enable Participates In Radiation.

Set the boundary conditions for the baffle-shadow. Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ baffle −→ Edit. (b) Click the Radiation tab and enter 0 for Diffuse Fraction. Set the boundary conditions for the baffle.. 2. Boundary Conditions −→ baffle-shadow −→ Edit. March 12. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.0 c ANSYS..Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 1. 6-12 Release 12.1 for Internal Emissivity. 2009 .. (a) Click the Thermal tab and enter 0..

March 12. (b) Retain the value of 1 for Internal Emissivity.0 c ANSYS. (b) Click the Radiation tab and enter 0 for Diffuse Fraction.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (a) Click the Thermal tab and enter 0. Boundary Conditions −→ bulb-outer −→ Edit. 3. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. (a) Click the Thermal tab and enter 150000 W/m2 for Heat Flux. 2009 6-13 .1 for Internal Emissivity. Inc. Set the boundary conditions for the bulb-outer. Release 12. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box...

(c) Enter 20 C for Free Stream Temperature.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 4. (b) Enter 10 W/m2 − K for Heat Transfer Coefficient.. 6-14 Release 12. (e) Enter 20 C for External Radiation Temperature. (d) Retain the value of 1 for External Emissivity. Inc. (a) Click the Thermal tab and select Mixed in the Thermal Conditions group box. Set the boundary conditions for the housing. March 12.5 for Internal Emissivity.. 2009 . (g) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.0 c ANSYS. (f) Enter 0. Boundary Conditions −→ housing −→ Edit.

The inner and outer surface of the lens will be set to semi-transparent conditions. (c) Enter 0 for Diffuse Fraction. (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. It also calculates the effects of reflection and refraction at the interface. These effects occur because of the change in refractive index (set through the material properties) and are a function of the incident angle of the radiation and the surface finish. Set the boundary conditions for the lens-inner. (b) Select semi-transparent from the BC Type drop-down list... (a) Click the Radiation tab. Inc. In this case. the lens is assumed to have a very smooth surface so the diffuse fraction will be set to 0. Release 12. This allows radiation to be transmitted through the wall between the two adjacent participating cell zones.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 5. Boundary Conditions −→ lens-inner −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. March 12. 2009 6-15 . On the internal walls (wall/ wall-shadows) it is important to note the adjacent cell zone: this is the zone the surface points into and may influence the settings on diffuse fraction (these can be different on both sides of the wall).

there is no need to supply this as a source of irradiation under the Radiation tab for the wall boundary condition.an external emissivity of 1 is used.. while the surroundings will supply a small source of background radiation associated with the temperature. Set the boundary conditions for the lens-inner-shadow. The only other setting required here is the surface finish of the outer surface of the lens . As the outer lens is transparent it must also lose radiation to the surroundings. the source of background radiation is added directly to the DO radiation rather than to the energy equation . 6-16 Release 12. (c) Enter 0 for Diffuse Fraction. lens-inner-shadow −→ Edit. The surface of the lamp cools mainly by natural convection to the surroundings. For a semi-transparent wall. 2009 . Inc. (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. For the lens.. (b) Retain the default selection of semi-transparent from the BC Type drop-down list.. a semi-transparent condition is used on the outside wall.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 6. March 12. 7. As the background radiation is supplied from the thermal conditions.. Boundary Conditions −→ lens-outer −→ Edit. A mixed thermal condition provides the source of background radiation as well as calculating the convective cooling on the outer lens wall. Set the boundary conditions for the lens-outer.the diffuse fraction should be set to 0 as the lens is assumed to be smooth. in keeping with the assumption of a small object in a large enclosure. Boundary Conditions −→ (a) Click the Radiation tab.0 c ANSYS.

March 12.0 c ANSYS. (e) Enter 20 C for External Radiation Temperature. For a semi-transparent wall the internal emissivity has no effect as there is no absorption or emission on the surface. (g) Select semi-transparent from the BC Type drop-down list. (i) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. So the set value is irrelevant. Release 12. 2009 6-17 . (b) Enter 10 W/m2 − K for Heat Transfer Coefficient. Inc. (h) Enter 0 for Diffuse Fraction. (d) Retain the value of 1 for External Emissivity. (f) Click the Radiation tab.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (a) Click the Thermal tab and select Mixed in the Thermal Conditions group box. (c) Enter 20 C for Free Stream Temperature.

we apply internal emissivity=0. we can assume emissvity equals absorptivity. Like the baffles.1 for Internal Emissivity. (b) Click the Radiation tab and enter 0 for Diffuse Fraction. Inc.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 8. Solution Methods (a) Select Body Force Weighted from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. We also assume a clean reflector (diffuse fraction = 0). March 12. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. About 90% of incident radiation reflects from this surface. Therefore. 6-18 Release 12. Boundary Conditions −→ reflector −→ Edit. Set the boundary conditions for the reflector. 2009 . giving it highly reflective surface property. Based on Kirchhoff ’s law. Set the solution parameters.. (a) Click the Thermal tab and enter 0..0 c ANSYS. the reflector is made of highly polished aluminum. Only 10% gets absorbed.1. Step 7: Solution 1.

0 c ANSYS. Initialize the solution. 2009 6-19 .gz) File −→ Write −→Case. Solution Initialization (a) Enter 20 C for Temperature.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 2. Save the case file (do. Inc. Release 12. March 12... (b) Click Initialize.cas. 3.

gz and do. Save the case and data files (do. 2009 . 6-20 Release 12. Start the calculation by requesting 1000 iterations. la m ) Figure 6.dat. p b n s . (b) Click Calculate. Inc.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 4.0 c ANSYS. R e s id u a ls c o n tin u ity x -v e lo c ity y -v e lo c ity e n e rg y d o -in te n s ity 1e+00 1 e -0 1 1 e -0 2 1 e -0 3 1 e -0 4 1 e -0 5 1 e -0 6 1 e -0 7 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Ite ra tio n s S c a le d R e s id u a ls F L U E N T 1 2 .3: Residuals The solution will converge in approximately 120 iterations.. 5. Run Calculation (a) Enter 1000 for Number of Iterations.0 (2 d .cas. March 12.gz).. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.

.0 c ANSYS.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Step 8: Postprocessing 1.. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. (c) Retain the default selection of Velocity. (d) Click Display (Figure 6.. (e) Close the Vectors dialog box.. Inc. (a) Enter 10 for Scale. and Velocity Magnitude from the Color by drop-down list.4). (b) Retain the default selection of Velocity from the Vectors of drop-down list. March 12. Release 12. Display velocity vectors. 2009 6-21 .

. (a) Select lens from the Zone selection list..4: Vectors of Velocity Magnitude 2.0 c ANSYS. 6-22 Release 12. 2009 . Inc.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Figure 6. lens. Surface −→Zone. (b) Click Create and close the Zone Surface dialog box. Create the new surface. March 12.

. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Select Temperature... (d) Select lens from the Surfaces selection list. (b) Disable Global Range in the Options group box. Inc.5). (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box.0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Release 12. 2009 6-23 . (e) Click Display (Figure 6. Display contours of static temperature. March 12.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 3..

2009 . Display temperature profile for the lens-inner... 6-24 Release 12. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. (a) Disable both Node Values and Position on X Axis in the Options group box.5: Contours of Static Temperature (f) Close the Contours dialog box. (d) Retain the default selection of Direction Vector from the Y Axis Function dropdown list.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Figure 6. (c) Enter 0 and 1 for X and Y in the Plot Direction group box. March 12. 4.0 c ANSYS. (b) Enable Position on Y Axis. Inc.

Release 12.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (e) Select Temperature. Click Apply. and Wall Temperature (Outer Surface) from the X Axis Function drop-down lists... 2009 6-25 . March 12. Select float from the Type drop-down list in the Number Format group box.Solution XY Plot dialog box. button to open the Axes . Enter Temperature on Lens Inner for Label.0 c ANSYS. Set Precision to 0. (g) Click the Axes. Ensure that X is selected in the Axis list. vi.. ii. v.. Inc. vii. Select Y in the Axis list. (f) Select lens-inner from the Surfaces selection list. iii. iv. Enter Y Position on Lens Inner for Label. i.

0 c ANSYS. Select the symbol pattern as shown in the Curves . March 12.6). button to open the Curves . (h) Click the Curves. 2009 . Click Apply and close the Curves .0 (2d. Select the line pattern as shown in the Curves . ii.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model viii. Click Apply and close the Axes .Solution XY Plot dialog box. x. Set Precision to 0.Solution XY Plot dialog box. pbns.6: Temperature Profile for lens-inner 6-26 Release 12. lam) Figure 6.Solution XY Plot dialog box. (i) Click Plot (Figure 6. Inc.. i.. 1X1 100 80 60 40 20 Y Position on Lens Inner (mm) 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 Temperature on Lens Inner (c) Wall Temperature (Outer Surface) FLUENT 12.Solution XY Plot dialog box.Solution XY Plot dialog box. ix. iii. Select float from the Type drop-down list in the Number Format group box.

2.0 c ANSYS. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 100 additional iterations. For semi-transparent and reflective surfaces.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Enter do 2x2 1x1..xy for XY File and close the Select File dialog box.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (j) Enable Write to File and click the Write.. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit. Save the case and data files (do 2x2 2x2 pix.. Release 12. increasing accuracy by increasing pixilation is more efficient than increasing theta and phi divisions.. March 12.cas. (b) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box. The key in this plot is changed to 1x1 instead of lens-inner.gz). 3.dat. Increase pixelation for accuracy.gz and do 2x2 2x2 pix. (a) Set both Theta Pixels and Phi Pixels to 2. (a) Disable Write to File. 2009 6-27 . Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. 4.. button to open the Select File dialog box.. Inc. Step 9: Iterate for Higher Pixels 1. i.. Request 1000 more iterations. Display temperature profile for the lens-inner. (k) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.

i.0 c ANSYS. Enter do 2x2 2x2 pix. iii. Click Apply and close the Curves . (e) Click the Curves. button to open the Select File dialog box. 2009 . i.. Set Curve # to 1..xy for XY File and close the Select File dialog box.. iv. March 12. Inc.xy and click OK to close the Select File dialog box.Solution XY Plot dialog box.Solution XY Plot dialog box. Select do 2x2 1x1. (g) Click Plot (Figure 6.Solution XY Plot dialog box. (f) Disable Write to File..7).Solution XY Plot dialog box. Select the symbol pattern as shown in the Curves . button to open the Select File dialog box. button to open Curves . (c) Enable Write to File and click the Write. (d) Click the Load File.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (b) Retain the default settings and plot the temperature profile.. i.. ii. 6-28 Release 12. Select the line pattern as shown in the Curves .

dat. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit.gz). Click the Calculate button. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.7: Temperature Profile for lens-inner (h) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Figure 6. (d) Click Plot.. March 12. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. (a) Save the file as do 2x2 10x10 pix.gz and do 2x2 3x3 pix.. 5. Inc. 8.. (a) Make sure Write to File is disabled. (c) Ensure that lens-inner is selected from the Surfaces selection list.0 c ANSYS.dat.xy. (b) Ensure that all files are deselected from the File Data selection list. (e) Click Write to File and save the file as do 2x2 3x3 pix. 7..gz). Release 12. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 100 additional iterations. Repeat the procedure for 10 Theta Pixels and Phi Pixels and save the case and data files (do 2x2 10x10 pix. Save the case and data files (do 2x2 3x3 pix... 2009 6-29 . 6. Display temperature profile for the lens-inner. 9. Increase both Theta Pixels and Phi Pixels to 3 and continue iterations.cas.cas.gz and do 2x2 10x10 pix.xy.

. Select the symbol pattern as shown in the Curves .. March 12. You may ignore this and proceed further. 2009 ..Solution XY Plot dialog box. Set Curve # to 1. (a) Click the Load File. and 4. Inc. Read in all the files and plot them. 3. Make sure you deselect lens-inner from the Surfaces list so that there is no duplicated plot. iii. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. (b) Click the Curves. vi.. (c) Click Plot (Figure 6.Solution XY Plot dialog box.. button to open Curves . Follow the above instructions for curves 2. button to open the Select File dialog box. Click Apply and close the Curves .8).Solution XY Plot dialog box. v.. 6-30 Release 12. Note: The keys in this plot are changed for better comparison. (d) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. ii. Select all the xy files and close the Select File dialog box. iv. i. Select the line pattern as shown in the Curves . Note: Selected files will be listed in the XY File(s) selection list. Make sure you deselect lens-inner from the Surfaces list so that there is no duplicated plot.Solution XY Plot dialog box.0 c ANSYS. i.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 10. Click Apply to save the settings for curve zero.

Release 12. 2009 6-31 .. (b) Enter a value of 3 for Theta Pixels and Phi Pixels (c) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box. Inc.8: Temperature Profile Step 10: Iterate for Higher Divisions 1.0 c ANSYS. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Figure 6. March 12. (a) Retain both Theta Divisions and Phi Divisions as 2.. Retain the default division as a base for comparison.

3..9 for Density.0 c ANSYS.gz and do 2x2 3x3 div. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0. 5. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up.dat. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 80 iterations.cas. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. (b) Click Free Data to remove the files from the list. Request 1000 more iterations. Inc. (e) Click Plot.9 for Body Forces. (d) Select lens-inner from the Surfaces selection list. (c) Enter 0. March 12.6 for Momentum.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 2. Save the case and data files (do 2x2 3x3 div.gz). (b) Enter 0. Set the under-relaxation factors.. Display temperature profiles for the lens-inner.. 4.. 6-32 Release 12. (c) Retain the settings for Y axis Function and X axis Function. 2009 . (a) Select all the files from the File Data selection list.

March 12. and 5 and display temperature profiles.cas.xy. 7.0 (2 d . 3. 6. Save the case and data files (do 5x5 3x3 div.gz).gz and do 3x3 3x3 div. p b n s .xy for XY File and close the Select File dialog box. Inc. (a) Save the file as do 5x5 3x3 div.0 c ANSYS. Make sure you deselect lens-inner from the Surfaces list so that no plots are duplicated..9: Temperature Profiles for Various Theta Divisions 10..gz and do 5x5 3x3 div. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. 8.. i. 2009 6-33 .. 2X2 3X3 5X5 100 80 60 40 20 Y P o s itio n on Lens In n e r (m m ) 0 -2 0 -4 0 -6 0 -8 0 -1 0 0 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 T e m p e ra tu re o n L e n s In n e r (c ) W a ll T e m p e ra tu re (O u te r S u rfa c e ) F L U E N T 1 2 . Enter do 2x2 3x3 div. Read in all the files for Theta Divisions and Phi Divisions of 2.xy. (a) Save the file as do 3x3 3x3 div. button to open the Select File dialog box. Save the case and data files (do 3x3 3x3 div. Repeat the procedure for 5 Theta Divisions and Phi Divisions.. 9.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. la m ) Figure 6. Repeat the procedure for 3 Theta Divisions and Phi Divisions.dat.gz).Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (f) Enable Write to File and click the Write. Release 12.cas.dat.

Note: The net heat load is 6. 6-34 Release 12. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up.. Compute the total heat transfer rate. (b) Select all zones from the Boundaries selection list. March 12.. Compute the radiation heat transfer rate. (a) Select Total Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box. 2009 . Inc. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. 12.0 c ANSYS.. which equates to an imbalance of approximately 1..Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 11. (c) Click Compute.629 W.1% when compared against the heat load of the bulb.

Note: The net heat load is 152. Release 12.9361. The incident load on lens-inner is slightly less than that on the reflector. Inc. 2009 6-35 . 13..Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (a) Select Radiation Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box. (b) Retain the selection of all boundary zones from the Boundaries selection list. and Surface Incident Radiation from the Field Variable drop-down lists. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box..0 c ANSYS. However the incident load on the lens-outer is notably lower due to the amount of radiation which has been absorbed in the solid lens. (a) Select Integral from the Report Type drop-down list. March 12. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up.. Compute the radiation heat transfer rate incident on the surfaces. (b) Select Wall Fluxes. (c) Select all surfaces except air-interior and lens-interior from the Surfaces selection list. This is because some radiation has been absorbed by the housing.. (d) Click Compute.

. (d) Click Compute. there is some reflection at the interface.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 14. (a) Retain the selection of Integral from the Report Type drop-down list. Reflection on lens-inner-shadow is the reflected energy of the incident radiation from the lens side. The zone baffle is facing the filament and its shadow (baffle-shadow) is facing the lens. 6-36 Release 12.. Reflection on lens-inner is the reflected energy of the incident radiation from the fluid side. (b) Select Wall Fluxes.. There is much more reflection on the filament side than on the lens side. Compute the reflected radiation flux.0 c ANSYS. (c) Select all surfaces except air-interior and lens-interior from the Surfaces selection list. 2009 . lens-inner is facing the fluid and lens-inner-shadow is facing the lens.. and Reflected Radiation Flux from the Field Variable dropdown lists. Reflected radiation flux values are printed in the console for all the zones. March 12. Due to different refractive indexes and non-zero absorption coefficient on the lens. Inc. as expected. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up.

and Transmitted Radiation Flux from the Field Variable drop-down lists. Release 12. March 12.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 15. (c) Ensure that all surfaces are selected except air-interior and lens-interior from the Surfaces selection list. Zero transmission for all surfaces indicate that they are opaque. Inc. 2009 6-37 . (b) Select Wall Fluxes.. All surfaces are opaque except lens.. Compute the transmitted radiation flux.0 c ANSYS. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up. (a) Retain the selection of Integral from the Report Type drop-down list. Transmitted radiation flux values are printed in the console for all the zones... (d) Click Compute.

Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 16. 2009 . Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up. 6-38 Release 12. In semitransparent media. Inc. (a) Retain the selection of Integral from the Report Type drop-down list. (b) Select Wall Fluxes..0 c ANSYS.. and Absorbed Radiation Flux from the Field Variable dropdown lists. (d) Click Compute... Note that absorption will not occur on a semi-transparent wall (irrespective of the setting for internal emissivity). (e) Close the Surface Integrals dialog box. Absorption will only occur on opaque surface with a non-zero internal emissivity adjacent to participating cell zones. Compute the absorbed radiation flux. absorption and emission will only occur as a volumetric effect in the participating media with non-zero absorption coefficients. (c) Ensure that all surfaces are selected except air-interior and lens-interior from the Surfaces selection list. March 12.

. 2.gz and do 3x3 3x3 div... 4.dat.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Step 11: Make the Reflector Completely Diffuse 1.cas. Plot the temperature profiles after increasing the diffuse fraction for the reflector. (b) Save the case and data files as do 3x3 3x3 div df1. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.. Request another 1000 iterations.gz.xy. 3. Release 12.gz). Boundary Conditions −→ reflector −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS.dat. Radiation reflects from the reflector more diffusely causing more uniform (less localized) temperature at the lens.gz and do 3x3 3x3 div df1.cas. Increase the diffuse fraction for reflector. Inc. (a) Click the Radiation tab and enter 1 for Diffuse Fraction. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 80 additional iterations. (a) Save the file as do 3x3 3x3 div df=1. Read in the case and data files (do 3x3 3x3 div. This also leads to lower maximum lens temperature. 2009 6-39 . March 12.

2.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model Figure 6. 2009 . 6-40 Release 12. (b) Click Yes in the Question dialog box. asking if you want to change Type of baffle to interior.gz). Read in the case and data files (do 3x3 3x3 div.10: Temperature Profile for Higher Diffuse Fraction Step 12: Change the Boundary Type of Baffle 1. Change the boundary type of baffle to interior. A Question dialog box will open. Inc.cas.dat.gz and do 3x3 3x3 div.0 c ANSYS. Boundary Conditions −→ baffle (a) Select interior from the Type drop-down list. March 12.

11: Temperature Profile of baffle interior Summary This tutorial demonstrated the modeling of radiation using discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model in ANSYS FLUENT. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. Plot the temperature profile for baffle interior.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model (c) Click OK in the Interior dialog box.cas. You studied the change in behavior for higher absorption coefficient. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. and diffuse fraction are illustrated with the temperature profile plots. (a) Save the file as do 3x3 3x3 div baf int.gz and do 3x3 3x3 div int. Inc. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. 2009 6-41 . In this tutorial. refractive index. March 12. you learned the use of angular discretization and pixelation available in discrete ordinates radiation model and solved for different values of Pixels and Divisions. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 160 additional iterations. Release 12.dat.gz. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh.. (b) Save the case and data files as do 3x3 3x3 div int. Request another 1000 iterations. 4. 3. Changes in internal emissivity.0 c ANSYS. Figure 6..xy.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 . March 12.Using the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model 6-42 Release 12. Inc.

and ANSYS FLUENT is used to predict the flow and temperature fields that result from convective heat transfer. • Create a non-conformal mesh interface. March 12. Both fluids are air. The system that is modeled consists of three parts: a duct. and a cooler fluid is injected into the holes from a plenum. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. only a portion of the geometry is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT. downstream of the injection. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. with symmetry applied to the outer boundaries. Release 12. and a plenum. Introduction Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Film cooling is a process that is used to protect turbine vanes in a gas turbine engine from exposure to hot combustion gases. and the flow is classified as turbulent. This tutorial illustrates how to set up and solve a film cooling problem using a non-conformal mesh. Due to the symmetry of the hole array.Tutorial 7. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.1). The velocity and temperature of the streamwise and cross-flow fluids are known. Inc. a hole array. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Merge hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes to form a hybrid mesh.0 c ANSYS. These two meshes are merged together to form a “hybrid” mesh. 2009 7-1 . • Plot temperature profiles on specified isosurfaces. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. and the plenum and hole regions are modeled using a tetrahedral mesh. An array of holes intersects the duct at an inclined angle. • Model heat transfer across a non-conformal interface with specified temperature and velocity boundary conditions. with a non-conformal interface boundary between them. The duct is modeled using a hexahedral mesh. The coolant that moves through the holes acts to cool the surface of the duct. The duct contains a high-velocity fluid in streamwise flow (Figure 7.

March 12.1: Schematic of the Problem 7-2 Release 12. is inclined at 35 degrees.4559 m/s Tinject = 300 K z x 0.5 in 8 v = 20 m/s T = 450 K y 1. 0.25 in x 35ο 5 in Hole−1 3. 2009 . The temperature of the injected air (Tinject ) is 300 K.25 in. and the velocity of the air stream is 20 m/s.3 in ×1.5 in 24 in 0.5 in T = 450 K TOP VIEW µ = 0. The properties of air that are used in the model are also mentioned in Figure 7.1.4559 m/s.1. A schematic of the problem is shown in Figure 7. Each hole has a diameter of 0.5 inches apart laterally. The problem consists of a duct.000017894 kg/m−s Cp = 1006. 49 in long.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Problem Description This problem considers a model of a 3D section of a film cooling test rig.43 J/kg−K Figure 7.75 in 0. An array of uniformly spaced holes is located at the bottom of the duct. and is spaced 1. Cooler injected air enters the system through the plenum having cross-sectional dimensions of 3.4559 m/s Tinject = 300 K 49 in 8 v = 0. with cross-sectional dimensions of 0.75 in × 5 in. Inc. The bottom wall of the duct that intersects the hole array is assumed to be a completely insulated (adiabatic) wall.5 inches.0 c ANSYS. The secondary (injected) air enters the plenum at a uniform velocity of 0.25 in 1. Only a portion of the domain needs to be modeled because of the symmetry of the geometry.3 in Hole−2 Plenum−2 Plenum−1 FRONT VIEW v = 0.5 in 9. The bulk temperature of the streamwise air (T∞ ) is 450 K.

Therefore. Inc. 2009 7-3 .zip.msh and film tet. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Setup and Solution Preparation 1. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number.. Release 12. Mesh −→ Zone −→Append Case File. functionality allows you to combine two mesh files into one single mesh file. 3.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).msh. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. 3.. Append the tet mesh file film tet. Download non_conformal_mesh.0 c ANSYS. Unzip non_conformal_mesh. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics windows.. The files film hex.2 in the separate User’s Guide. 2. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console. Read the hex mesh file film hex.msh.. 2.msh can be found in the non conformal mesh folder created after unzipping the file. The Append Case File. File −→ Read −→Mesh. Check the mesh. see Section 1. March 12. For more information about FLUENT Launcher... once you read in the mesh.1. Step 1: Mesh 1.

. add zones.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 4. (c) Close the Mesh Display dialog box.. 6. General −→ Scale. convert to polyhedra. Inc. Check the mesh. Scale the mesh and change the unit of length to inches. Display an outline of the 3D mesh. (a) Retain the default selections in the Surfaces list. (e) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box.0 c ANSYS. March 12. fuse.) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised. separate. (c) Click Scale to scale the mesh.. (b) Click Display. 5. merge. (b) Select in from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list by first clicking the down-arrow button and then clicking the in item from the list that appears.. scale. Domain Extents will continue to be reported in the default SI unit of meters. (a) Make sure that Convert Units is selected in the Scaling group box. General −→ Display. or smooth and swap.e.. 7-4 Release 12. General −→ Check Note: It is a good idea to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. (d) Select in from the View Length Unit In drop-down list to set inches as the working unit for length. 2009 .

(a) Select front in the Views list. Manipulate the mesh display to obtain a front view as shown in Figure 7..Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 7.2. pbns. Y Z X Mesh FLUENT 12. Inc. (c) Close the Views dialog box. dp. lam) Figure 7.0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Views.2: Hybrid Mesh for Film Cooling Problem Release 12. 2009 7-5 . (b) Click Apply.0 (3d.. March 12.

name. 2009 . and type will be printed in the ANSYS FLUENT console. 7-6 Release 12.3. Figure 7.3). This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly.0 c ANSYS. resulting in a hybrid mesh. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window. Inc. Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 8.3: Hybrid Mesh (Zoomed-In View) In Figure 7. March 12. you can see the quadrilateral faces of the hexahedral cells that are used to model the duct region and the triangular faces of the tetrahedral cells that are used to model the plenum and hole regions. Zoom in using the middle mouse button to view the hole and plenum regions (Figure 7. its zone number.

Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. Step 3: Models Models 1. Release 12. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Enable heat transfer by enabling the energy equation.. 2009 7-7 . Inc.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 2: General Settings General 1. Retain the default solver settings. (a) Click OK to close the Energy dialog box..

Enable the standard k. The Viscous Model dialog box will expand to show the additional input options for the k.model.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 2.. 7-8 Release 12. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. (c) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box..turbulence model. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. March 12. Inc. (b) Retain the default settings for the remaining parameters. (a) Select k-epsilon (2 eqn) in the Model list.

. (a) Retain the selection of air from the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list. (c) Retain the default values for all other properties. The incompressible ideal gas law is used when pressure variations are small but temperature variations are large. 2009 7-9 . Define the material properties. Release 12. (d) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. If the above condition is satisfied.0 c ANSYS. March 12. the incompressible ideal gas law generally gives better convergence compared to the ideal gas law. without sacrificing accuracy. The incompressible ideal gas option for density treats the fluid density as a function of temperature only.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 4: Materials Materials 1. (b) Select incompressible-ideal-gas law from the Density drop-down list.. Inc. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit.

2009 . Inc. make sure that the Operating Pressure is close to the mean pressure of the domain. So. Retain the default operating conditions. Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box. March 12. For the incompressible-ideal-gas law selected here for air.. 2. the constant pressure used for the density calculation is the Operating Pressure specified in this dialog box..Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 5: Operating Conditions Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions. 1. 7-10 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.

. (a) Change the Zone Name from fluid-9. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-9.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 6: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 1.1). Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-8 −→ Edit.1 −→ Edit. 3.1 to fluid-plenum2. (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box.. (a) Change the Zone Name from fluid-9 to fluid-duct. (a) Change the Zone Name from fluid-8 to fluid-plenum1. (b) Retain the default selection of air from the Material Name drop-down list. Set the conditions for the fluid in the duct (fluid-9).0 c ANSYS. Inc. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-9 −→ Edit. (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. Set the conditions for the fluid in the first plenum and hole (fluid-8). (b) Retain the default selection of air from the Material Name drop-down list. Set the conditions for the fluid in the second plenum and hole (fluid-9. March 12.. (b) Retain the default selection of air from the Material Name drop-down list. 2009 7-11 .. 2. Release 12...

(d) Enter 1% and 5 in for the Turbulent Intensity and the Hydraulic Diameter. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-1 −→ Edit.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 7: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. 7-12 Release 12. (f) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.. (b) Enter 20 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude. March 12.0 c ANSYS. (e) Click the Thermal tab and enter 450 K for the Temperature. (c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. respectively. Inc. (a) Change the Zone Name from velocity-inlet-1 to velocity-inlet-duct.. 2009 . Set the boundary conditions for the streamwise flow inlet (velocity-inlet-1).

see Chapter 12 in the separate User’s Guide.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 2. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-5 −→ Edit. In the absence of any identifiable length scale for turbulence.0 c ANSYS. the Intensity and Viscosity Ratio method should be used. (e) Click the Thermal tab and retain the setting of 300 K for Temperature. (b) Enter 0. Inc.. Set the boundary conditions for the first injected stream inlet (velocity-inlet-5). For more information about setting the boundary conditions for turbulence. (d) Enter 1% for Turbulent Intensity and retain the default setting of 10 for Turbulent Viscosity Ratio.. March 12. (c) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box. (f) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. (a) Change the Zone Name from velocity-inlet-5 to velocity-inlet-plenum1. Release 12.4559 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude. 2009 7-13 .

Inc. 2009 .Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 3.0 c ANSYS. 7-14 Release 12. March 12. asking if you want to copy velocity-inletplenum1 boundary conditions to (velocity-inlet-6).. (c) Click Copy. Copy the boundary conditions set for the first injected stream inlet. Click OK. (b) Select velocity-inlet-6 in the To Boundary Zones selection list. ! Copying a boundary condition does not create a link from one zone to another. If you want to change the boundary conditions on these zones. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-plenum1 −→ Copy. A Warning dialog box will open. you will have to change each one separately. (a) Select velocity-inlet-plenum1 in the From Boundary Zone selection list.. (d) Close the Copy Conditions dialog box.

(c) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 4. Release 12. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-6 −→ Edit. (a) Change the Zone Name from velocity-inlet-6 to velocity-inlet-plenum2. (b) Verify that the boundary conditions were copied correctly.0 c ANSYS.. Inc.. Set the boundary conditions for the second injected stream inlet (velocity-inlet-6). March 12. 2009 7-15 .

. Set the boundary conditions for the flow exit (pressure-outlet-1). Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-outlet-1 −→ Edit. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 5. 7-16 Release 12. (d) Enter 1% for Backflow Turbulent Intensity and retain the default setting of 10 for Backflow Turbulent Viscosity Ratio. (f) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.. (e) Click the Thermal tab and enter 450 K for Backflow Total Temperature. Inc. (b) Retain the default setting of 0 Pa for Gauge Pressure. (a) Change the Zone Name from pressure-outlet-1 to pressure-outlet-duct. March 12. (c) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box.

Retain the default boundary conditions for the plenum and hole walls (wall-4 and wall-5).. Release 12. March 12. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-4 −→ Edit.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 6. 2009 7-17 . Inc..0 c ANSYS.

4). 8.0 c ANSYS.msh) and must be redefined as interface boundary types. Define the zones on the non-conformal boundary as interface zones by changing the Type for wall-1. 2009 . wall-7 and wall-8 represent the holes through which the cool air is injected from the plenum (Figure 7. wall-7. (b) Make sure that symmetry is selected from the Type drop-down list. The non-conformal mesh interface contains three boundary zones: wall-1. 7-18 Release 12. These boundaries were defined as walls in the original mesh files (film hex. wall-1 is the bottom surface of the duct. Boundary Conditions (a) Select symmetry-1 in the Zone list. verify that the zones symmetry-5. and wall-8. wall-7.msh and film tet. Inc. and symmetry-tet2 are set to the correct type. (c) Similarly.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 7. and wall-8 to interface. symmetry-tet1. symmetry-7. March 12. Verify that the symmetry planes are set to the correct type in the Boundary Conditions task page.

(b) Display the bottom view. Use the scroll bar to access the surfaces that are not initially visible in the Mesh Display dialog box. Close the Views dialog box. hole-2). you can zoom in to see the mesh for the wall-1 and wall-8 boundaries (i. and wall-8 from the Surfaces selection list. Inc. Similarly. Note: You may need to deselect all surfaces first by selecting the unshaded icon to the far right of Surfaces. Graphics and Animations −→ Views.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh (a) Open the Mesh Display dialog box.e. Figure 7.. i.0 c ANSYS. Zoom in using the middle mouse button.. Select wall-1. General −→ Display. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box..4: Mesh for the wall-1 and wall-7 Boundaries Release 12. Figure 7.4 shows the mesh for the wall-1 and wall-7 boundaries (i. 2009 7-19 .. i. Select bottom in the Views list and click Apply. ii. ii. wall-7.. hole-1). March 12..e.

Change the Zone Name to interface-duct. Click OK to close the Interface dialog box. March 12. asking if it is OK to change the type of wall-1 from wall to interface.0 c ANSYS. specifying interface-hole1 and interface-hole2 for Zone Name. 7-20 Release 12. Inc. ii. 2009 . convert wall-7 and wall-8 to interface boundary zones. Click Yes in the Question dialog box. respectively. i. The Interface dialog box will open and give the default name for the newly created interface zone.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh (a) Select wall-1 in the Zone list and select interface as the new Type. (b) Similarly. Boundary Conditions A Question dialog box will open.

. In the process of creating the mesh interface. 2009 7-21 . Select interface-hole1 and interface-hole2 in the Interface Zone 1 selection list. ANSYS FLUENT will create three new wall boundary zones: wall-24. Select interface-duct from the Interface Zone 2 selection list. • wall-24 and wall-25 are the non-overlapping regions of the interface-hole1 and interface-zone2 zones that result from the intersection of the interface-hole1. ! When one interface zone is smaller than the other. 3. 2. 4.. choose the smaller zone as Interface Zone 1. March 12.0 c ANSYS. wall-25.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 8: Mesh Interfaces Mesh Interfaces In this step. Mesh Interfaces −→ Create/Edit. 1. Click Create. Inc. and wall-26. Release 12. Enter junction for Mesh Interface. you will create a non-conformal mesh interface between the hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes.

These wall boundaries are empty. They are listed under Boundary Zone 1 in the Create/Edit Mesh Interfaces dialog box. and Energy drop-down lists in the Spatial Discretization group box. 2009 . March 12. and interface-duct boundary zones. the default settings are used. Set the solution parameters. Turbulent Dissipation Rate. 5.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh interface-hole2. 7-22 Release 12. Step 9: Solution 1. In this case. Inc. • wall-26 is the non-overlapping region of the interface-duct zone that results from the intersection of the three interface zones. ! You need to set boundary conditions for wall-26 (since it is not empty). Solution Methods (a) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum.0 c ANSYS. Turbulent Kinetic Energy. You will not be able to display these walls. Close the Create/Edit Mesh Interfaces dialog box. since interface-hole1 and interface-hole2 are completely contained within the interface-duct boundary. and is listed under Boundary Zone 2 in the Create/Edit Mesh Interfaces dialog box.

.0 c ANSYS. March 12. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors panel. Enable the plotting of residuals. Inc. (a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.. 2009 7-23 .Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 2. Release 12.

0 c ANSYS. File −→ Write −→Case.. March 12. Inc.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 3. 2009 . Initialize the solution.gz).. Solution Initialization (a) Select velocity-inlet-duct from the Compute from drop-down list. 7-24 Release 12. (b) Click Initialize. 4. Save the case file (filmcool.cas.

The console should no longer display this message as the solution converges and the turbulent viscosity approaches more reasonable levels. ANSYS FLUENT will prompt you for confirmation to overwrite the file. 6. 2009 7-25 . Note: During the first few iterations.0 c ANSYS.cas. The solution converges after approximately 125 iterations.gz). March 12.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 5.dat. (b) Click Calculate.. Start the calculation by requesting 250 iterations. Release 12. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.gz and filmcool. Inc. the console reports that turbulent viscosity is limited in a couple of cells. Note: If you choose a file name that already exists in the current folder.. Save the case and data files (filmcool. Run Calculation (a) Enter 250 for the Number of Iterations.

0 c ANSYS. Reset the view to the default view if you changed the default display of the mesh. 7-26 Release 12. Display filled contours of static pressure (Figure 7.. 2009 ... (a) Click Default in the Actions group box and close the Views dialog box.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Step 10: Postprocessing 1.5).. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. 2. Inc. March 12.

0 c ANSYS.5: Contours of Static Pressure The maximum pressure change (see Figure 7.3%.65e+0 -5. interface-hole1.57e+02 1. and thus the use of the incompressible ideal gas law is appropriate. symmetry-1.0 (3d.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. 2009 7-27 . (b) Make sure Pressure. wall-4. Compared to a mean pressure of 1.05e+0 Y Z X Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) FLUENT 12..33e+02 1.34e+01 1.13e+01 4. (d) Click Display in the Contours dialog box.85e+0 -7. symmetry-tet2. 1. Note the high/low pressure zones on the upstream/downstream sides of the coolant hole. pbns. Release 12. where the jet first penetrates the primary flow in the duct.26e+0 -3.09e+02 9.6 and 7.54e+01 1.06e+0 -2.72e+01 8. the variation is less than 0..21e+02 1. interface-hole2.40e+00 -1. ske) Figure 7.93e+01 3. Use the scroll bar to access the surfaces that are not initially visible in the Contours dialog box.33e+01 6.5) is only 239 Pa. and Static Pressure are selected from the Contours of drop-down lists.7).73e+01 2. Inc.69e+02 1. (e) Zoom in on the view to display the contours at the holes (Figures 7. March 12.45e+02 1. (c) Select interface-duct. symmetry-tet1. and wall-5 in the Surfaces selection list.53e+01 7.013e5 Pa.45e+0 -4.

6: Contours of Static Pressure at the First Hole Figure 7.7: Contours of Static Pressure at the Second Hole 7-28 Release 12. 2009 . March 12.0 c ANSYS.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Figure 7. Inc.

8 and 7.8 and 7.. interface-hole1.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 3. symmetry-1.0 c ANSYS. symmetry-tet2. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists... Inc.9 clearly show how the coolant flow insulates the bottom of the duct from the higher-temperature primary flow.9).9. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (f) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. and wall-5. Figures 7. (a) Select Temperature. Display filled contours of static temperature (Figures 7.. wall-4. March 12. (d) Disable Clip to Range in the Options group box. (e) Make sure that. interface-duct. (c) Enter 300 for Min and 450 for Max. (g) Zoom in on the view to get the display shown in Figure 7. Release 12. (b) Disable Auto Range in the Options group box so that you can change the maximum and minimum temperature gradient values to be plotted. interface-hole2. are selected from the Surfaces selection list. 2009 7-29 . symmetrytet1.

2009 .9: Contours of Static Temperature (Zoomed-In View) 7-30 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Figure 7.8: Contours of Static Temperature Figure 7. Inc. March 12.

symmetry-1. Use the scroll bar to access the surfaces that are not initially visible in the dialog box. This enlarges the displayed vectors. and Velocity Magnitude are selected from the Color by drop-down lists.0 c ANSYS. interface-hole2.. are selected from the Surfaces selection list. wall-4. symmetrytet1. Note that the velocity field varies smoothly across the non-conformal interface. and wall-5. the flow pattern in the vicinity of the coolant hole shows the level of penetration of the coolant jet into the main flow.10. Inc. interface-duct.10). Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. (e) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box.. (a) Make sure Velocity. 2009 7-31 . Display the velocity vectors (Figure 7. In Figure 7. symmetry-tet2... interface-hole1. March 12.10. (f) Zoom in on the view to get the display shown in Figure 7. (b) Enable Auto Range in the Options group box (c) Enter 2 for the Scale. Release 12. making it easier to view the flow patterns. (d) Make sure that.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh 4.

1 inches above the bottom. Inc. Surface −→Iso-Surface.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Figure 7... March 12. Create an isosurface along a horizontal cross-section of the duct. at y = 0. 7-32 Release 12.10: Velocity Vectors 5. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.1 in. 0.

(b) Select Temperature.1in in the Surfaces selection list... (e) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. 2009 7-33 . (e) Close the Iso-Surface dialog box. (d) Click Create.1 for Iso-Values. The temperature is coolest just downstream of the holes. (d) Click Plot. and Y-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.0 c ANSYS.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh (a) Select Mesh.. (c) Enter y=0. and Static Temperature from the Y-Axis Function dropdown lists... 6.1in. Inc. (b) Enter 0.. (a) Retain the default values in the Plot Direction group box. Create an XY plot of static temperature on the isosurface created (Figure 7.11.1in for New Surface Name. In Figure 7. Release 12. March 12. you can see how the temperature of the fluid changes as the cool air from the injection holes mixes with the primary flow. (c) Select y=0.11). Scroll down using the scroll bar to access y=0. You can also make a similar plot on the lower wall to examine the wall surface temperature.

Thus. • Add additional hole/plenum meshes to create aligned or staggered multiple hole arrays. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. 7-34 Release 12. 2009 . without requiring that the different components have the same node locations on their shared boundaries. more complex mesh system.Using a Non-Conformal Mesh Figure 7. you can perform parametric studies by merging the desired meshes. One of the principal advantages of this approach is that it allows you to merge existing component meshes together to create a larger. you can do the following: • Use a different hole/plenum mesh.0 c ANSYS. and solving the model.11: Static Temperature at y=0. creating the non-conformal interface(s). in the present case. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. • Reposition the existing hole/plenum mesh. such as the film cooling hole configuration examined here.1 in Summary This tutorial demonstrated how the non-conformal mesh interface capability in ANSYS FLUENT can be used to handle hybrid meshes for complex geometries. March 12. For example. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. Inc. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1.

which is a ceramic structure coated with a metal catalyst such as platinum or palladium.0 c ANSYS. • Determine the pressure drop through the substrate and the degree of non-uniformity of flow through cross sections of the geometry using X-Y plots and numerical reports. In this tutorial. The industrial problem solved here involves gas flow through a catalytic converter. Introduction Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Many industrial applications such as filters. These exhaust gas emissions are forced through a substrate. the pressure drop and the uniformity of flow through the substrate can be determined. This tutorial illustrates how to set up and solve a problem involving gas flow through porous media. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.Tutorial 8. The nature of the exhaust gas flow is a very important factor in determining the performance of the catalytic converter. Hence CFD analysis is used to design efficient catalytic converters. and unburned hydrocarbon fuels. Release 12. Catalytic converters are commonly used to purify emissions from gasoline and diesel engines by converting environmentally hazardous exhaust emissions to acceptable substances. Examples of such emissions include carbon monoxide (CO). • Plot pressure and velocity distribution on specified planes of the geometry. involve modeling the flow through porous media. so that the flow field structure may be analyzed. March 12. ANSYS FLUENT is used to model the flow of nitrogen gas through a catalytic converter geometry. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Set up a porous zone for the substrate with appropriate resistances. • Calculate a solution for gas flow through the catalytic converter using the pressurebased solver. 2009 8-1 . By modeling the exhaust gas flow. Inc. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. nitrogen oxides (NOx ). Of particular importance is the pressure gradient and velocity distribution through the substrate. catalyst beds and packing.

Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Problem Description The catalytic converter modeled here is shown in Figure 8. The substrate is impermeable in other directions. which is modeled using loss coefficients whose values are three orders of magnitude higher than in the main flow direction.zip. Figure 8.1: Catalytic Converter Geometry for Flow Modeling While the flow in the inlet and outlet sections is turbulent. once you read in the mesh. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. 2. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. 3.1. and then exits through the outlet. Download porous. 2009 . see Section 1. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. Unzip porous. passes through a ceramic monolith substrate with square shaped channels. the flow through the substrate is laminar and is characterized by inertial and viscous loss coefficients along the inlet axis. Therefore. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. Inc.msh can be found in the porous folder created after unzipping the file. The file catalytic converter.0 c ANSYS. 8-2 Release 12. March 12.6 m/s. 4.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). Setup and Solution Preparation 1.1. The nitrogen flows through the inlet with a uniform velocity of 22. Enable Double-Precision.2 in the separate User’s Guide.

separate. March 12. General −→ Check Note: It is a good idea to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. General −→ Scale. (b) Click Scale. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console. (c) Select mm from the View Length Unit In drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. 3. fuse. All dimensions will now be shown in millimeters. File −→ Read −→Mesh. 4. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. Check the mesh. merge. Check the mesh.. 2009 8-3 . Inc.. or smooth and swap. Release 12. (a) Select mm from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list... scale. 2. convert to polyhedra.msh).e. Read the mesh file (catalytic converter.. add zones. (d) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box. Scale the mesh.) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Step 1: Mesh 1.

Rotate the view and zoom in to get the display shown in Figure 8. 8-4 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.The hex mesh on the geometry contains a total of 34. Inc.580 cells. 2009 . Figure 8. Examine the mesh. Retain the default solver settings.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 5. March 12.2.2: Mesh for the Catalytic Converter Geometry Step 2: General Settings General 1.

(b) Retain the default settings and click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. 2009 8-5 . Inc. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Step 3: Models Models 1. Select the standard k.0 c ANSYS. Release 12.. The original Viscous Model dialog box will now expand.turbulence model. March 12.. (a) Select k-epsilon (2 eqn) in the Model list.

Inc. March 12..... button to open the ANSYS FLUENT Database Materials dialog box. Add nitrogen to the list of fluid materials by copying it from the ANSYS FLUENT Database of materials. 8-6 Release 12. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. (a) Click the ANSYS FLUENT Database.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Step 4: Materials Materials 1.

Click Copy to copy the information for nitrogen to your list of fluid materials. Release 12. Close the ANSYS FLUENT Database Materials dialog box.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media i. (b) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. 2009 8-7 . iii. Inc. Select nitrogen (n2) in the ANSYS FLUENT Fluid Materials selection list.0 c ANSYS. March 12. ii.

Inc.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 8-8 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. March 12. 2009 .

Set the cell zone conditions for the fluid (fluid).0 c ANSYS. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid −→ Edit. Release 12. March 12.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 1.. Inc. (b) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box.. 2009 8-9 . (a) Select nitrogen from the Material Name drop-down list.

i.. (c) Enable Laminar Zone to solve the flow in the porous zone without turbulence. ANSYS FLUENT automatically calculates the third (z-direction) vector based on your inputs for the first two vectors. The direction vectors determine which axis the viscous and internal resistance coefficients act upon. March 12. 8-10 Release 12. Cell Zone Conditions −→ substrate −→ Edit. Make sure that the principal direction vectors are set as shown in Table 8. Axis X Y Z Direction-1 Vector 1 0 0 Direction-2 Vector 0 1 0 Table 8.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 2.1. Inc. (a) Select nitrogen from the Material Name drop-down list. (b) Enable Porous Zone to activate the porous zone model. Set the cell zone conditions for the substrate (substrate).0 c ANSYS. 2009 ..1: Values for the Principle Direction Vectors Use the scroll bar to access the fields that are not initially visible in the dialog box. (d) Click the Porous Zone tab.

414 20414 20414 Table 8.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media ii. These values are several orders of magnitude greater than that of Direction-1 flow and will make any radial flow insignificant.2: Values for the Viscous and Inertial Resistance (e) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. Enter the values in Table 8. March 12. Direction-2 and Direction-3 are set to arbitrary large numbers.846e+10 3. 2009 8-11 . Scroll down to access the fields that are not initially visible in the panel. Inc.0 c ANSYS.846e+07 3. Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions Release 12.2 for the Viscous Resistance and Inertial Resistance. Direction Direction-1 Direction-2 Direction-3 Viscous Resistance (1/m2) 3.846e+10 Inertial Resistance (1/m) 20.

6 m/s for Velocity Magnitude.. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet −→ Edit. (e) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. March 12. 8-12 Release 12.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 1. (a) Enter 22.. 2009 . (c) Retain the default value of 10% for the Turbulent Intensity.0 c ANSYS. Set the velocity and turbulence boundary conditions at the inlet (inlet). (d) Enter 42 mm for the Hydraulic Diameter. Inc. (b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box.

Set the boundary conditions at the outlet (outlet).0 c ANSYS. (d) Enter 42 mm for the Backflow Hydraulic Diameter. Release 12. 3. (e) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. March 12.. Retain the default boundary conditions for the walls (substrate-wall and wall). 2009 8-13 . (b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box.. (a) Retain the default setting of 0 for Gauge Pressure. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 2. (c) Enter 5% for the Backflow Turbulent Intensity. Inc.

Inc. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default selection of Least Squares Cell Based from the Gradient dropdown list in the Spatial Discretization group box. March 12. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. 8-14 Release 12. Set the solution parameters.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Step 7: Solution 1. (b) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum drop-down list.

Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 2. Inc.. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create.. 2009 8-15 . Release 12. March 12. Enable the plotting of the mass flow rate at the outlet. 3..0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.. (a) Retain the default settings. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.

2009 . (c) Select outlet in the Surfaces selection list. Solution Initialization (a) Select inlet from the Compute From drop-down list.cas). Inc. (b) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Report Type drop-down list. File −→ Write −→Case. 5. March 12. 4..0 c ANSYS. 8-16 Release 12.. (d) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media (a) Enable Plot and Write. Save the case file (catalytic converter. Initialize the solution from the inlet. (b) Click Initialize.

(b) Click Calculate to begin the iterations. Release 12.0360 -0.3: Surface Monitor Plot of Mass Flow Rate with Number of Iterations 7. ANSYS FLUENT will prompt you for confirmation to overwrite the file. ske) Figure 8. pbns.. Run the calculation by requesting 100 iterations.0260 -0.0240 -0. Save the case and data files (catalytic converter.0400 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Iteration Convergence history of Mass Flow Ra.0 (3d. surf-mon-1 -0.0300 Mass Flow Rate (kg/s) -0.0 c ANSYS.0280 -0. dp. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. FLUENT 12. The ANSYS FLUENT calculation will converge in approximately 80 iterations. 2009 8-17 . Run Calculation (a) Enter 100 for Number of Iterations.0320 -0..3. March 12. as seen in Figure 8.. Note: If you choose a file name that already exists in the current folder.cas and catalytic converter.0340 -0.0380 -0. The mass flow rate monitor flattens out..dat). Inc.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 6.

8-18 Release 12.. Create a surface passing through the centerline for postprocessing purposes. use the slider bar in the Iso-Surface dialog box.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Step 8: Postprocessing 1. (e) Click Create.. Inc. and Y-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. March 12. (c) Retain the default value of 0 for Iso-Values.. (d) Enter y=0 for New Surface Name. Surface −→Iso-Surface. (b) Click Compute to calculate the Min and Max values.. Note: To interactively place the surface on your mesh. (a) Select Mesh.

as well as at its center. 2009 8-19 . Inc. (d) Enter x=95 for the New Surface Name. (e) Click Create... (f) In a similar manner. (g) Close the Iso-Surface dialog box after all the surfaces have been created. Create cross-sectional surfaces at locations on either side of the substrate. (c) Enter 95 for Iso-Values. Surface −→Iso-Surface. create surfaces named x=130 and x=165 with Iso-Values of 130 and 165. Release 12.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 2. (a) Select Mesh.. respectively. and X-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.. (b) Click Compute to calculate the Min and Max values. March 12.0 c ANSYS.

. 8-20 Release 12.. Create a line surface for the centerline of the porous media. Surface −→Line/Rake. Graphics and Animations −→ Mesh −→ Set Up. March 12. Inc. (b) Enter porous-cl for the New Surface Name. (a) Enter the coordinates of the end points of the line in the End Points group box as shown.. (c) Click Create to create the surface.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . (d) Close the Line/Rake Surface dialog box. 4.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 3.. Display the two wall zones (substrate-wall and wall).

(b) Select Gouraud from the Lighting drop-down list. (c) Click Apply and close the Display Options dialog box. 5.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media (a) Disable Edges and enable Faces in the Options group box.. and make sure that only substrate-wall and wall are selected. (b) Deselect inlet and outlet in the Surfaces selection list. (a) Enable Lights On in the Lighting Attributes group box. 2009 8-21 . March 12.. Set the lighting for the display. (d) Rotate the view and zoom so that the display is similar to Figure 8. (c) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Options.2. Release 12. Inc.

