Final Report

Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System by Robert Croce and Jenna M. Sullivan Team #3

Client Contact Dr. John Enderle Director and Professor of Biomedical Engineering Program University of Connecticut Bronwell Building 260 Glenbrook Road Storrs, CT 06269-2247 Phone: (860) 486-5521

Table of Contents Abstract............................................................................................................................... 5 1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Background ............................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Purpose of the Project ............................................................................................... 6 1.3 Previous Work Done by Others ................................................................................ 6 1.3.1 Products.............................................................................................................. 6 1.3.2 Patent Search Results......................................................................................... 7 1.4 Map for the Rest of the Report ................................................................................. 8 2 Project Design.................................................................................................................. 8 2.1 Design Alternatives................................................................................................... 9 2.1.1 Design 1 ............................................................................................................. 9 2.1.1.1 Objective ......................................................................................................... 9 2.1.1.2 Thermometer................................................................................................... 9 2.1.1.3 Pulse Oximeter.............................................................................................. 10 2.1.1.4 Non Invasive Blood Pressure........................................................................ 11 2.1.1.5 Processing, Display, and Alarm.................................................................... 11 2.1.1.6 USB Device and Secure Website.................................................................. 11 2.1.1.7 Power Supply ................................................................................................ 12 2.1.2 Design 2 ........................................................................................................... 12 2.1.2.1 Objective ....................................................................................................... 12 2.1.2.2 Thermometer................................................................................................. 13 2.1.2.3 Pulse Oximeter.............................................................................................. 13 2.1.2.4 Non Invasive Blood Pressure........................................................................ 14 2.1.2.5 Respiratory Rate............................................................................................ 17 2.1.2.6 Weight........................................................................................................... 17 2.1.2.7 Processing, Display, and Alarm.................................................................... 17 2.1.2.8 USB Device and Secure Website.................................................................. 18 2.1.2.9 Power Supply ................................................................................................ 19 2.1.3 Design 3 ........................................................................................................... 19 2.1.3.1 Objective ....................................................................................................... 19 2.1.3.2 Thermometer................................................................................................. 19 2.1.3.3 Pulse Oximeter.............................................................................................. 20 2.1.3.4 Non Invasive Blood Pressure........................................................................ 22 2.1.3.5 Respiratory Rate............................................................................................ 22 2.1.3.6 Weight........................................................................................................... 23 2.1.3.7 Secure E-mail System ................................................................................... 23 2.1.3.8 Power Supply ................................................................................................ 24 2.1.3.9 Bluetooth....................................................................................................... 24 2.1.3.10 Pushbuttons ................................................................................................. 24 2.1.3.11 Casing ......................................................................................................... 25 2.1.3.12 Processing, Display, and Alarm.................................................................. 25 2.2 Final Design ............................................................................................................ 25 2.2.1 Objective .......................................................................................................... 25 2.2.2 Subunits............................................................................................................ 29 2.2.2.1 Thermometer................................................................................................. 29

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2.2.2.2 Pulse Oximeter.............................................................................................. 33 2.2.2.3 Non Invasive Blood Pressure........................................................................ 36 2.2.2.4 Respiratory Rate............................................................................................ 41 2.2.2.5 Weight........................................................................................................... 44 2.2.2.6 Microprocessor ............................................................................................. 46 2.2.2.7 LCD Screen................................................................................................... 51 2.2.2.8 Speech Output............................................................................................... 51 2.2.2.9 Secure Website.............................................................................................. 54 2.2.2.10 Power Supply .............................................................................................. 55 2.2.2.11 Bluetooth..................................................................................................... 56 2.2.2.12 Pushbuttons ................................................................................................. 58 2.2.2.13 Casing ......................................................................................................... 59 2.2.2.14 Accessible Vital Signs Monitor Circuit Diagram ....................................... 61 2.3 Prototype ................................................................................................................. 62 2.3.1 Overview.......................................................................................................... 62 2.3.2 Probes for Vital Sign Acquisition .................................................................... 66 2.3.3 Monitor Communications ................................................................................ 74 2.3.4 Client Testing................................................................................................... 82 3 Realistic Constraints ...................................................................................................... 87 4 Safety Issues .................................................................................................................. 89 5 Impact of Engineering Solutions ................................................................................... 90 6 Life-Long Learning........................................................................................................ 93 7 Budget............................................................................................................................ 95 8 Team Members Contributions to the Project................................................................. 96 Robert Croce ............................................................................................................. 96 Michael Kapinos ....................................................................................................... 96 9 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 97 10 References.................................................................................................................... 98 11 Acknowledgements...................................................................................................... 99 12 Appendix.................................................................................................................... 100 12.1 Updated Specifications ....................................................................................... 100 Table of Figures Figure 1. Welch Allyn Vital Signs Monitor 300 Series...................................................... 7 Figure 2. DRE Philips SureSigns VS1 Vital Sign Monitor ................................................ 7 Figure 3. Thermistor Linearizing Circuit.......................................................................... 13 Figure 4. Block Diagram of Automatic Blood Pressure Measuring System .................... 16 Figure 5. Pulse Oximeter Circuit Block Diagram............................................................ 20 Figure 6. Finger Probe Diagram ...................................................................................... 20 Figure 7. Pulse Oximeter Circuit Diagram ...................................................................... 21 Figure 8. Image of Thermocouple Nose Clip .................................................................. 23 Figure 9. Photographs of Monitor.................................................................................... 27 Figure 10. Flowchart of Accessible Vital Signs Monitor Operation ............................... 28 Figure 11. Thermometer and cap ...................................................................................... 29 Figure 12. Thermometer Probe with Attached Cable ....................................................... 30

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Figure 13. Thermistor Linearizing Circuit [11] ................................................................ 30 Figure 14. Completed Thermometer Circuit Including Amplifiers and Filter.................. 31 Figure 15. Drive Fingertip Pulse Oximeter....................................................................... 34 Figure 16. Mapped Pulse Oximeter .................................................................................. 35 Figure 17. Pulse Oximeter Signal Across the Photodiode................................................ 36 Figure 18. Adult Large CVS Blood Pressure Cuff ........................................................... 37 Figure 19. Automated Blood Pressure System Circuit .................................................... 38 Figure 20. Blood Pressure Sensor Actual Circuit Schematic [18].................................... 38 Figure 21. Blood Pressure Waveform Picked Up by Pressure Sensor [17]...................... 39 Figure 22. Block Diagram of Automatic Blood Pressure Measuring System ................. 40 Figure 24. Phone Plug and Exposed Wires After the Plug has Been Removed ............... 42 Figure 25. A Metal Spring Provides the Retraction Mechanism and is Contained in a Plastic Casing on the Cable............................................................................................... 43 Figure 26. Circuit for Respiratory Rate ............................................................................ 44 Figure 27. Homedics SC-202 Digital Scale...................................................................... 45 Figure 28. Location of Load Cells in Scale ...................................................................... 45 Figure 29. Scale Circuit Schematic................................................................................... 46 Figure 30: PIC16F877...................................................................................................... 47 Figure 31: PIC16F877 Features ....................................................................................... 48 Figure 32: ADCON0 Register ......................................................................................... 49 Figure 33 ADCON1 Register........................................................................................... 50 Figure 34. LCD Screen .................................................................................................... 51 Figure 35. SP03 Module Image ........................................................................................ 52 Figure 36 SP232ACP....................................................................................................... 53 Figure 37: SP03 Commands ............................................................................................ 53 Figure 3b8. Small Speaker for Audio Output .................................................................. 54 Figure 39. Rechargeable Battery and Charger.................................................................. 55 Figure 40. Voltage Regulator Circuit................................................................................ 56 Figure 41. EmbeddedBlue eb505-SER OEM Bluetooth Serial Module.......................... 57 Figure 42. Box Enclosures Case ...................................................................................... 59 Figure 43. Enclosure Dimensions ..................................................................................... 60 Figure 44. Accessible Vital Signs Monitor Circuit Diagram............................................ 61 Figure 45. PCB Diagram of the Board.............................................................................. 62 Figure 46. Front View of the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor ........................................................................................................................................... 63 Figure 47. Side View of the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor 64 Figure 48. Read View of the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor65 Figure 49. Open View of Top of Accessible Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor ... 66 Figure 50. Thermometer Probe ......................................................................................... 67 Figure 51. Included Probes Covers for CVS Model Thermometers................................. 68 Figure 52. Disposable Probe Cover on the Thermometer Before the Excess Plastic is Removed ........................................................................................................................... 69 Figure 53. Thermocouple Probe on Retractable Cable..................................................... 69 Figure 54. Phone Plug that Connects the Scale to the Monitor ........................................ 70 Figure 57. Pulse Oximeter Mounted Inside the Monitor .................................................. 73 Figure 58. Pulse Oximeter in Use ..................................................................................... 74