Set the Transparency slider to 70. Graphics and Animations −→ Scene. ii. 2009 . iii.... and Blue sliders are set to the maximum position (i. 8-22 Release 12. (c) Click Apply and close the Scene Description dialog box. (a) Select substrate-wall and wall in the Names selection list. Inc.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 6. 255). button in the Geometry Attributes group box to open the Display Properties dialog box.. i. March 12. Make sure that Red.0 c ANSYS.e. Green. Set the transparency parameter for the wall zones (substrate-wall and wall). (b) Click the Display. Click Apply and close the Display Properties dialog box.

Release 12. (a) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. Inc. Display velocity vectors on the y=0 surface (Figure 8.. March 12.4).Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 7.0 c ANSYS.. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. 2009 8-23 .

it decelerates and straightens out. As it passes through the porous substrate. with recirculation on either side of the jet. Make sure that substrate-wall and wall are selected in the Surfaces selection list. Inc. 8-24 Release 12. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. This allows the metal catalyst present in the substrate to be more effective. 2009 .4: Velocity Vectors on the y=0 Plane The flow pattern shows that the flow enters the catalytic converter as a jet. (e) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. March 12. (d) Select y=0 in the Surfaces selection list.0 c ANSYS. Figure 8. ii.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media i. (c) Set Skip to 1. and exhibits a more uniform velocity distribution. (b) Enter 5 for Scale.

(c) Make sure that Pressure. Display filled contours of static pressure on the y=0 plane (Figure 8. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. and Static Pressure are selected from the Contours of drop-down lists. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. i. (e) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. The pressure drop can be high.. due to the inertial and viscous resistance of the porous media.5). Make sure that substrate-wall and wall are selected in the Surfaces selection list. Release 12. The pressure changes rapidly in the middle section.0 c ANSYS. 2009 8-25 . In the next step. ii. you will learn how to plot the pressure drop along the centerline of the substrate. (d) Select y=0 in the Surfaces selection list.. Determining this pressure drop is one of the goals of the CFD analysis. March 12. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box.. (b) Enable Draw Mesh to open the Mesh Display dialog box. where the fluid velocity changes as it passes through the porous substrate. Inc.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 8.

0 c ANSYS. and Static Pressure are selected from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists..6. As seen in Figure 8.. Plot the static pressure across the line surface porous-cl (Figure 8. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. 8-26 Release 12. (b) Select porous-cl in the Surfaces selection list.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Figure 8.5: Contours of Static Pressure on the y=0 plane 9. the pressure drop across the porous substrate is approximately 300 Pa. March 12.. Inc. 2009 .6).. (c) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. (a) Make sure that Pressure.

Display filled contours of the velocity in the X direction on the x=95. and x=165 surfaces (Figure 8.0 c ANSYS.7). March 12.. x=130. Inc. Release 12.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Figure 8. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. (b) Enable Draw Mesh to open the Mesh Display dialog box. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up..6: Plot of Static Pressure on the porous-cl Line Surface 10. 2009 8-27 .

(e) Select x=130. Make sure that substrate-wall and wall are selected in the Surfaces selection list. Figure 8.. Inc. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. and x=165 Surfaces The velocity profile becomes more uniform as the fluid passes through the porous media. 8-28 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. (f) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. 2009 . and X Velocity from the Contours of drop-down lists. which corresponds to a moderate velocity.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media i. March 12. The velocity is very high at the center (the area in red) just before the nitrogen enters the substrate and then decreases as it passes through and exits the substrate.7: Contours of the X Velocity on the x=95. x=165. x=130. (d) Select Velocity. ii. increases in extent. The area in green. (c) Disable Global Range in the Options group box. and x=95 in the Surfaces selection list.

(e) Select Facet Minimum from the Report Type drop-down list and click Compute. Inc. the maximum velocity divided by the mean velocity) and the space velocity (i. Custom field functions and UDFs can be also used to calculate more complex measures of non-uniformity. such as the standard deviation and the gamma uniformity index. (d) Click Compute. 2009 8-29 . maximum. (c) Select x=165 and x=95 in the Surfaces selection list. maximum and minimum velocity can be seen in the main ANSYS FLUENT console.. (g) Close the Surface Integrals dialog box.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media 11. Release 12.. You can also use these numbers to calculate the velocity ratio (i.e.0 c ANSYS. and maximum of the velocity distribution before and after the porous substrate. Use numerical reports to determine the average. minimum. (b) Select Velocity and X Velocity from the Field Variable drop-down lists.e. March 12. and minimum values for X velocity gives the degree to which the velocity distribution is non-uniform. the product of the mean velocity and the substrate length). The numerical report of average. The spread between the average. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up.. (a) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list.. (f) Select Facet Maximum from the Report Type drop-down list and click Compute.

Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution.0038509 x=95 5. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. Flow non-uniformities were rapidly discovered through images of velocity vectors and pressure contours. For additional details about modeling flow through porous media (including heat transfer and reaction modeling). You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.2. March 12.-------------------x=165 4.-------------------Net 7.3 in the separate User’s Guide. see Section 7.7021732 ---------------.0 c ANSYS.31741163 Maximum of Facet Values X Velocity (m/s) -------------------------------.-------------------x=165 2. Inc.6102977 Minimum of Facet Values X Velocity (m/s) -------------------------------. Surface integrals and xy-plots provided purely numeric data.Modeling Flow Through Porous Media Mass-Weighted Average X Velocity (m/s) -------------------------------.-------------------Net 4. You also learned how to perform appropriate postprocessing.-------------------x=165 6.31741163 ---------------.1665144 x=95 7. 2009 .-------------------Net 0.2266927 ---------------.4261272 x=95 0.7021732 Summary In this tutorial. you learned how to set up and solve a problem involving gas flow through porous media in ANSYS FLUENT. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. 8-30 Release 12.

Problem Description The problem to be considered is shown schematically in Figure 9.and RNG k. 2009 9-1 . • Display velocity vectors and contours of pressure. Understanding the behavior of such flows is important in the design of secondary air passages for turbine disk cooling. Inc.2 cm apart. axisymmetric. co-rotating disk cavity system.0 c ANSYS. • Restart the solver from an existing solution. which are 6.1. using a rotating reference frame. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Set up a 2D axisymmetric model with swirl. The disks are 88. and the air enters with no swirl.86 cm in diameter. This case is similar to a disk cavity configuration that was extensively studied by Pincombe [1]. The disks.08 rpm. are spinning at 71. • Use the standard k. Introduction Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame This tutorial considers the flow within a 2D. As the flow is diverted radially. March 12. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Air enters the cavity between two co-rotating disks.6 cm in diameter and the air enters at 1. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure.146 m/s through a circular bore 8.turbulence models with the enhanced near-wall treatment. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. • Set up and display XY plots of radial velocity and wall y + distribution.Tutorial 9. the rotation of the disk has a significant effect on the viscous flow developing along the surface of the disk. Release 12. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1.

08 rpm Inflow 4. Here.43 cm Figure 9. March 12. Reφ . 2009 . and the rotational Reynolds number.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Outflow 44. Inc. These parameters are defined as follows: Cw = Q ν rout 2 Ωrout ν (9.3 cm Rotating Disk Rotating Disk 6. Cw . Ω is the rotational speed. 9-2 Release 12.1: Problem Specification As noted by Pincombe [1]. ν is the kinematic viscosity.2) where Q is the volumetric flow rate. there are two nondimensional parameters that characterize this type of disk cavity flow: the volume flow rate coefficient.1) Reφ = (9.2 cm 71.0 c ANSYS. and rout is the outer radius of the disks. you will consider a case for which Cw = 1092 and Reφ = 105 .

msh). Step 1: Mesh 1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Download single_rotating. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary.. Release 12. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. Unzip single_rotating. Check the mesh. Therefore. including the name of the zone. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. Read the mesh file (disk. Inc. File −→ Read −→Mesh.1. 2009 9-3 . see Section 1. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. information will be displayed in the ANSYS FLUENT console about the associated zone. March 12. As ANSYS FLUENT reads the mesh file. Step 2: General Settings General 1.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Setup and Solution Preparation 1. it will report its progress in the console. once you read in the mesh. The file disk.2).zip.. 3. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. Examine the mesh (Figure 9. 2. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window.0 c ANSYS. 2.msh can be found in the single rotating folder created after unzipping the file.

dp.. (b) Select length from the Quantities list. angular velocity and length are specified in rpm and cm.. (c) Close the Set Units dialog box. General −→ Units.0 (2d. March 12. (a) Select angular-velocity from the Quantities list. lam) Figure 9. In the problem description. 9-4 Release 12. Define new units for angular velocity and length. which is more convenient in this case. pbns. and rpm in the Units list. Inc.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Mesh FLUENT 12. 2009 .2: Mesh Display for the Disk Cavity 3. respectively. and cm in the Units list. These are not the default units for these quantities.0 c ANSYS.

General (a) Retain the default selection of Pressure-Based in the Type list. Release 12. March 12. 2009 9-5 . Specify the solver formulation to be used for the model calculation and enable the modeling of axisymmetric swirl. Inc.0 c ANSYS. (b) Retain the default selection of Absolute in the Velocity Formulation list. the absolute velocity formulation has some numerical advantages.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 4. For a rotating reference frame. (c) Select Axisymmetric Swirl in the 2D Space list.

For details. The ability to calculate a swirl velocity permits the use of a 2D mesh. The Viscous Model dialog box will expand. see Section 4. Inc.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Step 3: Models Models 1. (a) Select k-epsilon in the Model list. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. 2009 . Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit.12. This is especially important for problems where the enhanced wall treatment is used... Enable the standard k. (c) Select Enhanced Wall Treatment in the Near-Wall Treatment list. the first mesh point away from the wall is placed at a y+ of the order of 1).0 c ANSYS. March 12. The near-wall flow field is resolved through the viscous sublayer and buffer zones (that is.turbulence model with the enhanced near-wall treatment.4 in the separate Theory Guide. (b) Retain the default selection of Standard in the k-epsilon Model list. 9-6 Release 12. so the calculation is simpler and more economical to run.

Retain the default properties for air. you will model air as an incompressible fluid with a density of 1. Release 12. Click Close to close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. no change is required in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Extra: You can modify the fluid properties for air at any time or copy another material from the database..0 c ANSYS.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Step 4: Materials Materials For the present analysis. 1. Inc. March 12. Since these are the default values.7894×10−5 kg/m-s. For details.225 kg/m3 and a dynamic viscosity of 1. see Chapter 8 in the separate User’s Guide. 2.. 2009 9-7 .

Inc. March 12. Then define the disk walls to rotate with the moving frame.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions Set up the present problem using a rotating reference frame for the fluid. 9-8 Release 12.

0 c ANSYS. (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box... (a) Select Moving Reference Frame from the Motion Type drop-down list. (b) Enter 71. March 12.08 rpm for Speed in the Rotational Velocity group box. 2009 9-9 . Define the rotating reference frame for the fluid zone (fluid-7). Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-7 −→ Edit. Inc.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 1. Release 12.

0 c ANSYS. March 12. 2009 . Inc.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 9-10 Release 12.

(c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box... (d) Enter 2. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-2 −→ Edit. March 12.86 cm for Hydraulic Diameter. (b) Enter 1.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 1. Release 12. (e) Enter 8.0 c ANSYS.146 m/s for Axial-Velocity.6% for Turbulent Intensity. Set the following conditions at the flow inlet (velocity-inlet-2). 2009 9-11 . (f) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. Inc. (a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list.

(d) Retain the default value of 10 for Backflow Turbulent Viscosity Ratio.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 2. you should set reasonable backflow conditions to prevent convergence from being adversely affected. 2009 . Set the following conditions at the flow outlet (pressure-outlet-3).0 c ANSYS. Since backflow might occur at some point during the solution procedure.. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-outlet-3 −→ Edit. 9-12 Release 12. (c) Enter 5% for Backflow Turbulent Intensity. (e) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. (b) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box.. March 12. Inc. Note: ANSYS FLUENT will use the backflow conditions only if the fluid is flowing into the computational domain through the outlet. (a) Retain the default selection of Normal to Boundary from the Backflow Direction Specification Method drop-down list.

Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 3. March 12. Accept the default settings for the disk walls (wall-6). To specify a nonrotating wall. (a) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.. ANSYS FLUENT assumes by default that all walls rotate at the speed of the moving reference frame.. Inc. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 9-13 . Boundary Conditions −→ wall-6 −→ Edit. and hence are moving with respect to the stationary (absolute) reference frame. Note: For a rotating reference frame. you must specify a rotational speed of 0 in the absolute frame.

March 12.Model 1. Turbulent Kinetic Energy.0 c ANSYS. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default selection of Least Squares Cell Based from the Gradient list in the Spatial Discretization group box. Set the solution parameters. 9-14 Release 12. and Turbulent Dissipation Rate drop-down lists. 2009 . Use the scroll bar to access the discretization schemes that are not initially visible in the task page.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Step 7: Solution Using the Standard k. (b) Select PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. Swirl Velocity. The PRESTO! scheme is well suited for steep pressure gradients involved in rotating flows. (c) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum. Inc. It provides improved pressure interpolation in situations where large body forces or strong pressure variations are present as in swirling flows.

see Section 26. Note: For this problem.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 2.2 in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. if the solution diverges or the residuals display large oscillations. you may need to reduce the under-relaxation factors from their default values.3. Inc. Set the solution controls. Solution Controls (a) Retain the default values in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. March 12. 2009 9-15 . Release 12. the default under-relaxation factors are satisfactory. For tips on how to adjust the under-relaxation parameters for different situations. However.

March 12. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. the convergence tolerance on the continuity equation is kept at 0. (a) Ensure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. 2009 ..Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 3..0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 9-16 Release 12. Depending on the behavior of the solution. Note: For this calculation. Inc.001. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. you can reduce this value if necessary.

the mass flow rate history will be written to a file. 2009 9-17 . (c) Select pressure-outlet-3 from the Surfaces selection list.. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 4. Enable the plotting of mass flow rate at the flow exit. (a) Enable the Plot and Write options for surf-mon-1. the history information will be lost when you exit ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click OK in the Surface Monitor dialog box to enable the monitor. Release 12. (b) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Report Type drop-down list. Note: When the Write option is selected in the Surface Monitor dialog box. If you do not enable theWrite option. Inc.. March 12.

cas.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 5. Initialize the flow field using the boundary conditions set at velocity-inlet-2. (b) Click Initialize. 2009 .. 6. Save the case file (disk-ke. File −→ Write −→Case. Solution Initialization (a) Select velocity-inlet-2 from the Compute From drop-down list..0 c ANSYS. March 12. Inc. 9-18 Release 12.gz).

March 12.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 7. (b) Click Calculate. The mass flow rate history is shown in Figure 9.0 c ANSYS. Throughout the calculation.3.Turbulence Model) Release 12. Start the calculation by requesting 500 iterations. Run Calculation (a) Enter 500 for the Number of Iterations. This is reasonable for the current case. 2009 9-19 . The solution should be sufficiently converged after approximately 225 iterations. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT will report reversed flow at the exit. Figure 9.3: Mass Flow Rate History (k.

you should also check the net mass fluxes through the domain to ensure that mass is being conserved. If a significant imbalance occurs. 0. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. 9-20 Release 12. (a) Select velocity-inlet-2 and pressure-outlet-3 from the Boundaries selection list. Save the data file (disk-ke. Check the mass flux balance. ! Although the mass flow rate history indicates that the solution is converged... (b) Retain the default Mass Flow Rate option.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 8. 9.0 c ANSYS. ! The net mass imbalance should be a small fraction (say.. March 12. File −→ Write −→Data. you should decrease the residual tolerances by at least an order of magnitude and continue iterating. Inc.. ANSYS FLUENT will prompt you for confirmation to overwrite the file.gz).5%) of the total flux through the system. Note: If you choose a file name that already exists in the current folder. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. 2009 .dat.

. button to open the Vector Options dialog box.. Display the velocity vectors.0 c ANSYS. 2009 9-21 . ii.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Step 8: Postprocessing for the Standard k. Click Apply and close the Vector Options dialog box. Release 12. Disable Z Component.. Inc. (a) Enter 50 for Scale (b) Set Skip to 1. This allows you to examine only the non-swirling components.. (c) Click the Vector Options.Solution 1. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. i. March 12.

Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (d) Click Display in the Vectors dialog box to plot the velocity vectors. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Display filled contours of static pressure.. 2009 . Figure 9. Inc.0 c ANSYS.4.4: Magnified View of Velocity Vectors within the Disk Cavity (e) Close the Vectors dialog box. 2.. 9-22 Release 12. A magnified view of the velocity field displaying a counter-clockwise circulation of the flow is shown in Figure 9. March 12.

Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box.. Notice the high pressure that occurs on the right disk near the hub due to the stagnation of the flow entering from the bore. March 12. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Create a constant y-coordinate line for postprocessing. The pressure contours are displayed in Figure 9.. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. Figure 9. 2009 9-23 . (b) Retain the selection of Pressure. Surface −→Iso-Surface..5. Inc.. Release 12.5: Contours of Static Pressure for the Entire Disk Cavity 3.0 c ANSYS.

Figure 9. Note: The name you use for an isosurface can be any continuous string of characters (without spaces). (b) Select the y-coordinate line y=37cm from the Surfaces selection list. and Y-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (a) Select Mesh.. Plot the radial velocity distribution on the surface y=37cm.. Inc. and Radial Velocity from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. (a) Select Velocity. March 12.0 c ANSYS.. This is the radial position along which you will plot the radial velocity profile. (e) Click Create to create the isosurface. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. (f) Close the Iso-Surface dialog box.. 9-24 Release 12. 4. (c) Enter 37 in the Iso-Values field. (d) Enter y=37cm for the New Surface Name.6 shows a plot of the radial velocity distribution along y = 37 cm. 2009 . (c) Click Plot. (b) Click Compute to update the minimum and maximum values...

Inc... (a) Disable Write to File in the Options group box. 5. Plot the wall y+ distribution on the rotating disk wall along the radial direction (Figure 9. Enter ke-data. i. (b) Select Turbulence. Release 12.6: Radial Velocity Distribution—Standard k.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Figure 9. button to open the Select File dialog box.. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up..0 c ANSYS. (e) Click the Write.Solution (d) Enable Write to File in the Options group box to save the radial velocity profile... 2009 9-25 . and Wall Yplus from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. March 12.xy in the XY File text entry box and click OK.7).

Solution 9-26 Release 12. iv. Inc. ii. Click Apply and close the Axes . 2009 .7 shows a plot of wall y+ distribution along wall-6. (d) Enter 0 and 1 for X and Y respectively in the Plot Direction group box.7: Wall Yplus Distribution on wall-6—Standard k. Retain the default selection of X from the Axis group box.Solution XY Plot dialog box. Retain the default value of 0 for Minimum and enter 43 for Maximum in the Range group box.. March 12. (f) Click Plot in the Solution XY Plot dialog box. iii. button to open the Axes .Solution XY Plot dialog box. Disable Auto Range in the Options group box. (e) Click the Axes. Figure 9.0 c ANSYS. i. Figure 9.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (c) Deselect y=37cm and select wall-6 from the Surfaces selection list..

xy in the XY File text entry box and click OK. (h) Click the Write. while using enhanced wall treatment. Inc. 2009 9-27 .turbulence model. i. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. button to open the Select File dialog box. Enter ke-yplus. 1..0 c ANSYS.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (g) Enable Write to File in the Options group box to save the wall y+ profile. Release 12. the wall y+ should be in the order of 1 (at least < 5) to resolve viscous sublayer. March 12..turbulence model with the enhanced near-wall treatment. The plot justifies the applicability of enhanced wall treatment to the given mesh... Step 9: Solution Using the RNG k. (i) Close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.Model Recalculate the solution using the RNG k. Note: Ideally. (a) Select RNG in the k-epsilon Model list. Enable the RNG k.

solution and compare it with the distribution for the standard k.solution. (c) Select y=37cm and deselect wall-6 from the Surfaces selection list. For more information.cas.. Run Calculation The solution converges after approximately 105 additional iterations. see Section 4. Save the case and data files (disk-rng. March 12. 2.2 in the separate Theory Guide.. (b) Select Velocity. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. and Radial Velocity from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. Plot the radial velocity distribution for the RNG k.gz and disk-rng.. The differential viscosity model and swirl modification can provide better accuracy for swirling flows such as the disk cavity.Solution 1. Continue the calculation by requesting 200 iterations. Step 10: Postprocessing for the RNG k. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS. 3.gz).. 9-28 Release 12..4.dat. 2009 . (c) Retain Enhanced Wall Treatment as the Near-Wall Treatment. File −→ Write −→Case & Data..Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (b) Enable Differential Viscosity Model and Swirl Dominated Flow in the RNG Options group box. (a) Enter 1 and 0 for X and Y respectively in the Plot Direction group box. Inc.

button to open the Curves .Solution XY Plot dialog box.data. March 12. iii. (f) Click the Axes. i.. Click Apply and close the Axes .. Enable Auto Range in the Options group box. (g) Click the Curves. Select the file ke-data.. button to load the k.Solution XY Plot dialog box. ii. i.. Retain 0 for the Curve #.data. Click OK. i. Select x from the Symbol drop-down list..Solution XY Plot dialog box.Solution XY Plot dialog box. ii. (e) Click the Load File. Click Apply and close the Curves . ii. Release 12.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (d) Disable the Write to File option. button to open the Axes . Inc. 2009 9-29 .xy in the Select File dialog box. where you will define a different curve symbol for the RNG k.0 c ANSYS..

ii. i.and Standard k.This is due to the less diffusive character of the RNG k. where you will specify the x-axis range.. iii. Disable Auto Range in the Options group box.Solutions The peak velocity predicted by the RNG k. Adjust the range of the x axis to magnify the region of the peaks. 2009 .model.solution.8: Radial Velocity Distribution—RNG k.Solution XY Plot dialog box. button to open the Axes .. Inc.0 c ANSYS.8). March 12. 9-30 Release 12. Figure 9. Click Apply and close the Axes . (i) Click the Axes. Retain the value of 0 for Minimum and enter 1 for Maximum in the Range dialog box.Solution XY Plot dialog box.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (h) Click Plot in the Solution XY Plot dialog box (Figure 9.solution is higher than that predicted by the k.

10. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. March 12.9: RNG k. Inc.0 c ANSYS.Solutions (x = 0 cm to x = 1 cm) 2.and Standard k.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (j) Click Plot. Plot the wall y+ distribution on the rotating disk wall along the radial direction Figure 9.. 2009 9-31 .. Release 12. Figure 9. The difference between the peak values calculated by the two models is now more apparent.

. (c) Enter 0 and 1 for X and Y respectively in the Plot Direction group box. Select the file ke-yplus.xy in the Select File dialog box. Retain the default value of 0 for Minimum and enter 43 for Maximum in the Range group box.and Standard k.0 c ANSYS. button to open the Axes . (d) Select any existing files that appear in the File Data selection list and click the Free Data button to remove the file.data. (g) Click Plot in the Solution XY Plot dialog box. Inc.10: wall-6—RNG k.. and Wall Yplus from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists.Solutions (x = 0 cm to x = 43 cm) 9-32 Release 12.Solution XY Plot dialog box.. button to load the RNG k. Click OK.Solution XY Plot dialog box. ii.. ii.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame (a) Select Turbulence. 2009 .. i. (e) Click the Load File. (b) Deselect y=37cm and select wall-6 from the Surfaces selection list. (f) Click the Axes. Click Apply and close the Axes .. March 12. i. Retain the default selection of X from the Axis group box. iii. Figure 9.

Pincombe. References 1. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. J. This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. Further Improvements The case modeled in this tutorial lends itself to parametric study due to its relatively small size. March 12. 1981. Brighton. Mesh −→ Separate −→Faces. • Introduce a non-zero swirl at the inlet or use a velocity profile for fully-developed pipe flow. The ability to calculate a swirl velocity permits the use of a 2D mesh.0 c ANSYS. and the near-wall flow field is resolved using a fine mesh (the first mesh point away from the wall being placed at a y+ on the order of 1). • Use adaption to see if resolving the high velocity and pressure-gradient region of the flow has a significant effect on the solution.. For more information about mesh considerations for turbulence modeling. since the flow at the inlet is typically being supplied by a pipe. “Velocity Measurements in the Mk II . thereby making the calculation simpler and more economical to run than a 3D model. University of Sussex. axisymmetric disk cavity problem in ANSYS FLUENT. • Model compressible flow (using the ideal gas law for density) rather than assuming incompressible flow text.3 in the separate User’s Guide. This can be important for problems where the enhanced wall treatment is used. and rerun the calculation. Inc. Here are some things you may wish to try: • Separate wall-6 into two walls. 2009 9-33 . This is probably more realistic than the constant axial velocity used here. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.Rotating Cavity Rig with a Radial Outflow”.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame Summary This tutorial illustrated the setup and solution of a 2D.. Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. see Section 12.R. UK. Release 12. Specify one wall to be stationary..

Inc.0 c ANSYS. March 12.Using a Single Rotating Reference Frame 9-34 Release 12. 2009 .

This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Specify different frames of reference for different fluid zones. This model is powerful in that multiple rotating reference frames can be included in a single domain. the flow field on a 2D section of a centrifugal blower will be calculated. This tutorial illustrates the procedure for setting up and solving a problem using the MRF capability. or when the stationary walls are not surfaces of revolution (such as the volute around a centrifugal blower wheel). or about the same axis at different speeds. In other words. the entire domain can be referred to as a single rotating frame of reference. hub and shaft surfaces. It is therefore very useful in complicated situations where one or more rotating parts are present.0 c ANSYS. In ANSYS FLUENT.Tutorial 10. The resulting flow field is representative of a snapshot of the transient flow field in which the rotating parts are moving. One example is the centrifugal blower unit that is typically used in automotive climate control systems. As an example. a single rotating coordinate system is not sufficient to “immobilize” the computational domain so as to predict a steady-state flow field. the flow features associated with multiple rotating parts can be analyzed using the multiple reference frame (MRF) capability. shrouds. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. March 12. Inc. duct walls) are surfaces of revolution with respect to the axis of rotation.) are rotating at a prescribed angular velocity. The example will be limited to a single rotating reference frame. However. For problems where all the moving parts (fan blades. etc. when each of the several parts is rotating about a different axis of rotation. if an interface can be drawn on which there is little or no angular dependence. and the stationary walls (e. 2009 10-1 . in many cases the interface can be chosen in such a way that the flow field at this location is independent of the orientation of the moving parts..g. • Set the relative velocity of each wall. Release 12. the model can be a reliable tool for simulating time-averaged flow fields. However. Introduction Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Many engineering problems involve rotating flow domains.

Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. each with a chord length of 13. Pressure-inlet-5 261 rad/s 35 mm M 56.0 c ANSYS.5 mm.5 mm blower blades (13. to solve problems using the MRF feature.5 mm chord length) Pressure-Outlet-9 145 mm Figure 10. Problem Description This problem considers a 2D section of a generic centrifugal blower.1: Schematic of the Problem 10-2 Release 12. you should be familiar with the concept of creating multiple fluid zones in your mesh generator.1. The flow is assumed to be turbulent. 2009 . The blades are rotating with an angular velocity of 261 rad/s.5 mm. A schematic of the problem is shown in Figure 10. Inc.5 mm (measured from the leading edge) from the center of rotation. The blower consists of 32 blades.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. The blades are located approximately 56. The radius of the outer wall varies logarithmically from 80 mm to 146. In general. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. March 12. The total pressure at the inlet is defined to be 200 Pa and the flow discharges to ambient conditions (static pressure = 0 Pa).

Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Setup and Solution Preparation 1. The mesh file is opened in the serial solver because the Smooth/Swap.msh) in the ANSYS FLUENT serial solver. 3.zip. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).. Therefore. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. File −→ Read −→Mesh. 2009 10-3 . Step 2: General Settings General 1. once you read in the mesh. Unzip multiple_rotating.0 c ANSYS. see Section 1.. For more information about FLUENT Launcher.1.. Download multiple_rotating.. March 12. Release 12. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. The file.2 in the separate User’s Guide. blower. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Check the mesh. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console.msh can be found in the multiple rotating folder created after unzipping the file. Inc. Read the mesh file (blower. operation is available only in serial ANSYS FLUENT. Step 1: Mesh 1. 2.

Mesh −→Smooth/Swap.0 c ANSYS.e.. General −→ Check Note: It is a good practice to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 2.2). separate. scale. If you want to solve using ANSYS FLUENT parallel. fuse. Examine the mesh (Figure 10. (a) Retain the default smoothing parameters and click Smooth. 10-4 Release 12. In the Mesh Display dialog box. add zones. The fluid zone containing the blades will be solved in a rotational reference frame. Node smoothing and face swapping will improve the mesh quality. interior-62 and interior-66. 2009 .. fluid-13. 4. Check the mesh. Inc. convert to polyhedra. This step is recommended for triangular and tetrahedral meshes. Smooth and swap the mesh. In a later step. (c) Close the Smooth/Swap Mesh dialog box.. March 12. 3. and fluid-18. The mesh consists of three fluid zones. you will learn how to associate a fluid zone with an interior zone. or smooth and swap. These are reported in the console when the mesh is read. merge. the fluid zones are reported as interior zones interior-61. you can do so only after node smoothing and face swapping. fluid-14.) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised. The smooth and swap function is available only in serial ANSYS FLUENT. (b) Click Swap repeatedly until the Number Swapped in the Swap Info group box is zero.

and will be converted to interior zones when the boundary conditions are set later in this tutorial. Retain the default solver settings. Shadow walls are created whenever a wall has fluid zones on both sides.2: Mesh of the 2D Centrifugal Blower The fluid zones are separated by wall boundaries. Inc.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Figure 10. General Release 12. March 12. 5. Each of these wall zones also has an associated “shadow wall” which was created by ANSYS FLUENT when it read the mesh. 2009 10-5 .0 c ANSYS. These boundaries were used in the mesh generator to separate the fluid zones.

March 12.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Step 3: Models Models 1..turbulence model. 2009 . Inc. (a) Select k-epsilon (2 eqn) in the Model list. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. Enable the standard k.0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.. 10-6 Release 12.

Release 12.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Step 4: Materials Materials 1. see Chapter 8 in the separate User’s Guide. March 12. you could modify the fluid properties for air or copy another material from the database. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Extra: If needed. Retain the default properties for air.. 2009 10-7 . For details. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit..

0 c ANSYS. Inc.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 10-8 Release 12. March 12. 2009 .

0). (c) Enter 261 rad/s for Speed in the Rotational Velocity group box. If one of the remaining fluid zones was also rotating. Scroll down to find the Speed number-entry box. Release 12. This is the center of curvature for the circular boundaries of the rotating zone.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 1. you do not need to set any boundary conditions for them. Define the boundary conditions for the rotational reference frame (fluid-13). Inc. March 12..0 c ANSYS. (a) Retain the Rotation-Axis Origin default setting of (0. 2009 10-9 . Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-13 −→ Edit.. (d) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. you would need to set the appropriate rotational speed for it. (b) Select Moving Reference Frame from the Motion Type drop-down list. Note: Since the other fluid zones are stationary.

0 c ANSYS. A Question dialog box will open. The resulting interior faces are those that have fluid cells on both sides but do not require any boundary conditions to be set. Inc. 2009 . Change wall-2 type to interior. They need to be changed to type interior. asking if you want to change the type from wall to interior. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-2 The zones wall-2 and wall-3 are the interfaces between the three fluid zones. (a) Select interior from the Type drop-down list.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. March 12. 10-10 Release 12. as discussed earlier.

e. 2009 10-11 . March 12. ii. Click OK to retain the default Zone Name. Inc. (d) Type the commands. ANSYS FLUENT will fuse wall-2 and wall-2-shadow together to form interior2.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames i.. in the console. > display /display> zone-mesh () zone id/name(1) [()] 13 zone id/name(2) [()] <Enter> button to the right of the Surfaces (b) Click the Outline button to select only the outline surfaces of the domain. 2. Commands in the text interface. Only the domain boundaries and interior walls will be displayed. While the interior zones can be selected individually in the Mesh Display dialog box.3) shows that zone fluid-13 corresponds to the rotating region. the fluid zones cannot. however.. change wall-3 to an interior zone named interior-3. (b) Similarly. (c) Click Display. Hint: You may need to press the <Enter> key to get the > prompt. (a) Deselect all the surfaces by clicking the selection list. Boundary Conditions −→ Display Mesh. Click Yes to open the interior dialog box. It is unclear when you read the mesh which fluid zone corresponds to which interior zone. the zone containing the blades) by displaying the mesh for each zone. The resulting display (Figure 10.. can be used to make this association. Release 12. Identify the rotating fluid zone (i.0 c ANSYS. as shown.

(a) Enter 200 Pa for Gauge Total Pressure.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Thread Mesh (13) FLUENT 12. 3. Inc.0 (2d. 2009 . Set the boundary conditions (see Figure 10.0 c ANSYS. 10-12 Release 12. pbns. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-inlet-5 −→ Edit. March 12. ske) Figure 10..3: Mesh in fluid-13 (e) Close the Mesh Display dialog box..1) for the flow inlet (pressure-inlet-5).

. Set the backflow turbulence parameters for the flow outlet (pressure-outlet-9) to the same values used for pressure-inlet-5.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames (b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list.0 c ANSYS. the operating pressure is 101325 Pa. 4. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-7 −→ Edit. Inc.. even if you do not expect any backflow to occur. (d) Enter 0. relative to the operating pressure specified in the Operating Conditions dialog box. Note: All pressures that you specify in ANSYS FLUENT are gauge pressures. Note: The backflow values are used only if reversed flow occurs at the outlet.05 m for Hydraulic Diameter. but it is a good idea to use reasonable values. March 12. see Section 8. Define the velocity of the wall zone representing the blades (wall-7) relative to the moving fluid zone.14 in the separate User’s Guide. (e) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box. Release 12. By default. (c) Enter 5 % for Turbulent Intensity. 2009 10-13 . 5. For details.

Inc. The second-order scheme will provide a more accurate solution. The Wall dialog box will expand to show the wall motion parameters. Step 7: Solution 1.0 c ANSYS. Turbulent Kinetic Energy. (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. and Turbulent Dissipation Rate drop-down lists in the Spatial Discretization group box. With these settings. (b) Retain the default selection of Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone and select Rotational in the Motion group box. Set the solution parameters. Solution Methods (a) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum. March 12. 10-14 Release 12. The Rotation-Axis Origin should be located at x = 0 m and y = 0 m. wall-7 becomes a moving wall. (a) Select Moving Wall in the Wall Motion list. (c) Retain the default value of 0 rad/s for (relative) Speed. 2009 . the blades will move at the same speed as the surrounding fluid.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames With fluid-13 set to a rotating reference frame.

Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. Ensure the plotting of residuals during the calculation... Release 12. March 12.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 2.0 c ANSYS. (a) Ensure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 2009 10-15 . Inc.

(b) Select Absolute in the Reference Frame list. Inc. Note: In this tutorial. In certain cases. 2009 . Solution Initialization (a) Select pressure-inlet-5 from the Compute from drop-down list. 4. you chose an Absolute reference frame for initializing the solution.9 in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Initialize to initialize the solution. Save the case file (blower. March 12. File −→ Write −→Case. 10-16 Release 12..Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 3. Relative to Cell Zone may help the solution converge faster. For guidelines.. see Section 26.gz). Initialize the solution using the boundary conditions set at pressure-inlet-5.cas.

Run Calculation (a) Enter 400 for Number of Iterations. Save the case and data files (blower2. (b) Click Calculate.. This is due to the sudden expansion. This will ensure that the relevant parameters corresponding to the current solution data are saved accordingly.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 5.. which results in a recirculating flow near the exit.gz).gz and blower2.cas.dat. 2009 10-17 . Release 12.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT will report that there is reversed flow occurring at the exit. The solution will converge in approximately 170 iterations (when all residuals have dropped below 0. Note: It is good practice to save the case file whenever you are saving the data. Start the calculation by requesting 400 iterations. 6. During the calculation. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.001). Inc. March 12.

4).Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Step 8: Postprocessing 1. Inc.. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box (see Figure 10.. Total pressure contours show the expected pressure jump across the blower blades. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (b) Select Pressure. March 12..0 c ANSYS.. 10-18 Release 12. 2009 . Display filled contours of total pressure (Figure 10. and Total Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists.4).

Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. Inc.5). Release 12.4: Contours of Total Pressure 2.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Figure 10. March 12.. 2009 10-19 .0 c ANSYS.. Display velocity vectors (Figure 10.

0 c ANSYS. Report the mass flux at pressure-inlet-5 and pressure-outlet-9. set the Scale factor to a value greater than 1.. This will automatically scale the length of velocity vectors relative to the size of the smallest cell in the mesh. 10-20 Release 12.5). 2009 .5: Velocity Vectors By default. To increase the length of the “scaled” vectors. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. Inc. March 12.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames (a) Enter 5 for Scale. Figure 10. 3. Auto Scale is chosen. (b) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box (see Figure 10..

Summary This tutorial illustrates the procedure for setting up and solving problems with multiple reference frames using ANSYS FLUENT. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1.. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.. Although this tutorial considers only one rotating fluid zone. (d) Close the Flux Reports dialog box. (b) Select pressure-inlet-5 and pressure-outlet-9 in the Boundaries selection list. Inc. Release 12. 0. March 12. Use the Surface Integrals option to report fluxes on surfaces or planes. The net mass imbalance should be no more than a small fraction (say. you may wish to use the relative velocity formulation. For some problems involving rotating reference frames.Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames (a) Retain the selection of Mass Flow Rate in the Options group box. The flux report will compute fluxes only for boundary zones. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh.0 c ANSYS. If a significant imbalance occurs. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. extension to multiple rotating fluid zones is straightforward as long as you delineate each fluid zone. 2009 10-21 . you should decrease your residual tolerances by at least an order of magnitude and continue iterating. See the ANSYS FLUENT User’s Guide for details.5%) of the total flux through the system. (c) Click Compute. Note that this tutorial was solved using the default absolute velocity formulation.

March 12. Inc. 2009 .Using Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 10-22 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.

a mixing plane must be used at the interface. respectively. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver.Tutorial 11. Inc. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Use the standard k. The mesh is set up with periodic boundaries on either side of the rotor and stator blades. • Compute and display circumferential averages of total pressure on a surface. The mixing plane is defined at the rotor outlet/stator inlet. A steady-state solution for this configuration using only one rotor blade and one stator blade is desired. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. Introduction Using the Mixing Plane Model This tutorial considers the flow in an axial fan with a rotor in front and stators (vanes) in the rear.1. March 12. This configuration is typical of a single-stage axial flow turbomachine. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. By considering the rotor and stator together in a single calculation.model with standard wall functions. Since the periodic angles for the rotor and stator are different. Problem Description The problem to be considered is shown schematically in Figure 11. The hub and blade of the rotor are assumed to be rotating at 1800 rpm.0 c ANSYS. A pressure inlet is used at the upstream boundary and a pressure outlet at the downstream boundary. you can determine the interaction between these components. Ambient air is drawn into the fan (at 0 Pa gauge total pressure) and is exhausted back out to the ambient environment (0 Pa static pressure). The rotor and stator consist of 9 and 12 blades. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. • Use a mixing plane to model the rotor-stator interface. Release 12. 2009 11-1 .

Unzip mixing_plane. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. 3.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. 2009 . The file fanstage. Inc. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default.Using the Mixing Plane Model Figure 11. Therefore.0 c ANSYS.msh can be found in the mixing plane folder created after unzipping the file. 2.zip.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). after you read in the mesh. Download mixing_plane. March 12.1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. see Section 1. 11-2 Release 12.

0 c ANSYS.. rotor-inlet-hub. Inc. it will report its progress in the console.2). Release 12. stator-blade. 2. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. As ANSYS FLUENT reads the mesh file.Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 1: Mesh 1. Read the mesh file fanstage. 2009 11-3 . (a) Select only rotor-blade. Step 2: General Settings General 1. rotor-hub.. Display the mesh (Figure 11. March 12.. File −→ Read −→Mesh. (b) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. and stator-hub from the Surfaces selection list. Check the mesh. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. General −→ Display..msh.

Using the Mixing Plane Model Figure 11. 2009 . 3. Inc. Retain the default solver settings.0 c ANSYS. March 12. name. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly.2: Mesh Display for the Multistage Fan Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary. General 11-4 Release 12. and type will be printed in the ANSYS FLUENT console. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window. its zone number.

General −→ Units.. (a) Select angular-velocity from the Quantities selection list and rpm from the Units selection list. Release 12. March 12. Define new units for angular velocity..Using the Mixing Plane Model 4. You will need to redefine the angular velocity units as rpm. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 11-5 . which is not the default unit for angular velocity. (b) Close the Set Units dialog box. The angular velocity for this problem is known in rpm.

The Viscous Model dialog box will expand.Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 3: Models Models 1.. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. 2009 . (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.. Inc. March 12. (b) Retain the default selection of Standard in the k-epsilon Model list. (c) Retain the default selection of Standard Wall Functions in the Near-Wall Treatment list. (a) Select k-epsilon (2eqn) in the Model list.turbulence model with standard wall functions. Enable the standard k.0 c ANSYS. 11-6 Release 12.

. ANSYS FLUENT uses these circumferential averages to define “profiles” of flow properties. At some prescribed iteration interval.. the flow data at the mixing plane interface are averaged in the circumferential direction on both the rotor outlet and the stator inlet boundaries. 3.0 c ANSYS. Click Create and close the Mixing Planes dialog box. This new name will be displayed in the Mixing Plane list. The essential idea behind the mixing plane concept is that each fluid zone (stator and rotor) is solved as a steady-state problem.Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 4: Mixing Plane Define −→Mixing Planes. Retain the selection of Area in the Averaging Method list. 2. 4. you will create the mixing plane between the pressure outlet of the rotor and the pressure inlet of the stator. 2009 11-7 . March 12. 1. Select pressure-inlet-stator from the Downstream Zone selection list. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT will name the mixing plane by combining the names of the zones selected as the Upstream Zone and Downstream Zone. Release 12. Select pressure-outlet-rotor from the Upstream Zone selection list. These profiles are then used to update boundary conditions along the two zones of the mixing plane interface. In this step.

A third averaging approach (the Mixed-Out average) is also available for flows with ideal gases. total temperature (T0 ). except for that of total pressure are computed at the stator inlet and used as a boundary condition on the rotor exit. and axial directions (αr . Define −→Profiles. tangential. Likewise. March 12. You will also see that these profiles appear in the boundary conditions dialog boxes for the rotor exit and stator inlet. static pressure (ps ). αz ). Inc. Refer to Section 2.2 in the separate User’s Guide. turbulent kinetic energy (k). the Mass option can be enabled as shown.. profiles of averaged total pressure (p0 ). the same profiles. αt . and turbulent dissipation rate ( ) are computed at the rotor exit and used to update boundary conditions at the stator inlet.3. 11-8 Release 12.3. For more information on mixing planes. with compressible turbomachinery flows). direction cosines of the local flow angles in the radial..Using the Mixing Plane Model In this example.0 c ANSYS. a mass flow-weighted averaging may be appropriate (for example.2 in the separate Theory Guide for more information on these averaging methods. For such cases. 2009 . This method allows reasonable profiles of all variables to be created regarding of the mesh topology. In some cases. The default method for calculating mixing plane profiles uses an area-weighted averaging approach. You can view the profiles computed at the rotor exit and stator inlet in the Profiles dialog box. see Section 10.

no change is required in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Release 12. Retain the default properties for air. 2009 11-9 . For the present analysis.Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 5: Materials Materials 1.7894× 10−5 kg/m-s. you will model air as an incompressible fluid with a density of 1...225 kg/m3 and a dynamic viscosity of 1. March 12. Inc. Since these are the default values.0 c ANSYS. (a) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit.

Inc.Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 6: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 11-10 Release 12. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. March 12.

Set the conditions for the rotor fluid (fluid-rotor).. Inc.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. Hint: Scroll down to locate the Speed text-entry box. According to the right-hand rule (see Figure 11. (b) Select Moving Reference Frame from the Motion Type drop-down list.Using the Mixing Plane Model 1. the axis of rotation is the −Z axis. 2009 11-11 . Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-rotor −→ Edit.1). (a) Enter -1 for Z in the Rotation-Axis Direction group box. Release 12. March 12.. (c) Enter 1800 rpm for Speed in the Rotational Velocity group box.

Inc. (b) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box.. March 12.Using the Mixing Plane Model 2. 11-12 Release 12. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-stator −→ Edit.. Set the conditions for the stator fluid (fluid-stator). 2009 . (a) Enter -1 for Z in the Rotation-Axis Direction group box.0 c ANSYS.

(a) Select Rotational in the Periodic Type list. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Boundary Conditions −→ periodic-11 −→ Edit.. (b) Click OK to close the Periodic dialog box.. Inc. Release 12. Specify rotational periodicity for the periodic boundary of the rotor (periodic-11). 2009 11-13 .Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 7: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1.

(a) Select Rotational in the Periodic Type list.0 c ANSYS. Specify rotational periodicity for the periodic boundary of the stator (periodic-22). March 12... Inc. 2009 .Using the Mixing Plane Model 2. Boundary Conditions −→ periodic-22 −→ Edit... Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-inlet-rotor −→ Edit. 11-14 Release 12. Set the conditions for the pressure inlet of the rotor (pressure-inlet-rotor). (b) Click OK to close the Periodic dialog box. 3.

(d) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list. These profiles were set automatically when the mixing plane was created. (c) Enter -1 for Z-Component of Flow Direction. 2009 11-15 . The profiles computed at the rotor outlet are used to update the boundary conditions at the stator inlet..074 m for Hydraulic Diameter. (b) Enter 0 for X-Component of Flow Direction.0 c ANSYS. Inc. you do not need to set any parameters in this dialog box. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-inlet-stator −→ Edit.. (f) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box. Release 12. Retain the default settings for the pressure inlet of the stator (pressure-inlet-stator). (e) Enter 1% for Turbulence Intensity and 0. Therefore. You will use P0 = 0 gauge to model ambient conditions.Using the Mixing Plane Model (a) Select Direction Vector from the Direction Specification Method drop-down list. The turbulence level is assumed to be low (1%) and the hydraulic diameter is used as the length scale. March 12. (a) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box. 4.

. Retain the default settings for the pressure outlet of the rotor (pressure-outlet-rotor). 2009 . The values for the direction cosines are taken from the profiles at the stator. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-outlet-rotor −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. 11-16 Release 12. March 12. The Backflow Direction Specification Method was set to Direction Vector when you created the mixing plane. Inc. (a) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.Using the Mixing Plane Model 5.. and the Coordinate System to Cylindrical (like for the stator inlet ).

(c) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list..0 c ANSYS. (a) Retain the default Backflow Direction Specification Method.. 2009 11-17 . (b) Enable Radial Equilibrium Pressure Distribution. torque-converter). Radial equilibrium is used to simulate the pressure distribution which exists due to rotation according to 2 ∂p ρvθ = ∂r r where vθ is the tangential velocity. (d) Enter 1% for Backflow Turbulent Intensity. Release 12. you can use this option to specify the direction of the backflow. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-outlet-stator −→ Edit. Inc.Using the Mixing Plane Model 6.. (e) Enter 1 for Backflow Turbulent Viscosity Ratio.. In problems where a backflow exists at the pressure outlet boundary (e. Set the conditions for the pressure outlet of the stator (pressure-outlet-stator). (f) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.e. This is a good approximation for axial flow configurations with relatively straight flow paths (i. March 12. little change in radius from inlet to exit).g.

you should retain the default settings. 11-18 Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT assumes by default that walls rotate with the rotating reference frame. Inc. (a) Click OK to accept the default settings and close the Wall dialog box.. For a rotating reference frame. March 12. Since the rotor-hub is rotating. Retain the default conditions for the rotor-hub. 2009 .. and hence are stationary with respect to it. Boundary Conditions −→ rotor-hub −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS.Using the Mixing Plane Model 7.

Boundary Conditions −→ rotor-inlet-hub −→ Edit. (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. (b) Select Absolute and Rotational in the Motion group box. 2009 11-19 .Using the Mixing Plane Model 8.. These conditions set the rotor-inlet-hub to be a stationary wall in the absolute frame. March 12. (a) Select Moving Wall in the Wall Motion list.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. The Wall dialog box will expand to show the wall motion inputs. (c) Enter -1 for Z in the Rotation-Axis Direction group box. Set the conditions for the inlet hub of the rotor (rotor-inlet-hub). Inc..

0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 . (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. These conditions will set the rotor-inlet-shroud to be a stationary wall in the absolute frame. (a) Select Moving Wall in the Wall Motion list. Boundary Conditions −→ rotor-inlet-shroud −→ Edit.. March 12. 11-20 Release 12. Set the conditions for the shroud of the rotor inlet (rotor-inlet-shroud).. (c) Enter -1 for Z in the Rotation-Axis Direction group box.Using the Mixing Plane Model 9. (b) Select Absolute and Rotational in the Motion group box.

(b) Select Absolute and Rotational in the Motion group box. March 12. (a) Select Moving Wall in the Wall Motion list. Set the conditions for the rotor shroud (rotor-shroud).. These conditions will set the rotor-shroud to be a stationary wall in the absolute frame. Boundary Conditions −→ rotor-shroud −→ Edit. (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. (c) Enter -1 for Z in Rotation-Axis Direction group box.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. Inc.Using the Mixing Plane Model 10. 2009 11-21 ..

Inc. (b) Select Power Law from the Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation Rate drop-down lists.Using the Mixing Plane Model Step 8: Solution 1. 2009 . March 12.0 c ANSYS. Solution Methods (a) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. 11-22 Release 12. Set the solution parameters.

(b) Enter 0.5 for Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation Rate. Note: For this problem. 2009 11-23 .3.2 and 0.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. March 12. see Section 26. Hint: Scroll down in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box to locate Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation Rate.Using the Mixing Plane Model 2. Inc.2 in the separate User’s Guide. it was found that these under-relaxation factors worked well. For tips on how to adjust the under-relaxation parameters for different situations. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0. Set the solution controls.5 for Pressure and Momentum in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box.

4. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. Enable the plotting of mass flow rate at the flow exit. Inc.... Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create. March 12.. 2009 .Using the Mixing Plane Model 3.0 c ANSYS. 11-24 Release 12. (a) Ensure that the Plot is enabled in the Options group box.

5.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Initialize. (d) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Report Type drop-down list. (b) Enter -1 for Z Velocity in the Initial Values group box. (c) Retain surf-mon-1. For rotor-stator problems. 2009 11-25 . Inc. Release 12. Solution Initialization (a) Select Absolute in the Reference Frame list. initializing in the absolute frame is preferable. Initialize the flow field. (b) Enable Plot and Write. (e) Select pressure-outlet-stator from the Surfaces selection list.Using the Mixing Plane Model (a) Retain surf-mon-1 for Name. March 12. as initializing in the relative frame would introduce a non-uniform swirl velocity into the stationary domain.out for File Name. (f) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box.

8. March 12.Using the Mixing Plane Model 6. and proceed to the postprocessing section of the tutorial (Step 9). File −→ Write −→Case. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.dat. Start the calculation by requesting 800 iterations. The solution will converge after approximately 740 iterations. To remedy this.dat.gz).0 c ANSYS.cas. 2009 .gz and fanstage.. 11-26 Release 12.. Instead of calculating the solution. you can read the data file (fanstage. This data file can be found in the mixing plane/solution-files folder that was created after you unzipped the original file.gz). Save the case file (fanstage. Run Calculation ! Calculating until the mass flow rate converges will require some CPU time due to the number of iterations required. Inc. 7. Save the case and data files (fanstage. you will reduce the convergence criterion for the continuity equation and iterate until the mass flow rate reaches a constant value.gz) with the pre-calculated solution. the residual history plot is only one indication of solution convergence. Note that the mass flow rate has not yet reached a constant value.cas... However.

Run Calculation ANSYS FLUENT will complete the given number of iterations. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. 10. In general. After a total of about 1400 iterations the mass flow rate has leveled off and hence.0 c ANSYS. March 12.. Inc. only the convergence tolerance for the continuity equation is adjusted. you will continue the calculation to obtain better global mass conservation. 2009 11-27 .. Request 1200 more iterations. (a) Enter 1e-05 for Absolute Criteria for continuity. The mass flow rate history is shown in Figure 11.3. Note: In this case. Release 12.Using the Mixing Plane Model 9. thus. Reduce the convergence criterion for the continuity equation. the convergence behavior of the continuity equation is a good indicator of the overall convergence of the solution. we can consider that the solution is converged. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.

12.0 c ANSYS.gz and fanstage1..cas.. March 12.. you should also check the mass fluxes through the domain to ensure that mass is being conserved. ! Although the mass flow rate history indicates that the solution is converged. Check the mass flux balance. Save the case and data files (fanstage1.. 11-28 Release 12.gz).dat. Inc. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.Using the Mixing Plane Model Figure 11. 2009 .3: Mass Flow Rate History 11.

! The net mass imbalance should be a small fraction (say..Using the Mixing Plane Model (a) Retain the default selection of Mass Flow Rate in the Options list. Inc. and Y-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. The surface y = 0. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box.. (b) Click Compute to update the minimum and maximum values. versus approximately 0.02585 × 9 rotor blades). (c) Enter 0. This view is good for looking at the blade-to-blade flow field. pressure-outlet-rotor.12 m. March 12.12 m is a midspan slice through the mesh. (d) Enter y=0.0 c ANSYS. (b) Select pressure-inlet-rotor.23364 kg/s (0. pressure-inlet-stator. and pressureoutlet-stator from the Boundaries selection list.12 for New Surface Name.01947 × 12 stator blades). Create an isosurface at y = 0. the flux for the whole rotor and the whole stator are very nearly equal: approximately 0. 2009 11-29 . Release 12. 0.. (a) Select Mesh.12 for Iso-Values.. Step 9: Postprocessing 1. If a significant imbalance occurs. However.5%) of the total flux through the system. you should decrease your residual tolerances by at least an order of magnitude and continue iterating. Note: The fluxes for the portions of the rotor and stator that have been modeled are different. Surface −→Iso-Surface.23265 kg/s (0.

e.0 c ANSYS...1 m is an axial plane downstream of the stator. Inc.1 for Iso-Values. Create an isosurface at z = −0. This fact will be used later in the tutorial when you plot circumferential averages. (a) Select Mesh. The surface z = −0. 2. March 12.1 for New Surface Name. Note: The default name that ANSYS FLUENT displays in the New Surface Name field (i. z-coordinate-17) indicates that this is surface number 17.... 11-30 Release 12. and Z-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. 2009 . 3. (e) Click Create to create the isosurface.Using the Mixing Plane Model (e) Click Create to create the isosurface.4). This will be used to plot circumferentially-averaged profiles. Display velocity vectors on the midspan surface y = 0.12 (Figure 11. (b) Click Compute to update the minimum and maximum values. (f) Close the Iso-Surface dialog box. (d) Enter z=-0. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. (c) Enter -0... Surface −→Iso-Surface.1 m.

07e+0 1. (c) Set Skip to 2.55e-02 Y Z X Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s) FLUENT 12. (e) Click Display to plot the velocity vectors. For increased resolution. 4. 2009 11-31 .81e+0 1. For the rotor. it is instructive to similarly plot the relative velocity field.59e+0 2.30e+0 1.23e+0 3. ske) Figure 11.4.94e+0 1. (b) Enter 10 for Scale. (f) Rotate and zoom the view to get the display shown in Figure 11. as shown in boxes in the following dialog: > plot /plot> circum-avg-radial averages of> total-pressure on surface [] 17 number of bands [5] 15 Note: Surface 17 is the surface z = −0.Using the Mixing Plane Model (a) Retain the default selection of arrow from the Style drop-down list.12 from the Surfaces selection list.52e+0 5. (a) Type the text commands in the console.65e+0 1. pbns. 2. Release 12.04e+0 9.43e+0 1.17e+0 1.20e+0 2.1.69e+0 1.10e+0 7.46e+0 2.36e+0 6.81e+0 6.12 Near the Stator Blade Plotting the velocity field in this manner gives a good indication of the midspan flow over the stator.1 you created earlier. (d) Select y=0.0 (3d. March 12.4: Velocity Vectors on y = 0. 15 bands are used instead of the default 5.33e+0 2. Plot a circumferential average of the total pressure on the plane z = −0.56e+0 1. Inc.94e+0 2.0 c ANSYS. (g) Close the Vectors dialog box.

Click Add. Plots −→ File −→ Set Up.. Click Plot and close the File XY Plot dialog box.xy" order points? [no] (c) Retain the default of no when asked to order points... 11-32 Release 12. Clipping to r-coordinate . i. Computing "total-pressure" .. Inc. 2009 ... (d) Display the circumferential average. March 12..0 c ANSYS.xy in the Select File dialog box... ii. done.5).. and select the file circum-plot. filename [""] "circum-plot.. Computing averages .. Creating radial-bands surface (32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18).Using the Mixing Plane Model (b) Enter the name of the output file as circum-plot. This implies that losses are largest near the hub. The radial variation in the total pressure can be seen to be very non-uniform in this plot (Figure 11.xy when prompted. Computing r-coordinate . done.

.5: Plot of Circumferential Average of the Total Pressure on the Plane z = −0.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 5. Release 12. March 12.. 2009 11-33 . Display filled contours of total pressure. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.1.Using the Mixing Plane Model Figure 11.

. (b) Select Pressure. Figure 11. 11-34 Release 12. (d) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box..6. March 12. The pressure contours are displayed in Figure 11.6: Contours of Total Pressure for the Rotor Blade and Hub 6. 2009 .6. and Total Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. Inc..Using the Mixing Plane Model (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box.0 c ANSYS. (e) Rotate the view to get the display as shown in Figure 11. Plots −→ Profile Data −→ Set Up.. (c) Select rotor-blade and rotor-hub from the Surfaces selection list. Notice the high pressure that occurs on the leading edge of the rotor blade due to the motion of the blade. Display the total pressure profiles at the outlet of the rotor.

(c) Click Plot and close the Plot Profile Data dialog box. (b) Select p0 from the Y Axis Function selection list. The mixing plane model is useful for predicting steadystate flow in a turbomachine stage. then a transient. 2009 11-35 . Figure 11. Release 12. where local interaction effects (such as wake and shock wave interaction) are secondary. sliding mesh calculation is required. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and adapting the mesh. Summary This tutorial has demonstrated the use of the mixing plane model for a typical axial flow turbomachine configuration. Adapting the mesh can also ensure that your solution is independent of the mesh. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1.Using the Mixing Plane Model (a) Select pressure-outlet-rotor from the Profile selection list. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. If local effects are important.7: Profile Plot of Total Pressure for the Rotor Note: The profiles shown are area-averaged profiles computed by the mixing plane model. Inc. March 12.0 c ANSYS.

2009 .Using the Mixing Plane Model 11-36 Release 12. Inc. March 12.0 c ANSYS.

The rotor-stator interaction is modeled by allowing the mesh associated with the rotor blade row to rotate relative to the stationary mesh associated with the stator blade row. so that ANSYS FLUENT is solving the Euler equations. March 12. • Sample the time-dependent data and view the mean value. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure.5 degrees. which is operating at a rotational speed of 37. one rotor blade and two stator blades. The first row is the rotor with 16 blades.856 cells total). In this tutorial. Inc. the analysis will employ the inviscid model. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. • Set up the transient solver and cell zone and boundary conditions for a sliding mesh simulation. The blade counts are such that the domain is rotationally periodic. Due to the high Reynolds number of the flow and the relative coarseness of the mesh (both blade rows are comprised of only 13. namely. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. 2009 12-1 . Introduction Using Sliding Meshes The analysis of turbomachinery often involves the examination of the transient effects due to flow interaction between the stationary components and the rotating blades. Release 12. the sliding mesh capability of ANSYS FLUENT is used to analyze the transient flow in an axial compressor stage. This allows you to model only a portion of the geometry. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Create periodic zones. with a periodic angle of 22. Problem Description The model represents a single-stage axial compressor comprised of two blade rows.500 rpm.Tutorial 12. The second row is the stator with 32 blades. • Set up the mesh interfaces for a periodic sliding mesh model.0 c ANSYS.

zip. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. March 12.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). 3. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. Unzip sliding_mesh. The mesh file axial comp. 2009 .msh can be found in the sliding mesh folder created after unzipping the file. Therefore.0 c ANSYS.. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Download sliding_mesh. File −→ Read −→Mesh. Step 1: Mesh 1.1. 2.2 in the separate User’s Guide.. 12-2 Release 12. after you read in the mesh. Inc. Read in the mesh file axial comp.Using Sliding Meshes Figure 12. see Section 1.1: Rotor-Stator Problem Description Setup and Solution Preparation 1.msh.

Figure 12. resulting in the failure of the mesh check. Warnings will be displayed regarding unassigned interface zones. Orient the view to display the mesh as shown in Figure 12. Use the text user interface to change zones rotor-per-1 and rotor-per-3 from wall zones to periodic zones.0 c ANSYS. 2. and the outlet of the stator mesh is colored red. (a) Press <Enter> in the console to get the command prompt (>). Release 12. March 12. as this issue will be rectified when you define the mesh interfaces in a later step. Examine the mesh (Figure 12. the interface between the rotor and stator meshes is colored yellow.2).2. Inc. You do not need to take any action at this point.Using Sliding Meshes Step 2: General Settings General 1. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. 2009 12-3 . The inlet of the rotor mesh is colored blue. Check the mesh.2: Rotor-Stator Display 3.

Inc. 2009 . translational) [yes] yes Create periodic zones? [yes] yes all 176 faces matched for zones 10 and 9.0 c ANSYS. March 12.------------------------13 fluid-rotor 28 fluid-stator 2 default-interior:0 15 default-interior 3 rotor-hub 4 rotor-shroud 7 rotor-blade-1 8 rotor-blade-2 16 stator-hub 17 stator-shroud 20 stator-blade-1 21 stator-blade-2 22 stator-blade-3 23 stator-blade-4 5 rotor-inlet 19 stator-outlet 10 rotor-per-1 12 rotor-per-2 24 stator-per-2 26 stator-per-1 6 rotor-interface 18 stator-interface 11 rotor-per-4 9 rotor-per-3 25 stator-per-4 27 stator-per-3 type -----------------fluid fluid interior interior wall wall wall wall wall wall wall wall wall wall pressure-inlet pressure-outlet wall wall wall wall interface interface wall wall wall wall material -------------------air air kind ---cell cell face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face face aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum aluminum /mesh/modify-zones> make-periodic Periodic zone [()] 10 Shadow zone [()] 9 Rotational periodic? (if no.Using Sliding Meshes (b) Type the commands shown in boxes as follows: > mesh /mesh> modify-zones /mesh/modify-zones> list-zones id name ---. 12-4 Release 12. zone 9 deleted created periodic zones.

March 12. 6. 2009 12-5 .. Define the units for the model.Using Sliding Meshes 4. General −→ Units. Similarly.. (b) Select Transient in the Time list. General Respective Zone IDs 12 and 11 26 and 27 24 and 25 (a) Select Density-Based in the Type list. Release 12. Define the solver settings.0 c ANSYS. change the following wall zone pairs to periodic zones: Zone Pairs rotor-per-2 and rotor-per-4 stator-per-1 and stator-per-3 stator-per-2 and stator-per-4 5. Inc.

.0 c ANSYS. (c) Select pressure from the Quantities selection list.Using Sliding Meshes (a) Select angular-velocity from the Quantities selection list. Enable the inviscid model. March 12. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. 2009 . 12-6 Release 12. (b) Select rpm from the Units selection list. (b) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. Inc. Step 3: Models Models 1. Scroll down the Quantities list to find pressure.. (e) Close the Set Units dialog box. (a) Select Inviscid in the Model list. (d) Select atm from the Units selection list.

(a) Retain the default entry of air in the Name text entry field. using the ideal gas law to compute density. (b) Select ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list in the Properties group box. (d) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically enable the energy equation.Using Sliding Meshes Step 4: Materials Materials 1... 2009 12-7 . Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. Specify air (the default material) as the fluid material. Inc. (c) Retain the default values for all other properties. Release 12. As reported in the console. March 12. since this is required when using the ideal gas law to compute the density of the fluid.

March 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc.Using Sliding Meshes Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 12-8 Release 12. 2009 .

(b) Select Moving Mesh from the Motion Type drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions for the fluid in the rotor (fluid-rotor). 0. (d) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. 1) for X. 2009 12-9 . Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-rotor −→ Edit.Using Sliding Meshes 1. Scroll down to find the Speed number-entry box.. March 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS. (a) Retain the default values of (0. (c) Enter 37500 rpm for Speed in the Rotational Velocity group box. and Z in the Rotation-Axis Direction group box.. Y. Release 12.

Y. 0. March 12. (a) Retain the default values of (0.. Set the boundary conditions for the fluid in the stator (fluid-stator). and Z in the Rotation-Axis Direction group box.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 1) for X. 12-10 Release 12. (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. (b) Retain the default selection of Stationary from the Motion Type drop-down list. 2009 .. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid-stator −→ Edit.Using Sliding Meshes 2.

Set the boundary conditions for the inlet (rotor-inlet). March 12..0 atm for Gauge Total Pressure.0 c ANSYS..Using Sliding Meshes Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. 2009 12-11 . Release 12. Inc. (a) Enter 1. Boundary Conditions −→ rotor-inlet −→ Edit.

2. Boundary Conditions −→ stator-outlet −→ Edit. (d) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box. Set the boundary conditions for the outlet (stator-outlet).9 atm for Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure. 2009 . (c) Click the Thermal tab and enter 288 K for Backflow Total Temperature.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click the Thermal tab and enter 288 K for Total Temperature.Using Sliding Meshes (b) Enter 0.. 12-12 Release 12. (a) Enter 1.08 atm for Gauge Pressure. (b) Enable Radial Equilibrium Pressure Distribution.. March 12. Inc.

0 c ANSYS. Note: The momentum settings and temperature you input at the pressure outlet will be used only if flow enters the domain through this boundary. 3. March 12. 2009 12-13 . which is required whether or not the fluid zone is moving. This condition is all that is required for an inviscid flow.Using Sliding Meshes (d) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.. Retain the default boundary conditions for all wall zones. as the tangential velocity is computed as part of the solution. Release 12. in case flow reversal occurs at some point during the calculation. Note: For wall zones. ANSYS FLUENT always imposes zero velocity for the normal velocity component.. Boundary Conditions −→ rotor-blade-1 −→ Edit. Inc. It is important to set reasonable values for these downstream scalar values.

March 12. Boundary condition inputs for pressure should always be relative to the value used for operating pressure. 12-14 Release 12. Set the operating pressure. (a) Enter 0 atm for Operating Pressure.Using Sliding Meshes Step 7: Operating Conditions Boundary Conditions 1.. (b) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box. you have to set the operating pressure to zero.0 c ANSYS. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions. Since you have specified the boundary condition inputs for pressure in terms of absolute pressures. Inc.. 2009 .

(d) Select stator-interface from the Interface Zone 2 selection list. Note: In general. Check the mesh again to verify that the warnings displayed earlier have been resolved. (b) Enable Periodic Repeats in the Interface Options group box... Enabling this option. General −→ Check Release 12. In this case. (c) Select rotor-interface from the Interface Zone 1 selection list. (e) Click Create and close the Create/Edit Mesh Interfaces dialog box. 2. 2009 12-15 . it is recommended that you choose the smaller zone as Interface Zone 1. March 12. since both zones are approximately the same size.0 c ANSYS. Mesh Interfaces −→ Create/Edit. (a) Enter int for Mesh Interface. the order is not significant.Using Sliding Meshes Step 8: Mesh Interfaces Mesh Interfaces 1. Inc. Create a periodic mesh interface between the rotor and stator mesh regions. when one interface zone is smaller than the other. allows ANSYS FLUENT to treat the interface between the sliding and non-sliding zones as periodic where the two zones do not overlap.

Set the solution parameters.Using Sliding Meshes Step 9: Solution 1. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Solution Methods (a) Ensure that the Second Order Upwind is selected from the Flow drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. Inc. 2009 . 12-16 Release 12.

Inc. Release 12. and energy). Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. (c) Enter 0.01 for Relative Criteria for each Residual (continuity. (d) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. x-velocity. 2009 12-17 . yvelocity... (a) Ensure that the Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. z-velocity. March 12.Using Sliding Meshes 2. (b) Select relative from the Convergence Criterion drop-down list.0 c ANSYS.

(e) Select Time Step from the Get Data Every drop-down list.Using Sliding Meshes 3. Inc. 12-18 Release 12.out for File Name.. March 12.. (a) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-1 for Name. (c) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-1. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create. (h) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box. 2009 . Enable the plotting of mass flow rate at the inlet (rotor-inlet). (d) Select Flow Time from the X Axis drop-down list. (b) Enable Plot and Write. (g) Select rotor-inlet from the Surfaces selection list. (f) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Report Type drop-down list.0 c ANSYS.

Inc. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create. Release 12. (e) Select Time Step from the Get Data Every drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. (d) Select Flow Time from the X Axis drop-down list. March 12. (c) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-2.. Enable the plotting of mass flow rate at the outlet (stator-outlet).. (h) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box.out for File Name. (g) Select stator-outlet from the Surfaces selection list. (a) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-2 for Name. (b) Enable Plot and Write.Using Sliding Meshes 4. ! Ensure that the rotor-inlet is deselected from the Surfaces selection list before scrolling down to select stator-outlet. 2009 12-19 . (f) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Report Type drop-down list.

Using Sliding Meshes 5. (c) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-3. (b) Enable Plot and Write. (g) Retain the default selection of Pressure.. (f) Select Area-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. (i) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create.. (a) Retain the default entry of surf-mon-3 for Name.. Inc. (h) Select stator-interface from the Surfaces selection list..0 c ANSYS. (d) Select Flow Time from the X Axis drop-down list. ! Ensure that the stator-outlet is deselected from the Surfaces selection list before scrolling down to select stator-interface. and Static Pressure from the Field Variable drop-down lists. 2009 . March 12. (e) Select Time Step from the Get Data Every drop-down list.out for File Name. Enable the plotting of the area-weighted average of the static pressure at the interface (stator-interface). 12-20 Release 12.

gz). Initialize the solution using the values at the inlet (rotor-inlet).. Save the initial case file (axial comp. (b) Select Absolute in the Reference Frame list.Using Sliding Meshes 6.0 c ANSYS. 7. 2009 12-21 . File −→ Write −→Case.. (c) Click Initialize.cas. Release 12. Solution Initialization (a) Select rotor-inlet from the Compute from drop-down list. Inc. March 12.

indicating the limit does not need to be increased. (c) Retain the default setting of 20 for Max Iterations/Time Step. the passing period of the rotor blade will equal 15 time steps. The calculation will run for approximately 3.4. Also. 9. The monitor histories show that the large variations in flow rate and interface pressure that occur early in the calculation are greatly reduced as time-periodicity is approached. Inc. and 12.6). 12.Using Sliding Meshes 8. This time step represents the length of time during which the rotor will rotate 1.700 iterations.5. Run the calculation for one revolution of the rotor. 2009 . The residuals jump at the beginning of each time step and then fall at least two to three orders of magnitude. the relative convergence criteria is achieved before reaching the maximum iteration limit (20) for each time step.5 degrees. March 12. Run Calculation (a) Enter 6. (b) Enter 240 for Number of Time Steps. 12-22 Release 12. and a complete revolution of the rotor will take 240 time steps.5 degrees.0 c ANSYS.6666e-6 s for Time Step Size. (d) Click Calculate. Since the periodic angle of the rotor is 22. Examine the monitor histories for the first revolution of the rotor (Figures 12.

2800 0. March 12. 2009 12-23 .0016 Flow Time Convergence history of Mass Flow Rate on rotor-inlet (Time=1.Using Sliding Meshes Figure 12.0006 0.2400 0.2700 0.2600 Mass Flow Rate (kg/s) 0.2300 0.6000e-03) FLUENT 12.0002 0.0 (3d. dbns imp. transient) Figure 12.0008 0.2200 0.0012 0.0014 0.0000 0.3: Residual History for the First Revolution of the Rotor surf-mon-1 0.0 c ANSYS.2100 0.0004 0.0010 0.2500 0.2900 0.4: Mass Flow Rate at the Inlet During the First Revolution Release 12. Inc.

Using Sliding Meshes Figure 12. Inc.5: Mass Flow Rate at the Outlet During the First Revolution Figure 12. 2009 . March 12.6: Static Pressure at the Interface During the First Revolution 12-24 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.

.out. Rename the monitor files in preparation for further iterations. This is because the case file contains the mesh information. the range of the axes will automatically be set to show only the data generated during the next set of iterations. Monitors −→ surf-mon-1 −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.out and surf-mon-3. respectively.gz).. By saving the monitor histories under a new file name. March 12. ! It is a good practice to save the case file whenever you are saving the data file especially for sliding mesh model. by entering axial comp-%t for the File Name in the Select File dialog box.g.out for File Name.out and surf-mon-3b.. Save the case and data files (axial comp-0240. Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT will save files with the names axial comp-0240..cas. Note: For transient-state calculations. 2009 12-25 . Inc.out to surf-mon-2b. (a) Enter surf-mon-1b. 12. 11.dat). This will scale the plots so that the fluctuations are more visible.gz and axial comp-0240.dat. rename surf-mon-2. which is changing with time.Using Sliding Meshes 10. (b) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box.. you can add the character string %t to the file name so that the iteration number is automatically appended to the name (e.cas and axial comp-0240. Similarly.

dat. Run Calculation ! Calculating three more revolutions will require significant CPU resources. Inc. Instead of calculating the solution. Continue the calculation for 720 more time steps to simulate three more revolutions of the rotor.. 2009 ..7. and 12.gz) with the precalculated solution for this tutorial. you can read a data file (axial comp-0960.0 c ANSYS.Using Sliding Meshes 13. click OK.600 more iterations. Note: If you read the provided data file instead of iterating the solution for three revolutions.9). and then click Plot. Examine the monitor histories for the next three revolutions of the rotor to verify that the solution is time-periodic (Figures 12.8. 14. Plots −→ File −→ Set Up. 12. This data file can be found in the sliding mesh folder. 12-26 Release 12. March 12. the monitor histories can be displayed by using the File XY Plot dialog box. The calculation will run for approximately 10. Click the Add button in the File XY Plot dialog box to select one of the monitor histories from the Select File dialog box.

March 12.8: Mass Flow Rate at the Outlet During the Next 3 Revolutions Release 12. 2009 12-27 .Using Sliding Meshes Figure 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS.7: Mass Flow Rate at the Inlet During the Next 3 Revolutions Figure 12.

0020 0.0065 Flow Time Convergence history of Static Pressure on stator-interface (Time=6. (c) Click Plot and close the File XY Plot dialog box. dbns imp. surf-mon-2b.1105 0.1108 1.gz). 2009 .1110 1. Select surf-mon-1b.out.out to surf-mon-1c. Click Apply and close the Axes .File XY Plot dialog box..0030 0. 16. Set Precision to 6..1115 1. surf-mon-2c.0045 0. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. in preparation for further iterations.1112 1. and surf-mon-3c.1114 1. i.0 (3d. button to open the Select File dialog box.0050 0. transient) Figure 12. 12-28 Release 12... respectively (as described in a previous step).0040 0.out and click OK to close the Select File dialog box. i. (a) Click the Add.0025 0. and surf-mon-3b. (Optional) Display the full values by using the File XY Plot dialog box.out.1111 Area Weighted Average (atm) 1. iii.7 does not show enough significant figures to fully display the values of the mass flow rate.out.1107 1.dat.. 15. (b) Click the Axes. ii.gz and axial comp-0960.1106 1.Using Sliding Meshes surf-mon-3 1. button to open the Axes .0055 0.cas.1109 1.out.3999e-03) FLUENT 12.0060 0. Plots −→ File −→ Set Up.File XY Plot dialog box.out..0 c ANSYS. Inc. 17.9: Static Pressure at the Interface During the Next 3 Revolutions Extra: Note that the Y -axis for Figure 12..0035 0. Change the file names for surf-mon-1b. Save the case and data files (axial comp-0960.1113 1. Select Y in the Axis list. March 12.0015 0..

Using Sliding Meshes 18. (b) Enable Data Sampling for Time Statistics in the Options group box. Save the case and data files (axial comp-1200. Continue the calculation for one final revolution of the rotor.gz).0 c ANSYS. Run Calculation (a) Enter 240 for Number of Time Steps.. while saving data samples for the postprocessing of the time statistics.400 more iterations.dat. March 12. 2009 12-29 .gz and axial comp-1200. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. The calculation will run for approximately 3. Inc.. 19.cas. Release 12. (c) Click Calculate.

Inc.out). button to open the Select File dialog box. March 12. 1. (a) Click the Load Input File.Using Sliding Meshes Step 10: Postprocessing In the next two steps you will examine the time-averaged values for the mass flow rates at the inlet and the outlet during the final revolution of the rotor...0 c ANSYS. Examine the time-averaged mass flow rate at the inlet during the final revolution of the rotor (as calculated from surf-mon-1c. you will verify the conservation of mass on a time-averaged basis for the system over the course of one revolution. By comparing these values.. Plots −→ FFT −→ Set Up. 12-30 Release 12. 2009 ..

. Select surf-mon-1c. ii.. Click OK to close the Select File dialog box. (b) Click the Plot/Modify Input Signal.out from the list of files. iii.Using Sliding Meshes i.0 c ANSYS. button to open the Plot/Modify Input Signal dialog box. Release 12. Inc. Select All Files from the Files of type drop-down list. 2009 12-31 . March 12.

out from the Files selection list. (b) Click the Plot/Modify Input Signal. March 12. with the mean having approximately the same absolute value but with opposite signs. and Variance in the Signal Statistics group box. Select All Files from the Files of type drop-down list. Examine the time-averaged mass flow rate at the outlet during the final revolution of the rotor (as calculated from surf-mon-2c. i. Click OK to close the Select File dialog box.. Examine the values for Min. 2. Plots −→ FFT −→ Set Up. (a) Click the Load Input File. Examine the values for Min. iii. ii. (c) Select the folder path ending in surf-mon-1c... ii. Max.. button to open the Select File dialog box. i. button to open the Plot/Modify Input Signal dialog box. and Variance in the Signal Statistics group box.Using Sliding Meshes i. you can conclude that mass is conserved on a time-averaged basis during the final revolution of the rotor. Mean. and plot the data.. Click Set Defaults. Close the Plot/Modify Input Signal dialog box. Inc. Select surf-mon-2c. Mean.out from the list of files. The outlet mass flow rate values correspond very closely with those from the inlet. (d) Click the Free File Data button. Max. 2009 . ii. 12-32 Release 12..0 c ANSYS. Thus.out).

Inc. Figure 12. 2009 12-33 . March 12.. Release 12.10: Mass Flow Rate at the Outlet During the Final Revolution iv..10). 3. Close the Plot/Modify Input Signal dialog box. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS. (c) Close the Fourier Transform dialog box.Using Sliding Meshes iii. Display contours of the mean static pressure on the walls of the axial compressor. Click Apply/Plot to display the mass flow rate at the outlet (Figure 12.

. 2009 . (e) Rotate the view to get the display as shown in Figure 12. (b) Select Unsteady Statistics. as seen in the areas of rapid pressure change on the outer shroud of the axial compressor.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Figure 12. Shock waves are clearly visible in the flow near the outlets of the rotor and stator.11: Mean Static Pressure on the Outer Shroud of the Axial Compressor 12-34 Release 12.11. Scroll down the Surface Types selection list to find wall. and Mean Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists..Using Sliding Meshes (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. Inc. (c) Select wall from the Surface Types selection list. March 12.

You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by adapting the mesh. Release 12. after which time-averaged data was collected while running the case for the equivalent of one additional rotor revolution (240 time steps).Using Sliding Meshes Summary This tutorial has demonstrated the use of the sliding mesh model for analyzing transient rotor-stator interaction in an axial compressor stage.0 c ANSYS. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) utility in ANSYS FLUENT was employed to determine the time averages from stored monitor data. 2009 12-35 . Inc. you can further use the FFT utility to examine the frequency content of the transient monitor data (in this case. dual-time stepping algorithm to compute the inviscid flow through the compressor stage. The model utilized the densitybased solver in conjunction with the transient. March 12. The solution was calculated over time until the monitored variables displayed time-periodicity (which required several revolutions of the rotor). you would observe peaks corresponding to the passing frequency and higher harmonics of the passing frequency). Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach a second-order solution. Adapting the mesh can also ensure that your solution is independent of the mesh. Although not described in this tutorial.

Inc.0 c ANSYS.Using Sliding Meshes 12-36 Release 12. March 12. 2009 .

namely. they are often used to act as a pressure-relieving device by only allowing fluid to leave the domain when the pressure is higher than a certain level. the check valve is connected to a spring that acts to push the valve to the valve seat and to shut the flow. smoothing. In this tutorial. • Set boundary conditions for internal flow. March 12.Tutorial 13. In such a case. for which a UDF is provided.0 c ANSYS. 2009 13-1 . Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. such as check valves and store separations. But when the pressure force on the valve is greater than the spring force. A combination of these three schemes are used to tackle the most challenging dynamic mesh problems. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. However. Inc. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. such a case will be used to demonstrate the layering feature of the dynamic mesh capability in ANSYS FLUENT. Check valves are commonly used to allow uni-directional flow. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Use the dynamic mesh capability of ANSYS FLUENT to solve a simple flow-driven rigid-body motion problem. The building blocks for dynamic mesh capabilities within ANSYS FLUENT are three dynamic mesh schemes. For example. • Use a compiled user-defined function (UDF) to specify flow-driven rigid-body motion. for simple dynamic mesh problems involving linear boundary motion. For instance. flow around a check valve can be simulated using only the layering scheme. Introduction Using Dynamic Meshes In ANSYS FLUENT the dynamic mesh capability is used to simulate problems with boundary motion. the layering scheme is often sufficient. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. thus reducing the pressure upstream. and remeshing. the valve will move away from the valve seat and allow fluid to leave. Release 12. The deformation of the valve is typically neglected and thus allows for a rigid body Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) calculation. Gravity could be another factor in the force balance. and can be considered in ANSYS FLUENT. layering. This tutorial provides information for performing basic dynamic mesh calculations.

1.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1.msh and valve. The files. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Note.c). March 12. This function has already been written (valve. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. valve. 3. 13-2 Release 12. A 2D axisymmetric valve geometry is used. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. once you read in the mesh. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. gravity. Instead. You will only need to compile it within ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. that the valve in this case is not completely closed.zip.2 in the separate User’s Guide. In this case. consisting of a mass flow inlet on the left. the transient motion of the valve due to spring force. 2. and a pressure outlet on the right. A user-defined function will be used to define the rigid-body motion of the valve geometry. for the sake of simplicity. and hydrodynamic force is studied. see Section 1. wall:001 wall mass flow inlet axis−inlet seat valve valve axis−move pressure outlet Figure 13.Using Dynamic Meshes Problem Description The check valve problem to be considered is shown schematically in Figure 13.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). Download dynamic_mesh.1. a small gap remains between the valve and the valve seat (since dynamic mesh problems require that at least one layer remains in order to maintain the topology). Therefore. Inc.c can be found in the dynamic mesh folder created after unzipping the file. driving the motion of a valve. Unzip dynamic_mesh. however. 2009 .

inlet. since ANSYS FLUENT cannot begin a calculation if this is the case. Display the mesh (Figure 13. axis-move.msh. and outlet from the Surfaces selection list. (b) Click Display. General −→ Check Note: You should always make sure that the cell minimum volume is not negative. Step 2: General Settings General 1. Release 12. General −→ Display. 2009 13-3 . Inc. File −→ Read −→Mesh....Using Dynamic Meshes Step 1: Mesh 1.0 c ANSYS. (a) Deselect axis-inlet. March 12. Read the mesh file valve. Check the mesh. 2.2)..

0 c ANSYS.2: Initial Mesh for the Valve (c) Close the Mesh Display dialog box. Enable an axisymmetric steady-state calculation. March 12. 2009 . General (a) Select Axisymmetric from the 2D Space list. 3.Using Dynamic Meshes Figure 13. 13-4 Release 12. Inc.

Inc. Enable the standard k.turbulence model. 2009 13-5 . Release 12.0 c ANSYS. March 12.Using Dynamic Meshes Step 3: Models Models 1... Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit.

(b) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. 2009 . Step 4: Materials Materials 13-6 Release 12.Using Dynamic Meshes (a) Select k-epsilon from the Model list and retain the default selection of Standard in the k-epsilon Model group box. March 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS.

March 12.. (a) Select ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list.Using Dynamic Meshes 1. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit. Inc.0 c ANSYS.. (b) Click Change/Create. Apply the ideal gas law for the incoming air stream. 2009 13-7 . (c) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Release 12.

(a) Select mass-flow-inlet from the Type drop-down list in the Boundary Conditions task page. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet Since the inlet boundary is assigned to a wall boundary type in the original mesh.Using Dynamic Meshes Step 5: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions Dynamic mesh motion and all related parameters are specified using the items in the Dynamic Mesh task page. (b) Click Yes when ANSYS FLUENT asks you if you want to change the zone type. You will set these conditions in a later step. 13-8 Release 12. March 12.0 c ANSYS. you will need to explicitly assign the inlet boundary to a mass flow inlet boundary type in ANSYS FLUENT. not through the Boundary Conditions task page. Inc. Set the conditions for the mass flow inlet (inlet). 1. 2009 .

Retain 10 % for Turbulent Intensity. vi. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Enter 0. ii. iv. Click OK to close the Mass-Flow Inlet dialog box. March 12. iii. i. v. Release 12. Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box.0116 kg/s for Mass Flow Rate. 2009 13-9 . Enter 20 mm for the Hydraulic Diameter. Select Normal to Boundary from the Direction Specification Method dropdown list.Using Dynamic Meshes The Mass-Flow Inlet boundary condition dialog box will open.

(a) Select pressure-outlet from the Type drop-down list in the Boundary Conditions task page. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet Since the outlet boundary is assigned to a wall boundary type in the original mesh. 13-10 Release 12. 2009 . you will need to explicitly assign the outlet boundary to a pressure outlet boundary type in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. Inc. (b) Click Yes when ANSYS FLUENT asks you if you want to change the zone type.Using Dynamic Meshes 2. Set the conditions for the exit boundary (outlet). March 12.

(e) Click Yes when ANSYS FLUENT asks you if you want to change the zone type. 2009 13-11 . Release 12. (d) Select axis-move from the Zone list and select axis from the Type list. Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. (c) Retain the default Zone Name in the Axis dialog box and click OK to close the Axis dialog box. Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. (b) Click Yes when ANSYS FLUENT asks you if you want to change the zone type. 3. Retain 10 % for Turbulent Intensity. v.Using Dynamic Meshes The Pressure Outlet boundary condition dialog box will open. ii. i. Set the boundary type to axis for both the axis-inlet and the axis-move boundaries. you will need to explicitly assign these boundaries to an axis boundary type in ANSYS FLUENT. (a) Select axis-inlet from the Zone list and select axis from the Type list. iii. Boundary Conditions Since the axis-inlet and the axis-move boundaries are assigned to a wall boundary type in the original mesh.0 c ANSYS. Enter 50 mm for Backflow Hydraulic Diameter. Inc. March 12. Select From Neighboring Cell from the Backflow Direction Specification Method drop-down list. iv. (f) Retain the default Zone Name in the Axis dialog box and click OK to close the Axis dialog box.

Solution Methods (a) Retain all default discretization schemes in the Solution Methods task page. Set the solution parameters.0 c ANSYS. you will generate a steady-state flow solution that will be used as an initial condition for the time-dependent solution. 2009 . 1. Inc. This problem has been found to converge satisfactorily with these default settings. 13-12 Release 12.Using Dynamic Meshes Step 6: Solution: Steady Flow In this step. March 12.

Inc..0 c ANSYS.. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. March 12.Using Dynamic Meshes 2. Set the relaxation factors. Solution Controls (a) Retain the default values for Under-Relaxation Factors in the Solution Controls task page. Release 12. 2009 13-13 . 3. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation.

.cas.Using Dynamic Meshes (a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Solution Initialization (a) Select inlet from the Compute From drop-down list. 13-14 Release 12. 4. March 12. (b) Click Initialize in the Solution Initialization task page.gz). 5. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. Save the case file (valve init. Initialize the solution. 2009 . Inc..0 c ANSYS. File −→ Write −→Case.

File −→ Write −→Case & Data.dat.Using Dynamic Meshes 6. Start the calculation by requesting 150 iterations.cas. 7. 2009 13-15 . Inc. Step 7: Time-Dependent Solution Setup 1. Enable a time-dependent calculation. General (a) Select Transient from the Time list in the General task page. Save the case and data files ( valve init.gz and valve init.0 c ANSYS. Run Calculation The solution converges in approximately 100 iterations.gz)... Release 12. March 12.

Set the solution parameters.0 c ANSYS. ! Dynamic mesh simulations currently work only with first-order time advancement. Inc. March 12. 13-16 Release 12. 2009 .Using Dynamic Meshes 2. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default selection of First Order Implicit from the Transient Formulation drop-down list in the Solution Methods task page.

2009 13-17 . The Select File dialog box will open. Select and compile the user-defined function (UDF). Inc. In this case you need to make sure that you will open the correct library in the next step. The UDF has already been defined. If you would like to use a different name. you can enter it in the Library Name field. Click OK in the warning dialog box.. in the Source Files group box.. March 12. but it needs to be compiled within ANSYS FLUENT before it can be used in the solver. Release 12. Define −→ User-Defined −→ Functions −→Compiled. Select the source code valve. A dialog box will appear warning you to make sure that the UDF source files are in the folder that contains your case and data files. (b) Click Build in the Compiled UDFs dialog box.. Its name will appear as valve::libudf and can be selected from drop-down lists of various dialog boxes.Using Dynamic Meshes Step 8: Mesh Motion 1. (c) Click Load to load the UDF library you just compiled. When the UDF is built and loaded. it is available to hook to your model. and click OK. Here you will create a library with the default name of libudf in your working folder.c in the Select File dialog box. i.. (a) Click Add.0 c ANSYS.

These two functions will read/write the position of C.. button next to Write Data to open the Write Data Functions dialog box. Those values are saved in the data file using the writer UDF and will be read in using the reader UDF when reading the data file. Click Add to add the selected function to the Selected Write Data Functions selection list.. i. Select reader::libudf from the Available Read Data Functions selection list..0 c ANSYS.. iii. Define −→ User-Defined −→Function Hooks.G. (b) Click the Edit. Click OK to close the Write Data Functions dialog box. Click OK to close the Read Data Functions dialog box.G.G. Click Add to add the selected function to the Selected Read Data Functions selection list. ii.. i. ANSYS FLUENT needs to know the location of C. Hook your model to the UDF library. When starting from an intermediate case and data file. which are the initial conditions for the motion calculation. and velocity in the X direction to the data file. ii. button next to Read Data to open the Read Data Functions dialog box..Using Dynamic Meshes 2. Select writer::libudf from the Available Write Data Functions selection list. 2009 . March 12. The location of C. Inc. and velocity. 13-18 Release 12. iii. and the velocity are necessary for restarting a case. (a) Click the Edit.

3.0 c ANSYS. For more information on the available models for moving and deforming zones. (c) Click the Settings. button to open the Mesh Method Settings dialog box. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically flag the existing mesh zones for use of the different dynamic mesh methods where applicable. see Chapter 11 in the separate User’s Guide. (b) Disable Smoothing and enable Layering in the Mesh Methods group box.Using Dynamic Meshes (c) Click OK to close the User-Defined Function Hooks dialog box. Dynamic Mesh (a) Enable Dynamic Mesh in the Dynamic Mesh task page. Release 12. Inc. March 12. 2009 13-19 . Enable dynamic mesh motion and specify the associated parameters...

Click the Layering tab. Retain the default settings of 0. Select Ratio Based in the Options group box. 2009 . iv. March 12. ii.Using Dynamic Meshes i. 13-20 Release 12.4 and 0.2 for Split Factor and Collapse Factor. Click OK to close the Mesh Method Settings dialog box. respectively. iii.0 c ANSYS. Inc.

and 0 for Center of Gravity Orientation. March 12. Specify the motion of the fluid region (fluid-move). Specifying the C. 0) m for Center of Gravity Location.G. (a) Select fluid-move from the Zone Names drop-down list. (d) Retain the default settings of (0... Dynamic Mesh −→ Create/Edit. (e) Click Create. because the valve motion and the initial C. Release 12. (b) Retain the default selection of Rigid Body in the Type group box. Inc. The valve motion and the motion of the fluid region are specified by means of the UDF valve.Using Dynamic Meshes 4. 2009 13-21 . location and orientation is not necessary in this case.0 c ANSYS. (c) Make sure that valve::libudf is selected from the Motion UDF/Profile drop-down list in the Motion Attributes tab to hook the UDF to your model.G. position of the valve are already defined by the UDF.

(b) Select Stationary in the Type group box.Using Dynamic Meshes 5.5 mm for Cell Height of the fluid-move Adjacent Zone. (a) Select outlet from the Zone Names drop-down list. Specify the meshing options for the stationary outlet (outlet) in the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box. Inc. (d) Click Create. 13-22 Release 12. 2009 . (c) Click the Meshing Options tab.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click Create.9 mm for the Cell Height of the fluid-move Adjacent Zone. (b) Retain the previous selection of Stationary in the Type group box. 6. Enter 0. (c) In the Meshing Options tab and enter 1. (a) Select int-layering from the Zone Names drop-down list. i. Specify the meshing options for the stationary layering interface (int-layering) in the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box. March 12. ii. Retain the default value of 0 mm for the Cell Height of the fluid-inlet Adjacent zone.

Hence. (b) Select Rigid Body in the Type group box. Make sure that valve::libudf is selected from the Motion UDF/Profile dropdown list to hook the UDF to your model. the mesh motion is driven by the pressure exerted by the fluid on the valve and acting against the inertia of the valve. In this problem. March 12. Specify the motion of the valve (valve) in the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box. In many MDM problems. (a) Select seat-valve from the Zone Names drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. Specify the meshing options for the stationary seat valve (seat-valve) in the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box. (a) Select valve from the Zone Names drop-down list. i.5 mm for Cell Height of the fluid-move Adjacent Zone. 0) m for Center of Gravity Location. for this problem. (d) Click the Meshing Options tab and enter 0 mm for the Cell Height of the fluid-move Adjacent zone. and 0 for Center of Gravity Orientation. Retain the default settings of (0. ii. Release 12. (b) Retain the previous selection of Stationary in the Type group box. (c) In the Meshing Options tab and enter 0. Inc. 8. (e) Click Create and close the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box.Using Dynamic Meshes 7. mesh motion in the absence of a flow field solution is meaningless. you may want to preview the mesh motion before proceeding. and you will not use this feature here. 2009 13-23 . (c) Click the Motion Attributes tab. (d) Click Create.

13-24 Release 12. 2009 . (b) Enter 0 for Skewness Correction. Solution Methods (a) Select PISO from the Scheme drop-down list in Pressure-Velocity Coupling group box. March 12.Using Dynamic Meshes Step 9: Time-Dependent Solution 1.0 c ANSYS. Inc. (c) Select PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. Set the solution paramters.

Set the relaxation factors.6 for Pressure in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box.4 for Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation Rate in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. 3.. Release 12. Calculation Activities (Autosave Every (Time Steps))−→ Edit.0 c ANSYS.. (b) Enter 0. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0. Inc. Request that case and data files are automatically saved every 50 time steps. March 12. 2009 13-25 .Using Dynamic Meshes 2.

When ANSYS FLUENT saves a file. button next to pressure to open the Animation Sequence dialog box. Use the solution animation feature to save contour plots of temperature every five time steps. you use the solution animation playback feature to view the animated temperature plots over time. (a) Set Animation Sequences to 2.. this would generate a large number of files. Create animation sequences for the static pressure contour plots and velocity vectors plots for the valve.gz) will also be appended.gz and .dat. (e) Select Time Step from the When drop-down list for pressure and vv.cas. The default value of 1 instructs ANSYS FLUENT to update the animation sequence at every time step. For this case. Inc. 13-26 Release 12. 2009 .. (d) Click OK to close the Autosave dialog box. (c) Enter vv in the Name text box for the second animation. After the calculation is complete. 4. it will append the flow time value to the file name prefix (valve tran-).gz in the File Name text box. The gzipped standard extensions (. (d) Set Every to 5 for both animation sequences. March 12. (b) Enter valve tran-.Using Dynamic Meshes (a) Enter 50 for Save Data File Every (Time Steps). (c) Select flow-time from the Append File Name with drop-down list. Calculation Activities (Solution Animations)−→ Create/Edit.0 c ANSYS. (f) Click the Define. (b) Enter pressure in the Name text box for the first animation...

the folder where you started ANSYS FLUENT). A..0 c ANSYS. the files will be saved in your working folder (i. Inc. Select Contours in the Display Type group box to open the Contours dialog box. Note: If you want to store the plots in a folder other than your working folder. Set Window number to 1 and click Set. 2009 13-27 .Using Dynamic Meshes i. Retain the default selection of Metafile in the Storage Type group box. March 12. If this field is left blank (the default). enter the folder path in the Storage Directory text box.e. ii. iii. Release 12. Enable Filled in the Options group box.

C.. and the checkbox in the Active column next to pressure in the Solution Animation dialog box will be enabled. Close the Contours dialog box.Using Dynamic Meshes B. ii. iii. 13-28 Release 12. Click OK in the Animation Sequence dialog box.. Inc. Retain the default selection of Metafile in the Storage Type group box.. Select Vectors in the Display Type group box to open the Vectors dialog box. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists.3: Contours of Static Pressure at t = 0 s D. button next to vv to open the Animation Sequence dialog box. i. (g) Click the Define.3). Retain the default selection of Pressure.. Click Display (Figure 13.0 c ANSYS. The Animation Sequence dialog box will close. Set Window to 2 and click Set. iv. Figure 13. March 12. 2009 .

Using Dynamic Meshes A. B.4: Vectors of Velocity at t = 0 s Release 12. Retain all the default settings. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Click Display (Figure 13. Inc. Figure 13.4). 2009 13-29 .

Click OK in the Animation Sequence dialog box. March 12. Close the Vectors dialog box.Using Dynamic Meshes C. The Animation Sequence dialog box will close. and the checkbox in the Active column next to vv in the Solution Animation dialog box will be enabled. 5. 13-30 Release 12. Here the first few time steps will only come to a reasonably converged solution. (h) Click OK to close the Solution Animation dialog box. Set the time step parameters for the calculation. 2009 . This will save the time step size to the case file (the next time a case file is saved). it is important to make sure that the solution converges at every time step to within the desired accuracy. iv. In the accurate solution of a real-life time-dependent CFD problem. Inc.0 c ANSYS.0001 s for Time Step Size. Run Calculation (a) Enter 0. (b) Retain 20 for Max Iterations/Time Step.

Inspect the solution at the final time step.. (a) Inspect the contours of static pressure in the valve (Figure 13. the values necessary for this case were preset in the source code.000000.7. 2009 13-31 .c) that is provided can be edited and customized by changing the parameters as required for your case. Release 12.. Inc. Figure 13. March 12.5: Contours of Static Pressure After 150 Time Steps For details about the cavitation model.4 in the separate Theory Guide.Using Dynamic Meshes 6. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS.cas. Run Calculation Extra: If you decide to read in the case file that is provided for this tutorial on the documentation CD.dat.000000. The UDF (valve. see Section 16.gz). Request 150 time steps. The negative absolute pressure indicates cavitating flow. This is necessary because ANSYS FLUENT will expect to find the correct UDF libraries in your working folder when reading the case file. you will need to compile the UDF associated with this tutorial in your working folder.gz and valve tran-0.5). Step 10: Postprocessing 1... File −→ Write −→Case & Data. In this tutorial. 7. Save the initial case and data files for this transient problem (valve tran-0. These values may be modified to best suit your model.

... 3. Inc.gz and valve tran-0.. (a) Read the corresponding case and data files (e.Using Dynamic Meshes (b) Inspect the velocity vectors near the point where the valve meets the seat valve (Figure 13.010000.010000. You can also inspect the solution at different intermediate time steps.6). Figure 13. (b) Display the desired contours and vectors.. Graphics and Animations −→ Solution Animation Playback −→ Set Up.6: Velocity Vectors After 150 Time Steps 2. valve tran-0.dat.0 c ANSYS.. 13-32 Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.cas. March 12.g. Play the animation of the pressure contours.gz). File −→ Read −→Case & Data.. 2009 .

(c) Close the Playback dialog box.16 in the separate User’s Guide. (b) Set the slider bar above Replay Speed about halfway in between Slow and Fast.Using Dynamic Meshes (a) Select pressure from the Sequences list.0 c ANSYS. You may be able to increase the accuracy of the solution further by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme. Release 12. (c) Retain the default settings in the rest of the dialog box and click the button. You were also shown how to perform a one degree of freedom (1DOF) rigid body FSI by means of a user-defined function (UDF). a check valve is used to demonstrate the dynamic layering capability within ANSYS FLUENT. using one of the three dynamic mesh schemes available. The playback control buttons will become active. Play the animation of the velocity vectors. For a more accurate solution. see Tutorial 4 and see Section 26. Graphics and Animations −→ Solution Animation Playback −→ Set Up. Inc. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to generate an initial first-order solution. This can be achieved either by using a finer mesh at the valve seat area and/or using a non-constant layer height instead of a constant layer height. as demonstrated in this tutorial. Summary In this tutorial.. 2009 13-33 . (b) Retain the default settings in the rest of the dialog box and click the button. For additional information on animating the solution. ANSYS FLUENT can also perform a more general six degrees of freedom (6DOF) rigid body FSI using a built-in 6DOF solver. March 12.. 4. you can increase the number of layers across the valve seat area. (a) Select vv from the Sequences list.

March 12.Using Dynamic Meshes 13-34 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 .

This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Enable physical models.Tutorial 14. • Initiate and solve the combustion simulation using the pressure-based solver. March 12.0 c ANSYS. and define boundary conditions for a turbulent flow with chemical species mixing and reaction. Inc. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. see Chapter 15 in the separate User’s Guide and Chapter 7 in the separate Theory Guide. Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Introduction This tutorial examines the mixing of chemical species and the combustion of a gaseous fuel. • Examine the reacting flow results using graphics. select material properties. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Release 12. To learn more about chemical reaction modeling. • Compare the results computed with constant and variable specific heat. Otherwise. 2009 14-1 . Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. A cylindrical combustor burning methane (CH4 ) in air is studied using the eddydissipation model in ANSYS FLUENT. • Use custom field functions to compute NO parts per million. • Predict thermal and prompt NOx production. no previous experience with chemical reaction or combustion modeling is assumed.

Ambient air enters the combustor coaxially at 0.1: Combustion of Methane Gas in a Turbulent Diffusion Flame Furnace Background In this tutorial.1) This reaction will be defined in terms of stoichiometric coefficients. 2009 . Inc. 300 K 1. 14-2 Release 12. A small nozzle in the center of the combustor introduces methane at 80 m/s.1.225 m Figure 14. with the turbulence-chemistry interaction modeled using the eddy-dissipation model. The high-speed methane jet initially expands with little interference from the outer wall. March 12.5 m/s.5 m/s. you will use the generalized eddy-dissipation model to analyze the methane-air combustion system. The Reynolds number based on the methane jet diameter is approximately 5. and parameters that control the reaction rate. assuming complete conversion of the fuel to CO2 and H2 O. and entrains and mixes with the low-speed air. The combustion will be modeled using a global onestep reaction mechanism.7 × 103 . The flame considered is a turbulent diffusion flame. The reaction rate will be determined assuming that turbulent mixing is the rate-limiting process.76 (approximately 28% excess air). The reaction equation is CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O (14.005 m Methane: 80 m/s. 300 K 0.0 c ANSYS. formation enthalpies.8 m 0. The overall equivalence ratio is approximately 0.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Problem Description The cylindrical combustor considered in this tutorial is shown in Figure 14. Wall: 300 K Air: 0.