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Figure 59. Welcome Message Display on the LCD Screen on Power-up ........................ 74 Figure 60. Example of the Message Shown While the Monitor is Taking a Vital Sign... 75 Figure 61. The Speaker is Mounted Inside the Front of the Monitor, Behind the Speaker Holes in between the Two Buttons ................................................................................... 75 Figure 62. Bluetooth Dongle Plugged into One of the Computer’s USB Ports ............... 76 Figure 63. Secure Login Site ............................................................................................ 81 Figure 64. Upload Site When the User Can Upload up to Three Files at a Time............. 82 Figure 65. Subject Inserting the Scale Plug into the Jack................................................. 83 Figure 66. Subject Plugging the Smaller .......................................................................... 83 Probes in with One Hand ................................................................................................. 83 Figure 67. Subject Simulating Partial Paralysis Wrapping the Blood Pressure Cuff Around His Arm ............................................................................................................... 84 Figure 68. Subject Using Touch to Find the Thermometer Probe.................................... 85 Figure 69. Blindfolded Subject Plugging in the Probes.................................................... 85 Figure 70. Subject Finding and Operating the Blood Pressure Button............................. 86 Figure 71. Blindfolded Subject Using the Pulse Oximeter............................................... 86 Figure72. Bruising Caused by One Use of an Automatic Blood Pressure Cuff [15]. ..... 88 Figure 73. Excerpt from Table of Number of Current Home Heath Care Patients with Aides and Devices in 2000 [12]........................................................................................ 91 Figure 74. Table of Home Care Cost Savings [2]............................................................ 92

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Abstract
The Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System is a project funded by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Accessible Medical Instrumentation’s (RERC-AMI) National Student Design Competition. This device has been designed to be accessible for clients of different abilities and ages. The Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System that we have designed measures blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, temperature, weight, and respiration rate. In this system, these vital signs are displayed on a monitor and sent to a computer via Bluetooth. Through a secure website that is part of the system, the client can upload their vital signs via any Internet connected computer. This allows clients to communicate their health status to physicians and healthcare providers anywhere in the world. Accessibility is provided through a large, well-lit LCD screen, a speaker system, and Braille customized buttons. Vital signs are displayed on the large LCD screen, as well as spoken through a speaker system. A simple 3-button design provides an easy-touse user interface, appropriate for all age levels and technological savvy. Also, all buttons are customized with Braille or Universal Symbols for the vision-impaired. The monitor includes rechargeable back-up batteries in case of power-failure, or if the client just does not to be homebound by their health monitoring needs.

1 Introduction
To fully understand this project and its drive, certain background information is necessary. This section explains the purpose of our design and our clients. Also to give an understanding of the technology, this section contains information on vital signs monitors and similar devices that monitor health and wellness.

1.1 Background
With the aging baby boomer population, home health care is a growing and changing industry. The advent of telemedicine and advanced communications technology has allowed patient monitoring to move from the hospital to the home. By monitoring patients’ statuses remotely, health care facilities can free up hospital beds and doctors’ time for more critical patients. An integral part of remotely monitoring a patient’s condition is the vital signs monitor. There are many clients who are in need of an accessible home vital signs monitoring system. To make this device as accessible as possible, we have to address the many needs of all of our clients. An overview of these needs can be seen in three of our clients: Mat, Sani, and Dolores. Mat is a 52-year-old male in good physical condition.

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1) is the Welch Allyn Vital Signs Monitor. and his doctor wants to monitor his vital signs from home for the next 90 days.3. Most are very expensive. It will be accessible to the vision and hearing impaired. Our clients want to maintain their health. costing patients or healthcare providers upwards of $2. Sani is a lawyer and is now working part time from home. Dolores’ grandson Tyler is 11 years old. 1. These infusions are normally administered by one of her family members. function. Although there are already similar devices on the market. This device will improve our clients’ quality of life by allowing health care professionals to monitor them from home. Her doctor monitors her vital signs by a computer system that is installed in her home.500 per system. Sani does not want to appear sick to her family and friends. it is our goal to design a monitoring system that meets our clients’ specific needs. They range in size. and it will be cost effective. and she administers pain medication to herself using an infusion pump. but lives with his vision-impaired wife who loves the internet. and price. Mat just had a small stroke. Below are the descriptions of a few select monitors. not appear sick to their friends. This accident has left the right side of her body paralyzed (her dominant side). She must sleep in a hospital bed. and continue to live with their families.He is blind and works as a radio commentator.1 Products Previous work on home vital signs monitors can be seen in the current models that are in hospitals and homes. There are many different types and brands of vital signs monitors available today.2 Purpose of the Project The purpose of this project is to create an accessible home vital signs monitoring system. 1. and he likes all kinds of electrical gadgets. Most systems available today are very expensive. and her grandson. rather than from a bed in a hospital or nursing home. and our purpose is to make an affordable device that is also accessible and easy to use. She also has heart problems that cause her to receive infusions at home. Sani is a 31-year-old female who recently experienced a head injury from an automobile accident. 6 .3 Previous Work Done by Others 1. his wife. The device we design will allow them to do these things. He loves to help his grandmother collect her vital signs and send them to her doctors on the computer. Dolores is deaf and has severe arthritis. She would like a vital signs monitoring device that blends in with the other furniture in her home. Mat does not like devices that are very technologically advanced. Our last client is Dolores. The monitor shown below (Fig. She is an 86-year-old female who lives with her son.

neither have the option to save vital signs off of the monitor. Though both have internal memory. 1.Figure 1. With all of the above features. 2). With these features and to monitor only two vital signs. Figure 2.4 inches wide. 10 inches wide. thermometer. and 9.2 Patent Search Results 7 . Some of its features include: an easy to read LCD screen. This device also comes with an optional wheeled stand making for easy transportation. It weighs 8 pounds and is 9. blood pressure monitor. A bright LCD display displays the latest vital signs readings. and a backlit screen displays historical trend information. this device costs approximately $2000. and a printer for record keeping. blood oxygen level measurement. The Welch Allyn system has an alarm that will go off if patients forget to take their vital signs at the specified time.3. pulse measurement. It can store up to 400 sets of vital signs and has a battery life of 6 hours.6 inches tall.4 pounds. Welch Allyn Vital Signs Monitor 300 Series This device is small and lightweight. The Philips SureSigns VS1 Vital Sign Monitor includes non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) and pulse rate measurement systems. 9. built in memory for up to 99 sets of measurement data.8 inches deep (Fig.3 inches tall. It is 6. the Welch Allyn Monitoring system is approximately $3000. and it weighs 5. DRE Philips SureSigns VS1 Vital Sign Monitor Both the Philips and Welch Allyn monitors lack audio output and obvious buttons. has a depth of 6 inches.

S. It also uses a new method to measure blood pressure without unnecessary constriction of the patient’s limb. and an appendix containing updated device specifications are also included. Acknowledgements.919. patent number 5. is for a high functional density cardiac monitoring system for captured windowed ECG data. U.There are many different types of vital signs monitors. et al. budget. The next section details the design process by discussing the three alternative designs and the optimal design of the accessible home vital signs monitoring system.756). safety issues. It uses dry skin electrodes that come in contact with the patient’s skin to take readings. ECG.609 by Chen. (U. This device provides interfaces for pulse oximetry. The impact of engineering solutions section describes how our design affects different areas in society. This system uses an auscultatory transducer and a microprocessor-based circuit to record blood pressure and heart rate. U. This is done through normal telephone lines and uses two main databases for storing and sending information. One such patent is a blood pressure and heart rate monitoring method and apparatus by Hewitt (U.S. and blood pressure transducers.495 by Mills. and other engineering considerations. Readings are sent by a RF transmitter to a remote monitoring station. Following this section are the realistic constraints.613. including the environment. and the global stage. This device is a way for a health care professional to monitor a patient in their home from a remote location. 2 Project Design 8 .553. Next discussed is life-long learning and how our device and its design has contributed to our life-long learning. The realistic constraints and safety issues were factors that had to be kept in mind when designing our device. patent number 4. patent number 5.967. Finally. is an intelligent remote visual monitoring system for home health care service.4 Map for the Rest of the Report The remainder of the final report covers design. The report concludes with our budget and each team member’s contribution to the report and design of the device. the optimal design. respiration.141) describes a device for the remote monitoring of a hospitalized patient’s vital signs. temperature. a vital sign remote monitoring device patented by Money. patent number 5. It is a very small device that is lightweight and worn on the wrist. references. 1. the economy. so many patents of vital signs monitors exist. and impact of engineering solutions. This device also includes a speaker and method for transmitting the recordings over a phone line. et al.S. et al.S. The alternative designs show the changes that our vital signs monitoring system went through on its way to the final design.

1. Thermistors are inherently nonlinear. oral temperature probe (brand to be determined). and then send this data to their healthcare provider. 2. sheet. In addition. Also to accommodate vision-impaired clients.1. In each design section. the thermistor needs to be linearized for temperatures from 90-104° F (32-40°C).1 Design Alternatives 2. followed by an explanation of each subunit of the design. allowing patients who are vision-impaired or who have arthritis to successfully operate the monitor. any changes made are discussed. This section contains the three design alternatives created for our accessible home vital signs monitoring system. It will convert changes in temperature to changes in voltage.1. four bright LCD screens with wide viewing angles will be used to display the patients’ vital signs. For our use as an oral temperature probe. an oral temperature probe.1 Objective Our accessible home vital signs monitoring system will have the capability to non-invasively gather the client’s heart rate.1. After being linearized. and the optimal design that was chosen. The items to be purchased are a finger pulse oximeter probe. so to linearize the output of the thermistor. a text-to-speech function will be implemented to allow the monitor to audibly communicate current vital signs readings. and an automatic blood pressure cuff. The thermistor will be in the form of a commercially purchased. regardless of the caregiver’s skill level.2 Thermometer To measure body temperature.1. To collect the data.1 Design 1 2. The optimal design was chosen because it keeps costs down while still being an effective home vital signs monitoring system. and body temperature. a thermistor circuit will be used. blood pressure. encrypted website.Engineering design is a process that involves research and revision. 2. This accessible home vital signs monitoring system design is an accurate and consistent way to obtain a patient’s vital signs. A visual and audio alarm will be installed to alert clients if their vital signs are abnormal. it will be placed in series with a resistor [9]. blood oxygen saturation level. will last the longest. The data will be sent via a USB flash drive to a password-protected. medical transducers will be commercially purchased and integrated into the accessible vital signs monitoring system. and be the easiest to manufacture. It is also the design that is safest. The value of the resistor will be determined from the resistance of the thermistor at room temperature and data from the temperature probe spec. The buttons on the front panel of the monitor will be large and printed with either Braille or a universal symbol. the signal will be sent to a low-pass filter to filter out any noise and then passed to a non-inverting amplifier to be 9 .

c. the signal will be sent to the microprocessor where it will be analyzed and passed to a LCD screen to be displayed. An n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET connected across the each LED will be used to pulse the output from them. Pulse oximetry uses the optical properties of blood to determine blood oxygen saturation. level always remains at the same value. signal to one input of a differential amplifier. The photodetector used in pulse oximetry probes is a photodiode. is used to generate the voltage that sets the value of the LED currents [16].1. a pulse oximeter will be used.c. Finally. The timing circuits that were used to control the red and NIR LED drivers also are used to provide the control pulses for their corresponding sample-andhold circuits [16]. one that works at a red wavelength and the other at a nearinfrared (NIR) wavelength. which is then sent to an automatic gain control circuit.amplified. An op-amp configured for current-to-voltage conversion will convert the photodiode-detected current to voltage. The photodiode detects the light transmitted through the finger as current [16]. It will contain two LEDs. There are pulsatile signals detected in the intensity of the detected light by the photodiode. This signal is also sent through a low pass filter to extract the d. Two 555 timer circuits will be used to control the timing of the pulsing of the LEDs. Sample-and-hold circuits are needed (due to the pulse LED light) to reconstitute the waveforms at each of the two wavelengths.c.1. These pulses can 10 . The other input to the amplifier is a constant reference voltage. A non-inverting op amp combined with a FET will be used to create a constant current source to drive the LEDs. Once the signal goes through the sample-and-hold circuit.3 Pulse Oximeter To measure blood oxygen saturation. the voltage difference between the two inputs. Our pulse oximeter will have two parts: a finger probe and the oximeter circuitry. The gain control circuit adjusts the light intensity from the LEDs so that the d. 2. A lookup table stored in the microprocessor will be used to calculate SpO2 values. etc. The output of the differential amplifier. capacitor. it is sent through a band pass filter to eliminate noise. A simple sample-and-hold circuit can be created from a FET switch. This circuit is implemented by feeding the d. Heart Rate Pulse oximetry will also be used to determine heart rate. and op amp. Also. The finger probe for the pulse oximeter will be commercially purchased (brand to be determined). tissue. then amplified and sent through an A/D converter and the microprocessor to be analyzed. In the receiving end of the circuit is the photodetector. value of the transmitted signal. in the probe will be a photodetector that will detect the light transmitted through the finger [16]. whatever the thickness of the patient’s skin.