March 12. The file gascomb. see Section 1..msh. after you read in the mesh. Inc. Step 2: General Settings General 1. Release 12. Therefore. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. Check the mesh. 2. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Unzip species_transport. ANSYS FLUENT will report that 1615 quadrilateral fluid cells have been read.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Setup and Solution Preparation 1. After reading the mesh file. Enable Double-Precision. File −→ Read −→Mesh. Read the mesh file gascomb. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Step 1: Mesh 1. 4.zip.msh can be found in the species transport folder created after unzipping the file. 3. along with a number of boundary faces with different zone identifiers.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). Download species_transport..2 in the separate User’s Guide. Ensure that the reported minimum volume reported is a positive number. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.0 c ANSYS. 2009 14-3 .1.

Inc.8 m and 0. fuse.e.0 c ANSYS. (c) Ensure that m is selected from the View Length Unit In drop-down list. March 12.. scale. 14-4 Release 12. or smooth and swap. 3. merge. separate. General −→ Check Note: It is a good practice to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. add zones. General −→ Scale. (e) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box. The default SI units will be used in this tutorial. (b) Click Scale. (d) Ensure that Xmax and Ymax are set to 1. convert to polyhedra. (a) Select mm from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list in the Scaling group box. 2009 . Since this mesh was created in units of millimeters. hence there is no need to change any units in this problem. Check the mesh.) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 2. you will need to scale the mesh into meters.. Scale the mesh..225 m respectively.

information will be displayed in the ANSYS FLUENT console about the associated zone. Select Axisymmetric in the 2D Space list. including the name of the zone. If you click the right mouse button on any node in the mesh. 5. 2009 14-5 . March 12.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 4. Examine the mesh with the default settings. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly.2: The Quadrilateral Mesh for the Combustor Model Extra: You can use the right mouse button to probe for mesh information in the graphics window.0 c ANSYS. Figure 14. Inc. General Release 12.

. 2. Inc. 2009 . (a) Select k-epsilon in the Model list... Enable heat transfer by enabling the energy equation. The Viscous Model dialog box will expand to provide further options for the k-epsilon model. March 12. 14-6 Release 12. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. Select the standard k..0 c ANSYS.turbulence model.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Step 3: Models Models 1. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit.

2009 14-7 . Scroll down the list to find methane-air. Inc. (c) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. You can select one of the predefined mixtures to access a complete description of the reacting system. The Species Model dialog box will expand to provide further options for the Species Transport model. Enable chemical species transport and reaction. (c) Select methane-air from the Mixture Material drop-down list. March 12. You can alter the mixture material selection or modify the mixture material properties using the Create/Edit Materials dialog box (see Step 4: Materials). Release 12. 3. (b) Enable Volumetric in the Reactions group box. Models −→ Species −→ Edit... Note: The Mixture Material list contains the set of chemical mixtures that exist in the ANSYS FLUENT database. The chemical species in the system and their physical and thermodynamic properties are defined by your selection of the mixture material.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (b) Retain the default settings for the k-epsilon model. (a) Select Species Transport in the Model list.0 c ANSYS.

An Information dialog box will open. 2009 . the boundary conditions should be such that the centerline is an axis type instead of a symmetry type. prior to listing the properties that are required for the models you have enabled (you may have to scroll up to see this warning). In the axisymmetric model. March 12.0 c ANSYS. you may not be able to continue the solution without encountering floating point errors. (e) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box. Click OK to continue. Warning: It appears that symmetry zone 5 should actually be an axis (it has faces with zero area projections). The eddy-dissipation model computes the rate of reaction under the assumption that chemical kinetics are fast compared to the rate at which reactants are mixed by turbulent fluctuations (eddies). Unless you change the zone type from symmetry to axis.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (d) Select Eddy-Dissipation in the Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction group box. Inc. reminding you to confirm the property values before continuing. ANSYS FLUENT will display a warning about the symmetry zone in the console. You will change the symmetry zone to an axis boundary in Step 5: Boundary Conditions. 14-8 Release 12.

Retain this constant property assumption for now. the mixture material uses constant properties.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Step 4: Materials Materials In this step. Revise the properties for the mixture materials. Release 12. The Create/Edit Materials dialog box will display the mixture material (methane-air) that was selected in the Species Model dialog box. you will modify the default setting for the mixture by enabling the gas law.. Materials −→ Mixture −→ Create/Edit. By default.. March 12.. allowing only the mixture density to vary with temperature and composition.0 c ANSYS. button to the right of the Mixture Species drop-down list to open the Species dialog box. The influence of variable property inputs on the combustion prediction will be examined in a later part of the tutorial. Inc. (a) Click the Edit. 2009 14-9 . 1. The properties for this mixture material have been copied from the ANSYS FLUENT database and will be modified in the following steps..

i.. Inc. March 12.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion You can add or remove species from the mixture material as necessary using the Species dialog box. 14-10 Release 12. (b) Click the Edit.0 c ANSYS.. Click OK to close the Species dialog box. button to the right of the Reaction drop-down list to open the Reactions dialog box. ii. 2009 . The species that make up the methane-air mixture are predefined and require no modification. Retain the default selections from the Selected Species selection list.

2009 14-11 . the Arrhenius rate) and uses only the parameters in the Mixing Rate group box in the Reactions dialog box..0 c ANSYS. Retain the default values in the Mixing Rate group box.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion The eddy-dissipation reaction model ignores chemical kinetics (i. Inc. i. Click OK to close the Reactions dialog box. March 12. Release 12. The Arrhenius Rate group box will therefore be inactive. ii. The values for Rate Exponent and Arrhenius Rate parameters are included in the database and are employed when the alternate finite-rate/eddy-dissipation model is used. (c) Retain the selection of incompressible-ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list.e.

(e) Click Change/Create to accept the material property settings. The molecular transport properties will play a minor role compared to turbulent transport.0 c ANSYS. Scroll down to find the Cp drop-down list and number-entry box. The assumption of constant specific heat. 2009 . (f) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. You will change this property definition in Step 7: Solution with Varying Heat Capacity. The initial calculation will be performed assuming that all properties except density are constant. 14-12 Release 12. March 12. however. thermal conductivity. Inc.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (d) Select constant from the Cp drop-down list and enter 1000 J/kg − K for the specific heat value. has a strong effect on the combustion solution. The use of constant transport properties (viscosity. and mass diffusivity coefficients) is acceptable because the flow is fully turbulent.

Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Step 5: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ symmetry-5 The symmetry zone must be converted to an axis to prevent numerical difficulties where the radius reduces to zero. 2009 14-13 . (a) Select axis from the Type drop-down list. Release 12. Convert the symmetry zone to the axis type. Click Yes to continue. March 12.0 c ANSYS. A Question dialog box will open. asking if it is OK to change the type of symmetry-5 from symmetry to axis.

Inc. To determine the zone for the air inlet. (a) Enter air-inlet for Zone Name. (d) Retain the default value of 10% for Turbulent Intensity. (e) Enter 0. ANSYS FLUENT will report the zone name (velocity-inlet-8) in the console. display the mesh without the fluid zone to see the boundaries.5 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. 2009 .. This name is more descriptive for the zone than velocity-inlet-8.0 c ANSYS. 14-14 Release 12.. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-8 −→ Edit. (f) Click the Thermal tab and retain the default value of 300 K for Temperature. March 12. Click OK to continue. Set the boundary conditions for the air inlet (velocity-inlet-8).Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion The Axis dialog box will open and display the default name for the newly created axis zone.44 m for Hydraulic Diameter. Use the right mouse button to probe the air inlet. (b) Enter 0. (c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. 2.

March 12. Inc.. Release 12. Set the boundary conditions for the fuel inlet (velocity-inlet-6). (h) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box..Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (g) Click the Species tab and enter 0. (a) Enter fuel-inlet for Zone Name.0 c ANSYS.23 for o2 in the Species Mass Fractions group box. This name is more descriptive for the zone than velocity-inlet-6. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-6 −→ Edit. 2009 14-15 . 3.

(g) Click the Species tab and enter 1 for ch4 in the Species Mass Fractions group box. (d) Retain the default value of 10% for Turbulent Intensity.01 m for Hydraulic Diameter. 14-16 Release 12. (e) Enter 0. (d) Enter 0. (f) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2 in the Species Mass Fractions group box. Boundary Conditions −→ pressure-outlet-9 −→ Edit. (a) Retain the default value of 0 Pa for Gauge Pressure.0 c ANSYS. (c) Retain the default value of 10% for Backflow Turbulent Intensity. (h) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (b) Enter 80 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude. March 12. (f) Click the Thermal tab and retain the default value of 300 K for Temperature. (b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. 2009 .45 m for Backflow Hydraulic Diameter. Set the boundary conditions for the exit boundary (pressure-outlet-9). 4.. (c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. Inc. (e) Click the Thermal tab and retain the default value of 300 K for Backflow Total Temperature..

.0 c ANSYS. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions list. ii. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. (b) Click the Thermal tab. Inc. March 12. The Backflow values in the Pressure Outlet dialog box are utilized only when backflow occurs at the pressure outlet. (a) Enter outer-wall for Zone Name. Release 12. 2009 14-17 . This name is more descriptive for the zone than wall-7. i. Retain the default value of 300 K for Temperature. Use the mouse-probe method described for the air inlet to determine the zone corresponding to the outer wall. Set the boundary conditions for the outer wall (wall-7). Always assign reasonable values because backflow may occur during intermediate iterations and could affect the solution stability.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (g) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-7 −→ Edit.. 5.

Retain the default value of 0 W/m2 for Heat Flux. so that the wall is adiabatic.. Retain the default selection of Heat Flux in the Thermal Conditions list. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-2 −→ Edit. i. Set the boundary conditions for the fuel inlet nozzle (wall-2). Inc.0 c ANSYS. March 12. 14-18 Release 12. 2009 . ii.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 6. This name is more descriptive for the zone than wall-2.. (b) Click the Thermal tab. (a) Enter nozzle for Zone Name. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.

Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 14-19 . Release 12. For a combustion model. Retain the default solution parameters.95. Set the under-relaxation factors for the species. March 12. For this tutorial. Solution Methods 2.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Step 6: Initial Solution with Constant Heat Capacity 1. Solution Controls The default under-relaxation parameters in ANSYS FLUENT are set to high values. it may be necessary to reduce the under-relaxation to stabilize the solution. Some experimentation is typically necessary to establish the optimal under-relaxation. it is sufficient to reduce the species under-relaxation to 0.

3.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (a) Enter 0. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. and h2o) in the UnderRelaxation Factors group box. Scroll down the Under-Relaxation Factors group box to find the species. 2009 . Inc. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. o2. 14-20 Release 12.95 for each of the species (ch4... (a) Ensure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. co2. March 12. Ensure the plotting of residuals during the calculation.

gz for Case File. (c) Click OK close the Select File dialog box. unformatted binary file.cas. (b) Ensure that Write Binary Files is enabled to produce a smaller. March 12. File −→ Write −→Case. (a) Enter gascomb1.cas. Inc.0 c ANSYS. (b) Click Initialize to initialize the variables.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 4. 5.gz). Solution Initialization (a) Select all-zones from the Compute From drop-down list... Save the case file (gascomb1. Release 12. Initialize the field variables. 2009 14-21 .

Inc.. Start the calculation by requesting 500 iterations.dat. Save the case and data files (gascomb1.. March 12.gz). Note: If you choose a file name that already exists in the current folder. 14-22 Release 12.gz and gascomb1. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.cas. 2009 .Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 6. 7. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 280 iterations. ANSYS FLUENT will ask you to confirm that the previous file is to be overwritten.0 c ANSYS.

pbns..27e+03 1.0 c ANSYS.11e+03 1. Inc.78e+02 4.38e+03 2.41e+03 1.94e+03 2.17e+02 5.52e+03 2.56e+02 7..66e+03 2. spe.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 8. (b) Select Temperature.83e+03 1. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box.0 (axi. dp.13e+03 9.69e+03 1.55e+03 1. March 12. (c) Click Display (See Figure 14..08e+03 2.95e+02 8.39e+02 3.25e+03 2.3) and close the Contours dialog box.00e+02 Contours of Static Temperature (k) FLUENT 12.97e+03 1. 3. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists.3: Contours of Temperature: Constant Cp Release 12.80e+03 2. 2009 14-23 . ske) Figure 14. Review the current state of the solution by displaying filled contours of temperature.

Materials −→ Mixture −→ Create/Edit. This overprediction of the flame temperature can be remedied by a more realistic model for the temperature and composition dependence of the heat capacity. The specific heat of the mixture will now be based on a local mass-fractionweighted average of all the species. Enable composition dependence of the specific heat. (c) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion The peak temperature. Scroll up the list to find mixing-law. 2009 . March 12. (a) Select mixing-law from the Cp drop-down list in the Properties group box. (b) Click Change/Create. In this step you will use the temperaturevarying property information in the ANSYS FLUENT database to recompute the solution.0 c ANSYS. as illustrated in the next step of the tutorial.. predicted using a constant heat capacity of 1000 J/kg − K. 1.. 14-24 Release 12. Step 7: Solution with Varying Heat Capacity The strong temperature and composition dependence of the specific heat has a significant impact on the predicted flame temperature. is over 3000 K. Inc.

Enable temperature dependence of the specific heat for CO2 . button to open the Piecewise-Polynomial Profile dialog box... Inc.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 2. March 12. (a) Ensure that piecewise-polynomial is selected from the Cp drop-down list in the Properties group box.. Release 12.. i.0 c ANSYS. (b) Click the Edit. Retain the default values in the Coefficients group box. The default coefficients describe the polynomial Cp (T ) and are extracted from the ANSYS FLUENT property database. 2009 14-25 . Materials −→ carbon-dioxide −→ Create/Edit.

Save the new case and data files (gascomb2. O2 .. Click OK to close the Piecewise-Polynomial Profile dialog box. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. (a) Select Total Sensible Heat Transfer Rate in the Options list. 1.0 c ANSYS. N2 . and H2 O). Inc. Run Calculation The residuals will jump significantly as the solution adjusts to the new specific heat representation. Similarly. 14-26 Release 12.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion ii.cas. 5. 3... (c) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. March 12. Report the total sensible heat flux.. 4. 2009 .dat. Request 500 more iterations. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. ensure that temperature dependence of specific heat is enabled for the remaining species (CH4 . Step 8: Postprocessing Review the solution by examining graphical displays of the results and performing surface integrations at the combustor exit. The solution will converge after approximately 235 additional iterations.gz).gz and gascomb2.

... Note: The energy balance is good. Display filled contours of temperature (Figure 14. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Release 12.. and Static Temperature are selected in the Contours of drop-down lists. (b) Ensure that Temperature. (a) Ensure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box.. Figure 14. The net result is small compared to the heat reaction. and Specific Heat (Cp) from the Contours of drop-down lists.. 3. March 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (b) Select all the boundaries from the Boundaries selection list. Inc.. (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.4). (c) Click Display. (a) Select Properties.0 c ANSYS.. The contours of the mixture specific heat will show the variation of the specific heat within the domain.5). Display filled contours of specific heat (Figure 14. 2.4: Contours of Temperature—Variable Cp The peak temperature has dropped to approximately 2300 K as a result of the temperature and composition-dependent specific heat. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. 2009 14-27 .

0 c ANSYS. The increase in heat capacity.. near the fuel inlet. 14-28 Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. 2009 .Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion The mixture specific heat is largest where the CH4 is concentrated. Figure 14. March 12. relative to the constant value used before. and where the temperature and combustion product concentrations are large..5: Contours of Specific Heat 4.6). Inc. Display velocity vectors (Figure 14. substantially lowers the peak flame temperature.

. button to open the Vector Options dialog box.. the velocity magnitude is described only by color instead of by both vector length and color. (b) Click Display.0 c ANSYS.01 for Scale... and Stream Function from the Contours of drop-down lists.6: Velocity Vectors—Variable Cp 5. (c) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. (b) Click the Vector Options.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (a) Enter 0. 2009 14-29 . March 12. (a) Select Velocity. Release 12.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. The fixed length option is useful when the vector magnitude varies dramatically.7). i. ii. Inc.. With fixed length vectors. Click Apply and close the Vector Options dialog box. Figure 14. Display filled contours of stream function (Figure 14. Enable Fixed Length.

2009 . (b) Click Display. 6.8: Contours of CH4 Mass Fraction 14-30 Release 12.7: Contours of Stream Function—Variable Cp The entrainment of air into the high-velocity methane jet is clearly visible in the streamline display..Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Figure 14.8).. Display filled contours of mass fraction for CH4 (Figure 14.. Figure 14. Inc. (a) Select Species. March 12..0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. and Mass fraction of ch4 from the Contours of drop-down lists.

March 12. 14.10: Contours of CO2 Mass Fraction Release 12. Close the Contours dialog box when all of the species have been displayed. In a similar manner.9. CO2 .0 c ANSYS. Figure 14.11).9: Contours of O2 Mass Fraction Figure 14.10. Inc. 2009 14-31 . and H2 O (Figures 14. display the contours of mass fraction for the remaining species O2 . and 14.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 7.

2009 . 14-32 Release 12.11: Contours of H2 O Mass Fraction 8.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. Determine the average exit temperature...Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Figure 14. and Static Temperature from the Field Variable drop-down lists. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up.. March 12. Inc. (b) Select Temperature..

. (a) Select Area-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. so that the integration is performed over this surface.0 c ANSYS. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up..Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion The mass-averaged temperature will be computed as: T = T ρv · dA ρv · dA (14. The area-weighted velocity-magnitude average will be computed as: v= ¯ 1 A v dA (14. Inc. 2009 14-33 . The Mass-Weighted Average field will show that the exit temperature is approximately 1834 K.. 9. March 12..3) Release 12.2) (c) Select pressure-outlet-9 from the Surfaces selection list. (b) Select Velocity. and Velocity Magnitude from the Field Variable drop-down lists. Determine the average exit velocity. (d) Click Compute.

March 12.. Enable the NOx model. Step 9: NOx Prediction In this section you will extend the ANSYS FLUENT model to include the prediction of NOx .. 1. Models −→ NOx −→ Edit. Inc. then calculate each separately to determine the contribution of each mechanism. (c) Click the Turbulence Interaction Mode tab. (d) Close the Surface Integrals dialog box.0 c ANSYS. You will first calculate the formation of both thermal and prompt NOx . 2009 . The Area-Weighted Average field will show that the exit velocity is approximately 3. (a) Enable Thermal NOx and Prompt NOx in the Pathways group box.29 m/s. 14-34 Release 12. (b) Select ch4 from the Fuel Species selection list.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (c) Click Compute.

iii. Release 12. Inc. You can increase the value for PDF Points to obtain a more accurate NOx prediction. (e) Click the Prompt tab. you will be computing NOx formation without considering the important influence of turbulent fluctuations on the timeaveraged reaction rates. 2009 14-35 . The partial-equilibrium model is used to predict the O radical concentration required for thermal NOx prediction. Select temperature from the PDF Mode drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. Retain the default selection of beta from the PDF Type drop-down list and the default value of 10 for PDF Points. (d) Select partial-equilibrium from the [O] Model drop-down list in the Formation Model Parameters group box in the Thermal tab. If turbulence interaction is not enabled. March 12. This will enable the turbulence-chemistry interaction. ii. Select transported from the Temperature Variance drop-down list.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion i.

0 c ANSYS. (f) Click Apply to accept these changes and close the NOx Model dialog box. The Equivalence Ratio defines the fuel-air ratio (relative to stoichiometric conditions). March 12. ii. Enter 0. 2009 . Retain the default value of 1 for Fuel Carbon Number. 14-36 Release 12. All of the parameters in the Prompt tab are used in the calculation of prompt NOx formation. Inc. The Fuel Carbon Number is the number of carbon atoms per molecule of fuel.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion i.76 for Equivalence Ratio.

(b) Click OK to close the Equations dialog box. March 12. 3.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 2. Set the under-relaxation factor for Pollutant no.0 c ANSYS.. Release 12. Solution Controls (a) Enter 1 for Pollutant no and Temperature Variance in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. (a) Deselect all variables except Pollutant no and Temperature Variance from the Equations selection list. Enable the calculation of NO species only and temperature variance. Solution Controls −→ Equations. Inc. 2009 14-37 ..

and hydrocarbon combustion species concentrations fixed.. The peak concentration of NO is located in a region of high temperature where oxygen and nitrogen are available. Review the solution by displaying contours of NO mass fraction (Figure 14. 5.cas. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. Request 50 more iterations. temperature. and Mass fraction of Pollutant no from the Contours of drop-down lists..gz and gascomb3. with the flow field.. 7. only the NO equation will be computed... (a) Ensure that the Absolute Criteria for pollut no is set to 1e-06. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.. 4.0 c ANSYS. 6.12). Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 10 iterations. 2009 . 14-38 Release 12. Inc.gz). (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. March 12. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. Reduce the convergence criterion for the NO species equation.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion You will predict NOx formation in a “postprocessing” mode. Prediction of NO in this mode is justified on the grounds that the NO concentrations are very low and have negligible impact on the hydrocarbon combustion prediction. Hence. (a) Disable Filled in the Options group box. Save the new case and data files (gascomb3.. (b) Select NOx. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.dat..

and Mass fraction of Pollutant no from the Field Variable dropdown lists. March 12..Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Figure 14.0 c ANSYS. 2009 14-39 .12: Contours of NO Mass Fraction—Prompt and Thermal NOx Formation 8. (a) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. Release 12. (b) Select NOx... Inc. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up. Calculate the average exit NO mass fraction..

13). (a) Click the Formation tab and disable Prompt NOx. Figure 14.. Request 50 iterations. Disable the prompt NOx mechanism in preparation for solving for thermal NOx only.. Run Calculation The solution will converge in less than 10 iterations. 11.0043. 9. (e) Close the Surface Integrals dialog box. (b) Click Apply and close the NOx Model dialog box. (a) Ensure that NOx. 2009 .13: Contours of NO Mass Fraction—Thermal NOx Formation Note that the concentration of NO is slightly lower without the prompt NOx mechanism. The Mass-Weighted Average field will show that the exit NO mass fraction is approximately 0. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion (c) Ensure that pressure-outlet-9 is selected from the Surfaces selection list. Inc..0 c ANSYS.. March 12. (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. 10... (d) Click Compute. Models −→ NOx −→ Edit. and Mass fraction of Pollutant no are selected from the Contours of drop-down list. Review the thermal NOx solution by viewing contours of NO mass fraction (Figure 14. 14-40 Release 12.

e. Inc. 14. Hint: Follow the same procedure you used earlier for the calculation with both thermal and prompt NOx formation.14: Contours of NO Mass Fraction—Prompt NOx Formation Release 12..14). The Mass-Weighted Average field will show that the exit NO mass fraction with only thermal NOx formation (i. Run Calculation The solution will converge in less than 10 iterations. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. Figure 14. March 12... Review the prompt NOx solution by viewing contours of NO mass fraction (Figure 14. Request 50 iterations. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up... Models −→ NOx −→ Edit. 2009 14-41 . 15. (a) Disable Thermal NOx in the Pathways group box. 13.. Solve for prompt NOx production only.0 c ANSYS. Compute the average exit NO mass fraction with only thermal NOx formation. (b) Enable Prompt NOx.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 12. (c) Click Apply and close the NOx Model dialog box.0043. with no prompt NOx formation) is approximately 0.

74633e-05.. March 12.. Hint: Follow the same procedure you used earlier for the calculation with both thermal and prompt NOx formation. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up.. NO ppm will be computed from the following equation: NO ppm = NO mole fraction × 106 1 − H2 O mole fraction (14. 14-42 Release 12.. This is because reversible reactions are involved. as shown in the previous dialog box. 17. and Mole fraction of Pollutant no from the Field Functions dropdown lists. In this case the flame is lean and prompt NO production is low. Inc. 16. 2009 ..4) Define −→Custom Field Functions. (b) Click the appropriate calculator buttons to enter *10^6/(1.0 c ANSYS.. and click the Select button to enter molef-pollut-pollutant-0 in the Definition field. Note: The individual thermal and prompt NO mass fractions do not add up to the levels predicted with the two models combined.in the Definition field. NO produced in one reaction can be destroyed in another reaction. (a) Select NOx. Use a custom field function to compute NO parts per million (ppm). The Mass-Weighted Average field will show that the exit NO mass fraction with only prompt NOx formation is approximately 9.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion The prompt NOx mechanism is most significant in fuel-rich flames. Compute the average exit NO mass fraction with only prompt NOx formation.

(e) Enter no-ppm for New Function Name... (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. March 12. Scroll up the list to find Custom Field Functions.14).Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Hint: If you make a mistake. and no-ppm from the Contours of drop-down lists. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.15: Contours of NO ppm—Prompt NOx Formation The contours closely resemble the mass fraction contours (Figure 14. and click the Select button to enter molef-h2o in the Definition field. 2009 14-43 ..15). and Mole fraction of h2o from the Field Functions drop-down lists.. Display contours of NO ppm (Figure 14. For more explicit instructions on using the Custom Field Function calculator buttons. (c) Select Species. click the DEL button on the calculator pad to delete the last item you added to the function definition.. 18. (d) Click the ) button to complete the field function. Inc.0 c ANSYS.. Release 12. (a) Select Custom Field Functions... For details Tutorial 1 . (f) Click Define to add the new field function to the variable list and close the Custom Field Function Calculator dialog box. Figure 14. as expected..

This mechanism is very sensitive to temperature.0 c ANSYS. The average exit temperature and velocity are also overpredicted. The use of a constant Cp results in a significant overprediction of the peak temperature. mixing. March 12. The NOx production in this case was dominated by the thermal NO mechanism. 2009 . and reaction of chemical species. (K) 2241 1834 Exit Velocity (m/s) 4. The combustion modeling results are summarized in the following table. (K) 3080 2300 Exit Temp. Every effort should be made to ensure that the temperature solution is not overpredicted.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Summary In this tutorial you used ANSYS FLUENT to model the transport. The procedures used here for simulation of hydrocarbon combustion can be applied to other reacting flow systems. 14-44 Release 12. For more details on the nonpremixed combustion model. This exercise illustrated the important role of the mixture heat capacity in the prediction of flame temperature. Further Improvements Further improvements can be expected by including the effects of intermediate species and radiation. Peak Temp. If a multi-step Magnussen model is used.29 Constant Cp Variable Cp Note: Some of the values in the table were not explicitly calculated during the tutorial. considerably more computational effort is required to solve for the additional species. both of which will result in lower predicted combustion temperatures. The reaction system was defined by using and modifying a mixturematerial entry in the ANSYS FLUENT database. The single-step reaction process used in this tutorial cannot account for the moderating effects of intermediate reaction products. the nonpremixed combustion model can be used to account for intermediate species at a reduced computational cost. as discussed in the following section. see Chapter 16 in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. Further improvements are possible by considering additional models and features available in ANSYS FLUENT. since this will lead to unrealistically high predicted levels of NO. Where applicable. such as CO and H2 . Multiple-step reactions can be used to address these species. The variable Cp solution produces dramatic improvements in the predicted results.03 3.

Assume TAF = 2000 K.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion Radiation heat transfer tends to make the temperature distribution more uniform. which shows that radiation is of approximately equal importance to convection for this problem.0 c ANSYS. thereby lowering the peak temperature.09.729×10−8 W/m2 −K4 ) and TAF is the adiabatic flame temperature. radiation heat transfer to the wall can be very significant (especially here. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. Release 12. The resulting Boltzmann number is Bo = 1. see Section 13. March 12. with the wall temperature set at 300 K). For details on radiation modeling. For a quick estimate. assume ρ = 1 kg/m3 . These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial set of solutions. The large influence of radiation can be anticipated by computing the Boltzmann number for the flow: Bo = (ρUCp )inlet convection ∼ 3 σTAF radiation where σ is the Boltzmann constant (5.3 in the separate User’s Guide. U = 0. Inc. 2009 14-45 . You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. In addition.5 m/s. and Cp = 1000 J/kg − K (the majority of the inflow is air).

March 12. Inc. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.Modeling Species Transport and Gaseous Combustion 14-46 Release 12.

Inc. Multiple chemical species. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. The reaction can be modeled using either the species transport model or the non-premixed combustion model.turbulence model. In this tutorial you will set up and solve a natural gas combustion problem using the non-premixed combustion model for the reaction chemistry.Tutorial 15. • Solve a natural gas combustion simulation problem. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Their concentrations will be derived from the predicted mixture fraction distribution. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Define inputs for modeling non-premixed combustion chemistry. may be included in the problem definition.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. The non-premixed combustion model uses a modeling approach that solves transport equations for one or two conserved scalars and the mixture fractions. For details on the non-premixed combustion modeling approach. • Use the P-1 radiation model for combustion applications. including radicals and intermediate species. 2009 15-1 . see Chapter 16 in the separate User’s Guide. Introduction Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model A 300KW BERL combustor simulation is modeled using a Probability Density Function (PDF) mixture fraction model. March 12. • Use the k. • Prepare the PDF table in ANSYS FLUENT. Property data for the species are accessed through a chemical database and turbulencechemistry interaction is modeled using a β-function for the PDF. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.

and temperature boundary conditions are based on experimental data [1]. The furnace walls are capable of being refractory-lined or water-cooled. Figure 15. velocity inlet boundary conditions of the gas. The burner features 24 radial fuel ports and a bluff centerbody. The combustor dimensions are described in Figure 15. March 12. The furnace is vertically-fired and of octagonal cross-section with a conical furnace hood and a cylindrical exhaust duct.1: Problem Description 15-2 Release 12. and Figure 15.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 .2 shows a closeup of the burner assuming 2D axisymmetry.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Problem Description The flow considered is an unstaged natural gas flame in a 300 kW swirl-stabilized burner. The boundary condition profiles.1. Air is introduced through an annular inlet and movable swirl blocks are used to impart swirl.

which will be created after unzipping the file. see Section 1. after you read in the mesh.prof can be found in the non premix combustion folder. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. The files.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).msh and berl. 4.msh is a quadrilateral mesh describing the system geometry shown in Figures 15.zip.66 Do Do = 87 mm natural gas Figure 15.0 c ANSYS. 3.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Release 12. Therefore. 2. berl.1.66 Do 1. 2009 15-3 .33 Do 24 holes ∅ 1.2. Download non_premix_combustion. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Unzip non_premix_combustion.1 and 15. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.8 mm 0. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. Enable Double-Precision. berl. The mesh file.15 Do 1.2: Close-Up of the Burner Setup and Solution Preparation 1.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 195 mm 20 o swirling combustion air Do 1. Inc. March 12.

0 c ANSYS.. or to change the problem definition to axisymmetric. Inc. (c) Click Scale to scale the mesh. Check the mesh. General −→ Scale.. (a) Select mm from the View Length Unit In drop-down list. All dimensions will now be shown in millimeters. (b) Select mm from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list in the Scaling group box. A warning will be generated informing you to consider making changes to the zone type. 2. 2009 .. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. March 12. Read the mesh file berl.. The ANSYS FLUENT console will report that the mesh contains 9784 quadrilateral cells. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number.msh. Step 2: General Settings General 1.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Step 1: Mesh 1. Scale the mesh. 15-4 Release 12. You will change the problem to axisymmetric swirl in Step 2. File −→ Read −→Mesh.

merge. lam) Figure 15. 2009 15-5 . you may find it more useful to display just the outline. fuse. 3. The zone labels will be displayed in the console. pbns. dp.3: 2D BERL Combustor Mesh Display Due to the mesh resolution and the size of the domain. add zones.3).Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (d) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box. Extra: You can use the mouse zoom button (middle button. March 12. 4.e.. Release 12. Mesh FLUENT 12. by default) to find out the boundary zone labels.0 (2d.0 c ANSYS. General −→ Check Note: It is a good idea to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. convert to polyhedra. Examine the mesh (Figure 15. Inc. scale. or smooth and swap. by default) to zoom in to the display and the mouse probe button (right button.) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised. separate. or to zoom in on various portions of the mesh display. Check the mesh.

Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 5.4.4: 2D BERL Combustor Mesh Display Including the Symmetry Plane 15-6 Release 12. March 12. as shown in Figure 15. Inc.. The full geometry will be displayed. Mirror the display about the symmetry plane. (b) Click Apply and close the Views dialog box.. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. (a) Select axis-2 from the Mirror Planes selection list. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Figure 15.

Step 3: Models Models 1. The non-premixed combustion model is available only with the pressure-based solver.. 2009 15-7 . March 12. General (a) Retain the default selection of Pressure-Based in the Type list. (b) Click OK to close the Energy dialog box. (a) Enable Energy Equation.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. Change the spatial definition to axisymmetric swirl. Enable the Energy Equation. Since heat transfer occurs in the system considered here. (b) Select Axisymmetric Swirl in the 2D Space list.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 6. Inc. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit.. you will have to solve the energy equation.

0 c ANSYS. (a) Select k-epsilon (2 eqn) in the Model list. 3. Inc.. 15-8 Release 12. (c) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. Select the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. March 12.. Select the P1 radiation model. the RNG k-epsilon model can also be used. Models −→ Radiation −→ Edit. (b) Retain all other default settings. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. For axisymmetric swirling flow. 2009 .Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 2...

Inc. 4. see Chapter 13 in the separate User’s Guide. An Information dialog box will open. The DO radiation model produces a more accurate solution than the P1 radiation model but it can be CPU intensive. Select the Non-Premixed Combustion model.. reminding you to confirm the property values. 2009 15-9 . March 12..0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Radiation Model dialog box. (c) Click OK to close the Information dialog box. Models −→ Species −→ Edit. For details on the different radiation models available in ANSYS FLUENT. Release 12. The P1 model will produce a quick.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (a) Select P1 in the Model list. The ANSYS FLUENT console will list the properties that are required for the model you have enabled. acceptable solution for this problem.

(b) Enable Inlet Diffusion in the PDF Options group box.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (a) Select Non-Premixed Combustion in the Model list.058. Retain the default value for Operating Pressure.0 c ANSYS. This increases the efficiency of the PDF calculation. suspending equilibrium calculations when the mixture fraction exceeds the specified rich limit. This table contains information on the thermo-chemistry and its interaction with turbulence. You will use this dialog box to create the PDF table. The Steady Flamelets option can model local chemical non-equilibrium due to turbulent strain. When you use the non-premixed combustion model. 2009 . This is also more physically realistic than the assumption of full equilibrium.064 for Fuel Stream Rich Flammability Limit. The dialog box will expand to show the related inputs. In this case. (c) Define chemistry models. you need to create a PDF table. the stoichiometric fraction is 0. ANSYS FLUENT interpolates the PDF during the solution of the non-premixed combustion model. a value larger than 10% – 50% of the stoichiometric mixture fraction can be used for the rich flammability limit of the fuel stream. iii. In most non-premixed combustion simulations. therefore a value that is 10% greater is 0. The Inlet Diffusion option enables the mixture fraction to diffuse out of the domain through inlets and outlets. For combustion cases. Inc. March 12. the Equilibrium chemistry model is recommended. The Fuel Stream Rich Flammability Limit allows you to perform a “partial equilibrium” calculation.064. i. Enter 0. allowing you to bypass the complex equilibrium calculations in the fuel-rich region. Retain the default selection of Equilibrium and Non-Adiabatic. ii. 15-10 Release 12.

Select Mole Fraction in the Species Unit list. add c3h8. c3h8. Specify the fuel composition by entering the following values for Fuel: The fuel composition is entered in mole fractions of the species. c3h8. March 12. c4h10. Enter c2h6 in the Boundary Species text-entry field and click Add. and co2. i. iv. c4h10.013 0. ii.965 0. 2009 15-11 .Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (d) Click the Boundary tab to add and define the boundary species. c4h10.001 0. Species ch4 n2 c2h6 c3h8 c4h10 co2 Mole Fraction 0.001 0. Similarly. and co2. Retain the default values for n2 and o2 for Oxid.003 Release 12. Inc.017 0. B. All the four species will appear in the table. Add c2h6. and co2. A. iii. c2h6.0 c ANSYS. The oxidizer (air) consists of 21% O2 and 79% N2 by volume.

Note: All boundary species with a mass or mole fraction of zero will be ignored. button to open the PDF Table dialog box. Retain the default values for all the parameters in the Table Parameters group box. (e) Click the Control tab and retain default species to be excluded from the equilibrium calculation. 15-12 Release 12.. iii.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Hint: Scroll down to see all the species. Enter 315 K for Fuel and Oxid in the Temperature group box. Click Calculate PDF Table to compute the non-adiabatic PDF table. Click the Display PDF Table. (f) Click the Table tab to specify the table parameters and calculate the PDF table. March 12. i. ii. The maximum number of species determines the number of most preponderant species to consider after the equilibrium calculation is performed. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .. v.

the slice selected is that corresponding to the adiabatic enthalpy values. Retain the default parameters and click Display (Figure 15. The maximum and minimum values for mean temperature and the corresponding mean mixture fraction will also be reported in the console.058. March 12.5). The maximum mean temperature is reported as 2246 K at a mean mixture fraction of 0. Release 12. Figure 15. Inc. Close the PDF Table dialog box.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model A. B.0 c ANSYS.5: Non-Adiabatic Temperature Look-Up Table on the Adiabatic Enthalpy Slice The 3D look-up tables are reviewed on a slice-by-slice basis. By default. 2009 15-13 . You can also select other slices of constant enthalpy for display.

. Step 4: Materials Materials 1. Retain berl.. specific heat. 2009 . 15-14 Release 12. File −→ Write −→PDF. for which only transport properties.pdf for PDF File name. All thermodynamic data for the continuous phase. To save a binary (unformatted) file. ii. Materials −→ pdf-mixture −→ Create/Edit..pdf).0 c ANSYS. (h) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box. Click OK to write the file. Specify the continuous phase (pdf-mixture) material. Inc. the file will be saved as formatted (ASCII. and formation enthalpies are extracted from the chemical database when the nonpremixed combustion model is used. By default. such as viscosity and thermal conductivity need to be defined.. i. or text). including density. March 12. These properties are transferred to the pdfmixture material.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (g) Save the PDF output file (berl. enable the Write Binary Files option in the Select File dialog box.

based on the geometry of the model. The data used for the boundary conditions was obtained from experimental data [1]. March 12.3. Note that WSGGMcell-based uses a characteristic cell length and can be more mesh dependent. The latter approach of fixing the wall temperature to measurements is common in furnace simulations.prof from the Select File dialog box. do not alter the properties of the individual species. to avoid modeling the wall convective and radiative heat transfer. and the wall temperature for wall-9. (b) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. Release 12. These are the species included during the system chemistry setup. see Section 5.. you will use profiles to specify the velocity at air-inlet-4. This will create an inconsistency with the PDF look-up table. (a) Select berl. File −→ Read −→Profile. 2009 15-15 . WSGGM-domain-based is a variable coefficient that uses a length scale. Inc. For more details.8 in the separate Theory Guide.0 c ANSYS. using the weightedsum-of-gray-gases model.. Hint: Scroll down to view the Absorption Coefficient option. You can click the View. The CFD solution for reacting flows can be sensitive to the boundary conditions. Step 5: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. in particular the incoming velocity field and the heat transfer through the walls. When the non-premixed combustion model is used. Read the boundary conditions profile file. The Density and Cp laws cannot be altered: these properties are stored in the non-premixed combustion look-up tables. button next to Mixture Species to view the species included in the pdf-mixture material. This specifies a composition-dependent absorption coefficient. ANSYS FLUENT uses the gas law to compute the mixture density and a massweighted mixing law to compute the mixture Cp ... Here. (b) Click OK.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (a) Select wsggm-domain-based from the Absorption Coefficient drop-down list.

The backflow conditions for scalars (temperature.0 c ANSYS. Boundary Conditions −→ poutlet-3 −→ Edit. The exit gauge pressure of zero defines the system pressure at the exit to be the operating pressure. (b) Enter 5% for Backflow Turbulent Intensity. Set the boundary conditions for the pressure outlet (poutlet-3). (d) Click the Thermal tab and enter 1300 K for Backflow Total Temperature. Inc. It is a good idea to use reasonable values in case flow reversal occurs at the exit at some point during the solution process. March 12. (a) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. turbulence parameters) will be used only if flow is entrained into the domain through the exit.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 2. 15-16 Release 12. (e) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. (c) Enter 600 mm for Backflow Hydraulic Diameter. mixture fraction... 2009 .

Release 12. For the non-premixed combustion calculation.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 3. In this case.0 c ANSYS. (f) Enter 29 mm for Hydraulic Diameter. Therefore. (g) Click the Thermal tab and enter 312 K for Temperature. (a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. The relatively large turbulence intensity of 17% may be typical for combustion air flows. Turbulence parameters are defined based on intensity and length scale. you can retain the zero default settings. (c) Select vel-prof w from the Swirl-Velocity drop-down list. the gas phase air inlet has a zero mixture fraction... (e) Enter 17% for Turbulent Intensity. 2009 15-17 . (d) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box. Set the boundary conditions for the velocity inlet (air-inlet-4). Inc. you have to define the inlet Mean Mixture Fraction and Mixture Fraction Variance in the Species tab. Boundary Conditions −→ air-inlet-4 −→ Edit. (b) Select vel-prof u from the Axial-Velocity drop-down list. March 12.

(g) Click the Species tab and enter 1 for Mean Mixture Fraction for the fuel inlet. (f) Click the Thermal tab and enter 308 K for Temperature. 4.25 m/s for Radial-Velocity.. Boundary Conditions −→ fuel-inlet-5 −→ Edit. 2009 .. (c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list in the Turbulence group box.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (h) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. (e) Enter 1. (d) Enter 5% for Turbulent Intensity. (b) Enter 157.8 mm for Hydraulic Diameter. 15-18 Release 12. March 12. (h) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. Inc. The hydraulic diameter has been set to twice the height of the 2D inlet stream.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions for the velocity inlet (fuel-inlet-5).

Similarly.6 0.. March 12.5 0.. 2009 15-19 . set the boundary conditions for wall-7 through wall-13 using the following values: Zone Name wall-7 wall-8 wall-9 wall-10 wall-11 wall-12 wall-13 Temperature 312 1305 temp-prof t (from the drop-down list) 1100 1273 1173 1173 Internal Emissivity 0.5 0. Set the boundary conditions for wall-6.0 c ANSYS. i. Enter 1370 K for Temperature. Enter 0.6 0. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-6 −→ Edit.5 for Internal Emissivity.6 Release 12. 6. Inc. (a) Click the Thermal tab. iii.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 5. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.6 0. ii.6 0. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions list.

.6). (a) Select temp-prof from the Profile selection list.6: Profile Plot of Temperature for wall-9 15-20 Release 12. (b) Retain the selection of t and x from the Y Axis Function and X Axis Function selection lists respectively. Plots −→ Profile Data −→ Set Up. 2009 .0 c ANSYS..Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 7. Figure 15. March 12. (c) Click Plot (Figure 15. Inc. Plot the profile of temperature for the wall furnace (wall-9).

Click Plot (Figure 15.. (a) Plot the profile of axial-velocity for the swirling air inlet. Select y from the X Axis Function selection list..0 c ANSYS. Inc.7). Plot the profiles of velocity for the swirling air inlet (air-inlet-4). i. ii. March 12. 2009 15-21 . Figure 15. iv. Plots −→ Profile Data −→ Set Up. iii. Select vel-prof from the Profile selection list. Retain the selection of u from the Y Axis Function selection list.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 8.7: Profile Plot of Axial-Velocity for the Swirling Air Inlet (air-inlet-4) Release 12.

. Figure 15. i. Plots −→ Profile Data −→ Set Up.. iv.0 c ANSYS. Select w from the Y Axis Function selection list. ii. Retain the selection of y from the X Axis Function selection list. March 12. Retain the selection of vel-prof from the Profile selection list. Click Plot (Figure 15.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model (b) Plot the profile of swirl-velocity for swirling air inlet. iii.8: Profile Plot of Swirl-Velocity for the Swirling Air Inlet (air-inlet-4) 15-22 Release 12. Inc. 2009 .8) and close the Plot Profile Data dialog box.

. Retain the default operating conditions.. March 12. 2009 15-23 . Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions. Inc.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Step 6: Operating Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. The Operating Pressure was already set in the PDF table generation in Step 3.

Solution Methods (a) Select PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. March 12. 15-24 Release 12. Set the solution parameters.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Step 7: Solution 1. (b) Retain the default selection of First Order Upwind for other parameters.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 .

7 1 The default under-relaxation factors are considered to be too aggressive for reacting flow cases with high swirl velocity. 2009 15-25 . Solution Controls (a) Set the following parameters in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box: Under-Relaxation Factor Pressure Density Momentum Turbulent Kinetic Energy Turbulent Dissipation Rate P1 Value 0.7 0.0 c ANSYS.3 0. Set the solution controls.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 2. Inc. March 12. Release 12.5 0.8 0.

2009 . (a) Ensure that the Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Enable the display of residuals during the solution process. March 12.0 c ANSYS.. 15-26 Release 12. Inc.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 3.. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.

Inc.. 5. File −→ Write −→Case. Release 12.0 c ANSYS.cas. (c) Enter 1300 K for Temperature. (d) Click Initialize.gz).Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 4. Solution Initialization (a) Select air-inlet-4 from the Compute from drop-down list. (b) Enter 0 m/s for Axial Velocity and Swirl Velocity. 2009 15-27 . Save the case file (berl-1. Initialize the flow field using the conditions at air-inlet-4.. March 12.

cas. 15-28 Release 12..dat. File −→ Write −→Data....0 c ANSYS. 7. File −→ Write −→Case. (b) Select Second Order Upwind for all the parameters except Mixture Fraction Variance.dat. 9. Request an additional 800 iterations. Save the first-order converged solution (berl-1. Save the case file (berl-2. 8..gz). March 12. Start the calculation by requesting 1500 iterations.gz). Switch to second-order upwind for improved accuracy. 11. Solution Methods (a) Ensure that PRESTO! is selected from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. 2009 .gz).Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 6. File −→ Write −→Data. 10.. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 1100 iterations. Save the converged second-order flow data (berl-2. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 720 iterations. Inc.

Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Step 8: Postprocessing 1.0 c ANSYS. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. Inc. Display the predicted temperature field (Figure 15. Release 12. (c) Click Display. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. March 12.. 2009 15-29 . (b) Select Temperature.. The peak temperature in the system is 1987 K...9).

ske) Figure 15. (b) Click Display. swirl. Display contours of velocity (Figure 15.65e+0 1.10: Velocity Contours 15-30 Release 12.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 1.23e+0 1.13e+0 7. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. dp.81e+0 8.90e+0 1.29e+0 6.57e+0 1.78e+0 3.9: Temperature Contours 2. pdf19.99e+0 1. and Velocity Magnitude from the Contours of drop-down lists.06e+0 9.82e+0 1.32e+0 1.40e+0 1.97e+0 8.62e+0 4.15e+0 1. (a) Select Velocity. pbns.. Figure 15..10).10e+0 Y Z X Contours of Static Temperature (k) FLUENT 12.0 (axi.45e+0 5. Inc.74e+0 1.48e+0 1. 2009 . March 12.94e+0 3...0 c ANSYS.

.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 3. Figure 15.0 c ANSYS.. March 12. Inc.11: Contours of Mass Fraction of o2 Release 12.11).. (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. and Mass fraction of o2 from the Contours of drop-down lists. (a) Select Species. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 2009 15-31 . Display the contours of mass fraction of o2 (Figure 15.

The value will be displayed in the console.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Step 9: Energy Balances Reporting ANSYS FLUENT can report the overall energy balance and details of the heat and mass transfer. Again. (a) Select Total Heat Transfer Rate in the Options group box. 15-32 Release 12. The reported value may change for different runs. Inc. Positive flux reports indicate heat addition to the domain. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. 1. 2009 . March 12.5% or less) of the total energy flux through the system. the net heat imbalance should be a small fraction (say.. fuel-inlet-5. If a significant imbalance occurs. The net mass imbalance should be a small fraction (say. and poutlet-3 from the Boundaries selection list. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. (c) Click Compute. 0. (b) Select air-inlet-4. (a) Retain the default Selection of Mass Flow Rate in the Options group box. Compute the fluxes of heat through the domain boundaries. Compute the gas phase mass fluxes through the domain boundaries.. you should decrease your residual tolerances by at least an order of magnitude and continue iterating..0 c ANSYS. Negative values indicate heat leaving the domain. 2. (b) Select all the zones from the Boundaries selection list.5% or less) of the total flux through the system. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. 0..

. (e) Close the Surface Integrals dialog box.46 K will be displayed in the console.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. (a) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. (b) Select Temperature.Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model 3.. Inc. and Static Temperature from the Field Variable drop-down lists. (d) Click Compute. A value of 1297. 2009 15-33 . Compute the mass weighted average of the temperature at the pressure outlet... March 12. Reports −→ Surface Integrals −→ Set Up. (c) Select poutlet-3 from the Surfaces selection list.

Using the Non-Premixed Combustion Model Summary In this tutorial you learned how to use the non-premixed combustion model to represent the gas phase combustion chemistry. diffusion-reaction systems. The Netherlands. This equilibrium chemistry model can be applied to other turbulent. and R. You can also model gas combustion using the finite-rate chemistry model. and applying the appropriate absorption coefficient. Weber “Scaling Characteristics of Aerodynamics and Low-NOx Properties of Industrial Natural Gas Burners”. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. IFRF Doc No F40/y/11. Dugu. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach first generate an initial solution. Sayre. You also learned how to set up and solve a gas phase combustion problem using the P1 radiation model. International Flame Research Foundation. The SCALING 400 Study. Inc. N. Lallement. A. and then reach a more-accurate second-order solution. March 12. 15-34 Release 12. You may be able to increase the accuracy of the solution even further by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. In this approach the fuel composition was defined and assumed to react according to the equilibrium system data. and J. References 1. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Mesh adaption can also ensure that your solution is independent of the mesh. Part IV: The 300 KW BERL Test Results.

2009 16-1 . and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Modeling the reactions taking place at gas-solid interfaces is complex and involves several elementary physico-chemical processes like adsorption of gas-phase species on the surface. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Create new materials and set the mixture properties. In this tutorial. and desorption of gases from the surface back to the gas phase. chemical reactions occurring on the surface. heat and mass transfer.0 c ANSYS. accurate modeling of time-dependent hydrodynamics. and chemical reactions (including wall surface reactions) is important.Tutorial 16. March 12. Before beginning with this tutorial. see Chapter 15 in the separate User’s Guide for more information about species transport. wall surface reaction modeling. • Examine the flow results using graphics. • Model surface reactions involving site species. Introduction Modeling Surface Chemistry In chemically reacting laminar flows. • Calculate the deposition solution using the pressure-based solver. • Enable physical models and define boundary conditions for a chemically reacting laminar flow involving wall surface reactions. you should be familiar with the Arrhenius rate equation. chemically reacting flows. Inc. such as those encountered in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) applications. and chemical vapor deposition. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Release 12. In particular. surface reactions are considered. as this equation is used for the surface reactions modeled in this tutorial.