2. To produce the speech we will use the Magnevation SpeakJet IC. we will use the Microchip PIC16877F microprocessor. will be purchased and integrated in our vital signs monitor.1. To play these sounds.1. Each display measures 80mm x 36mm with a viewing area of 66mm x 16mm. It is an 18 pin IC that uses a mathematical sound algorithm to control an internal five channel sound synthesizer to produce sound. we chose a simple.be counted within a given time period to determine heart rate. an automated system will be used that measures Korotkoff sounds. background noise. . the speech module. 8 Ohm speaker to generate all our speech sounds.1. Since this microchip requires phonetics and not text. a commercial speaker will be purchased.5W. the TTS256 Text to Code IC will have to be used in conjunction with the SpeakJet. PIC and any processor with a serial port.4 Non Invasive Blood Pressure One way in which blood pressure can be measured non-invasively is through use of an occlusive cuff. 2.1. After the data has been processed the information will be sent to 4 different areas: the LCD displays. such as the Omcron Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor. the speaker. and alarm. The cuff control system involves inflating the cuff then deflating it at a slow rate to produce the Korotkoff sounds. This will be done by the microprocessor and displayed on an LCD screen. and the heart beating.56mm. Due to the complexity of the automated system. Automated blood pressure measurement includes two systems: the cuff control system and the microphone system to measure the Korotkoff sounds generated. For the LCD displays. To measure blood pressure. and a character height of 6. OOPic. The resulting measurement for blood pressure will be displayed on an LCD screen on the front of the vital signs monitor. Display. For our purposes. like our microchip [13]. small. a commercially available system. The TTS256 is an 8-bit microprocessor programmed with letter-to-sound rules. 2. The SpeakJet can be controlled by a single I/O line from our PIC16877F Microcontroller [13].1. as well as the alarm. and Alarm To process the data.5 Processing. 4 displays from Crystal Fontz will be used.1. This IC is Compatible with Basic Stamp. The alarm will include audio and visual features that will activate when the patient’s vital signs become abnormal. It also must determine which phase a sound implies [15].6 USB Device and Secure Website 11 . This built-in algorithm allows for the automatic real-time translation of English ASCII characters into allophone addresses compatible with the Magnevation SpeakJet Speech Synthesizer IC. A complex circuit is used to detect the Korotkoff sounds. The circuit must differentiate between the Korotkoff sounds.

nickel cadmium batteries are safer and will recharge a lot quicker. For the backup power supply we determined the best way would be to use nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries. password protected website to which the patient can upload the information from their USB stick.1.Vital signs readings will be stored via a USB flashdrive. First. By writing a computer program in the microprocessor. a website using the UCONN Biomedical Engineering server will be created. Although lead acid batteries can sometimes produce more voltage. To ensure that the website is secure. This allows for easy communication between the two. they need to be sent to the primary healthcare provider. The need for a backup battery is so the patient can take signs even if the power is gone.2. but this design adds the equipment to measure weight and respiratory rate. The thermometer linearizing circuit has been changed from a resistor to a Wheatstone bridge. blood oxygen saturation. In order to use this encryption software. our accessible home vital signs monitoring system will have the capability to non-invasively gather a client’s vital signs and transmit them to their healthcare provider. The device will mainly be run from an external power source by using a power cord. 2. 2.1 Objective As with Design 1. the monitoring system was designed to be as simple and user friendly as possible.1.1. We will use encryption software such as TagsLock Pro v 2. The following design differs from the first design in a few important ways. This device uses I2C technology to connect to the microprocessor.7 Power Supply When designing this project we found it rather important to include two different types of power. This device will then be connected to a computer in which it is possible to send the readings to any computer that has an Internet connection. blood pressure. this new design is for a vital signs monitor that will measure 6 different vital signs. which will plug into the back of our device and then also plug into the wall.2 Design 2 2. and temperature). We will create an encrypted.22 to hide the source code of our HTML documents. which is more common in medical instrumentation and reduces heat 12 .1. Our last design only measured 4 vital signs (heart rate. For the power supply we plan on using a very generic universal power cord. The USB device that we decided to use is the Philips PDIUSBD11. we will be able to send the data received by the machine to the USB device and then to the computer. To accommodate all users. HTML encryption software will be used to encrypt the contents of the website. It will also be equipped with rechargeable backup batteries in case of a power failure. allowing only those with the correct username and password to access it. After the patient’s vital signs have been gathered and recorded.

2. before shipping and tax. a pulse oximeter will be used.1. the thermistor will be linearized through the use of a Wheatstone bridge: Figure 3. The thermistor will be in the form of a commercially purchased. the signal will be sent to a low-pass filter to remove any noise. a thermistor circuit will be used to measure body temperature. The Blackfin was chosen for its superior processing capabilities and its ability to be programmed through LabVIEW™.00.3 Pulse Oximeter To measure blood oxygen saturation.6° F (37°C). Instead of purchasing an automated noninvasive blood pressure monitor and incorporating it into our device. Unlike our first design (where the thermistor was linearized by a resistor). Thermistor Linearizing Circuit For our use as an oral temperature probe. Final testing will be done by taking group members’ temperature with the thermometer and comparing the reading with that taken by a commercial digital thermometer. 2. the thermistor needs to be linearized (calibrated) around 98. in this design we are using a Blackfin microprocessor instead of a PIC 16F877. this report includes a design for an automated blood pressure system that will be part of the system itself. for a temperature range of at least 90-104° F (3240°C). The pulse oximeter finger probe that we will use is the DRE Datascope compatible SpO2 finger 13 . The thermometer will be tested by placing the probe in a beaker of water heated to a certain temperature and comparing the resulting temperature given by the thermometer to the actual temperature of the water.1.2 Thermometer As with Design 1.2. oral temperature probe. Finally.com for a cost of $74.created by the circuit itself. The signal will be sent to a non-inverting amplifier to be amplified and then passed to the microprocessor where it will be analyzed and sent to an LCD screen to be displayed. The probe we have chosen for this is the Welch-Allyn # 02893-000 Sure Temp 690 Oral Probe from DREMed. After being linearized. 2.

capacitor.00 (price before shipping and tax) from DREMed.4 Non Invasive Blood Pressure 14 . two 555 timers will supply 50μs pulses to the LEDs at a rate of 1 kHz. in the probe is a photodetector that will detect the light transmitted through the finger [16]. we will obtain and load Datascope’s lookup table onto our microprocessor. Also. to transmit light. 2. Heart Rate Pulse oximetry will also be used to determine heart rate. the LEDs need to be driven by a constant current source. The current is converted to voltage by an op-amp configured for current-to-voltage conversion.1. sample-and-hold circuits are needed to reconstitute the waveforms at each of the two wavelengths.com. A lookup table stored in the microprocessor will be used to calculate SpO2 values. The photodiode detects the light transmitted through the finger as current [16].probe for $165. Calibration of the pulse oximeter will be done through the lookup table stored on the microprocessor. and op amp. We plan to find a simulator to use at a local hospital or the UConn Health Center. Once the signal goes through the sample-and-hold circuit. The timing circuits that were used to control the red and NIR LED drivers also are used to provide the control pulses for their corresponding sampleand-hold circuits [16]. One pulse is one cardiac cycle. whatever the thickness of the patient’s skin. tissue. level always remains at the same value. as in Design 1.5Hz and 5Hz to eliminate high frequency noise and the d.c. an n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET connected across the each LED is used to pulse the output from them. Then. There are pulsatile signals detected in the intensity of the detected light by the photodiode. The microprocessor will count the pulses to determine heart rate (beats per minute). The pulse oximeter will be tested through a pulse oximeter simulator. The gain control circuit adjusts the light intensity from the LEDs so that the d.c. offset.2. a device designed to test the accuracy of pulse oximeters. A simple sample-and-hold circuit can be created from a FET switch. it is sent through a band pass filter with cutoff frequencies . To control the pulsing of the LEDs. which is then sent to an automatic gain control circuit (the same as in Design 1). Like in Design 1. This signal is also sent through a low pass filter to extract the d. one that works at a red wavelength and the other at a near-infrared (NIR) wavelength. In the receiving end of the circuit is the photodetector. This can be done by a non-inverting op amp combined with a FET. it is amplified and sent through an A/D converter and the microprocessor to be analyzed. which will be displayed on an LCD screen. etc [16]. It contains two LEDs. Because the LED light is pulsed. value of the transmitted signal.c. Because we are using a Datascope compatible probe. Finally.