5H2 Ga(CH3 )3 + As s → As + Ga s + 3CH3 (16. repeatable manner. while the remaining reactor walls are maintained at low temperatures.2) The inlet gas is a mixture of Trimethyl Gallium and Arsine and the mass fraction of Ga(CH3 )3 is 0. where only the wafer surface is heated to higher temperatures. which forces the gases to flow in a laminar manner down to the growth surface. These gases flow over the hot. outward across the disk. Figure 16. The mixture velocity at the inlet is 0.02189 m/s. respectively. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.1) (16.15 and AsH3 is 0.1: Schematic of the Reactor Configuration The process gases. Trimethyl Gallium (Ga(CH3 )3 ) and Arsine (AsH3 ) enter the reactor at 293 K through the inlet at the top.4. 16-2 Release 12. March 12. and finally to be discharged from the reactor. The disk rotation generates a radially pumping effect.1 will be modeled. The top wall (wall-1) is heated to 473 K and the sidewalls (wall-2) of the reactor are maintained at 343 K.Modeling Surface Chemistry Problem Description A rotating disk CVD reactor for the growth of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) shown in Figure 16. AsH3 + Ga s → Ga + As s + 1. The susceptor (wall4) is heated to a uniform temperature of 1023 K and the bottom wall (wall-6) is at 303 K. spinning disk depositing thin layers of gallium and arsenide on it in a uniform. Inc. These CVD reactors are typically known as cold-wall reactors. The semiconductor materials Ga(s) and As(s) are deposited on the heated surface governed by the following surface reactions. The disk rotates at 80 rad/sec.

msh can be found in the surface chem folder created after unzipping the file.Modeling Surface Chemistry In this tutorial.zip. Enable Double Precision. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Read in the mesh file surface. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. Inc. 3.. and full multicomponent/thermal diffusion effects are also included in the simulation. Convective heat transfer is considered to be the dominant mechanism compared to radiative heat transfer. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. see Section 1. File −→ Read −→Mesh.1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. 2. Unzip surface_chem. The file surface. simultaneous deposition of Ga and As is simulated and examined. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. The purpose of this tutorial is to demonstrate surface reaction capabilities in ANSYS FLUENT. Detailed surface reactions with multiple sites and site species.0 c ANSYS. thus radiation effects are ignored. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. 4. Release 12. Therefore. after you read in the mesh. Check the mesh. Setup and Solution Preparation 1. 2009 16-3 .zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). The mixture properties and the mass diffusivity are determined based on kinetic theory. Step 2: General Settings General 1..msh. Step 1: Mesh 1. March 12. Download surface_chem.

.e..0 c ANSYS. (c) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box.2). Use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window. Inc. General −→ Scale. (b) Click Scale and verify that the domain extents are as shown in the Scale Mesh dialog box. fuse. March 12. 4. separate. (a) Select cm (centimeters) from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list in the Scaling group box. Scale the mesh. Scale the mesh to meters as it was created in centimeters. convert to polyhedra. hence there is no need to change any units. The default SI units will be used in this tutorial.Modeling Surface Chemistry 2. or smooth and swap). Extra: You can use the left mouse button to rotate the image and view it from different angles. 3. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly.. Use the middle mouse button to zoom the image. scale. merge. add zones. 16-4 Release 12. its name and type will be printed in the ANSYS FLUENT console. General −→ Check Note: It is a good practice to check the mesh after manipulating it (i. Check the mesh. Examine the mesh (Figure 16. 2009 . This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 16-5 . Retain the default solver settings. General Release 12. March 12. Inc.2: Mesh Display 5.Modeling Surface Chemistry Figure 16.

the energy equation and the species conservation equations will be solved.. 2. Models −→ Species −→ Edit. (b) Click OK to close the Energy dialog box. You will run reacting flow in step 8. March 12. Enable heat transfer by enabling the energy equation. (a) Enable Energy Equation. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. Enable chemical species transport and reaction. along with the momentum and continuity equations. you still run a non-reacting flow to produce an initial solution.... Inc. Although you enable reactions.Modeling Surface Chemistry Step 3: Models Models In this problem. 16-6 Release 12. 1.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .

(f) Enable Full Multicomponent Diffusion and Thermal Diffusion. If you were to do an overall mass balance without taking this fact into account. i. Inc. Release 12. toward heated surfaces. (e) Retain the default setting for Diffusion Energy Source. you would end up with a slight imbalance. This includes the effect of enthalpy transport due to species diffusion in the energy equation. especially for the case of Lewis numbers far from unity. The Full Multicomponent Diffusion activates Stefan-Maxwell’s equations and computes the diffusive fluxes of all species in the mixture to all concentration gradients. (g) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box. The Species Model dialog box will expand to show relevant input options. Mass Deposition Source is enabled because there is a certain loss of mass due to the surface deposition reaction.0 c ANSYS.. which contributes to the energy balance. As(s) and Ga(s) are being deposited out. March 12.e. (h) Click OK in the Information dialog box. (d) Enable Inlet Diffusion in the Options group box. (b) Enable Volumetric and Wall Surface in the Reactions group box. ANSYS FLUENT will list the properties in the console. The Thermal Diffusion effects cause heavy molecules to diffuse less rapidly. and light molecules to diffuse more rapidly. that are required for the models that you have enabled.Modeling Surface Chemistry (a) Select Species Transport in the Model list. An Information dialog box will open reminding you to confirm the property values that have been extracted from the database. 2009 16-7 . (c) Enable Mass Deposition Source in the Wall Surface Reaction Options group box.

the site species (Ga s and As s). Create species arsine.1.Modeling Surface Chemistry Step 4: Materials Materials In this step. and solid species (Ga and As). 1. you will create the gas-phase species (AsH3 . Inc. (a) Enter arsine in the Name text entry field. 2009 . CH3 . Ga(CH3 )3 .0 c ANSYS. March 12.. (b) Enter ash3 in the Chemical Formula text entry field. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. 16-8 Release 12.. (c) Specify the properties as shown in Table 16. H2 ).

A Question dialog box will open. L-J Energy Parameter. March 12. and Degrees of Freedom. Inc. (d) Click Change/Create to create the new material. (e) Click No in the Question dialog box. Release 12.1: Properties of arsine Parameter Value Cp kinetic-theory Thermal Conductivity kinetic-theory Viscosity kinetic-theory Molecular Weight 77. Properties group box will expand to show L-J Characteristic Length. Hint: Scroll down in the Properties group box to see all the parameters.1 Reference Temperature 298. 2009 16-9 .95 Standard State Enthalpy 0 Standard State Entropy 130579.15 Ignore the Density parameter as the density will be set to incompressible-idealgas for mixture. (f) Select arsine(ash3) from the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list.Modeling Surface Chemistry Table 16.0 c ANSYS. asking if you want to overwrite air.

145 for L-J Characteristic Length. 16-10 Release 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS... Create other species following the same procedure as for AsH3 . 2009 . (h) Enter 259. (j) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. (a) Enter the parameter values for each of the species as shown in Table 16. March 12.2. 2.8 for L-J Energy Parameter. (i) Retain the default value of 0 for Degrees of Freedom. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit.Modeling Surface Chemistry (g) Enter 4.

1 298.15 298.3 0 298. Inc.15 5.758 148. 2009 16-11 .15 3. To enter complex formulae such as Ga(CH3 )3 in the text entry box.125 e-05 69. respectively.64 0. (a) Enter gaas deposition for Name..15 0 0 - (b) Click Change/Create to create the new material. (d) Set the Selected Species.0158 2.43 kinetictheory kinetictheory 74.15 0 0 - 2. 3. Selected Site Species.6 0 298.1 154719.64 0.68 398 0 CH 3 ch3g ch3 kinetictheory kinetictheory kinetictheory 15 H 2 Ga s hydrogen ga s h2 ga s kinetictheory kinetictheory kinetictheory 2.02 520. Set the mixture species.72 As s as s as s 520.92 0 0 298.71 -3117.72 As as as 1006.0158 2.827 59.2: Properties of Species Parameter Name Chemical Formula Cp Thermal Conductivity Viscosity Molecular Weight Standard State Enthalpy Standard State Entropy Reference Temperature L-J Characteristic Length L-J Energy Parameter Degrees of Freedom Ga(CH 3) 3 tmg ga<ch3>3 kinetic-theory kinetic-theory kinetic-theory 114.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Yes in the Question dialog box to overwrite the mixture-template.15 298. Materials −→ mixture-template −→ Create/Edit. (c) Click No in the Question dialog box when asked if you want to overwrite air. March 12. use ‘<’ and ‘>’ instead of ‘(’ and ‘)’.044 0 -3117.83 0 130579.Modeling Surface Chemistry Table 16. Release 12.92 Ga ga ga 1006..71 0 e+07 257367. and Selected Solid Species.6 130579.7 5 298.15 2. (b) Click Change/Create.43 kinetictheory kinetictheory 69.3 154719.125 e-05 74.

3. Ensure that h2 is at the bottom in the Selected Species selection list. Selected Species. Selected Site Species. March 12. Click the Edit. and Selected Solid Species from the Available Materials selection list as shown in Table 16. 16-12 Release 12.. Inc. • Select the species from the selection list (i.3: Selected Species Selected Species Selected Site Species Selected Solid Species ash3 ga s ga ga<ch3>3 as s as ch3 h2 - ! The species should appear in the same order as shown in Table 16. button to the right of the Mixture Species drop-down list to open the Species dialog box. ii. 2009 .. Selected Site Species. Selected Site Species. Table 16.e. or Selected Solid Species) to add a particular species to the list.Modeling Surface Chemistry i..0 c ANSYS. or Selected Solid Species) and click Remove in the corresponding selection list to remove an unwanted species from the selection list. To add/remove the species: • Select the required species from the Available Materials selection list and click Add in the corresponding species selection list (Selected Species.3. Set the Selected Species.

Click OK to close the Species dialog box after all the species are set under the respective categories. (e) Set the mixture reactions.3) (16. Inc.5H2 → 3CH4 ) on the substrate producing CH4 . March 12.4) CH3 further reacts with H (3CH3 + 1.5H2 Ga(CH3 )3 + As s → As + Ga s + 3CH3 (16. ii. and define the following reactions using the parameters in Table 16.Modeling Surface Chemistry iii. 2009 16-13 ..4: AsH3 + Ga s → Ga + As s + 1. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. i. Click the Edit. Increase the Total Number of Reactions to 2. button to the right of the Reaction drop-down list to open the Reactions dialog box..

2009 . Click OK to save the data and close the Reactions dialog box. Inc. as s=1.Modeling Surface Chemistry Table 16. h2=1.4: Reaction Parameters Parameter For Equation 16. (f) Set the reaction mechanisms for the mixture. as s Stoich.5 Number of Products 3 3 Species ga.0 c ANSYS. as s=1 Arrhenius Rate PEF=1e+06. ga s=1 ga<ch3>3=1.5 TE=0. Set the ID to 2 in order to set the parameters for the second reaction. and TE = Temperature Exponent. iii. March 12. TE=0. as s. button to the right of the Mechanism drop-down list to open the Reaction Mechanisms dialog box. ga s=1. Coefficient ash3=1. PEF=1e+12. as s=1 Rate Exponent ash3=1.. h2=0 ga s=0. AE=0. ga s ga<ch3>3.. i.3 For Equation 16. ga s.5 as=1. ch3 Stoich. Coefficient ga=1. AE = Activation Energy. AE=0. 16-14 Release 12.4 Reaction Name gallium-dep arsenic-dep Reaction ID 1 2 Reaction Type Wall Surface Wall Surface Number of Reactants 2 2 Species ash3. Click the Edit. ch3=3 Rate Exponent as s=0. ch3=0 Here. h2 as. ga s=1 ga<ch3>3=1. PEF = Pre-Exponential Factor.

(l) Select kinetic-theory from the Thermal Diffusion Coefficient drop-down list.3 for Initial Site Coverage. v. Enter gaas-ald for Name. (g) Retain the default selection of incompressible-ideal-gas from the Density dropdown list.. Retain Number of Mechanisms as 1. (k) Select kinetic-theory from the Mass Diffusivity drop-down list. C. Select as s as the second site species and enter 0. ix. Set Number of Sites to 1. Release 12. Click OK to close the Reaction Mechanisms dialog box. 2009 16-15 . Click Apply and close the Site Parameters dialog box.7 for Initial Site Coverage. (m) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. viii.. Set Total Number of Site Species to 2. (j) Select mass-weighted-mixing-law from the Viscosity drop-down list. Select Wall Surface in the Reaction Type group box. Enter 1e-08 kgmol/m2 for Site Density for site-1. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Select gallium-dep and arsenic-dep from the Reactions selection list. vi. A. vii. March 12. iii. D. (i) Select mass-weighted-mixing-law from the Thermal Conductivity drop-down list. Select ga s as the first site species and enter 0. button to the right of site-1 to open the Site Parameters dialog box. Click the Define. (h) Retain the default selection of mixing-law from the Cp drop-down list.Modeling Surface Chemistry ii. iv. B.

16-16 Release 12.Modeling Surface Chemistry Step 5: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. Inc.. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Retain the default settings for outlet.. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit. March 12.

02189 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. Set the conditions for velocity-inlet. 2009 16-17 ...0 c ANSYS. (c) Enter 0. (d) Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet −→ Edit. Release 12.Modeling Surface Chemistry 2. (b) Retain the default selection of Absolute from the Reference Frame drop-down list. Inc. March 12. (a) Retain the default selection of Magnitude. (e) Click the Species tab. Normal to Boundary from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list.

(b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. 3. wall-2 −→ Edit. 2009 . (f) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. ii. Set the Species Mass Fractions for ash3 to 0. ga<ch3>3 to 0. Set the boundary conditions for wall-2. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions group box. Boundary Conditions −→ (a) Click the Thermal tab.4.. Enter 473 K for Temperature. and ch3 to 0 respectively.. Enter 343 K for Temperature. 4. March 12..Modeling Surface Chemistry i. ii. Boundary Conditions −→ (a) Click the Thermal tab. Set the boundary conditions for wall-1.15. wall-1 −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. i.. i. Inc. 16-18 Release 12. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions group box.

Release 12. March 12. (e) Click the Thermal tab. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-4 −→ Edit. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions group box. i.0 c ANSYS. Inc.Modeling Surface Chemistry 5.. (a) Select Moving Wall in the Wall Motion group box. (c) Enter 80 rad/s for Speed. (f) Click the Species tab. Enter 1023 K for Temperature.. ii. Set the boundary conditions for wall-4. (b) Select Absolute and Rotational in the Motion group box. (d) Retain the other default settings. 2009 16-19 .

(c) Enter 80 rad/s for Speed. Inc. Set the boundary conditions for wall-5. 16-20 Release 12. 2009 .. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions group box. Retain the selection of gaas-ald from the Reaction Mechanisms drop-down list. (e) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Boundary Conditions −→ wall-5 −→ Edit. i. (a) Select Moving Wall in the Wall Motion group box. Enter 720 K for Temperature. Enable Reaction. ii.Modeling Surface Chemistry i. (g) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. ii. 6. March 12. (d) Click the Thermal tab. (b) Select Absolute and Rotational in the Motion group box..

0 c ANSYS. March 12. Release 12. You can also use the define/models/species/inlet-diffusion? text command to disable inlet diffusion.. Enter no when asked if you want to include diffusion at the inlet. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions. Models −→ Species −→ Edit.. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Step 6: Operating Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. 2009 16-21 .. Inc. Specify the operating conditions. (a) Disable Inlet Diffusion and close the Species Model dialog box. ii.. Select Temperature in the Thermal Conditions group box. i. 8.. Disable diffusion at the inlet.. Enter 303 K for Temperature. wall-6 −→ Edit. Set the boundary conditions for wall-6. (a) Enter 10000 Pa for Operating Pressure. Boundary Conditions −→ (a) Click the Thermal tab.Modeling Surface Chemistry 7.

2. You will be running a non-reacting solution to establish the flow. 2009 . Disable Volumetric for solving non-reacting flow.. Solution Controls 16-22 Release 12.81 m/s2 for Gravitational Acceleration in the Z direction. (e) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box..0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box. Models −→ Species −→ Edit.Modeling Surface Chemistry (b) Enable Gravity. Step 7: Non-Reacting Flow Solution 1. March 12. The Operating Conditions dialog box can be accessed from the Cell Zone Conditions task page as well as the Boundary Conditions task page. (d) Enter 303 K for Operating Temperature. (a) Disable Volumetric in the Reactions group box. (c) Enter 9. Retain the default Under-Relaxation Factors. Inc.

(a) Retain the default settings and close the Residual Monitors dialog box. March 12. (b) Click Initialize 5. File −→ Write −→Case. 2009 16-23 . Save the case file (surface-non-react. Inc. Release 12. Enable residual plotting during the calculation.0 c ANSYS..gz). Solution Initialization (a) Select velocity-inlet from the Compute from drop-down list. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. 4.Modeling Surface Chemistry 3. Initialize the flow field using the boundary conditions set at velocity-inlet.cas....

16-24 Release 12. The solution will converge in approximately 120 iterations.Modeling Surface Chemistry 6. Inc. Models −→ Species −→ Edit. Start the calculation by requesting 200 iterations. 2009 .. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Step 8: Reacting Flow Solution 1.. Enable Volumetric for the reacting flow solution. Run Calculation (a) Enter 200 for Number of Iterations and click Calculate.

. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. Release 12. Inc. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 75 iterations.0 c ANSYS. 2. 3. March 12. (b) Enable Mass Deposition Source in the Wall Surface Reaction Options group box. (c) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box. 2009 16-25 .Modeling Surface Chemistry (a) Enable Volumetric and Wall Surface in the Reactions group box.. Retain the default convergence criteria for calculation. Request 250 more iterations.

March 12. (a) Retain the default selection of Mass Flow Rate in the Options group box. Inc. 2009 .3). 5. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. Display contours of surface deposition rate of ga (Figure 16. Compute the mass fluxes.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up... 16-26 Release 12. (b) Select outlet and velocity-inlet from the Boundaries selection list..0 c ANSYS.Modeling Surface Chemistry 4.

(c) Select wall-4 from the Surfaces selection list.3). Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.Modeling Surface Chemistry (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. Rotate the display with the mouse to obtain the view as shown in (Figure 16. (b) Select Species. (d) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Release 12..3: Contours of Surface Deposition Rate of ga 6. Reduce the convergence criteria.. and Surface Deposition Rate of ga from the Contours of dropdown lists. 2009 16-27 . Inc. March 12. Figure 16.0 c ANSYS...

2009 .dat.4). 7. Inc. March 12. Save the case and data files (surface-react1. (c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 9. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up. Request 300 more iterations. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.gz and surface-react1.. 16-28 Release 12.0 c ANSYS...Modeling Surface Chemistry (a) Enter 5e-06 for Absolute Criteria for continuity. (b) Retain the selection of outlet and velocity-inlet in the Boundaries selection list. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 190 iterations. 8. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. (a) Retain the default selection of Mass Flow Rate in the Options group box.gz).cas.. Display contours of surface deposition rate of ga (Figure 16. 10. Check the mass fluxes..

0 c ANSYS.5: Scaled Residuals Release 12.4: Contours of Surface Deposition Rate of ga Figure 16. Inc. 2009 16-29 .Modeling Surface Chemistry Figure 16. March 12.

. (b) Click Compute. Create an iso-surface near wall-4.Modeling Surface Chemistry Step 9: Postprocessing 1.07 for New Surface Name. (c) Enter 0. 2009 . March 12. (a) Select Mesh and Z-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.. (d) Enter z=0. 16-30 Release 12. Surface −→Iso-Surface.075438 m for Iso-Values. (e) Click Create and close the Iso-Surface dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Inc.

March 12.0 c ANSYS. (d) Select z=0. Release 12. 2009 16-31 .Modeling Surface Chemistry 2.. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists.. (e) Click Display.. Inc. (b) Select Temperature. (a) Ensure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box.6). Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Display contours of temperature on the plane surface created.. (c) Deselect wall-4 from the Surfaces selection list. (Figure 16.07 from the Surfaces selection list.

(d) Click Display. 16-32 Release 12. March 12. 2009 .7). Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up..6 shows the temperature distribution across a plane just above the rotating disk. The maximum deposition is seen at the center of the disk... You may need to use the left mouse button to rotate the image so that you can see the contours on the top side of wall-4 where the deposition takes place. (b) Select wall-4 from the Surfaces selection list. Display contours of surface deposition rates of ga (Figure 16.0 c ANSYS. 3. Figure 16. (c) Deselect z=0. Inc. You can see that the disk has a temperature of 1023 K. (a) Select Species.6: Temperature Contours Near wall-4 Figure 16..07 from the Surfaces selection list. and Surface Deposition Rate of ga from the Contours of dropdown lists.Modeling Surface Chemistry Figure 16.7 shows the gradient of surface deposition rate of ga.

8: Contours of Surface Coverage of ga s Figure 16. Display contours of surface coverage of ga s (Figure 16. (a) Select Species. (b) Retain the selection of wall-4 in the Surfaces selection list. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 2009 16-33 .8 shows the rate of surface coverage of the site species ga s. and Surface Coverage of ga s from the Contours of drop-down lists.8)..Modeling Surface Chemistry Figure 16. Figure 16.0 c ANSYS. Inc. March 12.7: Contours of Surface Deposition Rate of ga 4... (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. Release 12.

Surface −→Line/Rake. (b) Click Create. x1. 16-34 Release 12.. March 12. z0. Then..0 c ANSYS. y0. y1. in the graphic display.Modeling Surface Chemistry 5. Inc. click at the center of wall-4 and at the edge using the right mouse button. (c) Close the Line/Rake Surface dialog box. Create a line surface from the center of wall-4 to the edge. 2009 . (a) Enter the values for x0. You can also select the points by clicking Select Points with Mouse. and z1 as shown in the Line/Rake Surface dialog box.

(d) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.Modeling Surface Chemistry 6. Inc. (a) Disable Node Values in the Options group box. (c) Select line-9 from the Surfaces selection list... and Surface Deposition Rate of ga from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. 2009 16-35 . The peak surface deposition rate occurs at the center of wall-4 (where the concentration of the mixture is highest). (b) Select Species.. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. The source/sink terms due to the surface reaction are deposited in the cell adjacent to the wall cells.0 c ANSYS. Plot the surface deposition rate of Ga v/s radial distance (Figure 16.9). March 12.. so it is necessary to plot the cell values and not the node values. Release 12.

File −→ Write −→Case & Data. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. 16-36 Release 12. species diffusion. Summary The main focus of this tutorial is the accurate modeling of macroscopic gas flow..cas. March 12. and chemical reactions (including surface reactions) in a rotating disk CVD reactor..gz). Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. Save the case and data files (surface-react2. Note that the same approach is valid if you are simulating multi-step reactions with multiple sites/site species.dat. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. and computed simultaneous deposition of gallium and arsenide from a mixture of precursor gases on a rotating susceptor. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. heat and mass transfer.gz and surface-react2. In this tutorial. Inc.Modeling Surface Chemistry Figure 16. 7.0 c ANSYS. you learned how to use the two-step surface reactions involving site species.9: Plot of Surface Deposition Rate of Ga Extra: You can also perform all the postprocessing steps to analyze the deposition of As. 2009 .

To predict the behavior of the spray. including collision and breakup. Initially. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. several other discrete-phase models. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Methanol is cooled to −10◦ C before being introduced into an air-blast atomizer. only a 30◦ section of the atomizer will be modeled. 2009 17-1 . the air-blast atomizer model in ANSYS FLUENT is used to predict the behavior of an evaporating methanol spray. Inc. Problem Description The geometry to be considered in this tutorial is shown in Figure 17. Release 12.1.Tutorial 17. the air flow is modeled without droplets. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Define a spray injection for an air-blast atomizer. March 12. are used. The atomizer contains an inner air stream surrounded by a swirling annular stream.0 c ANSYS. Introduction Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray In this tutorial. • Calculate a solution using the discrete phase model in ANSYS FLUENT. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. To make use of the periodicity of the problem.

zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). Unzip evaporate_liquid. March 12. 2. Download evaporate_liquid. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. Inc.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Therefore.zip.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray inner air stream swirling annular stream Z X Y Figure 17. 2009 . 17-2 Release 12. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default.0 c ANSYS.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. The mesh file sector. 3. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. see Section 1. after you read in the mesh.msh can be found in the evaporate liquid folder created after unzipping the file.1.

File −→ Read −→Mesh. (b) Click OK to close the Periodic dialog box. Read in the mesh file sector. Boundary Conditions −→ periodic-a −→ Edit. Step 2: General Settings General 1. (a) Select Rotational in the Periodic Type list. change the periodic type of periodic-b to rotational. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console...msh. Check the mesh. 3.. In a similar manner.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. 2009 17-3 .Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Step 1: Mesh 1. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. Change the periodic type of periodic-a to rotational. Inc. 2. March 12..

Close the Mesh Colors dialog box.. (a) Enable Faces in the Options group box. and swirling air from the Surfaces selection list. (b) Select only atomizer-wall. (d) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box.. ii...Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 2. March 12. i. Select pink from the Colors selection list. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 17-4 Release 12. Display the mesh. 2009 . Select wall from the Types selection list. General −→ Display. button to open the Mesh Colors dialog box. (c) Click the Colors. central air. iii.

cells.0 c ANSYS.2.00 Release 12. faces. ANSYS FLUENT will report the progress in the console: >> Reordering domain using Reverse zones. March 12. Bandwidth reduction = 741/741 = Done. done. cells.2: Air-Blast Atomizer Mesh Display The graphics display will be updated to show the mesh.68 Cuthill-McKee method: 1. 2009 17-5 . >> Reordering domain using Reverse zones. the mesh should be reordered. Inc. Bandwidth reduction = 30882/741 Done. Mesh −→ Reorder −→Domain To speed up the solution procedure. Zoom in with the mouse to obtain the view shown in Figure 17.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Figure 17. Cuthill-McKee method: = 41. faces. Reorder the mesh twice. 3. which will substantially reduce the bandwidth. done.

2009 . March 12..0 c ANSYS.. 17-6 Release 12. Inc. General Step 3: Models Models 1. Enable heat transfer by enabling the energy equation.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 4. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. Retain the default solver settings.

model gives a more accurate prediction of the spreading rate of both planar and round jets than the standard k. (b) Select Realizable in the k-epsilon Model list. Enable the realizable k.. Release 12. March 12.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 2.model. (c) Retain the default selection of Standard Wall Functions in the Near-Wall Treatment list. Inc. (a) Select k-epsilon (2 eqn) in the Model list.turbulence model. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. 2009 17-7 .0 c ANSYS.. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. The realizable k.

0 c ANSYS. Enable chemical species transport and reaction. Inc. (c) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box. March 12. (b) Select methyl-alcohol-air from the Mixture Material drop-down list. An Information dialog box will open. You can access a complete description of the reacting system by selecting one of the pre-defined mixtures. (d) Click OK in the Information dialog box to continue. reminding you to confirm the property values that have been extracted from the database. The chemical species in the system and their physical and thermodynamic properties are defined by the selection of the mixture material. (a) Select Species Transport in the Model list.. The Mixture Material list contains the set of chemical mixtures that exist in the ANSYS FLUENT database.. 17-8 Release 12. You can alter the mixture material selection or modify the mixture material properties using the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. 2009 .Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 3. Models −→ Species −→ Edit. ANSYS FLUENT will list the properties that are required for the models you have enabled. When you click OK.

March 12.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Step 4: Materials Materials Release 12. 2009 17-9 .0 c ANSYS. Inc.

Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray

1. Remove water vapor and carbon dioxide from the Mixture Species list. Materials −→ Mixture −→ Create/Edit...

(a) Click the Edit button next to the Mixture Species drop-down list to open the Species dialog box.

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i. Select co2 from the Selected Species selection list. ii. Click Remove to remove carbon dioxide from the Selected Species list. iii. In a similar manner, remove water vapor (h2o) from the Selected Species list. iv. Click OK to close the Species dialog box. (b) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.

Step 5: Boundary Conditions
Boundary Conditions

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1. Set the boundary conditions for the inner air stream (central air). Boundary Conditions −→ central air −→ Edit...

(a) Enter 9.167e-5 kg/s for Mass Flow Rate. (b) Enter 0 for both X-Component of Flow Direction and Y-Component of Flow Direction. (c) Enter 1 for Z-Component of Flow Direction. (d) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list. (e) Retain the default value of 10 for Turbulent Intensity. (f) Enter 0.0037 m for Hydraulic Diameter. (g) Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Total Temperature. (h) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2 in the Species Mass Fractions group box. (i) Click OK to close the Mass-Flow Inlet dialog box.

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2. Set the boundary conditions for the air stream surrounding the atomizer (co-flow-air). Boundary Conditions −→ co-flow-air −→ Edit...

(a) Enter 1 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. (b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list. (c) Enter 5 for Turbulent Intensity. (d) Enter 0.0726 m for Hydraulic Diameter. (e) Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature. (f) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2 in the Species Mass Fractions group box. (g) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.

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3. Set the boundary conditions for the exit boundary (outlet). Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit...

(a) Select From Neighboring Cell from the Backflow Direction Specification Method drop-down list. (b) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list. (c) Enter 5 for both Backflow Turbulent Intensity and Backflow Turbulent Viscosity Ratio. (d) Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Backflow Total Temperature. (e) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2 in the Species Mass Fractions group box. (f) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.

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4. Set the boundary conditions for the swirling annular stream (swirling air). Boundary Conditions −→ swirling air −→ Edit...

(a) Select Magnitude and Direction from the Velocity Specification Method dropdown list. (b) Enter 19 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. (c) Select Cylindrical (Radial, Tangential, Axial) from the Coordinate System dropdown list. (d) Enter 0 for Radial-Component of Flow Direction. (e) Enter 0.7071 for both Tangential-Component of Flow Direction and AxialComponent of Flow Direction. (f) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method dropdown list. (g) Enter 5 for Turbulent Intensity. (h) Enter 0.0043 m for Hydraulic Diameter. (i) Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature. (j) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2 in the Species Mass Fractions group box.

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(k) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. 5. Set the boundary conditions for the outer wall of the atomizer (outer-wall). Boundary Conditions −→ outer-wall −→ Edit...

(a) Select Specified Shear in the Shear Condition list. (b) Retain the default values for the remaining parameters. (c) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.

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Step 6: Initial Solution Without Droplets
The airflow will first be solved and analyzed without droplets. 1. Retain the default under-relaxation factors. Solution Controls

2. Enable residual plotting during the calculation. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit...

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(a) Ensure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 3. Initialize the flow field. Solution Initialization

(a) Select co-flow-air from the Compute from drop-down list. (b) Click Initialize to initialize the variables. 4. Save the case file (spray1.cas.gz). File −→ Write −→Case...

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5. Start the calculation by requesting 300 iterations. Run Calculation (a) Enter 300 for Number of Iterations. (b) Click Calculate. The solution will converge in approximately 250 iterations. 6. Save the case and data files (spray1.cas.gz and spray1.dat.gz). File −→ Write −→Case & Data... Note: ANSYS FLUENT will ask you to confirm that the previous case file is to be overwritten. 7. Create a clip plane to examine the flow field at the midpoint of the atomizer section. Surface −→Iso-Surface...

(a) Select Mesh... and Angular Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. (b) Click Compute to update the minimum and maximum values. (c) Enter 15 for Iso-Values. (d) Enter angle=15 for New Surface Name. (e) Click Create to create the isosurface. (f) Close the Iso-Surface dialog box.

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8. Review the current state of the solution by examining contours of velocity magnitude (Figure 17.3). Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up...

(a) Enable Filled in the Options group box (b) Select Velocity... and Velocity Magnitude from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Enable Draw Mesh. The Mesh Display dialog box will open.

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i. Retain the current mesh display settings. ii. Close the Mesh Display dialog box. (d) Select angle=15 from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. (f) Use the mouse to obtain the view shown in Figure 17.3.

Figure 17.3: Velocity Magnitude at Mid-Point of Atomizer Section

9. Modify the view to include the entire atomizer. Graphics and Animations −→ Views...

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(a) Click the Define... button to open the Graphics Periodicity dialog box.

i. Select fluid from the Cell Zones selection list. ii. Retain the selection of Rotational in the Periodic Type list. iii. Retain the value of 12 for Number of Repeats. iv. Click Set and close the Graphics Periodicity dialog box. The graphics display will be updated to show the entire atomizer. (b) Click Apply and close the Views dialog box. 10. Display pathlines of the air in the swirling annular stream (Figure 17.4). Graphics and Animations −→ Pathlines −→ Set Up...

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(a) Increase the Path Skip value to 5. (b) Select swirling air from the Release from Surfaces selection list. You will need to scroll down the list to access this item. (c) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box. The Mesh Display dialog box will open. i. Retain the current mesh display settings. ii. Close the Mesh Display dialog box. (d) Click Display and close the Pathlines dialog box. (e) Use the mouse to obtain the view shown in Figure 17.4.

Figure 17.4: Pathlines of Air in the Swirling Annular Stream

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Step 7: Create a Spray Injection
1. Define the discrete phase modeling parameters. Models −→ Discrete Phase −→ Edit...

(a) Enable Interaction with Continuous Phase in the Interaction group box. This will include the effects of the discrete phase trajectories on the continuous phase. (b) Retain the value of 10 for Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iteration. (c) Click the Physical Models tab to enable the physical models. i. Enable Droplet Collision and Droplet Breakup in the Spray Model group box. ii. Ensure that TAB is enabled in the Breakup Model list. iii. Retain the default value of 0 for y0 and 2 for Breakup Parcels in the Breakup Constants group box.

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(d) Click the Tracking tab to specify the Tracking Parameters.

i. Retain the default value of 5 for Step Length Factor. ii. Select dynamic-drag from the Drag Law drop-down list in the Drag Parameters group box. The dynamic-drag law is available only when the Droplet Breakup model is used. (e) Retain the Unsteady Particle Tracking option in the Particle Treatment group box. (f) Enter 0.0001 for Particle Time Step Size. (g) Retain the default value of 1 for Number of Time Steps. (h) Click OK to close the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. An Information dialog box will open, stating that coalescence is being automatically switched off. (i) Click OK in the Information dialog box to proceed.

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2. Create the spray injection. In this step, you will define the characteristics of the atomizer. Define −→Injections...

(a) Click the Create button to open the Set Injection Properties dialog box.

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(b) Select air-blast-atomizer from the Injection Type drop-down list. (c) Enter 60 for Number of Particle Streams. This option controls the number of droplet parcels that are introduced into the domain at every time step. (d) Select Droplet in the Particle Type group box. (e) Select methyl-alcohol-liquid from the Material drop-down list. (f) Enter 0, 0, and 0.0015 for X-Position, Y-Position, and Z-Position, respectively, in the Point Properties tab. Scroll down the list to see the remaining point properties. (g) Retain the default values of 0, 0, and 1 for X-Axis, Y-Axis, and Z-Axis, respectively. (h) Enter 263 K for Temperature. (i) Enter 8.5e-5 kg/s for Flow Rate. This is the methanol flow rate for a 30-degree section of the atomizer. The actual atomizer flow rate is 12 times this value. (j) Retain the default Start Time of 0 s and enter 100 s for the Stop Time. For this problem, the injection should begin at t = 0 and not stop until long after the time period of interest. A large value for the stop time (e.g., 100 s) will ensure that the injection will essentially never stop. (k) Enter 0.0035 m for the Injector Inner Diameter and 0.0045 m for the Injector Outer Diameter. (l) Enter -45 degrees for Spray Half Angle. The spray angle is the angle between the liquid sheet trajectory and the injector centerline. In this case, the value is negative because the sheet is initially converging toward the centerline. (m) Enter 82.6 m/s for the Relative Velocity. The relative velocity is the expected relative velocity between the atomizing air and the liquid sheet. (n) Retain the default Azimuthal Start Angle of 0 degrees and enter 30 degrees for the Azimuthal Stop Angle. This will restrict the injection to the 30-degree section of the atomizer that is being modeled.

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Note: In the case that the spray injection would be striking a wall. i. (p) Click OK to close the Set Injection Properties dialog box. March 12. The lower half of the dialog box will change to show options for the turbulent dispersion model. (q) Click OK in the Information dialog box to enable droplet coalescence. Inc.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray (o) Define the turbulent dispersion. you should specify the wall boundary conditions for the droplets. Enable Discrete Random Walk Model and Random Eddy Lifetime in the Stochastic Tracking group box. ii. 17-28 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Though this tutorial does have wall zones. they are a part of the atomizer apparatus. You need not change the wall boundary conditions any further because these walls are not in the path of the spray droplets. These models will account for the turbulent dispersion of the droplets. (r) Close the Injections dialog box. Click the Turbulent Dispersion tab. 2009 .

2009 17-29 . (e) Click Change/Create to accept the change in properties for the methanol droplet material and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box... (d) Scroll down and enter 0.0056 kg/m-s for Viscosity in the Properties group box. Set the droplet material properties.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 3. Materials −→ methyl-alcohol-liquid −→ Create/Edit. Release 12. (a) Retain the default selection of droplet-particle from the Material Type dropdown list. (b) Enter 0. Click OK to retain the default values and close the Piecewise-Linear Profile dialog box. March 12. i.0222 N/m for Droplet Surface Tension. Inc. Scroll down to find the Saturation Vapor Pressure drop-down list. (c) Select piecewise-linear from the Saturation Vapor Pressure drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. The Piecewise-Linear Profile dialog box will open. Set the droplet properties because secondary atomization models (breakup and coalescence) are used.

Solution Controls 2.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Step 8: Solution 1. 3.1. Enable the plotting of mass fraction of ch3oh. Monitors (Surface Monitors)−→ Create. Inc... 2009 . Disable Check Convergence for all the residuals. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. 17-30 Release 12.. Decrease the Under-Relaxation Factor for Discrete Phase Sources to 0. March 12..

and Mass fraction of ch3oh from the Field Variable drop-down lists. (c) Click the Axes..volume Monitor Plot dialog box. Enable the plotting of the sum of the DPM Mass Source.. Inc.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray (a) Retain surf-mon-1 for Name. (f) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box. (d) Select Species. (b) Enable Plot. Monitors (Volume Monitors)−→ Create.. (a) Retain vol-mon-1 for Name.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. 4.. button to open the Axes . (c) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. 2009 17-31 . (e) Select outlet from the Surfaces selection list. March 12... (b) Enable Plot.

Select exponential from the Type drop-down list. 17-32 Release 12. Set Precision to 2. (e) Select Discrete Phase Model. Select Y in the Axis list. Inc.5 and 17. Request 1500 more iterations (Figures 17. Run Calculation It can be concluded that the solution is converged because the number of particle tracks are constant and the monitors are flat. (f) Select fluid from the Cell Zones selection list. Click Apply and close the Axes .. ii. March 12. (d) Select Sum from the Report Type drop-down list. 2009 .6). iii.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray i. 5. iv. and DPM Mass Source from the Field Variable drop-down lists.volume Monitor Plot dialog box.. (g) Click OK to close the Volume Monitor dialog box.0 c ANSYS.

Inc.6: Convergence History of DPM Mass Source on Fluid Release 12.5: Convergence History of Mass Fraction of ch3oh on Fluid Figure 17. March 12.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Figure 17.0 c ANSYS. 2009 17-33 .

gz). 7. 2009 .0 c ANSYS...7). Display the trajectories of the droplets in the spray injection (Figure 17. Inc. March 12.. (a) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box. 17-34 Release 12. Save the case and data files (spray2.dat. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.cas. This will allow you to review the location of the droplets..gz and spray2. The Mesh Display dialog box will open. Graphics and Animations −→ Particle Tracks −→ Set Up.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 6.

Close the Views dialog box.. Appropriately.7. (f) Restore the 30–degree section to obtain the view as shown in Figure 17. March 12.. and Particle Diameter from the Color by drop-down lists. The radius of this disk is determined from the inner and outer radii of the injector. ii. This will display the location of the droplets colored by their diameters. Click Reset and close the Graphics Periodicity dialog box. (g) Use the mouse to obtain the view shown in Figure 17. i. iii. (c) Select Particle Variables.. Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. which then disintegrates into ligaments and droplets. the model determines that the droplets should be input into the domain in a ring.0 c ANSYS.7: Particle Tracks for the Spray Injection After 200 Iterations The air-blast atomizer model assumes that a cylindrical liquid sheet exits the atomizer. (d) Select injection-0 from the Release from Injections selection list. Retain the current display settings.. Figure 17. ii. (b) Retain the default selection of point from the Style drop-down list.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray i. (e) Click Display and close the Particle Tracks dialog box. Inc. 2009 17-35 . Click the Define button to open Graphics Periodicity dialog box. Close the Mesh Display dialog box.7.

1 mm. the air-blast atomizer model no longer affects the droplet. (b) Click Compute to update the minimum and maximum values. (a) Select Species.. once a droplet has been introduced into the domain.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Note: The maximum diameter of the droplets is about 10−4 m or 0. Inc. respectively. they can collide/coalesce with other droplets as determined by the secondary models (breakup and collision).5 mm and 4.. and Mass fraction of ch3oh from the Surface of Constant dropdown lists. Surface −→Iso-Surface.5 mm. (c) Enter 0.002 for the New Surface Name. This is slightly smaller than the film height. Once the droplets are injected into the domain.. The range in the droplet sizes is due to the fact that the air-blast atomizer automatically uses a distribution of droplet sizes. 17-36 Release 12. (e) Click Create and the close the Iso-Surface dialog box.5 mm. Also note that the droplets are placed a slight distance away from the injector.0 c ANSYS. March 12. However.. Create an isosurface of the methanol mass fraction. (d) Enter methanol-mf=0.002 for Iso-Values. The inner diameter and outer diameter of the injector are 3. Hence the film height is 0. 2009 . Step 9: Postprocessing 1.

. Inc.002).. (c) Click Display in the Mesh Display dialog box. ii. button to open the Mesh Colors dialog box. i.. Select surface in the Types list and green in the Colors list.. General −→ Display. Release 12. (b) Click the Colors. Display the isosurface you just created (methanol-mf=0. March 12. (a) Deselect atomizer-wall and select methanol-mf=0. which contrasts better with the rest of the mesh.0 c ANSYS.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 2. Scroll down the Types list to locate surface. 2009 17-37 .002 in the Surfaces selection list. The isosurface will now be displayed in green. The graphics display will be updated to show the isosurface. Close the Mesh Colors dialog box.

i.. 2009 . ii. (d) Use the mouse to obtain the view shown in Figure 17. (b) Click Apply and close the Views dialog box.. Select fluid from the Cell Zones list. Inc. Make sure that Rotational is selected from the Periodic Type list and the Number of Repeats is set to 12. (c) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. iii.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray 3. Click Set and close the Graphics Periodicity dialog box.. to open the Graphics Periodicity dialog box.8. Modify the view to include the entire atomizer.0 c ANSYS. (a) Click Define. 17-38 Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Views.. March 12.

gz). March 12. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. Inc. Release 12.0 c ANSYS.gz and spray3.dat. Save the case and data files (spray3. Summary In this tutorial. The location of methanol droplet particles after exiting the atomizer and an isosurface of the methanol mass fraction were examined.cas.Modeling Evaporating Liquid Spray Figure 17.8: Full Atomizer Display with Surface of Constant Methanol Mass Fraction 4.. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. 2009 17-39 .. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. a spray injection was defined for an air-blast atomizer and the solution was calculated using discrete-phase model in ANSYS FLUENT. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.

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2009 18-1 .Tutorial 18. Introduction This tutorial examines the flow of ink as it is ejected from the nozzle of a printhead in an inkjet printer. Using ANSYS FLUENT’s volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase modeling capability. Release 12.600 cells.1. Using the VOF Model This tutorial was run using ANSYS FLUENT 12. • Automatically save data files at defined points during the solution. September 9. The axial symmetry of the problem allows a 2D geometry to be used.1.1. Prerequisites This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in ANSYS FLUENT and that you have completed Tutorial 1.1 c ANSYS. • Patch initial conditions in a subset of the domain. The dimensions are summarized in Table 18. Problem Description The problem considers the transient tracking of a liquid-gas interface in the geometry shown in Figure 18. • Examine the flow and interface of the two fluids using volume fraction contours. The domain consists of two regions: an ink chamber and an air chamber. • Copy material from the property database. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Set up and solve a transient problem using the pressure-based solver and VOF model. Inc. you will be able to predict the shape and motion of the resulting droplets in an air chamber. • Define time-dependent boundary conditions with a user-defined function (UDF). Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. The results have been updated to reflect the change in the default setting of node-based smoothing for the surface tension calculation. The computation mesh consists of 24.

1: Schematic of the Problem Table 18.1: Ink Chamber Dimensions Ink Chamber.280 18-2 Release 12. Air Chamber: Air Chamber: Cylindrical Region: Radius (mm) Cylindrical Region: Length (mm) Tapered Region: Final Radius (mm) Tapered Region: Length (mm) Radius (mm) Length (mm) 0.050 0. Inc. Ink Chamber.050 0. September 9.015 0.030 0. Ink Chamber. 2009 .009 0. Ink Chamber.1 c ANSYS.Using the VOF Model Figure 18.

September 9.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).. while the surface surrounding the nozzle orifice will be non-wettable. The calculation is run for 30 microseconds overall. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics windows. while the rest of the domain is filled with air. Inc. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. 4. To capture the capillary effect of the ejected ink. the surface tension and prescription of the wetting angle will be specified. Setup and Solution Preparation 1. To initiate the ejection. Both fluids are assumed to be at rest. the double-precision version of ANSYS FLUENT will be used. Air will be designated as the primary phase. Gravity will not be included in the simulation. • After 10 microseconds. 3.58 m/s and then decreases according to a cosine law. Unzip vof. The files inkjet. 2009 18-3 . and ink (which will be modeled with the properties of liquid water) will be designated as the secondary phase. the nozzle is filled with ink. Release 12.Using the VOF Model The following is the chronology of events modeled in this simulation: • At time zero. Download vof. 2.1 c ANSYS. see Section 1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. For more information about FLUENT Launcher.1. The surface inside the nozzle will be modeled as neutrally wettable. Patching will be required to fill the ink chamber with the secondary phase. Because the dimensions are small. Enable Double-Precision.zip. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. the velocity returns to zero. the ink velocity at the inlet boundary (which is modeled in this simulation by a user-defined function) suddenly increases from 0 to 3.msh and inlet1. three times longer than the duration of the initial impulse. Therefore. once you read in the mesh. i.c can be found in the vof folder created on unzipping the file.e.

Inc. you can see that the interior of the model is composed of a fine mesh of quadrilateral cells (see Figure 18. 2.3).Using the VOF Model Step 1: Mesh 1. You need not take any action at this point.1 c ANSYS. Read the mesh file inkjet.msh.2: Default Display of the Nozzle Mesh Extra: By zooming in with the middle mouse button. A warning message will be displayed twice in the console.2). 2009 . Figure 18. File −→ Read −→Mesh. as the issue will be resolved when you define the solver settings in Step 2. Figure 18. September 9.3: The Quadrilateral Mesh 18-4 Release 12.. Examine the mesh (Figure 18.

Drag the indicator of the dial with the left mouse button in the clockwise direction until the upright view is displayed (Figure 18.1 c ANSYS. The mesh display will be updated to show both sides of the chamber. (b) Select axis from the Mirror Planes selection list. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. Release 12.4).. 2009 18-5 . button to open the Camera Parameters dialog box..Using the VOF Model 3. Manipulate the mesh display to show the full chamber upright. September 9.. (d) Click the Camera. i. (a) Select front from the Views selection list. Inc.. (c) Click Apply.

Using the VOF Model Figure 18. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. Close the Camera Parameters dialog box. September 9. Step 2: General Settings General 1.1 c ANSYS. Inc. (e) Close the Views dialog box. Check the mesh.4: Mesh Display of the Nozzle Mirrored and Upright ii. 18-6 Release 12. 2009 . General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console.

1 c ANSYS. September 9..) This will ensure that the quality of the mesh has not been compromised.. General −→ Units. Define the units for the mesh. General −→ Scale. (c) Click Scale and close the Scale Mesh dialog box.. 2009 18-7 . (b) Enter 1e-6 for X and Y in the Scaling Factors group box. add zones... 4. scale. or smooth and swap. Release 12.Using the VOF Model 2. convert to polyhedra. Scale the mesh. merge. separate. Check the mesh. 3. (a) Select Specify Scaling Factors from the Scaling group box. Inc. General −→ Check Note: It is a good idea to check the mesh after you manipulate it (i. fuse.e.

General 6. (b) Select mm from the Units list. Inc.Using the VOF Model (a) Select length from the Quantities list. September 9. 7. Retain the default setting of Pressure-Based in the Solver list. (e) Close the Set Units dialog box. 2009 .1 c ANSYS. (c) Select surface-tension from the Quantities list. (d) Select dyn/cm from the Units list. 5. 18-8 Release 12. Select Axisymmetric from the 2D Space list. Select Transient from the Time list.

1 c ANSYS. Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit... Release 12. (b) Retain the default settings and click OK to close the Multiphase Model dialog box. Enable the Volume of Fluid multiphase model. September 9. 2009 18-9 . The Multiphase Model dialog box will expand.Using the VOF Model Step 3: Models Models 1. Inc. (a) Select Volume of Fluid from the Model list.

Add water to the list of fluid materials by copying it from the ANSYS FLUENT materials database.. 2009 . (a) Click FLUENT Database... Inc. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. 1.Using the VOF Model Step 4: Materials Materials The default properties of air and water defined in ANSYS FLUENT are suitable for this problem. in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box to open the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box. 18-10 Release 12.. September 9. In this step.1 c ANSYS. you will make sure that both materials are available for selection in later steps.

Using the VOF Model

i. Select water-liquid (h2o<l>) from the FLUENT Fluid Materials selection list. Scroll down the FLUENT Fluid Materials list to locate water-liquid (h2o<l>). ii. Click Copy to copy the information for water to your list of fluid materials. iii. Close the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box. (b) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.

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Step 5: Phases
Phases In the following steps, you will define water as the secondary phase. When you define the initial solution, you will patch water in the nozzle region. In general, you can specify the primary and secondary phases whichever way you prefer. It is a good idea to consider how your choice will affect the ease of problem setup, especially with more complicated problems.

1. Specify air (air) as the primary phase. Phases −→ phase-1 - Primary Phase −→ Edit...

(a) Enter air for Name. (b) Retain the default selection of air in the Phase Material drop-down list. (c) Click OK to close the Primary Phase dialog box.

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2. Specify water (water-liquid) as the secondary phase. Phases −→ phase-2 - Secondary Phase −→ Edit...

(a) Enter water-liquid for Name. (b) Select water-liquid from the Phase Material drop-down list. (c) Click OK to close the Secondary Phase dialog box. 3. Specify the interphase interaction. Phases −→ Interaction...

(a) Enable Wall Adhesion so that contact angles can be prescribed. (b) Click the Surface Tension tab. The surface tension coefficient inputs will be displayed. i. Select constant from the Surface Tension Coefficient drop-down list. ii. Enter 73.5 dyn/cm for Surface Tension Coefficient. (c) Click OK to close the Phase Interaction dialog box.

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Step 6: Operating Conditions
Boundary Conditions 1. Set the operating reference pressure location. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions...

You will set the Reference Pressure Location to be a point where the fluid will always be 100% air. (a) Enter 0.10 mm for X. (b) Enter 0.03 mm for Y. (c) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box.

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Step 7: User-Defined Function (UDF)
1. Interpret the UDF source file for the ink velocity distribution (inlet1.c). Define −→ User-Defined −→ Functions −→Interpreted...

(a) Enter inlet1.c for Source File Name. If the UDF source file is not in your working folder, then you must enter the entire folder path for Source File Name instead of just entering the file name. Alternatively, click the Browse... button and select inlet1.c in the vof folder that was created after you unzipped the original file. (b) Click Interpret. The UDF defined in inlet1.c will now be visible and available for selection as udf membrane speed in the drop-down lists of relevant graphical user interface dialog boxes. (c) Close the Interpreted UDFs dialog box.

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Step 8: Boundary Conditions
Boundary Conditions 1. Set the boundary conditions at the inlet (inlet) for the mixture by selecting mixture from the Phase drop-down list in the Boundary Conditions task page. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet −→ Edit...

(a) Select udf membrane speed from the Velocity Magnitude drop-down list. (b) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. 2. Set the boundary conditions at the inlet (inlet) for the secondary phase by selecting water-liquid from the Phase drop-down list in the Boundary Conditions task page. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet −→ Edit...

(a) Click the Multiphase tab and enter 1 for the Volume Fraction. (b) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.

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3. Set the boundary conditions at the outlet (outlet) for the secondary phase by selecting water-liquid from the Phase drop-down list in the Boundary Conditions task page. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit...

(a) Click the Multiphase tab and retain the default setting of 0 for the Backflow Volume Fraction. (b) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.