Each system in the flow chart is described in more detail in the following paragraphs. Deflation will occur through a release valve (brand to be determined). The pressure at which these vibrations start is the systolic pressure. As the cuff deflates. 15 . A threshold voltage level will be set.00. we will incorporate our own automated non-invasive blood pressure cuff into the system. This waveform will be analyzed by the microprocessor to determine the systolic and diastolic pressures. second to the microprocessor controlling the rest of the device. This will be done by experimentally comparing blood pressure readings from a sphygmometer or other commercial device to those detected by our pressure sensor. Blood pressure will be automatically measured through the oscillometric method [15].5 to 1 mmHg in the cuff [4]. a command from the microprocessor will deflate the cuff quickly and completely.In this design. The blood pressure cuff used will be a DRE Adult single lumen cuff from DREMed. The microprocessor will continue to monitor the blood pressure readings and diastolic pressure will be taken when the voltage drops below the threshold voltage for 2 pulsations. Once 4 pulsations peak above the threshold level. The block diagram in Fig.com at a cost of $37. and the pressure at which they stop is the diastolic pressure [5]. the voltage will be recorded and from that value the systolic pressure determined. After the diastolic pressure is determined. A microprocessor. the blood pressure cuff will be inflated to about 40mmHg above normal (160mmHg). Once the pressure sensor determines that the cuff has been inflated to 160mmHg. As blood begins flowing through the brachial artery again. The sensor used to sense cuff pressure will be the NPC1210 low-pressure sensor from GE. The cuff is then slowly deflated. The cuff will be inflated by a Sensidyne AA Series Micro Air Pump. 4 illustrates how this method will be used to measure blood pressure in the accessible vital signs monitoring system. blood starts pumping through the brachial artery causing minute vibrations of . the cuff will deflate slowly at a rate of 2-3mmHg/sec. it will cause small pulsations that will be picked up by the pressure sensor in the cuff. This is done by wrapping a blood pressure cuff around the upper arm and inflating it until the pressure around the arm due to the cuff collapses (or occludes) the brachial artery. will control the inflation of the cuff. before shipping and tax. When the blood pressure “Start” button on the vital signs monitor is pressed.

Figure 4. Block Diagram of Automatic Blood Pressure Measuring System Due to the safety issues that arise with automatic blood pressure systems. As stated previously. the rapid cuff deflation will be tested by experimentation (turning the vital signs monitor off during use). we have incorporated a “kill switch” into our design (Fig 4) [18]. If at any time during the blood pressure measurement the user wants to stop the inflation of the cuff and rapidly deflate it. Final testing of the device will be done by comparing its blood pressure readings to those of a sphygmometer. This will be done through establishing a threshold voltage by which correct pressure measurements for systolic and diastolic pressures can be made. Finally. 16 . This will cut power to the whole device and open the pressure release valve. they just need to press the vital signs monitor “On/Off” button. the automated blood pressure system will be calibrated experimentally.

By stretching the elastic due to respiration. we will take apart the scale and break the connection between the circuit and its digital display.1. Ideally. The scale will already have been calibrated and tested by its manufacturer. Using a piezoelectric sensor placed between two strips. We will do additional testing by comparing known weight values (dumbbells) to the values displayed by the scale when we place the weights on it. but use the digital signal processing features to analyze and filter the signals (FIR and IIR filters). Then we will connect the scale output to our microprocessor. A typical PIC 17 .1. To connect the scale to our device.2. allowing for either 100% DSP. the MLT1132 Piezo Respiratory Belt Transducer from AD Instruments will be used. If the sensors do exhibit some voltage. the microprocessor we have chosen to use is the Blackfin ADSPBF535P Digital Signal Processor by Analog Devices. Calibrating the respiratory belt can be done by knowing the voltage of the piezoelectric sensors at rest. Using DSP. to be saved and sent to an LCD screen.2. we can count each breath as a peak on the graph which corresponds to the maximum distance the belt traveled for that breath. this belt measures the changes in thoracic or abdominal circumference due to respiration inhalation and exhalation. Display.com). This processor is extremely versatile due to the fact that it can function as both a microcontroller and a DSP (Digital Signal Processor).2.6 Weight Measuring patient weight has also been included in this second design.1. DSPs are also much faster than microcontrollers. strain is placed on the sensor. To test the accuracy of this transducer. 2. we will compare our results obtained from using this respiratory belt to the results obtained the BioPac software. and Alarm In this design. To do this. We will to build handles onto the scale to offer better support and safety to our clients with mobility problems. This voltage is then sent through the transducer and converted into digital signals to be processed by the Blackfin. The scale that will be used is the Homedics SC-200 Digital Scale ($24. In plotting the voltage sent from the transducer. there should zero voltage because there is no stress on the sensors. the Blackfin contains an internal analog to digital converter. Like the PIC microcontrollers. or a combination of the two [8].7 Processing. the device will be zeroed at that corresponding voltage reading. which generates a voltage. one can more easily design and modify their work due to the fact that it is all computer based. This will be done by purchasing a commercially available digital scale and incorporating it into our device. 2.2. This makes the Blackfin ideal for our design due to the fact that we are going to input and output the data like a microcontroller. 100% microcontroller. we have incorporated the measurement of respiratory rate.95 at wholesalepoint.5 Respiratory Rate In this second design.

5W.2. These displays differ from our previous design due to the fact that they are a little larger.06mm. The TTS256 Text to Code IC will be used in conjunction with the SpeakJet. which will also act as part of the alarm. Since we have had more experience using LabVIEW. whereas the Blackfin has a clock speed of 350 MHz. This built-in algorithm allows for the automatic real-time translation of English ASCII characters into allophone addresses compatible with the Magnevation SpeakJet Speech Synthesizer IC. The alarm will include audio and visual features that will turn on when the patient’s vital signs become abnormal. 2. For the LCD displays. with a viewing area of 99mm x 24mm. The commercial speaker we have chosen to play these sounds is a simple. the speaker. making reading the displays easier for the patients. they need to be sent to their primary healthcare provider. through the same system describe in Design 1. To maximize patient privacy we have devised a way to securely transmit the patients’ health information. After the patient’s vital signs have been gathered and recorded. To ensure that the website is secure. and a character height of 8. minimizing the risk of interception. and re-use it later when the site content gets modified and needs re-uploading. The SpeakJet will be controlled by a single I/O line from the Blackfin [13].microcontroller has a clock speed of about 20 MHz. The Blackfin can take C/C++ code as well as LabVIEW Vi’s.1. By writing a computer program in the microprocessor. After the data has been processed the information will be sent to 4 different areas: the LCD displays. The USB device that we decided to use is the Philips PDIUSBD11. In order to use this encryption software. and alarm. HTML encryption software will be used to encrypt the contents of the website. The same system as used in Design 1 will be used in this design to produce the audio output. the speech module. We will use encryption software such as TagsLock Pro v 2. We will create an encrypted. 4 displays from Crystal Fontz will be used. we feel that LabVIEW would be a more suitable code to program the processor. we will be able to send the data received by the machine to the USB device and then to the computer. Due to the Blackfin’s abilities. it should be the only microprocessor we need for our device. . the Magnevation SpeakJet IC. a website using the UCONN Biomedical Engineering server will be created. To encrypt HTML using TagsLock PRO. 18 . allowing only those with the correct username and password to access it. We will use the PF pins (I/O ports on microcontrollers) on the Blackfin to function as inputs for the transducers and outputs for the LCD screens and speaker. password protected website to which the patient uploads the information from their USB stick.8 USB Device and Secure Website Vital signs readings will be stored via a USB flashdrive. small.22 to hide the source code of our HTML documents. you need to create a new project once. The TTS256 is an 8-bit microprocessor programmed with letter-to-sound rules. 8 Ohm speaker. Each display measures 122mm x 44mm.