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4. Set the conditions at the top wall of the air chamber (wall no wet) for the mixture by selecting mixture from the Phase drop-down list in the Boundary Conditions task page. Boundary Conditions −→ wall no wet −→ Edit...

(a) Enter 175 degrees for Contact Angles. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Note: This angle affects the dynamics of droplet formation. You can repeat this simulation to find out how the result changes when the wall is hydrophilic (i.e., using a small contact angle, say 10 degrees).

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5. Set the conditions at the side wall of the ink chamber (wall wet) for the mixture. Boundary Conditions −→ wall wet −→ Edit...

(a) Retain the default setting of 90 degrees for Contact Angles. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.

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Step 9: Solution
1. Set the solution methods. Solution Methods

(a) Enable Non-Iterative Time Advancement. The non-iterative time advancement (NITA) scheme is often advantageous compared to the iterative schemes as it is less CPU intensive. Although smaller time steps must be used with NITA compared to the iterative schemes, the total CPU expense is often smaller. If the NITA scheme leads to convergence difficulties, then the iterative schemes (e.g. PISO, SIMPLE) should be used instead. (b) Select Fractional Step from the Scheme drop-down list in the Pressure-Velocity Coupling group box. (c) Retain the default selection of Least Squares Cell Based from the Gradient dropdown list in the Spatial Discretization group box. (d) Retain the default selection of PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list. (e) Select QUICK from the Momentum drop-down list.

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2. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit...

(a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 3. Initialize the solution using the default initial values. Solution Initialization

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(a) Retain the default settings for all the parameters and click Initialize. 4. Define a register for the ink chamber region. Adapt −→Region...

(a) Retain the default setting of 0 mm for X Min and Y Min in the Input Coordinates group box. (b) Enter 0.10 mm for X Max. (c) Enter 0.03 mm for Y Max. (d) Click Mark. ANSYS FLUENT will report in the console that 1500 cells were marked for refinement while zero cells were marked for coarsening. Extra: You can display and manipulate adaption registers, which are generated using the Mark command, using the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box. Click the Manage... button in the Region Adaption dialog box to open the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box. (e) Close the Region Adaption dialog box.

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5. Patch the initial distribution of the secondary phase (water-liquid). Solution Initialization −→ Patch...

(a) Select water-liquid from the Phase drop-down list. (b) Select Volume Fraction from the Variable list. (c) Enter 1 for Value. (d) Select hexahedron-r0 from the Registers to Patch selection list. (e) Click Patch and close the Patch dialog box. 6. Request the saving of data files every 200 steps. Calculation Activities (Autosave Every (Time Steps))−→ Edit....

(a) Enter 200 for Save Data File Every (Time Steps).

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(b) Make sure that time-step is selected from the Append File Name with drop-down list. (c) Enter inkjet for the File Name. ANSYS FLUENT will append the time step value to the file name prefix (inkjet). The standard .dat extension will also be appended. This will yield file names of the form inkjet-1-00200.dat, where 200 is the time step number. Optionally, you can add the extension .gz to the end of the file name (e.g., inkjet.gz), which will instruct ANSYS FLUENT to save the data files in a compressed format, yielding file names of the form inkjet-1-00200.dat.gz. (d) Click OK to close the Autosave dialog box. 7. Save the initial case file (inkjet.cas.gz). File −→ Write −→Case... 8. Run the calculation. Run Calculation

(a) Enter 1.0e-8 seconds for the Time Step Size (s). Note: Small time steps are required to capture the oscillation of the droplet interface and the associated high velocities. Failure to use sufficiently small time steps may cause differences in the results between platforms.

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(b) Enter 3000 for the Number of Time Steps. (c) Retain the default selection of Fixed in the Time Stepping Method drop-down list. (d) Click Calculate. The solution will run for 3000 iterations.

Step 10: Postprocessing
1. Read the data file for the solution after 6 microseconds (inkjet-1-00600.dat.gz). File −→ Read −→Data... 2. Display filled contours of water volume fraction after 6 microseconds (Figure 18.5). Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up...

(a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. (b) Select Phases... and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Select water-liquid from the Phase drop-down list. (d) Click Display. 3. Similarly, display contours of water volume fraction after 12, 18, 24, and 30 microseconds (Figures 18.6—18.9).

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Figure 18.5: Contours of Water Volume Fraction After 6 µs

Figure 18.6: Contours of Water Volume Fraction After 12 µs

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Figure 18.7: Contours of Water Volume Fraction After 18 µs

Figure 18.8: Contours of Water Volume Fraction After 24 µs

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Figure 18.9: Contours of Water Volume Fraction After 30 µs

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For additional details about VOF multiphase flow modeling.3 in the separate Theory Guide. Inc.1 c ANSYS. 2009 18-29 . The problem involved the 2D axisymmetric modeling of a transient liquid-gas interface. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution.Using the VOF Model Summary This tutorial demonstrated the application of the volume of fluid method with surface tension effects. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. Release 12. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. and postprocessing showed how the position and shape of the surface between the two immiscible fluids changed over time. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. September 9. see Section 16.

1 c ANSYS. September 9. Inc. 2009 .Using the VOF Model 18-30 Release 12.

88 and L/r = 8. Release 12. The orifice diameter is 4 × 10−3 m. you will be able to predict the strong cavitation near the orifice after flow separation at a sharp edge. March 12.0 c ANSYS. with an inlet pressure of 5 × 105 Pa and an outlet pressure of 9. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based coupled solver. where D.1. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Set boundary conditions for internal flow. • Use the mixture model with cavitation effects. and brings a challenge to the physics and numerics of cavitation models. The flow is pressure driven. orifice diameter. Inc. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. d. The geometry of the orifice is shown in Figure 19. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure.5 × 104 Pa. Using the multiphase modeling capability of ANSYS FLUENT. and L are the inlet diameter. and orifice length respectively.Tutorial 19. This is a typical configuration in fuel injectors. 2009 19-1 . Problem Description The problem considers the cavitation caused by the flow separation after a sharp-edged orifice. and the geometrical parameters of the orifice are D/d = 2. because of the high pressure differentials involved and the high ratio of liquid to vapor density. Introduction Modeling Cavitation This tutorial examines the pressure-driven cavitating flow of water through a sharpedged orifice. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly.

0 c ANSYS.msh can be found in the cavitation folder created after unzipping the file. 3.. as you will make the appropriate change to the solver settings in the next step. see Section 1.1: Problem Schematic Setup and Solution Preparation 1. File −→ Read −→Mesh.msh. Inc.. Enable Double Precision. The file cav. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default.zip. 4. it will report the progress in the console. 19-2 Release 12.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). Step 1: Mesh 1. Therefore. 2009 . after you read in the mesh. March 12. As ANSYS FLUENT reads the mesh file.1. Download cavitation. You can disregard the warnings about the use of axis boundary conditions. For more information about FLUENT Launcher.Modeling Cavitation Figure 19.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. 2. Unzip cavitation. Read the mesh file cav. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.

2009 19-3 . Examine the mesh (Figure 19. (b) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box. (a) Retain the default settings. General −→ Scale.2). Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number.. Check the mesh scale. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Inc. March 12. 3..0 c ANSYS. Check the mesh.2: The Mesh in the Orifice Release 12. 2.Modeling Cavitation Step 2: General Settings General 1. Figure 19.

In the orifice. In this tutorial. Inc.2. you would have to solve a 3D problem. If gravity could not be neglected and the direction of gravity were not coincident with the geometrical axis of symmetry. Specify an axisymmetric model. 19-4 Release 12. growth. and break-off. When you display data graphically in a later step. as the flow is expected to exhibit two-dimensional gradients. with an axis boundary (consisting of two separate lines) at the centerline. 4. you will mirror the view across the centerline to obtain a more realistic view of the model. gravity effects can be neglected and the problem can be reduced to axisymmetrical.Modeling Cavitation As seen in Figure 19. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Note: A computationally intensive. The quadrilateral mesh is slightly graded in the plenum to be finer toward the orifice. the mesh is uniform with aspect ratios close to 1. you will perform a steadystate calculation to simulate the presence of vapor in the separation region in the time-averaged flow. (b) Select Axisymmetric in the 2D Space list. General (a) Retain the default selection of Pressure-Based in the Type list. Since the bubbles are small and the flow is high speed. March 12. filling by water jet re-entry. The pressure-based solver must be used for multiphase calculations. half of the problem geometry is modeled. transient calculation is necessary to accurately simulate the irregular cyclic process of bubble formation.

Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit. The Multiphase Model dialog box will expand. March 12. (b) Disable Slip Velocity in the Mixture Parameters group box. the high level of turbulence does not allow large bubble growth. Release 12.0 c ANSYS.Modeling Cavitation Step 3: Models Models 1. Therefore.. Enable the multiphase mixture model. (a) Select Mixture in the Model list. 2009 19-5 . (c) Click OK to close the Multiphase Model dialog box. there is no need to solve for the slip velocity.. so gravity is not important. Inc. In this flow.

(a) Select k-epsilon in the Model list.Modeling Cavitation 2.. March 12. (c) Retain the default selection of Standard Wall Functions in the Near-Wall Treatment list.. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. (b) Select Realizable in the k-epsilon Model list. Enable the standard k. 19-6 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.turbulence model with standard wall functions. 2009 . Inc.

. Create a new material to be used for the primary phase. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. March 12.. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit.001 kg/m − s for Viscosity. 2009 19-7 .Modeling Cavitation Step 4: Materials Materials 1. Inc. asking if you want to overwrite air. (c) Enter 0. Click Yes. (b) Enter 1000 kg/m3 for Density. (a) Enter water for Name. (d) Click Change/Create. A Question dialog box will open.

Click Copy to include water vapor in your model.. ii. Select water-vapor (h2o) from the FLUENT Fluid Materials selection list. Inc.Modeling Cavitation 2. March 12. button to open the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Scroll down the list to find water-vapor (h2o). Close the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit. (a) Click the FLUENT Database.. i. iii. Copy water vapor from the materials database and modify its properties. 2009 ... 19-8 Release 12.

(d) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.02558 kg/m3 for Density. 2009 19-9 .26e-06 kg/m − s for Viscosity. Step 5: Phases Phases Release 12.0 c ANSYS. (c) Enter 1.Modeling Cavitation (b) Enter 0. Inc. March 12.

Specify water vapor as the secondary phase. (a) Enter liquid for Name. Inc. (c) Click OK to close the Primary Phase dialog box. 2009 .. (b) Select water-vapor from the Phase Material drop-down list.Modeling Cavitation 1. Phases −→ phase-1 −→ Edit... (c) Click OK to close the Secondary Phase dialog box.. March 12. Phases −→ phase-2 −→ Edit. (b) Retain the default selection of water from the Phase Material drop-down list. (a) Enter vapor for Name.0 c ANSYS. 2. Specify liquid water as the primary phase. 19-10 Release 12.

Enable the cavitation model. Retain the default settings. Set Number of Mass Transfer Mechanisms to 1. The vaporization pressure is a property of the working liquid. (a) Click the Mass tab. i. March 12.Modeling Cavitation 3. 2009 19-11 . Inc. The Cavitation Model dialog box will open to show the cavitation inputs. which depends mainly on the liquid temperature. iii. The default value is the vaporization pressure of water at a temperature of 300 K. ii. Release 12. Retain the value of 3540 Pa for Vaporization Pressure. iv.. Select vapor from the To Phase drop-down list. A. B. Ensure that liquid is selected from the From Phase drop-down list in the Mass Transfer group box.0 c ANSYS. Select cavitation from the Mechanism drop-down list. Phases −→ Interaction..

Modeling Cavitation C. Click OK to close the Cavitation Model dialog box. March 12. Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions For the multiphase mixture model. In this tutorial. Inc.e. you will specify conditions for the mixture (i.0 c ANSYS. 19-12 Release 12. boundary conditions are required only for the mixture and secondary phase of two boundaries: the pressure inlet (consisting of two boundary zones) and the pressure outlet. 2009 . opposite the pressure inlets. The pressure outlet is the downstream boundary.. (b) Click OK to close the Phase Interaction dialog box. conditions that apply to all phases) and the conditions that are specific to the primary and secondary phases.

2009 19-13 . (e) Enter 0. Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet 1 −→ Edit. (a) Enter 500000 Pa for Gauge Total Pressure. Release 12. (d) Retain the default selection of K and Epsilon from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box.0 c ANSYS. the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure will be used in conjunction with the specified stagnation pressure (the Gauge Total Pressure) to compute initial values according to the isentropic relations (for compressible flow) or Bernoulli’s equation (for incompressible flow).. in an incompressible flow calculation the Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure input will be ignored by ANSYS FLUENT. (b) Enter 449000 Pa for Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure. Otherwise. In this problem the velocity will be initialized based on the difference between these two values.Modeling Cavitation 1. March 12.. (c) Retain the default selection of Normal to Boundary from the Direction Specification Method drop-down list. If you choose to initialize the solution based on the pressure-inlet conditions. Set the boundary conditions at inlet 1 for the mixture.02 m2 /s2 for Turbulent Kinetic Energy. (f) Retain the value of 1 m2 /s3 for Turbulent Dissipation Rate. (g) Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box.

to open the Pressure Inlet dialog box. Inc. ii. i. Select inlet 1 from the From Boundary Zone selection list. (b) Click Edit.. Copy the boundary conditions defined for the first pressure inlet zone (inlet 1) to the second pressure inlet zone (inlet 2). A Warning dialog box will open. to open the Copy Conditions dialog box.Modeling Cavitation 2. iii. i. Click the Multiphase tab and retain the default value of 0 for Volume Fraction. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet 1 (a) Select mixture from the Phase drop-down list. Click OK. March 12. ii. asking if you want to copy inlet 1 boundary conditions to inlet 2. Boundary Conditions −→ inlet 1 (a) Select vapor from the Phase drop-down list... Click Copy. Set the boundary conditions at inlet-1 for the secondary phase. Select inlet 2 from the To Boundary Zones selection list. Click OK to close the Pressure Inlet dialog box. 19-14 Release 12. 3.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . (b) Click Copy..

to open the Pressure Outlet dialog box. 2009 19-15 . Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit. (b) Click Edit. (e) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. (d) Retain the value of 1 m2 /s3 for Backflow Turbulent Dissipation Rate. Close the Copy Conditions dialog box.02 m2 /s2 for Backflow Turbulent Kinetic Energy. (b) Retain the default selection of K and Epsilon from the Specification Method drop-down list in the Turbulence group box. Set the boundary conditions at outlet for the mixture. March 12. (c) Enter 0. 4.0 c ANSYS.Modeling Cavitation iv. 5. Inc.... Release 12. Set the boundary conditions at outlet for the secondary phase. (a) Enter 95000 Pa for Gauge Pressure.. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet (a) Select vapor from the Phase drop-down list.

(a) Enter 0 Pa for Operating Pressure. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions.Modeling Cavitation i.. Click the Multiphase tab and retain the default value of 0 for Volume Fraction. 19-16 Release 12. Step 7: Operating Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. Set the operating pressure. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Inc. March 12. Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. (b) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box.. ii.

(b) Select PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. 2009 19-17 . Release 12. Solution Methods (a) Select Coupled from the Scheme drop-down list in the Pressure-Velocity Coupling group box.Modeling Cavitation Step 8: Solution 1. and Turbulent Dissipation Rate.0 c ANSYS. Volume Fraction. March 12. Turbulent Kinetic Energy. Inc. (c) Select QUICK for Momentum. Set the solution parameters.

Inc. it is generally advised to use a value of 0.95 for Volume Fraction. the under-relaxation factors may need to be reduced to between 0.1 and 0.Modeling Cavitation 2. though this under-relaxation factor can be between 0. 19-18 Release 12. For the Vaporization Mass. March 12. Note: Typically.0 c ANSYS.5 for Vaporization Mass. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0.1. (b) Enter 0. for more complex cases with very high pressure drops or large liquid-vapor density ratios.2. Set the solution controls.001 to 1 as necessary. 2009 .

(a) Ensure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box. y-velocity. Decreasing the criteria for these residuals will improve the accuracy of the solution. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. 2009 19-19 . (c) Enter 1e-05 for the Absolute Criteria of x-velocity. Inc. (b) Enter 1e-07 for the Absolute Criteria of continuity.Modeling Cavitation 3. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit...0 c ANSYS. Release 12. (d) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. k. and epsilon. March 12.

Initialize the solution from either of the pressure inlet zones (inlet 1 or inlet 2). (b) Select Absolute in the Reference Frame list. March 12. 2009 . Inc. 5. (c) Click Initialize to initialize the solution.Modeling Cavitation 4.gz)..0 c ANSYS. File −→ Write −→Case. Save the case file (cav.cas. 19-20 Release 12.. Solution Initialization (a) Select inlet 1 or inlet 2 from the Compute from drop-down list.

Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 2009 19-21 . March 12. Run Calculation (a) Enter 500 for Number of Iterations.Modeling Cavitation 6.. Release 12. The solution will converge in approximately 450 iterations. Start the calculation by requesting 500 iterations.dat. Inc. 7.3).0 c ANSYS. (b) Click Calculate. Plot the pressure in the orifice (Figure 19.. Save the data file (cav.. Step 9: Postprocessing 1..gz). File −→ Write −→Data.

74e+05 4.4) and turbulent diffusion (Figure 19.00e+05 3. turbulence contributes to cavitation due to the effect of pressure fluctuation (Figure 19.75e+05 3. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. 2009 . rke) Figure 19. pbns.54e+03 Contours of Static Pressure (mixture) (pascal) FLUENT 12.27e+05 2.27e+05 1. March 12.79e+04 5.50e+05 3.5).03e+05 7.01e+05 2. Mirror the display across the centerline (Figure 19.76e+05 2.52e+05 1.Modeling Cavitation (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box.. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. 4.3..26e+05 3.0 c ANSYS..31e+04 2. Additionally. 2.0 (axi.50e+05 4. Inc.02e+05 1.4).51e+05 2.83e+04 3.25e+05 4.77e+05 1. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. Low static pressure is the major factor causing cavitation. dp. mixture. Mirroring the display across the centerline gives a more realistic view. 19-22 Release 12. (b) Retain the default selection of Pressure.3: Contours of Static Pressure Note the dramatic pressure drop at the flow restriction in Figure 19.99e+05 4.

(b) Click Apply and close the Views dialog box.5: Contours of Turbulent Kinetic Energy In this example. However.0 c ANSYS. (a) Select Turbulence. 2009 19-23 . Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (b) Click Display...5). 3. and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (k) from the Contours of drop-down lists. the mesh used is fairly coarse. Figure 19. Inc.Modeling Cavitation Figure 19.4: Mirrored View of Contours of Static Pressure (a) Select symm 2 and symm 1 from the Mirror Planes selection list... and is not very sensitive to mesh size. Release 12. March 12. Plot the turbulent kinetic energy (Figure 19. in cavitating flows the pressure distribution is the dominant factor.

19-24 Release 12. You learned how to set the boundary conditions for an internal flow. filling by water jet re-entry. using multiphase mixture model of ANSYS FLUENT with cavitation effects.5 coincides with the highest volume fraction of vapor in Figure 19. The vapor then gets convected downstream by the main flow. and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. Figure 19. Summary This tutorial demonstrated how to set up and resolve a strongly cavitating pressuredriven flow through an orifice. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.Modeling Cavitation 4. (a) Select Phases. A steady-state solution was calculated to simulate the formation of vapor in the neck of the flow after the section restriction at the orifice.0 c ANSYS.6. This indicates the correct prediction of a localized high phase change rate. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution.. Plot the volume fraction of water vapor (Figure 19. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1.. (b) Select vapor from the Phase drop-down list. Inc..6). You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. A more computationally intensive transient calculation is necessary to accurately simulate the irregular cyclic process of bubble formation. 2009 .6: Contours of Vapor Volume Fraction The high turbulent kinetic energy region near the neck of the orifice in Figure 19. and break-off. March 12. growth.

Tutorial 20. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. The ducts are 25 mm in width. and the top and the side ducts are 250 mm long. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Introduction This tutorial examines the flow of water and air in a tee junction. March 12. and then turn to the more accurate Eulerian model.1. 2009 20-1 . Inc. • Set boundary conditions for internal flow. • Use the Eulerian model.0 c ANSYS. • Calculate a solution using the multiphase coupled solver with the Eulerian model. • Display the results obtained using the two approaches for comparison. The results of these two approaches can then be compared. Initially you will solve the problem using the less computationally intensive mixture model. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. the inlet section of the duct is 125 mm long. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based coupled solver with the mixture model. Release 12. Problem Description This problem considers an air-water mixture flowing upwards in a duct and then splitting in a tee junction. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Use the mixture model with slip velocities. The schematic of the problem is shown in Figure 20.

The file tee. Unzip mix_eulerian_multiphase.msh can be found in the mix eulerian multiphase folder created after unzipping the file. 20-2 Release 12.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models outflow flow rate weighting = 0.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).1.6 m/s volume fraction = 0.zip.62 outflow flow rate weighting = 0. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT with Double Precision enabled. Download mix_eulerian_multiphase.53 m/s v = 1.02 bubble diameter = 1 mm Figure 20. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.2 in the separate User’s Guide. March 12. see Section 1. 3. 2. Therefore. after you read in the mesh. Inc.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1.38 velocity inlet water : air : v = 1. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default.0 c ANSYS. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. 2009 .

Step 2: General Settings General 1. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. As ANSYS FLUENT reads the mesh file. If you click the right mouse button on any node in the mesh.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 1: Mesh 1. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. information will be displayed in the ANSYS FLUENT console about the associated zone.0 c ANSYS. it will report the progress in the console. File −→ Read −→Mesh.. Check the mesh. including the name of the zone.2: Mesh Display Release 12. Inc. Read the mesh file tee. 2009 20-3 . Figure 20. Examine the mesh (Figure 20. Ensure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number.2).msh.. March 12. Extra: You can use the right mouse button to probe for mesh information in the graphics window. 2.

Select the mixture multiphase model with slip velocities. Step 3: Models Models 1. Retain the default settings for the pressure-based solver. 20-4 Release 12.. 2009 . The Multiphase Model dialog box will expand to show the inputs for the mixture model. Inc. March 12.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 3.0 c ANSYS.. Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit. (a) Select Mixture in the Model list. General The pressure-based solver must be used for multiphase calculations.

(a) Select k-epsilon in the Model list. (d) Click OK to close the Multiphase Model dialog box.0 c ANSYS. (c) Enable Implicit Body Force in the Body Force Formulation group box. This problem does not require a particularly fine mesh. 2. You need to solve the slip velocity equation since there will be significant difference in velocities for the different phases. Inc. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. The standard k.. (b) Retain the default selection of Standard in the k-epsilon Model list. It is used in VOF and mixture problems. This treatment improves solution convergence by accounting for the partial equilibrium of the pressure gradient and body forces in the momentum equations.turbulence model with standard wall functions. March 12. (c) Retain the default selection of Standard Wall Functions in the Near-Wall Treatment list.model is quite effective in accurately resolving mixture problems when standard wall functions are used. 2009 20-5 . where body forces are large in comparison to viscous and connective forces. and standard wall functions will be used. Release 12. Select the standard k..Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models (b) Ensure that Slip Velocity is enabled in the Mixture Parameters group box. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.

button to open the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box. Copy the properties for liquid water from the materials database so that it can be used for the primary phase. i. iii.... ii. (a) Click the FLUENT Database. (b) Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. March 12. 20-6 Release 12. 2009 . Select water-liquid (h2o<l>) from the FLUENT Fluid Materials selection list. Inc. Close the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 4: Materials Materials 1. Scroll down the list to find water-liquid (h2o<l>). Click Copy to copy the properties for liquid water to your model..

(b) Select water-liquid from the Phase Material drop-down list.. (c) Click OK to close the Primary Phase dialog box. March 12. Specify liquid water as the primary phase..0 c ANSYS. 2009 20-7 . Phases −→ phase-1 −→ Edit.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 5: Phases Phases In the following steps you will define the liquid water and air phases that flow in the tee junction. Inc. 1. Release 12. (a) Enter water for Name.

.001 m for Diameter. 2009 . March 12. (c) Enter 0. Phases −→ Interaction. (a) Enter air for Name. (d) Click OK to close the Secondary Phase dialog box. Check that the drag coefficient is set to be calculated using the Schiller-Naumann drag law.0 c ANSYS. 20-8 Release 12. Phases −→ phase-2 −→ Edit. 3.. (b) Retain the default selection of air from the Phase Material drop-down list.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 2. Inc. Specify air as the secondary phase...

Inc.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models (a) Retain the default selection of schiller-naumann from the Drag Coefficient dropdown list. Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions For this problem. (b) Click OK to close the Phase Interaction dialog box. you will set the conditions at the velocity inlet that are specific for the mixture (i.. March 12. conditions that apply to all phases) and also conditions that are specific to the primary and secondary phases. Since this is a mixture multiphase model.0 c ANSYS. 2009 20-9 . Release 12. the bubbles have an approximately spherical shape with a diameter of 1 mm.e. In this case. you need to set the boundary conditions for three boundaries: the velocity inlet and the two outflows. The Schiller-Naumann drag law describes the drag between the spherical particle and the surrounding liquid for a wide range of conditions.

Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-4 −→ Edit. 2. Set the boundary conditions at the velocity inlet (velocity-inlet-4) for the mixture. 2009 ... March 12. (d) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. to open the Velocity Inlet dialog box. 20-10 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. (b) Retain the default value of 10% for Turbulent Intensity. (b) Click Edit. (c) Enter 0. (a) Select Intensity and Length Scale from the Specification Method drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions at the velocity inlet (velocity-inlet-4) for the primary phase (water)..025 m for Turbulent Length Scale. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-4 (a) Select water from the Phase drop-down list..Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 1.

Volume rate divided by the inlet area gives the superficial velocity. iv. which is the product of the inlet physical velocity and the volume fraction. 2009 20-11 . Enter 1. Set the boundary conditions at the velocity inlet (velocity-inlet-4) for the secondary phase (air)..0 c ANSYS. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.07 m/s. Inc. Normal to Boundary from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. Retain the default selection of Magnitude. you must enter two physical velocities and the volume fraction of the secondary phase.6 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. the volume rate of each phase is usually known. Normal to Boundary from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. iii. (b) Click Edit.6 − 1. When you have two phases. In multiphase flows.53 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. March 12.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models i. 3. to open the Velocity Inlet dialog box. iii. ii. Here it is assumed that bubbles at the inlet are moving with faster physical speed and their relative velocity with respect to water is 1. Enter 1. Retain the default selection of Absolute from the Reference Frame dropdown list. Retain the default selection of Absolute from the Reference Frame dropdown list.. Boundary Conditions −→ velocity-inlet-4 (a) Select air from the Phase drop-down list. i. ii. Release 12. Retain the default selection of Magnitude.53 = 0.

Boundary Conditions −→ outflow-5 (a) Select mixture from the Phase drop-down list. 2009 . Enter 0.. (b) Click Edit. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. Set the boundary conditions at outflow-3 for the mixture.. March 12. 4.38 for Flow Rate Weighting. v. Click OK to close the Outflow dialog box.02 for Volume Fraction. Click the Multiphase tab and enter 0.. i.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models iv. Inc. (b) Click OK to close the Outflow dialog box.62 for Flow Rate Weighting.0 c ANSYS. (a) Enter 0. 20-12 Release 12. to open the Outflow dialog box. ii. Boundary Conditions −→ outflow-3 −→ Edit.. Set the boundary conditions at outflow-5 for the mixture. 5.

. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 20-13 . (d) Enter 0 kg/m3 for Operating Density. Release 12. (a) Enable Gravity. March 12.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 7: Operating Conditions Boundary Conditions 1. Set the gravitational acceleration.81 m/s2 for Y in the Gravitational Acceleration group box. Boundary Conditions −→ Operating Conditions.. (e) Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box. The Operating Conditions dialog box will expand to show additional inputs. (c) Enable Specified Operating Density. (b) Enter -9.

Solution Methods (a) Select Coupled from the Scheme drop-down list.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 8: Solution Using the Mixture Model 1. (b) Select PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list. 20-14 Release 12. March 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Set the solution parameters. 2009 .

Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 2. Set the solution controls.0 c ANSYS.4 for both Slip Velocity and Volume Fraction in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. Solution Controls (a) Enter 40 for Courant Number. March 12. (c) Enter 0. 2009 20-15 . Inc.5 for both Momentum and Pressure in the Explicit Relaxation Factors group box. (b) Enter 0. Release 12.

Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 3. (b) Enter 1e-07 for Absolute Criteria for continuity.. 4. March 12. Solution Initialization 20-16 Release 12. (c) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. 2009 . Initialize the solution. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. (a) Ensure that Plot is enabled in the Options group box.0 c ANSYS. Inc. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit..

Save the case and data files (tee.. March 12.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Save the case file (tee.0 c ANSYS. (c) Select outflow-3.001 m2 /s2 for Turbulent Kinetic Energy. (a) Retain the default selection of Mass Flow Rate in the Options list. 8. Check the total mass flow rate for each phase..cas.gz). Inc. 6. Note that the net mass flow rate is almost zero. Run Calculation 7. Start the calculation by requesting 400 iterations.gz). Release 12. and velocity-inlet-4 from the Boundaries selection list. (b) Click Initialize.. File −→ Write −→Case. 5.dat.cas. (b) Select water from the Phase drop-down list.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models (a) Enter 0. (d) Click Compute. 2009 20-17 . indicating that total mass is conserved.. outflow-5. Reports −→ Fluxes −→ Set Up.gz and tee..

Display the static pressure field in the tee (Figure 20..0 c ANSYS.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models (e) Select air from the Phase drop-down list and click Compute again. indicating that total mass is conserved. (b) Retain the default selection of Pressure. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up..3). Inc.. (c) Click Display. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. 20-18 Release 12. (f) Close the Flux Reports dialog box. Note that the net mass flow rate is almost zero. Step 9: Postprocessing for the Mixture Solution Graphics and Animations 1.. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. 2009 . March 12.

Display contours of velocity magnitude (Figure 20..Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Figure 20... 2009 20-19 . (b) Click Display. Inc. (a) Select Velocity. March 12.3: Contours of Static Pressure 2.4).4: Contours of Velocity Magnitude Release 12.0 c ANSYS.. Figure 20. and Velocity Magnitude from the Contours of drop-down lists. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.

Display the volume fraction of air (Figure 20.0 c ANSYS.5. and has an important role in flow distribution and on the gas concentration.5: Contours of Air Volume Fraction When gravity acts downwards. (a) Select Phases. Figure 20. In the vertical arm. 2009 . Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (b) Select air from the Phase drop-down list... March 12. thereby creating gas pockets. it induces stratification in the side arm of the tee junction.. and therefore there is less separation. In this case. 20-20 Release 12. The outflow split modifies the relation between inertia forces and gravity to a large extent. In Figure 20.5). and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 3. Inc. the gas travels upward faster than the water due to the effect of gravity. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. gravity acts against inertia that tends to concentrate gas on the low pressure side.. you can see that the gas (air) tends to concentrate on the upper part of the side arm.

Inc. March 12. (b) Click OK to close the Multiphase Model dialog box. This assumption can be violated in the recirculation pattern. 2. Select the Eulerian multiphase model..Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 10: Setup and Solution for the Eulerian Model The mixture model is a simplification of the Eulerian model and is valid only when bubble velocity is in the same direction as water velocity. 2009 20-21 . Phases −→ Interaction. Release 12..0 c ANSYS. (a) Select Eulerian in the Model list. Specify the drag law to be used for computing the interphase momentum transfer. The Eulerian model is expected to make a more realistic prediction in this case. You will use the solution obtained using the mixture model as an initial condition for the calculation using the Eulerian model. 1.. Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit..

you will need to set additional parameters. (b) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. (b) Click OK to close the Phase Interaction dialog box. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. 3. see Section 24. There are also other options in the Phase Interaction dialog box that may be relevant for other applications. The mixture turbulence model is applicable when phases separate. In these cases. for stratified (or nearly stratified) multiphase flows. For details on setting up an Eulerian multiphase calculation. 2009 . 20-22 Release 12. If you use the Eulerian model for a flow involving a granular secondary phase. Select the multiphase turbulence model.0 c ANSYS. and when the density ratio between phases is close to 1.. using mixture properties and mixture velocities is sufficient to capture important features of the turbulent flow. (a) Retain the default selection of Mixture in the Turbulence Multiphase Model list. there are no parameters to be set for the individual phases other than those that you specified when you set up the phases for the mixture model calculation. Note: For this problem. March 12..Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models (a) Retain the default selection of schiller-naumann from the Drag Coefficient dropdown list.

Release 12. Inc. see Chapter 24 in the separate User’s Guide. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Solution Methods (a) Select Multiphase Coupled from the Scheme drop-down list. 4. Change the solution parameters.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models For more information on turbulence models for the Eulerian multiphase model. 2009 20-23 .

Save the case and data files (tee2. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Run Calculation 7.5 for both Momentum and Pressure in the Explicit Relaxation Factors group box.gz)..0 c ANSYS.4 for Volume Fraction in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. Inc..Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 5. (b) Enter 0. Continue the solution by requesting 1200 additional iterations. March 12. 6.cas.dat. (c) Retain the value of 0. 20-24 Release 12. 2009 .gz and tee2. Solution Controls (a) Enter 40 for Courant Number. Change the solution controls.

0 c ANSYS. Dynamic Pressure will be displayed in the lower Contours of dropdown list. from the Contours of drop-down list. (c) Click Display. This will automatically change to Static Pressure after you select the appropriate phase in the next step. By default. Display the static pressure field in the tee for the mixture (Figure 20. Release 12. (b) Select mixture from the Phase drop-down list....6). March 12. 2009 20-25 .. The lower Contours of drop-down list will now display Static Pressure. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (a) Select Pressure.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Step 11: Postprocessing for the Eulerian Model Graphics and Animations 1. Inc.

Since the Eulerian model solves individual momentum equations for each phase.. (b) Retain the selection of water from the Phase drop-down list. Figure 20. you can choose the phase for which solution data is plotted.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Display. and Velocity Magnitude from the Contours of drop-down lists.7). Inc. (a) Select Velocity.7: Contours of Water Velocity Magnitude 20-26 Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.6: Contours of Static Pressure 2.. March 12.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models Figure 20. Display contours of velocity magnitude for water (Figure 20... 2009 .

Display the volume fraction of air (Figure 20. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. You learned how to set boundary conditions for the mixture and both phases..0 c ANSYS. you displayed the results to allow for a comparison of the two approaches. Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. For more information about the mixture and Eulerian models. March 12. Inc. (b) Select air from the Phase drop-down list. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh.. (a) Select Phases. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial set of solutions. Figure 20. 2009 20-27 . see Chapter 24 in the separate User’s Guide.Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 3. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.8: Contours of Air Volume Fraction Summary This tutorial demonstrated how to set up and solve a multiphase problem using the mixture model and the Eulerian model. The solution obtained with the mixture model was used as a starting point for the calculation with the Eulerian model. After completing calculations for each model. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.8). and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists...

Using the Mixture and Eulerian Multiphase Models 20-28 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc. March 12. 2009 .

Release 12. This approach avoids the need to model the impeller itself. Experimental data are used to represent the time-averaged velocity and turbulence values at the impeller location. March 12. you will use the Eulerian multiphase model to solve the particle suspension problem. These experimental data are provided in a user-defined function. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. The sand is initially settled at the bottom of the tank. • Specify fixed velocities with a user-defined function (UDF) to simulate an impeller.Tutorial 21. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Use the granular Eulerian multiphase model. Inc. Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Introduction Mixing tanks are used to maintain solid particles or droplets of heavy fluids in suspension.0 c ANSYS. • Set boundary conditions for internal flow. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Mixing may be required to enhance reaction during chemical processing or to prevent sedimentation. The primary phase is water. while the secondary phase consists of sand particles with a 111 micron diameter. to a level just above the impeller. A schematic of the mixing tank and the initial sand position is shown in Figure 21. In this tutorial. Problem Description The problem involves the transient startup of an impeller-driven mixing tank.1. The domain is modeled as 2D axisymmetric. 2009 21-1 . • Solve a time-accurate transient problem. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. which are allowed to mix in any proportion. The Eulerian multiphase model solves momentum equations for each of the phases. The fixed-values option will be used to simulate the impeller.

Unzip eulerian_multiphase_granular. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.4446 m impeller settled .1.zip.0 c ANSYS.1728 m sand bed . 21-2 Release 12. March 12. 2. Download eulerian_multiphase_granular. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. The files.4446 m .msh and fix. Inc. 2009 .016 m water .0864 m Figure 21.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). mixtank.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow . For more information about FLUENT Launcher.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1.116 m .c can be found in the eulerian multiphase granular folder created after unzipping the file. 3. Therefore. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default.2 in the separate User’s Guide. after you read in the mesh. see Section 1.

Release 12. as the issue will be rectified when you define the solver settings in Step 2. Examine the mesh (Figure 21. and type will be printed in the console. Figure 21. You need not take any action at this point. name. File −→ Read −→Mesh. A warning message will be displayed twice in the console. Inc.. 2.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Step 1: Mesh 1. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window. Read the mesh file mixtank. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. March 12. Check the mesh.0 c ANSYS.msh.2). Step 2: General Settings General 1. Ensure hat the reported minimum volume is a positive number..2: Mesh Display Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and report the progress in the console. 2009 21-3 . its zone number.

Figure 21. General −→ Display. Inc.3: Mesh Display Using the Color by ID Option 21-4 Release 12. rather than to each type of zone.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . You can control the colors used to draw meshes by using the options available in the Mesh Colors dialog box. The graphics display will be updated to show the mesh. This will assign a different color to each zone in the domain. (b) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. March 12.... (a) Click the Colors. Modify the mesh colors. button to open the Mesh Colors dialog box.. ii. i.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 3. Close the Mesh Colors dialog box. Select Color by ID in the Options list.

March 12. Figure 21.0 c ANSYS.. (a) Select axis from the Mirror Planes selection list and click Apply.4: Mesh Display of the Tank. Modify the view of the mesh display to show the full tank upright. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. Mirrored and Scaled Release 12. Inc. 2009 21-5 . This option is used to scale and center the current display without changing its orientation (Figure 21.. (b) Click Auto Scale.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 4. The mesh display will be updated to show both sides of the tank.4).

5). Drag the indicator of the dial with the left mouse button in the counterclockwise direction until the upright view is displayed (Figure 21. Click Apply and close the Camera Parameters dialog box.. button to open the Camera Parameters dialog box. ii. 2009 . you may accidentally lose the view of the geometry in the display. Inc.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow (c) Click the Camera. Note: While modifying the view. i.. Figure 21. You can easily revert to the default (front) view by clicking the Default button in the Views dialog box.0 c ANSYS. (d) Close the Views dialog box.5: Mesh Display of the Upright Tank 21-6 Release 12. March 12.

General (a) Retain the default Pressure-Based solver. (c) Select Axisymmetric in the 2D Space list. (b) Select Transient in the Time list. The pressure-based solver must be used for multiphase calculations. Specify a transient. axisymmetric model. Inc. March 12. 6. (a) Enable Gravity.0 c ANSYS.81 m/s2 for the Gravitational Acceleration in the X direction. Release 12.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 5. Set the gravitational acceleration. (b) Enter -9. 2009 21-7 .

Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit.. Inc. 2009 . (a) Select Eulerian in the Model list. (c) Click OK to close the Multiphase Model dialog box.. 21-8 Release 12.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Step 3: Models Models 1. March 12. (b) Retain the default setting of 2 for Number of Eulerian Phases. Enable the Eulerian multiphase model.0 c ANSYS.

turbulence model with standard wall functions.. March 12. The dispersed turbulence model is applicable in this case because there is clearly one primary continuous phase and the material density ratio of the phases is approximately 2. (b) Retain the selection of Standard Wall Functions in the Near-Wall Treatment list.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box. the Stokes number is much less than 1.. Enable the k. 2009 21-9 . (c) Select Dispersed in the k-epsilon Multiphase Model list. Furthermore. Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. Release 12. the kinetic energy of the particle will not differ significantly from that of the liquid. Inc.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 2. (a) Select k-epsilon (2 eqn) in the Model list. This problem does not require a particularly fine mesh hence. standard wall functions can be used.5. Therefore.

(a) Click the FLUENT Database. (b) Select water-liquid (h2o<l>) from the FLUENT Fluid Materials selection list. (d) Close the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box. 1.. March 12. Copy liquid water from the ANSYS FLUENT materials database so that it can be used for the primary phase.0 c ANSYS. Inc. you will add liquid water to the list of fluid materials by copying it from the ANSYS FLUENT materials database and create a new material called sand. Scroll down the FLUENT Fluid Materials list to locate water-liquid (h2o<l>). 2009 .Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Step 4: Materials Materials In this step. button to open the FLUENT Database Materials dialog box.. Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit. 21-10 Release 12. (c) Click Copy to copy the information for liquid water to your model...

in the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list. March 12. (b) Enter 2500 kg/m3 for Density in the Properties group box. Create a new material called sand. (a) Enter sand for Name and delete the entry in the Chemical Formula field. The Create/Edit Materials dialog box will be updated to show the new material. 3. (c) Click Change/Create. (d) Click No in the Question dialog box to retain water-liquid and add the new material (sand) to the list. Release 12. Close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 2. sand. Inc. asking if you want to overwrite water-liquid.0 c ANSYS. A Question dialog box will open. 2009 21-11 .

(a) Enter water for Name. Specify water (water-liquid) as the primary phase..Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Step 5: Phases Phases 1.0 c ANSYS. (b) Select water-liquid from the Phase Material drop-down list. (c) Click OK to close the Primary Phase dialog box. 21-12 Release 12. Phases −→ phase-1 −→ Edit. 2009 . March 12.. Inc.

(f) Select syamlal-obrien from the Granular Viscosity drop-down list. 2009 21-13 . Phases −→ phase-2 −→ Edit..000111 m for Diameter. (a) Enter sand for Name. (i) Click OK to close the Secondary Phase dialog box. Release 12. (g) Select lun-et-al from the Granular Bulk Viscosity drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. (d) Retain the selection of Phase Property in the Granular Temperature Model list. (b) Select sand from the Phase Material drop-down list.6 for Packing Limit. Scroll down in the Properties group box to locate Packing Limit. Specify sand (sand) as the secondary phase. (c) Enable Granular. March 12. Inc.. (h) Enter 0. (e) Enter 0.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 2.

. Specify the drag law to be used for computing the interphase momentum transfer. Inc. (a) Select gidaspow from the Drag Coefficient drop-down list. 21-14 Release 12. March 12. 2009 ..0 c ANSYS. (b) Click OK to close the Phase Interaction dialog box.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 3. Phases −→ Interaction.

1357e-2 3.5578e+4 -2. 2009 21-15 .0 c ANSYS. March 12. the polynomial coefficients shown in Table 21.313 6.1: Impeller Profile Specifications For more informtion about setting up a UDF using the DEFINE PROFILE macro.725e+4 -9.1131e-2 2.845 A3 -3.9567e+6 Table 21. For this tutorial. refer to the separate UDF Manual . The variation of these values may be expressed as a function of radius. The values of the time-averaged impeller velocity components and turbulence quantities are based on experimental measurement. Though this macro is usually used to specify a profile condition on a boundary face zone.5558e+2 -424.1 are provided in the UDF fix.8410e+5 1.c.c to specify the condition in a fluid cell zone.4615e+3 1. 1. The order of polynomial to be used depends on the behavior of the function being fitted.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Step 6: User-Defined Function (UDF) A UDF is used to specify the fixed velocities that simulate the impeller. Interpret the UDF source file fix.1643e+5 A5 -1.c.7989 88. Release 12.5819e-2 A2 54. ..1345e+3 9. it is used in fix. Define −→ User-Defined −→ Functions −→Interpreted.3731e+3 A4 4.18 -5.0051e+4 9. the arguments of the macro have been changed accordingly. .120e+5 A6 – – 1..2723e-2 -6.304 -10. Hence.186e+5 -7. Inc. and imposed as polynomials according to: variable = A1 + A2 r + A3 r2 + A4 r3 + . Variable u velocity v velocity kinetic energy dissipation A1 -7.966e+5 1.

c in the eulerian multiphase granular folder that was created after you unzipped the original file. Note: The name and contents of the UDF are stored in the case file when you save the case file.. Step 7: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions 21-16 Release 12. Alternatively. (b) Enable Display Assembly Listing.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow (a) Enter fix. 2009 . and select fix.c for Source File Name. The Display Assembly Listing option displays the assembly language code in the console as the function compiles.0 c ANSYS. click Browse. March 12. you must enter the entire folder path for Source File Name instead of just entering the file name. If the UDF source file is not in your working folder. (d) Close the Interpreted UDFs dialog box.. Inc. (c) Click Interpret to interpret the UDF.

Click the Fixed Values tab and set the following fixed values: Parameter Axial Velocity Radial Velocity Turbulence Kinetic Energy Turbulence Dissipation Rate (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. Enable Fixed Values. There are no conditions to be specified in the latter two zones. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fix-zone You will specify the conditions for water and sand separately using the UDF.. (b) Click the Edit. ii.e. Value udf fixed udf fixed udf fixed udf fixed u v ke diss Release 12. (a) Select water from the Phase drop-down list. i.0 c ANSYS. button to open the Fluid dialog box. Set the boundary conditions for the fluid zone representing the impeller (fix-zone) for the primary phase. Inc. the region where the sand is initially located. conditions that apply to all phases) are acceptable. 1. representing the impeller region. there are three fluid zones. 2009 21-17 . Within the domain.. so you need to set conditions only in the zone representing the impeller. March 12. you do not have to specify any conditions for outer boundaries. The Fluid dialog box will expand to show the related inputs.. The default conditions for the mixture (i.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow For this problem. and the rest of the tank.

2009 .. ii. Value udf fixed u udf fixed v 21-18 Release 12. i. Cell Zone Conditions −→ fix-zone (a) Select sand from the Phase drop-down list. March 12.. Inc. (b) Click the Edit. The Fluid dialog box will expand to show the related inputs. button to open the Fluid dialog box. Click the Fixed Values tab and set the following fixed values: Parameter Axial Velocity Radial Velocity (c) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. Set the boundary conditions for the fluid zone representing the impeller (fix-zone) for the secondary phase. Enable Fixed Values.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 2.0 c ANSYS.

2009 21-19 . and 0. Inc. March 12. Set the under-relaxation factors. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. Solution Controls (a) Enter 0. Hint: Scroll down in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box to locate Turbulent Viscosity.5 for Pressure.. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. 0.8 for Turbulent Viscosity. Release 12. 2.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Step 8: Solution 1..0 c ANSYS.2 for Momentum.

March 12.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow (a) Ensure that the Plot is enabled in the Options group box. Initialize the solution using the default initial values. 3. Solution Initialization (a) Retain the default initial values and click Initialize.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Inc. 21-20 Release 12. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.

. Release 12. Patch the initial sand bed configuration. (b) Select Volume Fraction from the Variable selection list. (e) Click Patch and close the Patch dialog box. Solution Initialization −→ Patch. Save the initial case and data files (mixtank. perform one time step in order for the profiles to be calculated and available for viewing. Inc. you should review the impeller velocity fixes and sand bed patch after running the calculation for a single time step. (c) Enter 0. March 12. (d) Select initial-sand from the Zones to Patch selection list...gz and mixtank. 5. (a) Select sand from the Phase drop-down list. Since you are using a UDF for the velocity profiles.dat.0 c ANSYS.56 for Value.gz)..cas. 2009 21-21 . File −→ Write −→Case & Data. As a precaution.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 4. The problem statement is now complete.

(c) Enter 40 for Max Iterations/Time Step. Run Calculation (a) Enter 0. March 12. 2009 . Examine the initial velocities and sand volume fraction. Inc. Surface −→Zone.. (b) Enter 1 for Number of Time Steps. Set the time stepping parameters and run the calculation for 0.0 c ANSYS. In order to display the initial fixed velocities in the fluid zone (fix-zone). you need to create a surface for this zone. (d) Click Calculate. 7.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 6.005 for Time Step Size.. (a) Create a surface for fix-zone.005 seconds. 21-22 Release 12.

i. The new surface will be added to the Surfaces selection list in the Zone Surface dialog box. iii.. 2009 21-23 . ii.. Inc..0 c ANSYS. Retain the selection of Velocity from the Vectors of drop-down list.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow i. Release 12. ii. Retain the selection of water from the Phase drop-down list below the Vectors of drop-down list. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically assign the default name to the new surface when it is created. iv. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. Select fix-zone from the Zone selection list and click Create. (b) Display the initial impeller velocities for water (Figure 21. Retain the selection of Velocity. Retain the selection of water from the Phase drop-down list below the Color by drop-down lists. The default name is the same as the zone name. March 12.6). Close the Zone Surface dialog box. and Velocity Magnitude from the Color by drop-down lists..

0 c ANSYS.6: Initial Impeller Velocities for Water (c) Display the initial impeller velocities for sand (Figure 21. as shown in Figure 21. ii.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow v. Select fix-zone from the Surfaces selection list and click Display. ANSYS FLUENT will display the water velocity vectors fixes at the impeller location. Select sand from the Phase drop-down lists (below the Vectors of dropdown list and Color by drop-down lists). Figure 21..6.7).7) and close the Vectors dialog box.7: Initial Impeller Velocities for Sand 21-24 Release 12. 2009 . Inc. i. Figure 21. Click Display (Figure 21. March 12.. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.

ii.0 c ANSYS. iii.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow (d) Display contours of sand volume fraction (Figure 21. and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists. Select Phases. Select sand from the Phase drop-down list. Inc. as shown in Figure 21. Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.8. i.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. 2009 21-25 . March 12. Enable Filled in the Options group box. ANSYS FLUENT will display the initial location of the settled sand bed.8). Release 12... iv.

0 c ANSYS. (b) Click Calculate. Select water from the Phase drop-down lists (below the Vectors of dropdown list and Color by drop-down lists)..Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Figure 21.gz and mixtank1. you will review the results before continuing. The circulation is confined to the region near the impeller. Click Display..9). (a) Display the velocity vectors for water in the whole tank (Figure 21. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. 21-26 Release 12. and has not yet had time to develop in the upper portions of the tank.gz).9 shows the water velocity vectors after 1 second of operation. Run the calculation for 1 second. March 12.. iii. Run Calculation (a) Enter 199 for Number of Time Steps. Examine the results of the calculation after 1 second. i.cas.dat. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. ii.8: Initial Settled Sand Bed 8.. 10. After a total of 200 time steps have been computed (1 second of operation). Inc. Save the case and data files (mixtank1. Deselect fix-zone from the Surfaces selection list. 9. Figure 21. 2009 .

. ii. Select sand from the Phase drop-down lists (below the Vectors of dropdown list and Color by drop-down lists).Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Figure 21.0 c ANSYS. i. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.10: Sand Velocity Vectors after 1 s Release 12. Figure 21. 2009 21-27 .9: Water Velocity Vectors after 1 s (b) Display the velocity vectors for the sand (Figure 21.. March 12. Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. Inc.10).

. but note that no sand vectors are plotted in the upper part of the tank. The circulation of sand around the impeller is significant.0 c ANSYS. and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists.10 shows the sand velocity vectors after 1 second of operation. The maximum sand volume fraction has decreased as a result of the mixing of water and sand. March 12. Retain the selection of sand from the Phase drop-down list.11: Contours of Sand Volume Fraction after 1 s 21-28 Release 12. Retain the selection of Phases. Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. the sand bed is lifted up slightly.11)..Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow Figure 21. ii. 2009 . Notice that the action of the impeller draws clear fluid from above the originally settled bed and mixes it into the sand. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. where the sand is not yet present.. Figure 21. (c) Display contours of sand volume fraction (Figure 21. Inc.. iii. To compensate. i.

you can increase the time step to speed up the calculation.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.cas. 12.12). 2009 21-29 . The initial calculation was performed with a very small time step size to stabilize the solution. Continue the calculation for another 19 seconds. (c) Click Calculate. The mixing tank has nearly.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 11.gz and mixtank20. (b) Enter 1900 for Number of Time Steps. Figure 21.dat. After the initial calculation.. Inc. 1. reached a steady flow solution. Step 9: Postprocessing You will now examine the progress of the sand and water in the mixing tank after a total of 20 seconds. though modest near the top. Display the velocity vectors for water (Figure 21. March 12. Run Calculation (a) Set the Time Step Size to 0.01. The transient calculation will continue upto 20 seconds. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.. Figure 21.0 c ANSYS.gz).12: Water Velocity Vectors after 20 s Release 12.12 shows the water velocity vectors after 20 seconds of operation.. The circulation of water is now very strong in the lower portion of the tank. Save the case and data files (mixtank20. but not quite.

. March 12. but does not reach the upper region of the tank.0 c ANSYS.13). Display the velocity vectors for sand (Figure 21.13 shows the sand velocity vectors after 20 seconds of operation. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. Figure 21.. Inc.14).13: Sand Velocity Vectors after 20 s 3. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up..14: Contours of Sand Volume Fraction after 20 s 21-30 Release 12. Display contours of sand volume fraction (Figure 21. 2009 .Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 2. The water velocity in that region is not sufficient to overcome the gravity force on the sand particles. Figure 21. The sand has now been suspended much higher within the mixing tank. Figure 21..

(c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.15). Inc.15 shows the pressure distribution after 20 seconds of operation. Figure 21. March 12. Figure 21. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists.. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. 2009 21-31 . Display filled contours of static pressure for the mixture (Figure 21.. Release 12. (b) Select Pressure. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 4. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. (a) Select mixture from the Phase drop-down list. under the assumptions made..15: Contours of Pressure after 20 s Summary This tutorial demonstrated how to set up and solve a granular multiphase problem using the Eulerian multiphase model.0 c ANSYS. The pressure field represents the hydrostatic pressure except for some slight deviations due to the flow of the impeller near the bottom of the tank. The problem involved the 2D modeling of particle suspension in a mixing tank and postprocessing showed the near-steady-state behavior of the sand in the mixing tank..

Using the Eulerian Multiphase Model for Granular Flow 21-32 Release 12. 2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS. March 12.

Starting with an existing 2D mesh. as is the free surface of the liquid. • Define a surface tension gradient for Marangoni convection. The steady conduction solution for this problem is computed as an initial condition. Then.0 c ANSYS. • Solve a solidification problem. Inc. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. March 12. Release 12. The liquid is solidified by heat loss from the crystal and the solid is pulled out of the domain at a rate of 0. There is a steady injection of liquid at the bottom of the bowl with a velocity of 1. namely the Czochralski growth process. • Define pull velocities for simulation of continuous casting.1. The geometry considered is a 2D axisymmetric bowl (shown in Figure 22. the details regarding the setup and solution procedure for the solidification problem are presented. Problem Description This tutorial demonstrates the setup and solution procedure for a fluid flow and heat transfer problem involving solidification. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. 2009 22-1 . The bottom and sides of the bowl are heated above the liquidus temperature. containing liquid metal. Introduction Modeling Solidification This tutorial illustrates how to set up and solve a problem involving solidification. This tutorial will demonstrate how to do the following: • Define a solidification problem.01 × 10−3 m/s and a temperature of 1300 K. the fluid flow is enabled to investigate the effect of natural and Marangoni convection in an transient fashion. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Material properties are listed in Figure 22.1).001 m/s and a temperature of 500 K.Tutorial 22.

00101 m/s T = 1300 K y Ω = 1 rad/s Mushy Region 0. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT.53 × 10−3 kg/m − s 30 W/m − K 680 J/kg − K -3.Modeling Solidification T = 1400 K g Free Surface T = 1300 K 0. Unzip solidification. Download solidification.1: Solidification in Czochralski Model ρ µ k Cp ∂σ/∂T Tsolidus Tliquidus L Amush = = = = = = = = = 8000 .1 m T = 500 K u = 0.001 m/s T = 500 K 0.05 m 0. March 12. 22-2 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.1 m x Crystal Figure 22.03 m h = 100 W/m2 K T env = 1500 K u = 0.0.6 × 10−4 N/m − K 1100 K 1200 K 1 × 105 J/kg 1 × 105 kg/m3 −s Setup and Solution Preparation 1. 3.zip. 2009 . 2.1 × T kg/m3 5. Inc.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).msh can be found in the solidification folder created after unzipping the file. The file solid.

Therefore.. Read the mesh file solid.Modeling Solidification For more information about FLUENT Launcher.1. after you read in the mesh. informing you to consider making changes to the zone type. March 12. Release 12. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Step 1: Mesh 1. see Section 1. As the mesh is read by ANSYS FLUENT. Make sure that the minimum volume is a positive number. 2.2 in the separate User’s Guide. 2009 22-3 . You will change the problem to axisymmetric swirl in step 2.2).msh. messages will appear in the console reporting the progress of the reading. A warning about the use of axis boundary conditions will be displayed in the console.0 c ANSYS. Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. Check the mesh. Step 2: General Settings General 1. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. Examine the mesh (Figure 22. or to change the problem definition to axisymmetric.. Inc. File −→ Read −→Mesh.

When modeling axisymmetric swirl. Also. the x-direction is the axial direction and the y-direction is the radial direction. so the selection of Axisymmetric Swirl best defines this geometry. the swirl direction is the tangential direction. General The geometry comprises an axisymmetric bowl. Inc. 2009 . Select Axisymmetric Swirl from the 2D Space list.Modeling Solidification Figure 22. swirling flows are considered in this problem.2: Mesh Display 3. Hence. March 12. note that the rotation axis is the x-axis.0 c ANSYS. Furthermore. 22-4 Release 12.

General −→ Gravity (a) Enable Gravity. Release 12. (b) Enter -9. Step 3: Models Models 1. March 12.. Add the effect of gravity on the model. Models −→ Solidification & Melting −→ Edit.81 m/s2 for X in the Gravitational Acceleration group box.Modeling Solidification 4.. Define the solidification model. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 22-5 .

March 12. When you enable this option. (d) Click OK to close the Solidification and Melting dialog box. An Information dialog box will open.0 c ANSYS. For more information about computing the pull velocities.Modeling Solidification (a) Enable the Solidification/Melting option in the Model group box.1 in the separate User’s Guide. you will account for the movement of the solidified material as it is continuously withdrawn from the domain in the continuous casting process. so you can simply click OK in the dialog box to acknowledge this information. see Section 25. You will set the material properties later. so you need not visit the Energy dialog box. 22-6 Release 12. the Solidification and Melting dialog box will expand to show the Compute Pull Velocities option. (b) Retain the default value of 100000 for the Mushy Zone Constant. telling you that available material properties have changed for the solidification model. If you were to enable this additional option. Inc. The Solidification and Melting dialog box will expand to show the related parameters. This approach is computationally expensive and is recommended only if the pull velocities are strongly dependent on the location of the liquid-solid interface. 2009 . This default value is acceptable for most cases. you will patch values for the pull velocities instead of having ANSYS FLUENT compute them. (c) Enable the Include Pull Velocities option. In this tutorial. Note: ANSYS FLUENT will automatically enable the energy calculation when you enable the solidification model. By including the pull velocities. ANSYS FLUENT would compute the pull velocities during the calculation.

Inc. 1. Release 12.Modeling Solidification Step 4: Materials Materials In this step. solidus temperature. Scroll down the list to find polynomial. you will create a new material and specify its properties. Define a new material.. 2009 22-7 . Materials −→ Fluid −→ Create/Edit. March 12. including the melting heat.. (b) Select polynomial from the Density drop-down list to open the Polynomial Profile dialog box.0 c ANSYS. and liquidus temperature. (a) Enter liquid-metal for Name.

(d) Enter 680 j/kg − k for Cp.0 c ANSYS. iii.1T . (f) Enter 0. 22-8 Release 12. A Question dialog box will open. (c) Select liquid-metal from the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list to set the other material properties. As shown in Figure 22. 2009 . (e) Enter 30 w/m − k for Thermal Conductivity.1.00553 kg/m − s for Viscosity. Enter 8000 for 1 and -0. the density of the material is defined by a polynomial function: ρ = 8000 − 0.1 for 2 in the Coefficients group box. Click No to retain air and add the new material (liquid-metal) to the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list. March 12. asking you if air should be overwritten. Click OK to close the Polynomial Profile dialog box. Inc.Modeling Solidification i. ii. Set Coefficients to 2.

(i) Enter 1200 K for Liquidus Temperature. Inc. Scroll down the group box to find Pure Solvent Melting Heat and the properties that follow. (h) Enter 1100 K for Solidus Temperature. 2009 22-9 . Step 5: Cell Zone Conditions Cell Zone Conditions Release 12.0 c ANSYS. (j) Click Change/Create and close the Create/Edit Materials dialog box. March 12.Modeling Solidification (g) Enter 100000 j/kg for Pure Solvent Melting Heat.

Cell Zone Conditions −→ fluid −→ Edit. 2009 . Inc.Modeling Solidification 1. March 12... (b) Click OK to close the Fluid dialog box. (a) Select liquid-metal from the Material Name drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. Step 6: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions 22-10 Release 12. Set the boundary conditions for the fluid (fluid).

0 c ANSYS. Inc. March 12. (b) Click the Thermal tab and enter 1300 K for Temperature.00101 m/s for Velocity Magnitude. (c) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. 2009 22-11 . Boundary Conditions −→ inlet −→ Edit.. Release 12. (a) Enter 0.Modeling Solidification 1.. Set the boundary conditions for the inlet (inlet).

Here. March 12. Boundary Conditions −→ outlet −→ Edit.. Inc.Modeling Solidification 2. 22-12 Release 12. 2009 . (a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions for the outlet (outlet).0 c ANSYS. the solid is pulled out with a specified velocity. (b) Enter 0. so a velocity inlet boundary condition is used with a positive axial velocity component.. (d) Click the Thermal tab and enter 500 K for Temperature. The Velocity Inlet dialog box will change to show related inputs. (c) Enter 1 rad/s for Swirl Angular Velocity.001 m/s for Axial-Velocity.

Enter 1300 K for Temperature. Set the boundary conditions for the bottom wall (bottom-wall).Modeling Solidification (e) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Select Temperature from the Thermal Conditions group box. March 12. Release 12. bottom-wall −→ Edit. 2009 22-13 . ii. Inc..0 c ANSYS. i. 3.. Boundary Conditions −→ (a) Click the Thermal tab.

. 22-14 Release 12. (a) Select Marangoni Stress from the Shear Condition group box. The Marangoni Stress condition allows you to specify the gradient of the surface tension with respect to temperature at a wall boundary. (c) Click the Thermal tab to specify the thermal conditions.00036 n/m − k for Surface Tension Gradient. Set the boundary conditions for the free surface (free-surface).Modeling Solidification 4.. the convection is driven by the Marangoni stress and the shear stress is dependent on the surface tension. (b) Enter -0. In this case. Boundary Conditions −→ free-surface −→ Edit.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 . The specified shear and Marangoni stress boundary conditions are useful in modeling situations in which the shear stress (rather than the motion of the fluid) is known. which is a function of temperature. March 12. A free surface condition is an example of such a situation.

Select Convection from the Thermal Conditions group box. March 12. side-wall −→ Edit. iii. Enter 100 w/m2 −k for Heat Transfer Coefficient.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ (a) Click the Thermal tab. Enter 1400 K for the Temperature.. 2009 22-15 . i.. Enter 1500 K for Free Stream Temperature.Modeling Solidification i. Set the boundary conditions for the side wall (side-wall). ii. 5. Release 12. (b) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Select Temperature from the Thermal Conditions group box. ii.

Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ solid-wall −→ Edit. (b) Select Rotational in the lower box of the Motion group box.0 rad/s for Speed. March 12. The Wall dialog box will expand to show additional parameters. Set the boundary conditions for the solid wall (solid-wall).Modeling Solidification 6.. 2009 .. 22-16 Release 12. The Wall dialog box will change to show the rotational speed. (c) Enter 1. (a) Select Moving Wall from the Wall Motion group box.0 c ANSYS.

Select Temperature from the Thermal Conditions selection list. i. 2009 22-17 . Release 12. (e) Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. ii. Inc.0 c ANSYS. March 12. Enter 500 K for Temperature.Modeling Solidification (d) Click the Thermal tab to specify the thermal conditions.

Inc. and Energy drop-down lists. so that only conduction is calculated.0 c ANSYS. March 12. 2009 . This steady-state solution will be used as the initial condition for the timedependent fluid flow and heat transfer calculation. 1. (c) Retain the default selection of First Order Upwind from the Momentum. you will specify the discretization schemes to be used and temporarily disable the calculation of the flow and swirl velocity equations. Set the solution parameters. (b) Select PRESTO! from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. The PRESTO! scheme is well suited for rotating flows with steep pressure gradients. 22-18 Release 12. Swirl Velocity. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default selection of SIMPLE from the Pressure-Velocity Coupling drop-down list.Modeling Solidification Step 7: Solution: Steady Conduction In this step.

Modeling Solidification 2. March 12. Inc. Solution Controls (a) Retain the default values. 3. (b) Click OK to close the Equations dialog box. Release 12.. (a) Deselect Flow and Swirl Velocity from the Equations selection list to disable the calculation of flow and swirl velocity equations. Enable the calculation for energy. Set the Under-Relaxation Factors. 2009 22-19 .0 c ANSYS.. Solution Controls −→ Equations.

Solution Initialization 22-20 Release 12. 5.. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. (b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.. March 12. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. (a) Make sure Plot is enabled in the Options group box.Modeling Solidification 4. Inc. Initialize the solution.

(b) Click the Select button to add radial-coordinate in the Definition field. (a) Select Mesh.. Define a custom field function for the swirl pull velocity. 2009 22-21 . Radial Velocity. (f) Click Define. you can click Manage. Note: To check the function definition. If you make a mistake. the value of Ω is included for demonstration purposes.. March 12.0 c ANSYS. Define −→Custom Field Functions. Axial Velocity. you can simplify the equation to simply r. (c) Click the × button on the calculator pad. Inc. Since Ω = 1 rad/s. you will define a field function to be used to patch a variable value for the swirl pull velocity in the next step.. (c) Click Initialize. Then select omegar from the Field Functions selection list to view the function definition. (e) Enter omegar for New Function Name.. In this example. Since you are solving only the steady conduction problem. click the DEL button on the calculator pad to delete the last item you added to the function definition.Modeling Solidification (a) Retain the default value of 0 for Gauge Pressure. (b) Retain the default value of 300 K for Temperature. to open the Field Function Definitions dialog box. The swirl pull velocity is equal to Ωr. (d) Click the 1 button. 6. the initial values for the pressure and velocities will not be used. Release 12. In this step. and Swirl Velocity. where Ω is the angular velocity and r is the radial coordinate.. (g) Close the Custom Field Function Calculator dialog box. and Radial Coordinate from the Field Functions drop-down lists..

rather than having ANSYS FLUENT compute them. (b) Enter 0. you will patch just the axial and swirl pull velocities. Since the radial pull velocity is zero.Modeling Solidification 7. 2009 . Inc. (a) Select Axial Pull Velocity from the Variable selection list. Scroll down the list to find Swirl Pull Velocity. (e) Select Swirl Pull Velocity from the Variable selection list. Solution Initialization −→ Patch.. You have just patched the axial pull velocity. As noted earlier.001 m/s for Value. Next you will patch the swirl pull velocity. March 12. you will patch values for the pull velocities.. 22-22 Release 12. Patch the pull velocities.0 c ANSYS. (d) Click Patch. (c) Select fluid from the Zones to Patch selection list.

2009 22-23 .0 c ANSYS..Modeling Solidification (f) Enable the Use Field Function option.cas. Release 12.. Run Calculation (a) Enter 20 for Number of Iterations. 9.dat. (h) Make sure that fluid is selected from the Zones to Patch selection list. (i) Click Patch and close the Patch dialog box. Start the calculation by requesting 20 iterations. (g) Select omegar from the Field Function selection list. March 12.gz and solid0. (b) Click Calculate. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Save the initial case and data files (solid0.gz). The solution will converge in approximately 11 iterations. 8. Inc.

0 (axi. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists. swirl..70e+02 7.05e+02 8.60e+02 8. lam) Figure 22.50e+02 9. (a) Enable the Filled option. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.09e+03 1.95e+02 9. 2009 .04e+03 9.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Display (Figure 22. pbns. Inc..31e+03 1.15e+02 7.3).3: Contours of Temperature for the Steady Conduction Solution 22-24 Release 12.13e+03 1.80e+02 6.36e+03 1. (b) Select Temperature. March 12.Modeling Solidification 10.00e+02 Contours of Static Temperature (k) FLUENT 12.40e+03 1.18e+03 1...27e+03 1. 1.35e+02 5.22e+03 1. Display filled contours of temperature (Figure 22.25e+02 6.90e+02 5.45e+02 5.3).

(a) Disable Auto Range in the Options group box..Modeling Solidification 11. Figure 22. (b) Enter 1100 for Min and 1200 for Max..4: Contours of Temperature (Mushy Zone) for the Steady Conduction Solution Release 12. March 12.4) and close the Contours dialog box. The Clip to Range option will automatically be enabled.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Display (See Figure 22. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. 2009 22-25 . Inc. Display filled contours of temperature to determine the thickness of mushy zone.

1.. General (a) Select Transient from the Time list. Step 8: Solution: Transient Flow and Heat Transfer In this step. Inc. March 12.gz).gz and solid..dat. 2009 . You will then solve the transient problem using the steady conduction solution as the initial condition. Save the case and data files for the steady conduction solution (solid. 22-26 Release 12.cas. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. Enable a time-dependent solution.0 c ANSYS.Modeling Solidification 12. you will turn on time dependence and include the flow and swirl velocity equations in the calculation.

Set the solution parameters. Inc.Modeling Solidification 2.. (b) Ensure that PRESTO! is selected from the Pressure drop-down list in the Spatial Discretization group box. Solution Controls −→ Equations.0 c ANSYS. March 12. Release 12. 3. 2009 22-27 .. Enable calculations for flow and swirl velocity. Solution Methods (a) Retain the default selection of First Order Implicit from the Transient Formulation drop-down list.

March 12. Save the initial case and data files (solid01. (b) Retain the default values for other Under-Relaxation Factors.dat. Now all three items in the Equations selection list will be selected. 4.1 for Liquid Fraction Update. Set the Under-Relaxation Factors.cas.0 c ANSYS.gz and solid01. Inc. (b) Click OK to close the Equations dialog box.Modeling Solidification (a) Select Flow and Swirl Velocity and ensure that Energy is selected from the Equations selection list. 22-28 Release 12. 5. 2009 .. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.gz). Solution Controls (a) Enter 0..

Display filled contours of the temperature after 0. Run Calculation (a) Enter 0. (a) Make sure that Temperature. (b) Click Display (See Figure 22. and Static Temperature are selected from the Contours of drop-down lists. 2009 22-29 .1 s for Time Step Size. March 12. Run the calculation for 2 time steps.Modeling Solidification 6. Release 12..2 seconds. (b) Set the Number of Time Steps to 2. 7.. Inc.. (c) Retain the default value of 20 for Max Iterations/Time Step. (d) Click Calculate.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.5).0 c ANSYS.

0 c ANSYS. (a) Disable Filled in the Options group box.6).6: Contours of Stream Function at t = 0...2 s 8. and Stream Function from the Contours of drop-down lists. Inc.Modeling Solidification Figure 22. 2009 . Figure 22. (b) Select Velocity. Display contours of stream function (Figure 22..2 s 22-30 Release 12. March 12.5: Contours of Temperature at t = 0. (c) Click Display. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up..

0 c ANSYS. March 12.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. Release 12. the elapsed time will be 5 seconds..6. and Liquid Fraction from the Contours of dropdown lists. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. After a total of 50 time steps have been completed. Display contours of liquid fraction (Figure 22. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. (b) Select Solidification/Melting. the mushy zone divides the liquid and solid regions roughly in half.Modeling Solidification As shown in Figure 22.. 10. (b) Click Calculate.2 s The liquid fraction contours show the current position of the melt front. Continue the calculation for 48 additional time steps.7). the liquid is beginning to circulate in a large eddy. 2009 22-31 . Figure 22. Run Calculation (a) Enter 48 for Number of Time Steps. Note that in Figure 22. 9..7. Inc. driven by natural convection and Marangoni convection on the free surface.7: Contours of Liquid Fraction at t = 0.

Display contours of stream function (Figure 22. 22-32 Release 12. 12. it will not have solidified (i. Figure 22. 2009 . (a) Disable Filled in the Options group box. it solidifies in the casting pool and cannot be pulled out in the required shape. (c) Click Display. If it is pulled out too late.. In a continuous casting process.8. it is important to pull out the solidified material at the proper time. the temperature contours are fairly uniform through the melt front and solid material. (b) Select Temperature.. If the material is pulled out too soon. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.8). Inc. The distortion of the temperature field due to the recirculating liquid is also clearly evident. Display filled contours of the temperature after 5 seconds (Figure 22.. it will still be in a mushy state).. The optimal rate of pull can be determined from the contours of liquidus temperature and solidus temperature.0 c ANSYS. (b) Select Velocity.. and Stream Function from the Contours of drop-down lists.e. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up... March 12. As shown in Figure 22. (c) Click Display. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists.8: Contours of Temperature at t = 5 s (a) Ensure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box.Modeling Solidification 11..9)..

the equilibrium position of the melt front is beginning to be established (Figure 22.9: Contours of Stream Function at t = 5 s 13. (b) Select Solidification/Melting.10). (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. March 12. After 5 seconds. Display filled contours of liquid fraction (Figure 22.6 after 0. the flow has developed more fully by 5 seconds. To examine the position of the melt front and the extent of the mushy zone. Release 12...9.2 seconds. Figure 22. you will plot the contours of liquid fraction. as compared with Figure 22. 2009 22-33 . Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. and Liquid Fraction from the Contours of dropdown lists.Modeling Solidification As shown in Figure 22. driven by natural convection and Marangoni stress. The introduction of liquid material at the left of the domain is balanced by the pulling of the solidified material from the right.10).. The main eddy.0 c ANSYS. dominates the flow. Inc..

Summary In this tutorial.gz).. In this tutorial.10: Contours of Liquid Fraction at t = 5 s 14. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial set of solutions. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh.Modeling Solidification Figure 22. 22-34 Release 12.. File −→ Write −→Case & Data. you patched a constant value and a custom field function for the pull velocities instead of computing them. This approach is used for cases where the pull velocity is not changing over the domain.0 c ANSYS. March 12. For more information about the solidification/melting model. as it is computationally less expensive than having ANSYS FLUENT compute the pull velocities during the calculation. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. you studied the setup and solution for a fluid flow problem involving solidification for the Czochralski growth process. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh.gz and solid5. Inc. The solidification model in ANSYS FLUENT can be used to model the continuous casting process where a solid material is continuously pulled out from the casting domain. 2009 . Save the case and data files for the solution at 5 seconds (solid5. see Chapter 25 in the separate User’s Guide.cas.dat.

under uniform minimum fluidization conditions. which you can then compare with analytical results [1]. The results obtained for the local wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficient in ANSYS FLUENT can be compared with analytical results [1]. Release 12. The geometry and data for the problem are shown in Figure 23. A uniformly fluidized bed is examined. Problem Description This problem considers a hot gas fluidized bed in which air flows upwards through the bottom of the domain and through an additional small orifice next to a heated wall. 2009 23-1 .Tutorial 23. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Use the Eulerian granular model. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1.1. March 12.0 c ANSYS. • Calculate a solution using the pressure-based solver. Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Introduction This tutorial examines the flow of air and a granular solid phase consisting of glass beads in a hot gas fluidized bed. • Set boundary conditions for internal flow. Inc.

25 m/s T = 293 K Orifice u = 0. Enable Double Precision.0 c ANSYS.msh and conduct.zip.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). 3. 2009 . Ensure that Setup Compilation Environment for UDF is enabled in the UDF Compiler tab of the FLUENT Launcher window. Unzip eulerian_granular_heat.1. March 12. fluid-bed. see Section 1. This will allow you to compile the UDF. can be found in the eulerian granular heat folder created after unzipping the file.1: Problem Schematic Setup and Solution Preparation 1. The files. Inc. 2.25 m/s T = 293 K Figure 23.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Pressure Outlet 101325 Pa Insulated Wall Heated Wall T = 373 K 0. 23-2 Release 12. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 2D version of ANSYS FLUENT. For more information about FLUENT Launcher. Download eulerian_granular_heat. 4.c.598 Volume Fraction of Solids Uniform Velocity Inlet u = 0.2 in the separate User’s Guide.

Release 12. Step 2: General Settings General 1.0 c ANSYS. March 12. after you read in the mesh. Read the mesh file fluid-bed. Inc. Step 1: Mesh 1. it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window. As ANSYS FLUENT reads the mesh file..msh. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. it will report the progress in the console.. General −→ Check ANSYS FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console. Check the mesh.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. 2009 23-3 . Therefore. File −→ Read −→Mesh.

0 c ANSYS.2). The pressure-based solver must be used for multiphase calculations. Enable the pressure-based transient solver. (b) Select Transient from the Time list. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. Figure 23. Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary. 23-4 Release 12. its zone number. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window. and type will be printed in the ANSYS FLUENT console. March 12. General (a) Retain the default selection of Pressure-Based from the Type list.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 2. Examine the mesh (Figure 23. Inc. name.2: Mesh Display of the Fluidized Bed 3. 2009 .

Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 4. Inc. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. General −→ Gravity (a) Enter -9.81 m/s2 for the Gravitational Acceleration in the Y direction. Set the gravitational acceleration. 2009 23-5 . March 12.

. 2. Click OK to close the Information dialog box. Enable the Eulerian multiphase model for two phases. Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit. March 12. 2009 . (a) Select Eulerian from the Model list. Models −→ Energy −→ Edit. (a) Enable Energy Equation. Enable heat transfer by enabling the energy equation.0 c ANSYS.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Step 3: Models Models 1. 23-6 Release 12. Inc. An Information dialog box will open.. (b) Click OK to close the Energy dialog box. (b) Click OK to close the Multiphase Model dialog box...

that will be used to define the thermal conductivity for the gas and solid phase. i. a Warning dialog box will open asking you to make sure that UDF source file and case/data files are in the same folder.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 3.c. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 23-7 . Define −→ User-Defined −→ Functions −→Compiled. Select the file conduct. Also.... Models −→ Viscous −→ Edit. Retain the default laminar viscous model. March 12.c and click OK in the Select File dialog box. Step 4: UDF 1. Experiments have shown negligible three-dimensional effects in the flow field for the case modeled.. (b) Click Build.. button below the Source Files option to open the Select File dialog box.. conduct. Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT will create a libudf folder and compile the UDF. suggesting very weak turbulent behavior. (a) Click the Add. Compile the user-defined function.

which will be used for the primary phase. Inc. (b) Enter 994 J/kg-K for Cp.2 kg/m3 for Density. Extra: If you decide to read in the case file that is provided for this tutorial on the User Services Center. Step 5: Materials Materials 1. March 12. [1] (a) Enter 1. This is necessary because ANSYS FLUENT will expect to find the correct UDF libraries in your working folder when reading the case file.. 23-8 Release 12.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer (c) Click OK to close the Warning dialog box. (d) Click Load to load the UDF. Modify the properties for air. you will need to compile the UDF associated with this tutorial in your working folder.0 c ANSYS.. The properties used for air are modified to match data used by Kuipers et al. Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. 2009 .

ii. button to open the User Defined Functions dialog box.. (d) Retain the selection of user-defined from the Thermal Conductivity drop-down list. Click OK to close the User Defined Functions dialog box.. i. Release 12. Select conduct solid::libudf in the User Defined Functions dialog box and click OK. 2. (b) Enter 2660 kg/m3 for Density. Select conduct gas::libudf from the available list. (a) Enter solids for Name. i. A Question dialog box will open asking if you want to overwrite air. 2009 23-9 .0 c ANSYS. March 12.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer (c) Select user-defined from the Thermal Conductivity drop-down list to open the User Defined Functions dialog box... Define a new fluid material for the granular phase (the glass beads). Materials −→ air −→ Create/Edit. (e) Click the Edit. Inc. (d) Click Change/Create. (c) Enter 737 J/kg-K for Cp.

Phases −→ phase-1 . Inc.0 c ANSYS. (f) Select solids from the FLUENT Fluid Materials drop-down list. Click No in the Question dialog box. March 12. (b) Ensure that air is selected from the Phase Material drop-down list.Primary Phase −→ Edit.. 23-10 Release 12. Define air as the primary phase. 2009 . (a) Enter air for Name. (g) Click Change/Create and close the Materials dialog box.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer ii.. (c) Click OK to close the Primary Phase dialog box. Step 6: Phases Phases 1.

Inc. (i) Enter 0..6 for the Packing Limit. (d) Retain the default selection of Phase Property in the Granular Temperature Model group box. Release 12. Define solids (glass beads) as the secondary phase. (a) Enter solids for Name. (b) Select solids from the Phase Material drop-down list. March 12. (e) Enter 0.Secondary Phase −→ Edit. (h) Select constant from the Granular Temperature drop-down list and enter 1e-05.0005 m for Diameter. 2009 23-11 .Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 2. (f) Select syamlal-obrien from the Granular Viscosity drop-down list. (c) Enable Granular.0 c ANSYS. (j) Click OK to close the Secondary Phase dialog box. (g) Select lun-et-al from the Granular Bulk Viscosity drop-down list.. Phases −→ phase-2 .

2009 ..Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 3. Define the interphase interactions formulations to be used. and select gunn from the Heat Transfer Coefficient dropdown list. (b) Click the Heat tab.0 c ANSYS. 23-12 Release 12. Inc. March 12.. (a) Select syamlal-obrien from the Drag Coefficient drop-down list. Phases −→ Interaction.

and a heat transfer coefficient.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click OK to close the Phase Interaction dialog box. Inc. you need to set the boundary conditions for all boundaries. Granular phase lift is not very relevant in this problem. 2009 23-13 .Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer The interphase heat exchange is simulated. and in fact is rarely used. March 12.9. Step 7: Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions For this problem. the default restitution coefficient for granular collisions of 0. using a drag coefficient. Release 12.

Enter 0. ii. Inc.. March 12. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.. Boundary Conditions −→ v uniform (a) Select solids from the Phase drop-down list.25 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude. you will specify conditions at a velocity inlet that are specific to the primary and secondary phases. (b) Click the Edit.0 c ANSYS.. 23-14 Release 12. Set the boundary conditions for the lower velocity inlet (v uniform) for the secondary phase. 2009 . (b) Click the Edit. (a) Select air from the Phase drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions for the lower velocity inlet (v uniform) for the primary phase. button to open the Velocity Inlet dialog box.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 1. i. Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature. Normal to Boundary from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list. button to open the Velocity Inlet dialog box. iv. 2.. Boundary Conditions −→ v uniform For the Eulerian multiphase model. Retain the default selection of Magnitude. iii.

in this simulation you will use a uniform value for the air velocity equal to the minimum fluidization velocity at both inlets on the bottom of the bed. Click the Multiphase tab and retain the default value of 0 for Volume Fraction. Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. i. button to open the Velocity Inlet dialog box.. iii. Retain the default Velocity Specification Method and Reference Frame. Boundary Conditions −→ v jet (a) Select air from the Phase drop-down list. ii. Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature.0 c ANSYS.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer i. Release 12. 2009 23-15 . Enter 0. In order for a comparison with analytical results [1] to be meaningful. iii. iv. 3. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. iv. Inc. v.25 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude. Retain the default value of 0 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude. ii. Retain the default Velocity Specification Method and Reference Frame. March 12. Set the boundary conditions for the orifice velocity inlet (v jet) for the primary phase.. (b) Click the Edit.

i. button to open the Pressure Outlet dialog box. (a) Select mixture from the Phase drop-down list. Inc. You can set them equal to the inlet values.. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box. you will specify conditions at a pressure outlet for the mixture and for both phases. Set the boundary conditions for the orifice velocity inlet (v jet) for the secondary phase.0 c ANSYS. March 12. Retain the default value of 0 m/s for the Velocity Magnitude.. Retain the default Velocity Specification Method and Reference Frame. iii. it is important to set reasonable values for these downstream scalar values. however. 23-16 Release 12.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 4. 5. Boundary Conditions −→ poutlet For the Eulerian granular model. button to open the Velocity Inlet dialog box. v. ii. in case flow reversal occurs at some point during the calculation. In general. Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Temperature. (b) Click the Edit. Boundary Conditions −→ v jet (a) Select solids from the Phase drop-down list. Set the boundary conditions for the pressure outlet (poutlet) for the mixture phase. 2009 . Click the Multiphase tab and retain the default value of 0 for the Volume Fraction. i... Retain the default value of 0 Pascal for Gauge Pressure. as no flow reversal is expected at the pressure outlet. The thermal conditions at the pressure outlet will be used only if flow enters the domain through this boundary. (b) Click the Edit. Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. iv. ii.

7.. button to open the Pressure Outlet dialog box.. Set the boundary conditions for the pressure outlet (poutlet) for the secondary phase. (b) Click the Edit. i. Set the boundary conditions for the pressure outlet (poutlet) for the primary phase. Click the Multiphase tab and retain default settings. Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for the Backflow Total Temperature. Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. ii. iii. ii.. Release 12. Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box. March 12. button to open the Pressure Outlet dialog box. 2009 23-17 .Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 6. Boundary Conditions −→ poutlet (a) Select solids from the Phase drop-down list.. (b) Click the Edit. i. Inc. Boundary Conditions −→ poutlet (a) Select air from the Phase drop-down list.0 c ANSYS. Click the Thermal tab and enter 293 K for Backflow Total Temperature.

Enter 373 K for Temperature. Boundary Conditions −→ wall hot For the heated wall.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 8. 23-18 Release 12. Select Temperature from the Thermal Conditions list.0 c ANSYS. you will set thermal conditions for the mixture. A. button to open the Wall dialog box. B. 2009 . (a) Select mixture from the Phase drop-down list. Inc. Set the boundary conditions for the heated wall (wall hot) for the mixture. (b) Click the Edit. Click the Thermal tab. March 12. and momentum conditions (zero shear) for both phases.. Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. ii.. i.

Retain the default value of 0 for X-Component and Y-Component.0 c ANSYS. Set the boundary conditions for the heated wall (wall hot) for the primary phase. Boundary Conditions −→ wall hot (a) Select air from the Phase drop-down list. March 12. Select Specified Shear from the Shear Condition list. Boundary Conditions −→ wall hot For the secondary phase. button to open the Wall dialog box. iii. you will set the same conditions of zero shear as for the primary phase. (b) Click the Edit. Set the boundary conditions for the heated wall (wall hot) for the secondary phase same as that of the primary phase. 2009 23-19 . Inc. Click OK to close the Wall dialog box. Release 12..Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 9. The Wall dialog box will expand.. 10. i. ii.

Set the boundary conditions for the adiabatic wall (wall ins) for the secondary phase same as that of the primary phase. The Wall dialog box will expand. (a) Select air from the Phase drop-down list.. i. you will set the same conditions of zero shear as for the primary phase.0 c ANSYS. you will retain the default thermal conditions for the mixture (zero heat flux). Inc.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 11. 12. Boundary Conditions −→ wall ins For the secondary phase. Set the boundary conditions for the adiabatic wall (wall ins) for the primary phase. button to open the Wall dialog box. Select Specified Shear from the Shear Condition list. and set momentum conditions (zero shear) for both phases. Retain the default value of 0 for X-Component and Y-Component. 2009 . (b) Click the Edit. iii. Click OK to close the Wall dialog box.. March 12. 23-20 Release 12. Boundary Conditions −→ wall ins For the adiabatic wall. ii.

0 c ANSYS. Solution Controls Release 12. Select the second order implicit transient formulation. (b) Retain the default settings in the Spatial Discretization group box. Set the solution parameters. March 12. 2. Inc.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Step 8: Solution 1. 2009 23-21 . Solution Methods (a) Select Second Order Implicit from the Transient Formulation drop-down list.

and Volume fraction from the Field Functions drop-down list. Ensure that air is selected from the Phase drop-down list and click Select. 3... Click the addition symbol in the calculator pad.5 for Pressure. Define a custom field function for the heat transfer coefficient.. iii. 23-22 Release 12.2 for Momentum.. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit.. Ensure that the plotting of residuals is enabled during the calculation. Ensure that air is selected from the Phase drop-down list and click Select. and Static Temperature from the Field Functions drop-down lists. and thermal conductivity. Select Temperature.. Click the multiplication symbol in the calculator pad. Select Phases. Initially. (a) Define the function t mix. then you will use these to define a function for the heat transfer coefficient. Define −→Custom Field Functions. Enter t mix for New Function Name. Click Define. v. viii.0 c ANSYS. ix. 2009 . ii. i. Similarly. iv. 4. you will define functions for the mixture temperature. March 12. vi.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer (a) Enter 0. vii. (b) Enter 0. Inc. add the term solids-temperature * solids-vof...

Select Properties. Click Define. ix... and Thermal Conductivity from the Field Functions dropdown lists. Enter k mix for New Function Name. Release 12. iii. 2009 23-23 . Inc. v. vii. and Volume fraction from the Field Functions drop-down lists. Click the multiplication symbol in the calculator pad. add the term solids-thermal-conductivity-lam * solids-vof. (c) Define the function ave htc.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer (b) Define the function k mix. iv. ii. Ensure that air is selected from the Phase drop-down list and click Select. i. Click the addition symbol in the calculator pad.. vi. March 12. Select Phases.0 c ANSYS. viii. Select air from the Phase drop-down list and click Select.. Similarly.

.5 × 10(−6) )/80 iv. Inc. v. (a) Enter 0. 23-24 Release 12.24 for New Surface Name.0 c ANSYS.. Use the calculator pad and the Field Functions lists to complete the definition of the function. Define the point surface in the cell next to the wall on the plane y = 0. March 12..24 m for y0 in the Coordinates group box.. iii. Click the subtraction symbol in the calculator pad. 2009 . Surface −→Point. (b) Enter y=0. Select Custom Field Functions.28494 m for x0 and 0.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer i. 5. −k mix × (t mix − 373)/(58. and k mix from the Field Functions dropdown lists. (c) Click Create and close the Point Surface dialog box.24. Enter ave htc for New Function Name. Click Define and close the Custom Field Function Calculator dialog box. ii.

. Define a surface monitor for the heat transfer coefficient. (d) Select Time Step from the Get Data Every drop-down list. (c) Select Flow Time from the X Axis drop-down list.24 from the Surfaces selection list. and Write for surf-mon-1. (f) Select Custom Field Functions.. Monitors (Surface Monitors) −→ Create.. (a) Enable Plot. and ave htc from the Field Variable drop-down lists. Release 12. (g) Select y=0.out for File Name. (h) Click OK to close the Surface Monitor dialog box. (b) Enter htc-024..0 c ANSYS. March 12. (e) Select Facet Average from the Report Type drop-down list. Inc. 2009 23-25 .Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 6.

Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 7. 2009 . Initialize the solution.0 c ANSYS. (b) Retain the default values and click Initialize. Solution Initialization (a) Select all-zones from the Compute from drop-down list. Inc. March 12. 23-26 Release 12.

3 m for Xmax and 0. Figure 23. Adapt −→Region. Inc. i. Click Display and close the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box... After you define a region for adaption.3: Region Marked for Patching Release 12.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 8. This register is used to patch the initial volume fraction of solids in the next step. button to open the Manage Adaption Registers dialog box. March 12. (c) Click the Manage. it is a good practice to display it to visually verify that it encompasses the intended area. (b) Click Mark. Define an adaption register for the lower half of the fluidized bed.. (a) Enter 0. 2009 23-27 . ii.5 m for Ymax in the Input Coordinates group box. Ensure that hexahedron-r0 is selected from the Registers selection list.0 c ANSYS..

Patch the initial volume fraction of solids in the lower half of the fluidized bed. (d) Select hexahedron-r0 from the Registers to Patch selection list.. (e) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. (b) Select Volume Fraction from the Variable selection list. (e) Click Patch and close the Patch dialog box. (c) Enter 0. (a) Select solids from the Phase drop-down list. 9. 10. to ensure that the desired field was obtained.. (a) Enable Filled in the Options group box. (d) Ensure that Volume fraction is selected from the lower Contours of drop-down list..4). At this point. (c) Select solids from the Phase drop-down list. Display contours of Volume Fraction of solids (Figure 23. from the upper Contours of drop-down list. March 12. (b) Select Phases.. 2009 . Inc. it is a good practice to display contours of the variable you just patched.598 for Value..0 c ANSYS. 23-28 Release 12.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer (d) Close the Region Adaption dialog box. Solution Initialization −→ Patch.. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.

00000.19e-01 3.0000 250.60000.0000 2500.78e-01 4. Run Calculation The plot of the value of the mixture-averaged heat transfer coefficient in the cell next to the heated wall versus time is in excellent agreement with results published for the same case [1]. 2750. lam.20001.97e-02 5. Set a time step size of 0.20000.99e-02 0.0000 Average of1250. eulerian. pbns.0 c ANSYS. Inc. March 12.79e-01 1.0000 2250.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 5.68e-01 5.59e-01 3.00025 s and run the calculation for 7000 time steps.0 (2d.0000 750. File −→ Write −→Case. transient) Figure 23.cas. pbns.0000 Facet1000.gz).0000 500.5: Plot of Mixture-Averaged Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Cell Next to the Heated Wall Versus Time Release 12.0 (2d.98e-02 2.0000 1750.38e-01 5.. 12.0000 2000.08e-01 4.60001.40000.98e-01 5. 2009 23-29 .7500e+00) FLUENT 12. transient) Figure 23.4: Initial Volume Fraction of Granular Phase (solids).40001.0000e+00) FLUENT 12.0000 0.8000 Flow Time Convergence history of ave_htc on y=0.99e-01 2.0000 0. dp.49e-01 4.39e-01 2.50e-01 1. dp.00e+00 Contours of Volume fraction (solids) (Time=0.89e-01 3.29e-01 2.80001.69e-01 2.0000 Values 1500.24 (in SI units) (Time=1. Save the case file (fluid-bed. eulerian.20e-01 8. lam.00001.09e-01 1.. 11.

. (a) Select mixture from Phase drop-down list. Display the pressure field in the fluidized bed (Figure 23.. and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.cas. Step 9: Postprocessing 1. (c) Click Display. Display the volume fraction of solids (Figure 23. (d) Zoom in to show the contours close to the region where the change in volume fraction is the greatest. (a) Select solids from the Phase drop-down list... 2009 . and Volume fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists. March 12.7).dat. (b) Select Pressure.6). File −→ Write −→Case & Data. 2.. Inc. (c) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Note the build-up of static pressure in the granular phase. Save the case and data files (fluid-bed. (b) Select Phases.gz).gz and fluid-bed.. 23-30 Release 12...0 c ANSYS.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer 13.

Inc. 2009 23-31 . Figure 23.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Figure 23. March 12.7: Contours of Volume Fraction of Solids Release 12.0 c ANSYS.6: Contours of Static Pressure Note that the region occupied by the granular phase has expanded slightly. as a result of fluidization.

References 1. using the Eulerian model. No. Further Improvements This tutorial guides you through the steps to reach an initial solution. Vol. These steps are demonstrated in Tutorial 1. P. Twente University of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering. M. in AIChE Journal. The solution obtained is in excellent agreement with analytical results from Kuipers et al. 7. You learned how to set boundary conditions for the mixture and both phases. 38. J. M. Kuipers. A. Van Swaaij “Numerical Calculation of Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer Coefficients in Gas-Fluidized Beds”. 23-32 Release 12. 2009 . Inc. You may be able to obtain a more accurate solution by using an appropriate higher-order discretization scheme and by adapting the mesh further.Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with Heat Transfer Summary This tutorial demonstrated how to set up and solve a granular multiphase problem with heat transfer. July 1992.0 c ANSYS. Mesh adaption can also ensure that the solution is independent of the mesh. Prins. W. and W. [1]. March 12.

The flow over the chip is laminar and involves conjugate heat transfer. • Overlay and “explode” a display. • Create animations.0 c ANSYS. 2009 24-1 . Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Add lights to the display at multiple locations. In this tutorial. including the design and cooling of electronic components. is common in many engineering applications. • Display velocity vectors. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Introduction Postprocessing This tutorial demonstrates the postprocessing capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT using a 3D model of a flat circuit board with a heat generating electronic chip mounted on it. • Annotate the display.Tutorial 24. • Create surfaces for the display of 3D data. March 12. The physics of conjugate heat transfer such as this. • Display filled contours of temperature on several surfaces. • Display pathlines. • Mirror a display about a symmetry plane. Release 12. Inc. The heat transfer involves conduction in the chip and conduction and convection in the surrounding fluid. • Plot quantitative results. you will read the case and data files (without doing the calculation) and perform a number of postprocessing exercises. • Display results on successive slices of the domain.

To take advantage of the symmetry present in the problem. The circuit board conductivity is assumed to be one order of magnitude lower: 0. Air flow. Unzip postprocess. The configuration consists of a series of side-by-side electronic chips. or modules. each half-module is assumed to generate 2. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. Download postprocess. The files chip. see Section 1.1.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1. 2009 . 2.0 Watts and to have a bulk conductivity of 1.1 W/m2-K Figure 24. March 12.gz and chip.1. 24-2 Release 12. The Reynolds number of the flow. cools the modules. Symmetry Planes Top Wall Externally Cooled Bottom Wall Externally Cooled Air Flow 1.Postprocessing Problem Description The problem considered is shown schematically in Figure 24. 3. The air flow enters the system at 298 K with a velocity of 1 m/s.zip. For more information about FLUENT Launcher.cas. Inc. is about 600.0 m/s 298 K Electronic Module (one half) k = 1. confined between the circuit board and an upper wall.dat.gz can be found in the postprocess folder created after unzipping the file. the model will extend from the middle of one module to the plane of symmetry between it and the next module.0 W/m2 -K. based on the module height. The flow is therefore treated as laminar.0 W/m2-K Q = 2.2 in the separate User’s Guide. As shown in the figure.0 Watts Circuit Board k = 0.1 W/m2 -K.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1).0 c ANSYS. mounted on a circuit board.

gz. (c) Click the Colors.. March 12. (b) Deselect all surfaces and select board-top and chip from the Surfaces selection list. the mesh will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.gz and chip.Postprocessing Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. When you select the case file..dat.0 c ANSYS. Step 2: General Settings General 1.. General −→ Display. and then select the desired surfaces from the Surfaces selection list.cas.. 2009 24-3 . Read in the case and data files chip. button to open the Mesh Colors dialog box. ANSYS FLUENT will read the data file automatically. (a) Retain the default selection of Edges in the Options group box. Therefore.. Step 1: Mesh 1. i. Inc. after you read in the case and data files. Display the mesh surfaces board-top and chip. File −→ Read −→Case & Data. Select Color by ID in the Options group box.. Release 12. To deselect all surfaces click on the far-right unshaded button at the top of the Surfaces selection list.

(b) Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. The surfaces run together with no shading to separate the chip from the board.0 c ANSYS. Rotate and zoom the view. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them. 3..2. (d) Click Display. Inc. March 12.. Figure 24. name. 2. Click Reset Colors and close the Mesh Colors dialog box. General −→ Display.Postprocessing ii. (a) Disable Edges and enable Faces in the Options group box. as shown in Figure 24. Use the middle mouse button to zoom the view until you obtain an enlarged display of the circuit board in the region of the chip. and type will be printed in the console. 2009 . 24-4 Release 12.2: Mesh Display of the Chip and Board Surfaces Extra: You can click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries displayed in the graphics window and its zone number. Display the mesh faces. Use the left mouse button to rotate the view.

The default light is defined in the Lights dialog box by the Light ID 0 with Direction vectors (X. Add lighting effects. Shading will be added to the surface mesh display (Figure 24. (b) Select Gouraud from the Lighting drop-down list. Z) as (1. 1). 1. (a) Enable Lights On in the Lighting Attributes group box.. Release 12.Postprocessing Step 3: Adding Lights 1. 1).. Graphics and Animations −→ Options. The default light settings add a white light at the position (1. Inc.3). March 12. Flat is the most basic lighting whereas Gouraud gives better color gradiation. 1.0 c ANSYS. 2009 24-5 . (c) Click Apply and close the Display Options dialog box. Y.

0 c ANSYS..Postprocessing Figure 24. 24-6 Release 12. 1. Inc. March 12.3: Graphics Display with Default Lighting 2. (a) Set Light ID to 1. (-1... -1). button in the Display Options dialog box. 2009 . 1) and (-1. Graphics and Animations −→ Lights. 1.. You can also open the Lights dialog box by clicking the Lights. Add lights in two directions.

0 c ANSYS. -1).Headlight Off (f) Click Apply. add a second light (Light ID=2) at (-1.4). March 12. Figure 24. (d) Retain the selection of Gouraud in the Lighting Method drop-down list. 1.Postprocessing (b) Enable Light On. and 1 for X. The Headlight On option provides constant lighting effect from a light source directly in front of the model. and Z respectively in the Direction group box. (e) Enable Headlight On. in the direction of the view.5: Display with Additional Lighting Release 12.4: Display with Additional Lighting: . 1. (c) Enter -1. (g) Similarly. Y. You can turn off the headlight by disabling the Headlight On option (Figure 24. Figure 24. Inc.5). 2009 24-7 . The result will be more softly shaded display (Figure 24.

a plane in Cartesian space.. you will need surfaces on which the data can be displayed. Surface −→Iso-Surface.25 inches. Examples are board-sym and board-ends. Create a surface of constant y coordinate. March 12. and Y-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.. 24-8 Release 12. Green. ANSYS FLUENT creates surfaces for all boundary zones automatically. You can use this surface to display the temperature and velocity fields.Postprocessing (h) Close the Lights dialog box.. Step 4: Creating Isosurfaces To display results in a 3D model. (a) Select Mesh.0 c ANSYS. In this exercise. Inc. 1. The Min and Max fields will display the y extents of the domain. You can define additional surfaces for viewing the results. (b) Click Compute. and see the shading effect on the ball at the center. You can also change the color of one or more of the lights by selecting the color from the Color drop-down list or by moving the Red. you will create a horizontal plane cutting through the middle of the module with a y value of 0. Extra: You can use the left mouse button to rotate the ball in the Active Lights window to gain a perspective view on the relative locations of the lights that are currently active.. Several surfaces have been renamed after reading the case file. and Blue sliders. which correspond to the side and end faces of the circuit board. 2009 . for example.

25in for New Surface Name. and X-Coordinate from the Clip to Values of drop-down lists. 2009 24-9 . Release 12.25 for Iso-Values. (f) Click Clip. (e) Click Create and close the Iso-Surface dialog box. (e) Enter fluid-sym-x-clip for New Surface Name. Surface −→Iso-Clip. Note: This will isolate the area around the chip... (c) Click Compute.9 and 3.. 2.Postprocessing (c) Enter 0. Create a clipped surface for the X-coordinate of the fluid (fluid-sym).0 c ANSYS. (d) Enter y=0. Inc.9 for Min and Max respectively. (b) Select fluid-sym from the Clip Surface selection list.. The values will be displayed in the Min and Max fields. (d) Enter 1. March 12. (a) Select Mesh.

1 and 0. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. (f) Click Clip and close the Iso-Clip dialog box. (d) Enter 0.5 for Min and Max respectively. (e) Enter fluid-sym-y-clip for New Surface Name..Postprocessing 3.. and Y-Coordinate from the Clip to Values of drop-down lists. (a) Select Mesh. Surface −→Iso-Clip.. Create a clipped surface for the Y-coordinate of the fluid (fluid-sym).. The values will be displayed in the Min and Max fields. (b) Retain the selection of fluid-sym from the Clip Surface selection list. 24-10 Release 12. Note: This will isolate the area around the chip. March 12. Inc. (c) Click Compute.