This removes the USB flashdrive and the need to physically transport vital signs data to the computer.2.1.1. For our use as an oral temperature probe. 2. The probe chosen for this is the Welch-Allyn # 02893-000 Sure Temp 690 Oral Probe from DREMed. who will take that file and manufacture a plastic casing. The device will mainly be run from an external power source by using a power cord. in this design we have included a method to transmit the vital signs data to the healthcare professional through a secure email system rather than a website. To save money.1 Objective As we continued to update and revise our design. parts of the design changed.2 Thermometer Like in Designs 1 and 2. we purchased a pulse oximeter probe to incorporate into our vital signs monitor. Finally. the signal will be filtered. to measure body temperature. For the power supply. For the backup power supply we determined the best way would be to use nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries. amplified.3 Design 3 2. We feel an appropriate temperature 19 .2. we plan on using a very generic universal power cord. .1. and then passed to the microprocessor where it will be analyzed and sent to an LCD screen to be displayed (as in Design 2). The thermometer will be tested by placing the probe in a beaker of water heated to a certain temperature and comparing the resulting temperature given by the thermometer to the actual temperature of the water. The respiratory belt used in the last design to measure respiratory rate has been replaced by a thermocouple.6° F (37°C). Bluetooth wireless communication has been used in this design to transmit collected vital signs from the monitor to the client’s computer. which will plug into the back of our device and then also plug into the wall. for a temperature range of at least 90-104° F (32-40°C). An AutoCad™ drawing of our casing will be sent to Toolless Plastic Solutions. The need for a backup battery is so the patient can take signs even if the power is gone.9 Power Supply The power supply of this design is the same as that of Design 1. We also explored an effective way to enclose the inner circuitry of our device in this design. the thermistor needs to be linearized (calibrated) around 98.3. a thermistor circuit will be used.com (as in Design 2). a more cost effective and accurate solution. 2. we created a design for a pulse oximeter probe that we will build. Buttons will be customized to increase accessibility and ordered through Grayhill Co.1.3. In our last two designs. It will also be equipped with rechargeable backup batteries in case of a power failure. After being linearized. as in previous designs.

Finger Probe Diagram 20 . Final testing will be done by taking group members’ temperature with the thermometer and comparing the reading with that taken by a commercial digital thermometer. The circuit design is the same as that from Designs 1 and 2. Figure 6. the finger probe will be constructed instead of bought. a NIR LED. 2.3 Pulse Oximeter To measure blood oxygen saturation. and a photodiode. Figure 5. 6).3. we will need a red LED.1. Pulse Oximeter Circuit Block Diagram To build the finger probe that we will use with our device. but unlike those previous designs. The LEDs will be placed opposite the photodiode within a casing that can be clipped to a finger (Fig. The block diagram of the pulse oximeter below shows an overview of the circuits that are involved and will be included in the vital signs monitoring device (Fig. a pulse oximeter will be used.range to test this would be from 32°C to 40°C. 5).

Figure 7. Pulse Oximeter Circuit Diagram Calibration of the pulse oximeter will be done through the lookup table stored on the microprocessor. We plan to find a simulator to use at a local hospital or the UConn Health Center. The pulse oximeter will be calibrated tested through a pulse oximeter simulator. Also. in the probe will be a photodetector that will detect the light transmitted through the finger. Manufacturers of pulse oximeters determine calibration curves or lookup tables for their devices. 7) of the pulse oximeter shows how each of the different circuits previously described in Designs 1 and 2 will be integrated into a whole.One LED will work at a red wavelength (660nm) and the other at a near-infrared (NIR) wavelength (910nm). The complete schematic (Fig. a device designed to test the accuracy of pulse oximeters. Heart Rate 21 .

4 Non Invasive Blood Pressure As in Design 2. The blood pressure cuff used will be a DRE Adult single lumen cuff from DREMed. The sensor used to sense cuff pressure will be the NPC-1210 low-pressure sensor from GE. The thermocouple will be clipped to the client’s nose and will measure the change in temperature caused by inspiration and expiration (Fig. it will cause small pulsations that will be picked up by the pressure sensor in the cuff. 8). which will be displayed on an LCD screen.1. avoiding any software bugs that an emergency stop button might encounter. will control the inflation of the cuff. voltages thresholds will be set to define the changes in 22 .3. the automated blood pressure system will be calibrated experimentally. The cuff will be inflated by a Sensidyne AA Series Micro Air Pump. Final testing of the device will be done by comparing its blood pressure readings to those of a sphygmometer. There are pulsatile signals detected in the intensity of the detected light by the photodiode. Once the pressure sensor determines that the cuff has been inflated to 160mmHg.1. Deflation will occur through a release valve (brand to be determined). Through experimentation. This will be done through establishing a threshold voltage by which correct pressure measurements for systolic and diastolic pressures can be made. This waveform will be analyzed by the microprocessor to determine the systolic and diastolic pressures.3. blood pressure will be automatically measured through the oscillometric method [15].00. we have incorporated a “kill switch” into our design (Fig 4) [18]. 2. This function will be tested by comparing the heart rate given by the pulse oximeter to that of a group member taken manually.Pulse oximetry will also be used to determine heart rate. respiratory rate in this design will be measured using a thermocouple. they just need to press the vital signs monitor “On/Off” button.com at a cost of $37.5 Respiratory Rate Unlike Designs 1 and 2. This method bypasses the microprocessor. If at any time during the blood pressure measurement the user wants to stop the inflation of the cuff and rapidly deflate it. This process is exactly the same as describe in Design 2. One pulse is one cardiac cycle. As blood begins flowing through the brachial artery again. the cuff will deflate slowly at a rate of 2-3mmHg/sec. This will cut power to the whole device and open the pressure release valve. second to the microprocessor controlling the rest of the device. A microprocessor. Due to the safety issues that arise with automatic blood pressure systems. before shipping and tax. The microprocessor will count the pulses to determine heart rate (beats per minute). The thermocouple will convert the changes in temperature it detects to changes in voltage. 2. As stated in Design 2.

The scale will already have been calibrated and tested by its manufacturer. to ensure patient health. We plan on taking apart the scale and breaking the connection between the circuit and its digital display. Image of Thermocouple Nose Clip The voltage from the thermocouple will be linear over our range (approx. Voltage output from the thermocouple will be measured for inspiration and expiration. we can determine respiratory rate. 65°F to 98°F). Another viable option that we explore in this design is a secure e-mail system. 2. 2. It is also possible to track the e-mail to determine that the e-mail was received and who opened it. By counting the number of inspiration and expiration pairs that occur in a given period of time. Testing will be done by comparing the readings from our respiratory rate monitor to those taken by the Biopac respiratory belt from the Biopac software used in the ENGR 166 lab. For starters there is no password required and information is automatically secured every time with the Certified Mail software. This can be accomplished through certifiedmail.temperature that correspond to inspiration and expiration. From here we will connect the scale’s circuit to one of our output displays. It provides easy to use software that the recipient of the e-mail does not need to download in order for complete security to occur. Figure 8. This website provides the software necessary to protect e-mail using transparent encryption.7 Secure E-mail System In the first two designs. this circuit will be calibrated experimentally. A time download and $10 per month provides these features.6 Weight Weight will be monitored by the same system discussed in Design 2.1.3. 23 . We will do additional testing by comparing known weight values (dumbbells) to the values displayed by the scale when we place the weights on it. we sent the vital signs data through a secure website.3.1. so the signal from the thermocouple only needs to be filtered and amplified before being A/D converted and processed by the microprocessor. From these measurements voltage thresholds will be set for inspiration and expiration.com. The scale that will be used is the Homedics SC-200 Digital Scale. As mentioned previously.

9 Bluetooth Instead of using a USB device to move store patient data.8 Power Supply The power supply of this design is the same as that of Designs 1 and 2.2. The vital signs monitor will be placed at different ranges within 10 meters to determine signal strength at different ranges and the optimum range for data transmission. The buttons will then be snapped into the hole. We are awaiting a price quote from the Gray Hill Company. The model button from Grayhill that fits our project is a rectangular button that is about 15 by 20 millimeters. There will be a switch in the circuit that will either be open if the device is “off” or closed if power is to be given to 24 . We will include buttons with a Universal Symbol or Braille. It will be programmed to set up a network with the Bluetooth USB dongle when it detects it. Once the button is snapped into the hole.1.3. it has wings which will open to secure it. This module contains all the components of the Bluetooth stack on the board so that no additional host processor code is needed. The buttons will act like a switch. The only visible problem with this product is that the button may be too small and also that we are not yet aware of the price. a USB Bluetooth dongle will be purchased (usually at $10-$20) to provide connectivity on the PC end. Our Bluetooth communications system will be calibrated through UART communication with any extra equipment necessary provided by the BME 252 lab. The interface between our host processor and the eb100-SER radio will be done through UART communication.3. The device will mainly be run from an external power source by using a power cord. Assuming that our clients’ computers are not Bluetooth ready. These buttons are very easy to secure.10 Pushbuttons An important feature of our design is the buttons involved.1. 2. so individuals with vision impairment can use them. 2. We will purchase the EmbeddedBlue eb100-SER OEM Bluetooth Serial Module from A7 Engineering for $40 to integrate into our vital signs monitor to provide Bluetooth connectivity. in this design we will transmit the data collected by the vital signs monitor to the client’s computer wirelessly using Bluetooth. either turning the power on or off. The start button will be connected to the beginning of the circuit. A company that offers customizable buttons is Grayhill. The buttons require a proper size whole to be drilled in the area where the buttons will be placed.3. It will also be equipped with rechargeable nickel cadmium backup batteries in case of a power failure. The Bluetooth system will be tested by acquiring vitals signs from the monitor and sending them to a computer in the design lab to which the USB dongle is installed.1.

When the start button is pressed. Since we will not know the exact size and placement of all 6 holes for the LCD screens. These displays are the same ones used in Design 2. a plastic enclosure needs to be manufactured. 4 displays from Crystal Fontz will be used. Due to the Blackfin’s abilities. The Magnevation SpeakJet IC will be used in conjunction with the TTS256 Text to Code IC to produce speech. Display. the speaker.12 Processing. a commercial . 2.the entire circuit.3. We will use the PF pins (I/O ports on microcontrollers) on the Blackfin to function as inputs for the transducers and outputs for the LCD screens and speaker. the processor we are going to use for this design is the Blackfin ADSP-BF535P Digital Signal Processor by Analog Devices. Each measures 122mm x 44mm. 2.2 Final Design 2.5W.1.3. and a character height of 8. To play these sounds (and the alarm).11 Casing In order to safely enclose the internal circuitry of our design.1. Toolless Plastic Solutions requires no tooling or molds. Like the PIC microcontrollers. 8 Ohm speaker will be purchased. The alarm will include audio and visual features that will turn on when the patient’s vital signs become abnormal. We will not know the exact price of the casing until a design is sent for a quote. The Blackfin can take C/C++ code as well as LabVIEW Vi’s. and Alarm As in Design 2. and alarm. We will use the company Toolless Plastic Solutions to manufacture our casing. After the data has been processed the information will be sent to 4 different areas: the LCD displays.06mm. and therefore will be a cost-effective way to obtain an enclosure for our design [7]. 2. the Blackfin contains an internal analog to digital converter. and the various I/O ports in the casing.2. the speech module. the switch on the circuit will close allowing for the power supply to be sent to and power the rest of the circuit. the design will be submitted in the spring semester when all the parts have been ordered and more about the final design is known. For the LCD displays. it should be the only microprocessor we need for our device. The same process and parts to produce audio process in Designs 1 and 2 will also be used in this design. we need to submit an AutoCad™ drawing of the final casing design.1 Objective 25 . The company uses CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining and fabrication process to build plastic casings. with a viewing area of 99mm x 24mm. In order for this company to manufacture our case.

An important tool for home health monitoring is the vital signs monitor. Patients that require frequent healthcare monitoring can now have this done in the comfort of their own home. body temperature. along with the shortage of nurses. To maximize the simplicity of our design and make it accessible to all of our clients. 9 and 10. Our accessible home vital signs monitoring system will have the capability to non-invasively gather a patient’s heart rate. 26 .Due to the increasing number of chronic illnesses. and respiratory rate. we will create a password protected encrypted website to which patients can upload their vital signs. the monitoring system was designed as simple and user friendly as possible. In addition. This accessible home vital signs monitoring system design is an accurate and consistent way to obtain a patient’s vital signs. a textto-speech function is implemented to allow the monitor to audibly tell the patients what their current vital signs are. including our clients. the buttons on the front panel of the monitor are large and printed with either Braille or a universal symbol. weight. home monitoring is becoming more and more of a necessity. allowing patients who are vision-impaired or have arthritis to successfully operate the monitor. Also to accommodate vision-impaired clients. regardless of the caregiver’s skill level. blood pressure. A photograph of our design followed by a flowchart of our system operation can be seen in Figs. a bright LCD screen with wide viewing angle is used to display the patients’ vital signs. blood oxygen level. To accommodate all users. To send this data. and then send this data to their corresponding healthcare provider.

Photographs of Monitor 27 .Figure 9.

Flowchart of Accessible Vital Signs Monitor Operation 28 .Figure 10.

12). 29 . inside the thermometer casing. Thermometer and cap A hole was drilled in the cap of the thermometer with a drill press so that a cable purchased from RadioShack (6-ft. oral temperature thermometer that was converted into a temperature probe. In order to reduce costs and make a recognizable probe. 1/8” plug to stripped wires) could fit into the thermometer. Figure 11. leaving just the casing and the thermistor in the tip (Fig.2.1 Thermometer To measure body temperature.2 Subunits 2. The thermistor leads and these cable leads were soldered to a small piece of PCB.2.2. a thermistor circuit is used. a digital thermometer was purchased from CVS and all of the circuitry pulled out of it. 11). The thermistor is in the form of a commercially purchased.2. This completes the thermometer probe (Fig. shielded cable.

13). thermistors are inherently non-linear. b. Figure 13. Thermistor Linearizing Circuit [11] Thus. can be modeled by the first order equation [10]: 30 . RT1. the resistance of the thermistor. R is the resistance in ohms. Thermometer Probe with Attached Cable The thermistor within the probe converts changes in temperature to changes in voltage. and a.Figure 12. This output can be linearized over a small range of temperatures through the use of a Wheatstone bridge (Fig. Unfortunately. and c are constants called the Steinhart-Hart parameters which are usually provided by the thermistor manufacturer. The Steinhart-Hart equation describes the resistance-temperature curve of a thermistor [17]: 1 = a + b ln( R ) + c ln 3 ( R ) T where T is the temperature in kelvins.