6. Inc. chip-sym.. March 12.Postprocessing Step 5: Contours Graphics and Animations 1. you can revert to a previous graphics display using the keyboard shortcut <Ctrl>-L. or if you are having difficulty manipulating it with the mouse.. Release 12. and fluid-sym from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Rotate and zoom the display using the left and middle mouse buttons. to obtain the view as shown in Figure 24. button in Graphics and Animations task page and use the Default button to reset the view. (d) Click Display. respectively.. you can open the Views dialog box by clicking the Views. (a) Retain the default settings in the Options group box. Display filled contours of temperature on the symmetry plane (Figure 24. (b) Select Temperature.. Hint: If the display disappears from the screen at any time. Alternatively. (c) Select board-sym. The peak temperatures in the chip appear where the heat is generated. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists.. 2009 24-11 .0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.6).. along with the higher temperatures in the wake where the flow is recirculating.

Inc.Postprocessing Figure 24. Display filled contours of temperature for the clipped surface (Figure 24. (a) Deselect all surfaces from the Surfaces selection list and then select fluid-symx-clip and fluid-sym-y-clip. Figure 24.7. (b) Click Display. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up..7). (c) Orient the view to obtain the display as shown in Figure 24. March 12. 2009 ..6: Filled Contours of Temperature on the Symmetry Surfaces 2.0 c ANSYS.7: Filled Contours of Temperature on the Clipped Surface 24-12 Release 12.

25in.0 c ANSYS..25in (Figure 24.. Change the location of the colormap in the graphics display window. Release 12. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. March 12. (a) Deselect all surfaces from the Surfaces selection list and then select y=0. (b) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. Graphics and Animations −→ Options. 4. 2009 24-13 .8). (b) Select Bottom from the Colormap Alignment drop-down list. Display filled contours of temperature on the plane.8. Inc. y=0. (a) Disable Axes in the Layout group box. (d) Zoom the display using the middle mouse button to obtain the view as shown in Figure 24.. (c) Click Apply and close the Display Options dialog box.Postprocessing 3.

Graphics and Animations −→ Colormap. In Figure 24.Postprocessing Figure 24.8: Temperature Contours on the Surface.25 in.. the high temperatures in the wake of the module are clearly visible. 2009 . March 12.8. (a) Ensure that Show All is disabled. You can also display other quantities such as velocity magnitude or pressure using the Contours dialog box.0 c ANSYS. Change the display of the colormap labels.. Inc. 5. (b) Set Skip to 2. y = 0. 24-14 Release 12.

2009 24-15 .9.0 c ANSYS. (c) Click Apply and close the Colormap dialog box. as shown in Figure 24.9: Filled Contours of Temperature on the Symmetry Surface for Skip = 2 Release 12. where the colormap is displayed. Figure 24. You can control the number of labels displayed on colormaps by using the skip-label function. Inc. March 12. The display updates immediately with every other colormap label appearing.Postprocessing It can also be observed that the contour labels are crowding the bottom of the screen.

1. (a) Deselect all surfaces from the Surfaces selection list and then select fluidsym-x-clip and fluid-sym-y-clip. March 12. (b) Deselect all surfaces from the Surfaces selection list and then select fluid-sym . Inc.. (c) Click Display. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. Extra: You can display velocity vectors for the clipped surfaces.0 c ANSYS.Postprocessing Step 6: Velocity Vectors Graphics and Animations Velocity vectors provide an excellent visualization of the flow around the module.10). Display velocity vectors on the symmetry plane through the module centerline (Figure 24. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up..9 for Scale. (a) Enter 1. 2009 . depicting details of the wake structure.. (b) Click Display.. 24-16 Release 12.

Figure 24.. (d) Rotate and zoom the display to observe the vortex near the stagnation point and in the wake of the module (Figure 24. Release 12. (a) Enable Axes in the Layout group box. Graphics and Animations −→ Options.Postprocessing 2. you will enhance the view by mirroring the display about the module centerline and displaying the module surfaces. Extra: If you want to decrease the number of vectors displayed. then increase the Skip factor to a non-zero value.10). You can modify the arrow style in the Vectors dialog box by selecting a different option from the Style drop-down list. March 12. Change the colormap layout. Plot velocity vectors in the horizontal plane intersecting the module (Figure 24.. (c) Click Apply and close the Display Options dialog box.10 are shown without arrowheads.11). Inc. 2009 24-17 ..10: Velocity Vectors in the Module Symmetry Plane Note: The vectors in Figure 24. (b) Select Left from the Colormap Alignment drop-down list. 3. After plotting the vectors..0 c ANSYS. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up.

Inc. Select light blue from the Colors selection list and close the Mesh Colors dialog box. A.0 c ANSYS. 24-18 Release 12. iv. iii.Postprocessing (a) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. Ensure that Faces is enabled in the Options group box. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box. 2009 . (c) Deselect all surfaces by clicking the unshaded icon to the right of the Surfaces selection list. i. Click the Colors... Select Color by Type in the Options group box. button to open the Mesh Colors dialog box. C. Select wall from the Types selection list.8 for Scale. B. March 12. (b) Enter 3. ii. Retain the selection of board-top and chip from the Surfaces selection list.

(f) Rotate the display with the mouse to obtain the view as shown in Figure 24. March 12.11..25in from the Surfaces selection list. Mirror the view about the chip symmetry plane (Figure 24.Postprocessing (d) Select y=0.0 c ANSYS. Inc. Graphics and Animations −→ Views. (a) Select symmetry-18 from the Mirror Planes selection list.11: Velocity Vectors Intersecting the Surface 4.12).. 2009 24-19 . Note: This zone is the centerline plane of the module and its selection will create a mirror of the entire display about the centerline plane. Figure 24. Release 12. (e) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box.

2009 . see Tutorial 13. Figure 24.12). In this tutorial. You will display the surface temperature distribution on the module and the circuit board by selecting the corresponding boundaries.12: Velocity Vectors After Mirroring Step 7: Animation Graphics and Animations Using ANSYS FLUENT. you can animate the solution and also a scene. The display will be updated in the graphics window (Figure 24. For information on animating the solution. using the animation feature. dynamically. Inc. March 12.Postprocessing (b) Click Apply and close the Views dialog box. You will also create the key frames and view the transition between the key frames. you will animate a scene between two static views of the graphics display.0 c ANSYS. 24-20 Release 12. Step 10.

(Figure 24.... Inc. (a) Ensure that Filled is enabled in the Options group box. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. (c) Deselect all surfaces by clicking the unshaded icon to the right of Surfaces. (d) Select board-top and chip from the Surfaces selection list. and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down lists.Postprocessing 1.0 c ANSYS. (e) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.13.13). Figure 24. (b) Retain the default selection of Temperature. (f) Zoom the display as needed to obtain the view shown in Figure 24.13 shows the high temperatures on the downstream portions of the module and relatively localized heating of the circuit board around the module. Display filled contours of surface temperature on the board-top and chip surfaces. 2009 24-21 . Release 12. March 12..

You will use the current display (Figure 24...13: Filled Temperature Contours on the Chip and Board Top Surfaces 2. (a) Click Add in the Key Frames group box.13) as the starting view for the animation (Frame = 1). 24-22 Release 12. This will store the current display as Key-1. 2009 .Postprocessing Figure 24. Create the key frames by changing the point of view. Inc. Graphics and Animations −→ Scene Animation −→ Set Up.0 c ANSYS. March 12.

(d) Click Add.14: Filled Temperature Contours on the Chip and Board Top Surfaces Release 12. 2009 24-23 . with intermediate displays (2 through 9) to be filled in during the animation. The zoomed view will be the tenth key frame of the animation.14).0 c ANSYS.Postprocessing (b) Zoom the view to focus on the module region. Inc. (c) Enter 10 for Frame in the Key Frames group box. March 12. Figure 24. This will store the new display as Key-10. (e) Rotate the view and zoom out the display so that the downstream side of the module is in the foreground (Figure 24.

) in the Playback While effective animation is best conducted on “high-end” graphics workstations. Close the Animate dialog box. On many machines. (g) Click Add. Inc. Extra: You can change the Playback mode if you want to “auto repeat” or “auto reverse” the animation. ) to stop the continuous animation. If the graphics display speed is slow. 2009 . Note: You can also make use of animation tools of ANSYS FLUENTfor transient cases as demonstrated in Tutorial 4. you can view scene animations on any workstation. 24-24 Release 12. This will store the new display as Key-20. the animation will appear smooth and continuous and will provide an excellent visualization of the display from a variety of spatial orientations. View the scene animation by clicking on the “play” button ( group box. 3.Postprocessing (f) Enter 20 for Frame. the animation playback will take some time and will appear choppy. you can improve the smoothness of the animation by enabling the Double Buffering option in the Display Options dialog box. When you are in either of these Playback modes. you can click on the “stop” button ( 4.0 c ANSYS. with the redrawing very obvious. March 12. On fast graphics workstations.

0.25..07) in the End Points group box.Postprocessing Step 8: Pathlines Pathlines are the lines traveled by neutrally buoyant particles in equilibrium with the fluid motion. 1.07) and an ending coordinate of (1. 0. March 12. (a) Select Rake from the Type drop-down list. about halfway between the centerline and edge. This will generate 10 pathlines. Surface −→Line/Rake. You will refer to the rake by this name when you plot the pathlines. you will use pathlines to examine the flow around and in the wake of the module.. In this example. Create a rake from which the pathlines will emanate. 0. Inc. data points on a line surface will not be equally spaced.0. Pathlines are an excellent tool for visualization of complex three-dimensional flows.105. A line surface (the other option in the Type dropdown list) is a line that includes the specified endpoints and extends through the domain. (d) Enter pathline-rake for New Surface Name. Release 12.0. 2009 24-25 . (c) Enter a starting coordinate of (1. This will define a vertical line in front of the module. (e) Click Create and close the Line/Rake Surface dialog box. (b) Retain the default value of 10 for Number of Points. A rake surface consists of a specified number of points equally spaced between two specified endpoints.0 c ANSYS. 0.

. Ensure that Faces is enabled in the Options group box. (d) Set Path Coarsen to 5.Postprocessing 2.001 inch for Step Size. (b) Enter 0. i.15). ii. Inc. The coarsening factor specified for Path Coarsen indicates the interval at which the points are plotted for a given pathline in any cell. iii.. 24-26 Release 12. Close the Mesh Display dialog box. Coarsening the pathline simplifies the plot and reduces the plotting time. Draw the pathlines (Figure 24. Step 6: Velocity Vectors. Retain the selection of board-top and chip from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Select pathline-rake from the Release from Surfaces selection list.0 c ANSYS. the Step Size times the number of Steps should be approximately equal to L. March 12. (c) Enter 6000 for Steps. 2009 . (a) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. These surfaces should already be selected from the earlier exercise where the mesh was displayed with velocity vectors. Graphics and Animations −→ Pathlines −→ Set Up. Note: A simple rule of thumb to follow when you are setting these two parameters is that if you want the particles to advance through a domain of length L.

Click OK to close the Select File dialog box. Figure 24. The pathlines will be drawn on the surface.15.Postprocessing (f) Click Display. ANSYS FLUENT will save the file in Fieldview format .. March 12. Enter chip-pathline for Fieldview File. (b) Click the Write. ii. Write the pathlines to a file.15: Pathlines Display 3. (g) Rotate the display so that the flow field is in front and the wake of the chip is visible as shown in Figure 24.. i. Release 12.. The Display button will change to a Write. button to open the Select File dialog box. 2009 24-27 . button when you enable the Write to File option. (a) Enable Write to File in the Options group box.fvp extension..0 c ANSYS. Inc.

2009 . Click OK to close the Path Style Attributes dialog box..0 c ANSYS.. (c) Click the Attributes..Postprocessing 4..0005 for Diameter. i. 24-28 Release 12. (e) Set Path Skip to 2 and Path Coarsen to 1. The spherical pathlines will be drawn along the surface. (g) Click Display. button to open the Path Style Attributes dialog box. Enter 0. (d) Enter 1 inch for Step Size and 1000 for Steps respectively. Graphics and Animations −→ Pathlines −→ Set Up. (f) Retain the selection of pathline-rake in the Release from Surfaces selection list. Inc. March 12. Display pathlines as spheres. (b) Select sphere from the Style drop-down list. ii. (a) Disable Write to File in the Options group box.

March 12.17). Figure 24.Postprocessing (h) Rotate the display so that the flow field is in front and the wake of the chip is visible as shown in Figure 24. (j) Click Display and close the Pathlines dialog box (Figure 24.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 24-29 . This will color the pathlines by the surface they are released from. Figure 24.16.16: Sphere Pathlines Display (i) Select Surface ID from the lower Color by drop-down list.17: Sphere Pathlines Colored by Surface ID Release 12.

(b) Click Apply and close the Scene Description dialog box. Graphics and Animations −→ Scene. Calculation Activities (Solution Animations)−→ Create/Edit. 2009 . Inc. provided in the Scene Description dialog box.. 24-30 Release 12. Enable the overlays feature.. You can exercise this capability by adding a velocity vector display to the pathlines just plotted. Step 9: Overlaying Velocity Vectors on the Pathline Display Graphics and Animations The overlay capability.Postprocessing Note: You can also create solution animations for pathlines using Animation Sequence dialog box.0 c ANSYS.. 1. (a) Enable Overlays in the Scene Composition group box. allows you to display multiple results on a single plot. March 12..

(e) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box. Inc.0 c ANSYS.18. March 12. (d) Select fluid-sym from the Surfaces selection list. (a) Disable Draw Mesh in the Options group box. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. (c) Deselect all surfaces by clicking the unshaded icon to the right of Surfaces. (f) Use the mouse to obtain the view that is shown in Figure 24.. Because the mesh surfaces are already displayed and overlaying is active.Postprocessing 2. (b) Retain the value of 3. Add a plot of vectors on the chip centerline plane.. 2009 24-31 . Release 12. there is no need to redisplay the mesh surfaces.8 for Scale.

You may disable the mirroring option in the Views dialog box at any stage during this exercise. March 12.18: Overlay of Velocity Vectors and Pathlines Display Note: The final display (Figure 24. As shown in the Scene Description dialog box. in which results are translated or rotated out of the physical domain for enhanced display. 24-32 Release 12.Postprocessing Figure 24. you can experiment with this capability by displaying “side-by-side” velocity vectors and temperature contours on a streamwise plane in the module wake. Inc. Step 10: Exploded Views Graphics and Animations The Scene Description dialog box stores each display that you request and allows you to manipulate the displayed items individually.18) does not require mirroring about the symmetry plane because the vectors obscure the mirrored image. This capability can be used to generate “exploded” views.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .

just downstream of the trailing edge of the module.. Delete the velocity vectors and pathlines from the current display. The Scene Description dialog box should then contain only the two mesh surfaces (board-top and chip).0 c ANSYS. 2. Graphics and Animations −→ Scene. 2009 24-33 . Surface −→Iso-Surface. (a) Select the pathlines(path-8-surface-id) and velocity vectors (vv-0-velocity-magnitude) from the Names selection list.... (c) Click Apply and close the Scene Description dialog box. Inc. Release 12.0in). (b) Click Delete Geometry.Postprocessing 1. March 12. Create a plotting surface at x=3 inches (named x=3.

24-34 Release 12.0in from the Surfaces selection list. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.. (b) Deselect all surfaces by clicking on the unshaded icon to the right of Surfaces. see Step 4: Creating Isosurfaces. Add the display of filled temperature contours on the x=3.0in surface.0 c ANSYS. (a) Ensure that Draw Mesh is disabled in the Options group box. 3. March 12.0 in. surface. (d) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.. Inc. The filled temperature contours will be displayed on the x=3. 2009 .Postprocessing Hint: For details on creating an isosurface. (c) Select x=3.

The display will show the vectors superimposed on the contours of temperature at x=3. i. (b) Enter 1. Inc. Add the velocity vectors on the x=3. Retain the default settings. 2009 24-35 .0in plotting surface.. (a) Enable the Draw Mesh option in the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog box. ii.. (f) Click Display and close the Vectors dialog box.0in from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Select x=3.9 for Scale. (d) Deselect all surfaces by clicking on the unshaded icon to the right of Surfaces. Close the Mesh Display dialog box. (c) Set Skip to 2.0 c ANSYS. March 12.0 in.Postprocessing 4. Graphics and Animations −→ Vectors −→ Set Up. Release 12.

2009 . (a) Select contour-9-temperature from the Names selection list..19). March 12. (c) Deselect Overlays. 24-36 Release 12. placing it above the vectors (Figure 24. Enter 1 inch for Y in the Translate group box. (b) Click the Transform. (d) Click Apply and close the Scene Description dialog box..19). Create the exploded view by translating the contour display.Postprocessing 5.. Inc. Graphics and Animations −→ Scene. ii.0 c ANSYS.. Click Apply and close the Transformations dialog box. button to open the Transformations dialog box. The exploded view allows you to see the contours and vectors as distinct displays in the final scene (Figure 24. i.

March 12. To illustrate the display of results on successive slices of the domain. Delete the vectors and temperature contours from the display. plotting each plane in turn.. 2009 24-37 .0 c ANSYS. The dialog box and display window will be updated to contain only the mesh surfaces. displaying a particular variable on successive slices of the domain. you will plot contours of velocity magnitude on planes along the X axis. (c) Click Apply and close the Scene Description dialog box.Postprocessing Figure 24. 1.. (a) Select contour-9-temperature and vv-9-velocity-magnitude from the Names selection list. While this task could be accomplished manually. or using the Scene Description and Animate dialog boxes. Graphics and Animations −→ Scene.19: Exploded Scene Display of Temperature and Velocity Step 11: Animating the Display of Results in Successive Streamwise Planes Graphics and Animations You may want to march through the flow domain. 2. Release 12. Inc. here you will use the Sweep Surface dialog box to facilitate the process. (b) Click Delete Geometry. Use the mouse to zoom out the view in the graphics window so that the entire board surface is visible.

Generate contours of velocity magnitude and sweep them through the domain along the X axis. 24-38 Release 12. to generate an animation through the entire domain.. Here. (b) Retain the default value of 0 m for Initial Value and 0. (a) Retain the default settings in the Sweep Axis group box. March 12.Postprocessing 3. Graphics and Animations −→ Sweep Surface −→ Set Up. 2009 . (c) Enter 20 for Frames. regardless of the length units being used in the model.. ! The units for the initial and final values are in meters.1651 m for Final Value in the Animation group box. Inc. the initial and final values are set to the Min Value and Max Value.0 c ANSYS.

i..Postprocessing (d) Select Contours in the Display Type list to open the Contours dialog box. Select Velocity.. March 12. this can be an effective way to study how a flow variable changes throughout the domain. ii. Especially on high-end graphics workstations. Note: You can also make use of animation tools of ANSYS FLUENTfor transient cases as demonstrated in Tutorial 4. (e) Click Animate and close the Sweep Surface dialog box. You will see the velocity contour plot displayed at 20 successive streamwise planes. 2009 24-39 .0 c ANSYS. Inc. Release 12. Click OK to close the Contours dialog box. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically interpolate the contoured data on the streamwise planes between the specified end points. and Velocity Magnitude from the Contours of drop-down lists.

0. 0.0 c ANSYS. 1. (b) Enter the coordinates of the line using a starting coordinate of (2. 0. Inc.01). 24-40 Release 12. Define the line along which to plot results. These coordinates define the top centerline of the module. 2009 .4. (a) Select Line from the Type drop-down list.0.01) and an ending coordinate of (2. 0. (c) Enter top-center-line for New Surface Name. Surface −→Line/Rake. you will complete the review of the module cooling simulation by plotting the temperature distribution along the top centerline of the module. (d) Click Create and close the Line/Rake Surface dialog box.4. March 12.75. Here...Postprocessing Step 12: XY Plots XY plotting can be used to display quantitative results of your CFD simulations.

.Solution XY Plot dialog box.20). (c) Select top-center-line from the Surfaces selection list.Postprocessing 2.. (b) Select Temperature. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. Inc... Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. button to open the Axes .. Plot the temperature distribution along the top centerline of the module (Figure 24. 2009 24-41 . (d) Click the Axes. (a) Retain the default Plot Direction of X.. This will plot temperature vs the x coordinate along the selected line (topcenter-line). and Static Temperature from the Y Axis Function dropdown lists. March 12.

Postprocessing i. The temperature distribution (Figure 24.0 c ANSYS.20) shows the temperature increase across the module surface as the thermal boundary layer develops in the cooling air flow. March 12. Enter 2.Solution XY Plot dialog box.. Retain the selection of X in the Axis list. Figure 24. iv.75 for Maximum in the Range group box. Disable Auto Range in the Options group box. 24-42 Release 12.0 for Minimum and 2.20: Temperature Along the Top Centerline of the Module Step 13: Annotation Graphics and Animations −→ Annotate. Click Apply and close the Axes . 2009 . iii.. ii. You can annotate the display with the text of your choice. Inc. (e) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box.

while the rest of the items in the graphics window are scaled to the proportions of the hardcopy. in the Annotation Text field. Note: Depending on the size of the graphics window and the hardcopy file format you choose. the font size of the annotation text you see on the screen may be different from the font size in a hardcopy file of that graphics window.Postprocessing 1. The annotation text font size is absolute. Figure 24.g. 2009 24-43 .. March 12. and you will see the text displayed at the desired location (Figure 24.21). 2.0 c ANSYS. Temperature Along the Top Centerline). A Working dialog box will appear telling you to select the desired location of the text using the mouse-probe button. Extra: If you want to move the text to a new location on the screen. defining a new position with the mouse. Click the right mouse button in the graphics display window where you want the text to appear. and click Add once again.21: Temperature Along the Top Centerline of the Module Release 12. Click Add. Enter the text describing the plot (e. click Delete Text. 3. Inc.

Postprocessing

Step 14: Saving Hardcopy Files
File −→Save Picture... You can save hardcopy files of the graphics display in many different formats, including PostScript, encapsulated PostScript, TIFF, PNG, PPM, JPEG, VRML and window dumps. Here, the procedure for saving a color PostScript file is shown.

1. Select PostScript in the Format list. 2. Select Color in the Coloring list. 3. Click the Save... button to open the Select File dialog box. (a) Enter a name for Hardcopy File. (b) Click OK to close the Select File dialog box. 4. Close the Save Picture dialog box.

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Step 15: Volume Integral Reports
Reports −→ Volume Integrals −→ Set Up... Reports of Volume Integral can be used to determine the Volume of a particular fluid region (i.e. fluid zone), the sum of quantities or the maximum and minimum values of particular variables. Here we will use the Volume Integral reports to determine the maximum and minimum temperature in the chip, board, and the airflow.

1. Select Maximum in the Report Type group box. 2. Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Field Variable drop-down lists. 3. Select solid-1 from the Cell Zones selection list. 4. Click Compute to calculate the maximum temperature. The maximum temperature in the solid-1 cell zone (the chip) will be displayed. 5. Select Minimum in the Report Type group box and click Compute. The minimum temperature will be displayed in the dialog box. 6. Repeat the operations to determine the maximum and minimum temperatures in the solid-2 and fluid-8 cell zones, corresponding to the board and fluid volume, respectively.

Summary
This tutorial demonstrated the use of many of the extensive postprocessing features available in ANSYS FLUENT. For more information on these and related features, see Chapter 30 or Chapter 29 in the separate User’s Guide.

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Tutorial 25.
Introduction

Turbo Postprocessing

This tutorial demonstrates the multistage turbomachinery postprocessing capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT. In this example, you will read the case and data files (without doing the calculation) and perform a number of turbomachinery-specific postprocessing operations. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Define the topology of a turbomachinery model while using theta min and theta max. • Create surfaces for the display of 3D data. • Revolve 3D geometry to display a 360-degree image. • Report multistage turbomachinery quantities. • Display averaged contours for turbomachinery. • Display 2D contours for turbomachinery. • Display averaged XY plots for turbomachinery.

Prerequisites
This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1 and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure.

Problem Description
The problem considered in this tutorial is an axial compressor shown schematically in Figure 25.1. The model comprises a single 3D sector of the compressor to take advantage of the circumferential periodicity in the problem. The flow of air through the compressor is simulated and the postprocessing capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT are used to display realistic, full 360-degree images of the solution obtained.

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Figure 25.1: Problem Schematic

Setup and Solution Preparation
1. Download turbo_postprocess.zip from the Fluent User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). 2. Unzip turbo_postprocess.zip. turbo.cas.gz and turbo.dat.gz can be found in the turbo postprocess folder after unzipping the file. 3. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D version of ANSYS FLUENT. For more information about FLUENT Launcher, see Section 1.1.2 in the separate User’s Guide. The Display Options are enabled by default. Therefore, after you read in the case and data files, the mesh will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.

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Step 1: Mesh
1. Read the case and data files (turbo.cas.gz and turbo.dat.gz). File −→ Read −→Case & Data... When you select turbo.cas.gz, turbo.dat.gz will be read automatically.

Step 2: General Settings
General 1. Display the mesh. General −→ Display...

(a) Retain the default Edges option in the Options group box. (b) Select Outline in the Edge Type list. (c) Deselect all the surfaces from the Surfaces selection list and click the Outline button. (d) Click Display. (e) Rotate the view by clicking the Rotate View icon ( ) in the toolbar, press the left mouse button and drag the mouse. To zoom in or out, press the Zoom In/Out button and press the left mouse button and move the mouse up

and down. To obtain an isometric display, select the Isometric view icon in the toolbar.

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(f) Close the Mesh Display dialog box. Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary. If you click the right mouse button on one of the boundaries displayed in the graphics window, its zone number, name, type, and other variables will be printed in the console. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly.

Step 3: Defining the Turbomachinery Topology
You will define the topologies of the flow domain in order to establish a turbomachineryspecific coordinate system. This coordinate system is used in subsequent postprocessing functions. Specifically, you will select the boundary zones that comprise the hub, shroud, inlet, outlet, and periodics. The boundaries may consist of more than one zone. The topologies that you define will be saved to the case file when you save the current model. Thus, if you read the saved case back into ANSYS FLUENT, you do not need to set up the topology again. For more information on defining turbomachinery topologies, see Section 29.10.1 in the separate User’s Guide. Define −→Turbo Topology...

1. Specify the surfaces representing the hub.

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(a) Retain the default selection of Hub in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select the surface that represent the hub (rotor-hub) in the Surfaces selection list. 2. Specify the surfaces representing the casing. (a) Select Casing in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select rotor-shroud in the Surfaces selection list. 3. Specify the surfaces representing theta periodic. Theta periodic are all rotationally periodic boundary conditions surfaces (periodic boundary condition type) which border the turbo topology on the lateral (pitchwise) boundaries. (a) Select Theta Periodic in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select rotor-periodic-wall-1 and rotor-periodic-wall-2 in the Surfaces selection list. 4. Specify the surfaces representing theta min. (a) Select Theta Min in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select rotor-blade-suction in the Surfaces selection list. Theta Min and Theta Max are all walls which may border the turbo topology on the lateral (pitchwise) boundaries. The “min” and “max” are determined by the right hand rule about the axis of rotation. Specifically, using the right hand rule, the min surfaces would have the minimum pitchwise coordinate and the max surfaces would have the maximum pitchwise coordinate. 5. Specify the surfaces representing theta max. (a) Select Theta Max in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select rotor-blade-pressure in the Surfaces selection list. 6. Specify the surface representing the inlet. (a) Select Inlet in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select rotor-inlet in the Surfaces selection list. 7. Specify the surface representing the outlet. (a) Select Outlet in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select rotor-outlet in the Surfaces selection list. 8. Retain the default name of new-topology-1 for the Turbo Topology Name. 9. Click Define to set all the turbomachinery boundaries. Create a second topology to represent the stator.

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10. Specify the surfaces representing the hub. (a) Select Hub in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select the surface that represent the hub (stator-hub) in the Surfaces selection list. Hint: Scroll down the Surfaces list to locate the surfaces representing the hub. 11. Specify the surfaces representing the casing. (a) Select Casing in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select stator-shroud in the Surfaces selection list. 12. Specify the surfaces representing theta periodic. (a) Select Theta Periodic in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select stator-periodic-wall-1 and stator-periodic-wall-2 in the Surfaces selection list. 13. Specify the surfaces representing theta min. (a) Select Theta Min in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select stator-blade-suction in the Surfaces selection list. 14. Specify the surfaces representing theta max. (a) Select Theta Max in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select stator-blade-pressure in the Surfaces selection list. 15. Specify the surface representing the inlet. (a) Select Inlet in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select stator-inlet in the Surfaces selection list. 16. Specify the surface representing the outlet. (a) Select Outlet in the Boundaries group box. (b) Select stator-outlet in the Surfaces selection list. 17. Retain the default name of new-topology-2 for the Turbo Topology Name. 18. Click Define to set all the turbomachinery boundaries. 19. Close the Turbo Topology dialog box. ANSYS FLUENT will inform you that the turbomachinery postprocessing functions have been enabled, and the Turbo menu will appear in ANSYS FLUENT menu bar at the top of the console.

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You can define any number of turbo topologies in the Turbo Topology dialog box. This is especially useful when you have a model comprising multiple blade rows and you need to define more than one blade row simultaneously. Each topology can be assigned a specific name and accessed using the drop-down list in the Turbo Topology dialog box. For more information on defining turbomachinery topologies, see Section 29.10.1 in the separate User’s Guide. Note: You can display the selected surfaces by clicking the Display button in the Turbo Topology dialog box. This is useful as a graphical check to ensure that all relevant surfaces have been selected.

Step 4: Isosurface Creation
To display results in a 3D model, you will need surfaces on which the data can be displayed. ANSYS FLUENT creates surfaces for all boundary zones automatically. In a general application, you may want to define additional surfaces for viewing results. The turbo postprocessing capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT allow you to define more complex surfaces, specific to the application and the particular topology that you defined. In this step, you will create surfaces of iso-meridional (marching along the streamwise direction) and spanwise (distance between the hub and the shroud) coordinates in the compressor. 1. Create surfaces of constant meridional coordinate. Surface −→Iso-Surface...

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(a) Select Mesh... and Meridional Coordinate from the Surface of Constant dropdown lists. (b) Enter 0.2 in the Iso-Values text field. (c) Enter meridional-0.2 for New Surface Name. (d) Click Create. Note: The isovalues you enter for these turbo-specific surfaces are expressed as a percentage of the entire domain (i.e., you just defined a surface of meridional coordinate equal to 20% of the path along the duct). (e) Similarly, define surfaces of meridional coordinates equal to 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. 2. Create surfaces of constant spanwise coordinate.

(a) Select Mesh... and Spanwise Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists. (b) Enter 0.25 in the Iso-Values text field. (c) Enter spanwise-0.25 for New Surface Name. (d) Click Create. (e) Similarly, define surfaces of spanwise coordinates equal to 0.5 and 0.75. 3. Close the Iso-Surface dialog box.

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Step 5: Contours
Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up...

1. Display filled contours of pressure on the meridional isosurfaces (Figure 25.2).

(a) Make sure Filled is enabled in the Options group box. (b) Retain the selection of Pressure... and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Select rotor-inlet, meridional-0.2, meridional-0.4, meridional-0.6, meridional-0.8, and rotor-outlet from the Surfaces selection list. (d) Enable Draw Mesh in the Options group box. The Mesh Display dialog box will open. i. Retain the current settings and close the Mesh Display dialog box. (e) Click Display.

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(f) Rotate and zoom the display using the left and middle mouse buttons, respectively, to obtain the view shown in Figure 25.2. In Figure 25.2, you can observe the buildup of static pressure along the duct.

Figure 25.2: Filled Contours of Pressure on the Meridional Isosurfaces

2. Display filled contours of Mach number (Figure 25.3). (a) Select Velocity... and Mach Number from the Contours of drop-down lists. (b) Click Display. In Figure 25.3, you can observe locations at which the flow becomes slightly supersonic, about halfway through the duct.

Figure 25.3: Filled Contours of Mach Number on the Meridional Isosurfaces

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3. Display filled contours of Mach number on the spanwise isosurfaces (Figure 25.4). (a) Deselect all surfaces in the Surfaces selection list. (b) Select spanwise-0.25, spanwise-0.5, and spanwise-0.75 from the Surfaces selection list. (c) Click Display. The display in Figure 25.4 allows you to further study the variation of the Mach number inside the duct. You may want to explore using different combinations of surfaces to display the same or additional variables.

Figure 25.4: Filled Contours of Mach Number on the Spanwise Isosurfaces

4. Display a 360-degree image of the Mach number contours on the hub and blade wall surfaces. (a) Deselect all surfaces in the Surfaces selection list. (b) Select rotor-hub, rotor-blade-pressure and rotor-blade-suction from the Surfaces selection list. (c) Click Display.

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(d) Display the full 360-degree geometry. Graphics and Animations −→ Views...

i. Click the Define... button to open the Graphics Periodicity dialog box.

A. Select fluid-rotor in the Cell Zones list. This will select all the surfaces in the Associated Surfaces list. The default value for Number of Repeats is set to 16. The display is updated to give a full, 360 degree view.

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B. Click Set and close the Graphics Periodicity dialog box. The display will be updated to show the entire geometry (see Figure 25.5).

Figure 25.5: Filled Contours of Mach Number on the 0.5 Spanwise Isosurface ii. Close the Views dialog box. 5. Close the Contours dialog box. Note: This step demonstrated a typical view-manipulation task. See Tutorial 24 for further examples of postprocessing features.

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Step 6: Reporting Turbo Quantities
The turbomachinery report provides some tabulated information specific to the application and the defined topology. For details, see Section 29.10.2 in the separate User’s Guide. Turbo −→Report...

1. Retain the default selection of Mass-Weighted in the Averages list. 2. Select new-topology-1 from the Turbo Topology drop down list. 3. Click Compute.

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4. Close the Turbo Report dialog box.

Step 7: Averaged Contours
Turbo averaged contours are generated as projections of the values of a variable averaged in the circumferential direction and visualized on an r- z plane. 1. Disable the periodic repeats. Graphics and Animations −→ Views... (a) Click the Define... button to open the Graphics Periodicity dialog box. i. Click Reset. ii. Close the Graphics Periodicity dialog box. (b) Close the Views dialog box. 2. Display filled contours of averaged static pressure (Figure 25.6). Turbo −→Averaged Contours...

(a) Retain the default selection of Pressure... and Static Pressure from the Contours of drop-down lists. (b) Click Display. (c) Close the Turbo Averaged Contours dialog box.

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0 c ANSYS. 1.. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to display contours in this manner using the Turbo 2D Contours dialog box.7). 25-16 Release 12. it is often preferable to display contours on constant spanwise coordinates and then. Display 2D contours of Mach number (Figure 25.. project these contours onto a plane.Turbo Postprocessing Figure 25. 2009 . This permits easier evaluation of the contours. Inc. Turbo −→2D Contours. March 12. especially for surfaces that are highly threedimensional.6: Filled Contours of Averaged Static Pressure Step 8: 2D Contours In postprocessing a turbomachinery solution.

5 (f) Close the Turbo 2D Contours dialog box.Turbo Postprocessing (a) Select new-topology-1 from the Turbo Topology drop down list.5 for Normalised Spanwise Coordinates.7. Figure 25... (b) Select Velocity. if a surface is created very close to the curved edge the resulting surface may have some void spaces in it. (d) Click Display. 2009 25-17 . Release 12. (e) Use the mouse to obtain the view shown in Figure 25. Note: For highly curved edges. Inc.0 c ANSYS. March 12. (c) Enter 0. and Mach Number from the Contours of drop-down lists.7: 2D Contours of Mach Number on Surface of Spanwise Value 0.

.8). March 12. the turbo postprocessing capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT allow you to display XY plots of averaged variables.9 for the Fractional Distance. and Static Temperature from the Y Axis Function dropdown lists. (c) Enter 0. 2009 . you will be able to plot circumferentially-averaged values of variables as a function of either the spanwise coordinate or the meridional coordinate. (a) Select Temperature. (d) Click Plot. 1. Inc.. Plot temperature as a function of the meridional coordinate (Figure 25.. In particular. relevant to the specific topology of a turbomachinery problem. (e) Close the Turbo Averaged XY Plot dialog box. 25-18 Release 12..0 c ANSYS. (b) Select Meridional Distance from the X Axis Function drop-down list.Turbo Postprocessing Step 9: Averaged XY Plots In addition to displaying data on different combinations of complex 3D and flattened surfaces. Turbo −→Averaged XY Plot.

Inc.Turbo Postprocessing Figure 25.8: Averaged XY Plot of Static Temperature on Spanwise Surface of 0.9 Isovalue Summary This tutorial demonstrated the use of some of the turbomachinery-specific postprocessing features of ANSYS FLUENT. More extensive general-purpose postprocessing features are demonstrated in Tutorial 24. see Chapter 29 in the separate User’s Guide. March 12. For additional information.0 c ANSYS. These features can be accessed once you define the topology of the problem. 2009 25-19 . Release 12.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Inc.Turbo Postprocessing 25-20 Release 12. March 12.

Inc. March 12. The pipe dimensions are in inches. • Partition a mesh for parallel processing. so a turbulent flow model will be required. In order to be run in parallel. The tutorial assumes that both ANSYS FLUENT and network communication software have been correctly installed (see the separate installation instructions and related information for details).1. evenly sized partitions. the mesh must be divided into smaller. and mixes with a warmer fluid at 40◦ C that enters through a smaller inlet located at the elbow. Introduction Parallel Processing This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of a simple 3D problem using the parallel processing capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. UNIX.0 c ANSYS. The solver of ANSYS FLUENTallows parallel processing on a dedicated parallel machine. called a compute node. will solve on a single partition. The Reynolds number for the flow at the larger inlet is 50. • Use a parallel network of workstations. The case chosen is the mixing elbow problem you solved in Tutorial 1. Release 12. and information will be passed back and forth across all partition interfaces. Each ANSYS FLUENT process. Problem Description The problem to be considered is shown schematically in Figure 26.Tutorial 26. or Linux. • Check the performance of the parallel solver. or a network of workstations running Windows. and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT navigation pane and menu structure. Prerequisites This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Start the parallel version of ANSYS FLUENTusing either Windows or Linux/UNIX. 2009 26-1 . A cold fluid at 20◦ C flows into the pipe through a large inlet.800. and the fluid properties and boundary conditions are given in SI units.

sliding-mesh and shell-conduction encapsulation). You can partition the mesh before or after you set up the problem (define models. 2.0 c ANSYS.1: Problem Specification Setup and Solution Preparation 1.cas. since partitioning has some model dependencies (e. etc. Since you have already followed the procedure for setting up the mixing elbow in Tutorial 1.cas. Unzip parallel_process.zip. 26-2 Release 12..Parallel Processing Density: Viscosity: Conductivity: Specific Heat: ρ = 1000 kg/m3 µ = 8 x 10 −4 Pa−s k = 0.g. boundary conditions. elbow3.zip from the User Services Center to your working folder (as described in Tutorial 1). 2009 . Uy = 1.gz is provided to save you the effort of redefining the models and boundary conditions.2 m/s T = 40oC I = 5% Figure 26.). March 12. Inc. 3" 8" 1" 1" Dia.677 W/m−K Cp = 4216 J/kg−K 8" 4" Ux = 0. The case file elbow3. It is best to partition after the problem is set up.gz can be found in the parallel process folder created after unzipping the file.4 m/s T = 20oC I = 5% 4" Dia. Download parallel_process.

• Step 1A: Multiprocessor Machine • Step 1B: Network of Computers Step 1A: Multiprocessor Machine Use FLUENT Launcher to start the 3D parallel version of ANSYS FLUENT on a Windows. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2. Inc. then go to the Parallel Settings tab. March 12. Click OK. or UNIX machine using 2 processes. Linux. 1. Set Number of Processes to 2. two versions of this step are provided here. Select Parallel (Local Machine) under Processing Options.Parallel Processing Step 1: Starting the Parallel Version of ANSYS FLUENT Since the procedure for starting the parallel version of ANSYS FLUENT is dependent upon the type of machine(s) you are using. Note that your Run Types will be Shared Memory on Local Machine. 4. click Show More >>. 2009 26-3 . 3. Specify 3D for Dimension. To show details of the parallel settings.

Parallel Processing To start ANSYS FLUENT on a Linux or UNIX machine. then FLUENT Launcher will appear. type at the command prompt fluent 3d -t2 If you type fluent at the command prompt. Inc. 26-4 Release 12. 2009 . see Chapter 32 in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. March 12. For additional information about parallel command line options.

you can select Machine Names and type the names of the machines in the text box. Specify 3D for Dimension. or browse and select it using the Browsing Machine File dialog box. 2. Click OK. restore the default settings by clicking the Default button. 3. March 12. Click the Show More >> button and select the Parallel Settings tab. Linux. Select Parallel (Local Machine) under Processing Options. Inc. Set the Number of Processes to 2.0 c ANSYS. 4. • Retain the selection of default in the Interconnects and MPI Types drop-down lists. • Make sure that File Containing Machine Names is selected to specify the file. 5. Release 12. 6.Parallel Processing Step 1B: Network of Computers You can start the 3D parallel version of ANSYS FLUENT on a network of Windows. • Type the name and location of the hosts text file in the text box below File Containing Machine Names. 2009 26-5 . In FLUENT Launcher. or UNIX machines using 2 processes and check the network connectivity by performing the following steps: 1. Alternatively. • Select Distributed Memory on a Cluster.

hosts where -cnf indicates the location of the hosts text file.0 c ANSYS. The hosts file is a text file that contains a list of the computers on which you want to run the parallel job. Inc. For example. you will need to supply the full pathname to the file. 2009 . the fluent. see Chapter 32 in the separate User’s Guide. March 12. If the hosts file is not located in the directory where you are typing the startup command. 26-6 Release 12.Parallel Processing You can also start parallel ANSYS FLUENT by typing the following at the command prompt: fluent 3d -t2 -cnf=fluent.hosts file may look like the following: my_computer another_computer For additional information about hosts files and parallel command line options.

0 c ANSYS. Inc. Although ANSYS FLUENT displays a message confirming the connection to each new compute node and summarizing the host and node processes defined. PID Mach ID HW ID Name -----------------------------------------------------------------------------n1 mpich2 another_computer Windows-32 21240 1 1 Fluent Node host net my_computer Windows-32 1204 0 3 Fluent Host n0* mpich2 my_computer Windows-32 1372 0 0 Fluent Node ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ID is the sequential denomination of each compute node (the host process is always host). is the architecture.. Hostname is the name of the machine hosting the compute node (or the host process). is the communication library (i. 2009 26-7 . especially if more compute nodes are spawned to several different machines. (b) Click Print. March 12. since this is the node from which all other nodes are spawned. PID is the process ID number. (a) Set Compute Node to 0.S. Release 12..e. O. you may find it useful to review the same information at some time during your session.Parallel Processing 7. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------ID Comm. (c) Close the Parallel Connectivity dialog box. and HW ID is an identifier specific to the communicator used. MPI type). Check the network connectivity information. Mach ID is the compute node ID. Hostname O. you will select node 0. Comm.S.. For information about all defined compute nodes. Parallel −→ Network −→Show Connectivity.

Parallel Processing Step 2: Reading and Partitioning the Mesh When you use the parallel solver. 1. 2. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically select a partitioning method for you.. Note: Since the Display Options were enabled by default in the launcher.gz. (b) Click OK to close the Auto Partition Mesh dialog box. You need to disable the Case File option only if you want to change other parameters in the Auto Partition Mesh dialog box.cas.. (a) Retain the Case File option. if required.e. and there exists a valid partition section in the case file (i.0 c ANSYS.. You can then check the partitions to see if you need to modify the settings and repartition the mesh.. Parallel −→Auto Partition. you will inspect the partitions created and be able to change them. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically partition it using the default partition settings..2). then that partition information will be used rather than repartitioning the mesh. 2009 . Inc. This is the preferred initial approach for most problems. the mesh was displayed in the embedded graphics window after reading in the case. If you read an unpartitioned mesh into the parallel solver. one where the number of partitions in the case file divides evenly into the number of compute nodes). Examine the front view of the symmetry mesh zone (Figure 26. In the next step. 3. Read the case file elbow3. March 12. If the Case File option is enabled (the default setting). When the Case File option is enabled. you need to subdivide (or partition) the mesh into groups of cells that can be solved on separate processors. Inspect the automatic partitioning settings. 26-8 Release 12. File −→ Read −→Case.

2: Mesh Along the Symmetry Plane for the Mixing Elbow 4. Inc. (a) Click Print Active Partitions... Parallel −→Partitioning and Load Balancing. Check the partition information. Release 12. March 12. 2009 26-9 .Parallel Processing Figure 26.0 c ANSYS.

Parallel Processing ANSYS FLUENT will print the active partition statistics in the console. March 12. and the stored cell partition.0% 0.006 1 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Collective Partition Statistics: Minimum Maximum Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------Cell count 10414 10417 20831 Mean cell count deviation -0. the new partition will be referred to as the stored cell partition.006 1 1 34646 209 0. Here.3% Partition neighbor count 1 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Partition Method Metis Stored Partition Count 2 Done. both are set to the cell partition that was created upon reading the case file. If you repartition the mesh using the Partition Mesh dialog box. Note: ANSYS FLUENT distinguishes between two cell partition schemes within a parallel problem—the active cell partition.017 Faces I-Faces Face Ratio Neighbors Load 34000 209 0.7% Face count Mean face count deviation Partition boundary face count Partition boundary face count ratio 34000 -0.0 c ANSYS.0% Partition boundary cell count 173 177 350 Partition boundary cell count ratio 1. Inc. >> 2 Active Partitions: P Cells I-Cells Cell Ratio 0 10414 177 0.6% 68437 209 0.7% 1. 2009 . while the stored cell partition (the last partition performed) is used when you save a case file. 26-10 Release 12. see Chapter 32 in the separate User’s Guide. To make it the active cell partition. This distinction is made mainly to allow you to partition a case on one machine or network of machines and solve it on a different one.017 1 10417 173 0.9% 209 0. For details. The active cell partition is used for the current calculation.9% 209 0.7% 1. you need to click the Use Stored Partitions button in the Partition Mesh dialog box.6% 34646 0.

iii. ii. even though you are not going to solve the problem at this point.0 c ANSYS. Inc. Make sure Filled is enabled in the Options group box. and a minimum number of partition neighbors to reduce the startup time for communication. you have to initialize the solution. An optimal partition should produce an equal number of cells in each partition for load balancing.Parallel Processing (b) Review the partition statistics. Select symmetry from the Surfaces selection list. March 12. and Active Cell Partition from the Contours of drop-down lists. Select Cell Info.. The default values are sufficient for this initialization. (c) Close the Partitioning and Load Balancing dialog box. Here. Solution Initialization −→ Initialize In order to use the Contours dialog box to inspect the partition you just created.. and total partition boundary cell and face count ratio.. i. 2009 26-11 . you will be looking for relatively small values of mean cell and face count deviation. 5. Examine the partitions graphically. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up. a minimum number of partition interfaces to reduce interpartition communication bandwidth.. (b) Display the cell partitions (Figure 26. Release 12. (a) Initialize the solution using the default values.3).

File −→ Write −→Case.Parallel Processing iv. Save the case file with the partitioned mesh (elbow4. you can use the Partition Mesh dialog box to repartition the mesh. Recall that. the cell partitions are acceptable for this problem.gz). The position of the interface reveals that the criteria mentioned earlier will be matched. Set Levels to 2. If you are dissatisfied with the partitions.0 c ANSYS. v..3. you will need to make the Stored Cell Partition the Active Cell Partition by either clicking the Use Stored Partitions button in the Partition Mesh dialog box.3: Cell Partitions As shown in Figure 26.. Click Display and close the Contours dialog box. which is the number of compute nodes. 6. see Section 32.cas. 2009 .4 in the separate User’s Guide.5. Inc. or saving the case file and reading it back into ANSYS FLUENT. March 12. 26-12 Release 12. Figure 26. For details about the procedure and options for manually partitioning a mesh. if you wish to use the modified partitions for a calculation.

3. March 12. Inc. Initialize the flow field using the boundary conditions set at velocity-inlet-5. (b) Click Initialize. asking if you want to discard the data generated during the first initialization. Start the calculation by requesting 200 iterations. 2. which was used to inspect the cell partitions. A Warning dialog box will open. Monitors −→ Residuals −→ Edit. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. Run Calculation The solution will converge in approximately 180 iterations. Release 12.Parallel Processing Step 3: Solution 1. 2009 26-13 ..0 c ANSYS. Solution Initialization (a) Select velocity-inlet-5 from the Compute from drop-down list.. (c) Click OK in the Warning dialog box to discard the data.

this improvement will be reduced by the performance of the communication subsystem of your hardware. 26-14 Release 12. For details. computationally intensive problems. In practice. Save the data file (elbow4. this reveals very good parallel performance.0 c ANSYS. even though the advantage over a serial calculation is small. Ideally you would want to have the Total wall-clock time with n CPUs be 1/n times the Total wall-clock time with 1 CPU.Parallel Processing 4..217 MB LE solves per iteration: 7 solves LE wall-clock time per iteration: 0.000 sec (0. you will use the parallel solver for large. see Chapter 32 in the separate User’s Guide. 2009 . For a parallel process run on two compute nodes.813 sec The most accurate way to evaluate parallel performance is by running the same parallel problem on 1 CPU and on n CPUs. and you will want to check the parallel performance to determine if any optimization is required. As a rough estimate of parallel performance. as expected for this simple 3D problem.000 sec (0.gz).2) LE global solves per iteration: 2 solves LE global wall-clock time per iteration: 0. and comparing the Total wall-clock time (elapsed time for the iterations) in both cases. Inc..030 sec (21.0) Message count per iteration: 383 messages Data transfer per iteration: 0. March 12.141 sec Global reductions per iteration: 147 ops Global reductions time per iteration: 0.0) LE global matrix maximum size: 11 AMG cycles per iteration: 12. File −→ Write −→Data. the CPU time was approximately twice the Total wall-clock time. In this case.506 cycles Relaxation sweeps per iteration: 314 sweeps Relaxation exchanges per iteration: 146 exchanges Total wall-clock time: Total CPU time: 24. and the overhead of the parallel process itself.dat.866 sec 49. you will check the parallel performance as an exercise. Step 4: Checking Parallel Performance Generally. you can compare the Total wall-clock time with the Total CPU time. Although the example in this tutorial is a simple 3D case. Parallel −→ Timer −→Usage Performance Timer for 176 iterations on 2 compute nodes Average wall-clock time per iteration: 0.

1. Here. (b) Select pressure-outlet-7 from the Surfaces selection list.0 c ANSYS. etc.g. 2009 26-15 . Inc.. two plots are generated so that you can confirm that the results obtained with the parallel solver are the same as those obtained with the serial solver.Parallel Processing Note: The wall clock time. Plots −→ XY Plot −→ Set Up. March 12. (c) Click Plot and close the Solution XY Plot dialog box. Windows32.4).). Display an XY plot of temperature across the exit (Figure 26. Step 5: Postprocessing See Tutorial 1 for complete postprocessing exercises for this example. the CPU time... (a) Select Temperature. Linux 64.. and Static Temperature from the Y Axis Function dropdown lists. and the ratio of iterations to convergence time may differ depending on the type of computer you are running (e. Release 12..

Display filled contours of the custom field function dynamic-head (Figure 26. Inc. March 12. 26-16 Release 12. 2009 .. Graphics and Animations −→ Contours −→ Set Up.5).0 c ANSYS..Parallel Processing Figure 26.4: Temperature Distribution at the Outlet 2.

from the Contours of drop-down list.Parallel Processing (a) Select Custom Field Functions. the automatic mesh partitioning performed by ANSYS FLUENT when you read the mesh into the parallel version was found to be acceptable. see Section 32. Here. 2009 26-17 . (d) Click Display and close the Contours dialog box.0 c ANSYS.. You also learned how to check the performance of the parallel solver to determine if optimizations are required.5: Contours of the Custom Field Function. March 12. Release 12. Figure 26. The custom field function you created in Tutorial 1 (dynamic-head) will be selected in the lower drop-down list. (b) Enter 80 for Levels..7 in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. (c) Select symmetry from the Surfaces selection list. For additional details about using the parallel solver. Dynamic Head Summary This tutorial demonstrated how to solve a simple 3D problem using the parallel solver of ANSYS FLUENT.

March 12. 2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS.Parallel Processing 26-18 Release 12.

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