The final circuit for the 2πR2 C thermometer is seen below (Fig. for a temperature range of at least 90-104° F (3240°C). and ΔT is the change in temperature from the reference temperature (ΔT=T-To) in degrees Kelvin. The reference temperature (T o) of the thermistor is given by the manufacturer and for medical thermistors it is usually around 300°K.6° F (37°C). the thermistor needs to be linearized (calibrated) around 98. R. typically around 4000°K [10]. the signal is sent to a3rd order Butterworth low-pass filter to remove any noise. For our use as an oral temperature probe. can be calculated from the following equation: d (R(T1 )) β dT =− 2 . Figure 14.1°C) so as to be able to take appropriate measurements. 14). The value of the resistors. α= R(T1 ) T where β is a temperature constant. used to linearize the thermistor will be determined from the reference temperature and other values given by the manufacturer (β or α) using the above equations. Completed Thermometer Circuit Including Amplifiers and Filter 31 . When linearizing the thermistor. where R is the resistance of the other resistance in the Wheatstone bridge. After being linearized. we must be careful to keep the accuracy of the thermometer high (+ .R(T1 ) ≅ R[1 + αΔT ] . The temperature coefficient. α. The cutoff frequency for the filter is about 60Hz to remove any noise from room lights and other sources ( f c = 1 ) [9]. α is the temperature coefficient.

Using the following part and calculated values.Because we did not have the manufacturers thermistor coefficient data.8 Thermistor Resistance (kΩ) 35.9 96. we had to determine our temperature versus resistance curve experimentally to calibrate the thermometer. this equation becomes: 32 .4 31. The thermometer was calibrated by calculating a curve that relates thermistor resistance to temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.2 R T = −857. Data Used to Determine Resistance Curve Constants Points Temperature (ºF) 91. I found the line on which those points lie.143 * Tº F + 114171 . m where m and b are the constants from the resistance curve. R R1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜1+ ⎟ RT ⎝ ⎠ where R is the resistance of the 3 resistors in the Wheatstone bridge. Vs is the source voltage. and solving for T°F yields the equation for temperature based on the change in thermistor resistance: T° F = 1 mVs ⎛ V ⎞ R R ⎜ Vs * 1 + s ⎟ ⎜ R2 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ − − m R b . Using only two points in the temperature region of interest (Table). The equation for the voltage out of the thermometer circuit (Wheatstone bridge and differential amplifier) is ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Vs ⎟ R 2 ⎜ Vs V0 = − . Solving this for RT. and R1 and R2 are the resistances from the resistors of the differential amplifier. plugging into the resistance curve. RT is the thermistor voltage (variable). Table.

Thus. − 2. through which light of intensity Iin passes: I 1 = I in110 − (α o1Co +α r 1C r ) l at wavelength λ1. for an artery of length l.2. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is defined as the ratio of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) to the total concentration of hemoglobin in the blood (Hb + HbO2): SpO 2 = [HbO 2 ] . if I ⎞ log⎛ 1 ⎜ I ⎟ in1 ⎠ ⎝ R= .143 b = 114171 Final testing done by taking group members’ temperature with the thermometer and comparing the reading with that taken by a commercial digital thermometer. and I 2 = I in 2 10 − (α o 2Co +α r 2C r ) l at wavelength λ2. .R = 1000Ω Vs = 3.2. then the light intensity will follow the Beer-Lambert Law.199 . ⎛I2 ⎞ log⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I in 2 ⎠ " " then blood oxygen saturation can be calculated from 33 . Cr is the concentration of Hb. where I1 and I2 are the intensities of the light passing through the artery at each wavelength. and αrn is the absorption coefficient of Hb at wavelength λn.3V R 2 = 470Ω R 1 = 470Ω m = -857. a pulse oximeter will be used. Pulse oximetry uses the optical properties of blood to determine oxygen saturation. Therefore.65 To measure blood oxygen saturation.857143 V0 + 1.5°F. showed that the thermometer was accurate to within . αon is the absorption coefficient of HbO2 at wavelength λn.2 Pulse Oximeter T° F = 1 + 133. [Hb + HbO 2 ] This can be determined by measuring the difference in the light absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin [16]. 2.82857 + . Assuming that the transmission of light through the arterial bed in the finger is only influenced by the concentrations of Hb and HbO2 and their absorption coefficients at two measurement wavelengths (red and near infrared). Co is the concentration of HbO2..

It was found by mapping the pins that connect to the ribbon string that connect to the photodiode and power source (Fig. to save time in construction. C o + C r (α r 2 − α o 2 )R − (α r1 − α 01 ) Due to the scattering effects of blood. we would not be able to test it or calibrate it. pulse oximeters are usually calibrated by comparing the oximeter R value (SpO2 ratio) to the oxygen saturation ratio obtained from in vivo samples using human test subjects. even if we constructed a pulse oximeter from scratch. 15). Therefore. Figure 15. the signal from the pulse oximeter is taken across the photodiode. For simplicity. 16). As such. Because of this need for in vivo testing for calibration. Drive Fingertip Pulse Oximeter. the blood oxygen saturation equations explained previously are good for theory but not for practice. Therefore. we purchased a commercial fingertip pulse oximeter to incorporate into our monitor. Beer’s Law does not apply for a pulse oximetry system [19]. Manufacturers of pulse oximeters do this and determine calibration curves or lookup tables for their devices.SpO 2 = Co α r 2 R − α r1 = . The pulse oximeter chosen is the Drive Reflectance Fingertip Pulse Oximeter (Fig. 34 .

Figure 16. Since the voltage/blood oxygen saturation curves for this pulse oximeter belong to Drive and we did not have access to them. This voltage threshold was set by scoping the outputs of pins 2 and 3. 35 . and pins 2 and 3 connect across the photodiode itself. we calibrated the pulse oximeter by setting a voltage threshold. 17). while the pulse oximeter was operating on the finger of a healthy individual (Fig. above which the LCD screen on the monitor outputs “98% Blood Oxygen Saturation”. Mapped Pulse Oximeter Pins 1 and 5 were found to connect across the battery.

Each system in the flow chart is described in more detail in the following paragraphs. Should we have been able to calibrate a pulse oximeter. Pulse Oximeter Signal Across the Photodiode The voltage threshold for when the photodiode is detecting the light transmitted through the finger of a healthy adult was found to be approximately. it is included because it is an important vital sign to monitor. The cuff is then slowly deflated.5 to 1 mmHg in the cuff [4]. 250mV. When the blood pressure “Start” button on the vital signs monitor is pressed.2. The blood pressure cuff used is a Large Adult Cuff from CVS (Fig. Though the pulse oximeter in our monitor will not actually measure blood oxygen saturation. As the cuff deflates.3 Non Invasive Blood Pressure Blood pressure is automatically measured through the oscillometric method [15]. This is done by wrapping a blood pressure cuff around the upper arm and inflating it until the pressure around the arm due to the cuff collapses (or occludes) the brachial artery. the blood pressure cuff is inflated to about 40mmHg above normal (160mmHg). and the pressure at which they stop is the diastolic pressure [5]. The block diagram in Fig.Figure 17. 36 . The pressure at which these vibrations start is the systolic pressure. 2. we could have constructed one from the pulse oximeter design in Alternative Design #3. blood starts pumping through the brachial artery causing minute vibrations of . 18).2. illustrates how this method will be used to measure blood pressure in the accessible vital signs monitoring system.

A basic circuit for the automated blood pressure system is seen in Figure 19. Adult Large CVS Blood Pressure Cuff The cuff is inflated by a Hargraves Fluidics CTS Series Micro Air Pump. the cuff will deflate slowly at a rate of 2-3mmHg/sec. The microprocessor controls the inflation of the cuff. The pressure sensor also receives power from the battery. The sensor used to sense cuff pressure is the MPX2050. Once the pressure sensor determines that the cuff has been inflated to 160mmHg. and it sends signals to the microprocessor. Deflation occurs automatically at this rate through the tubing with the help of two pin holes. The pump and valve are powered by the battery and controlled by the microprocessor. 37 .Figure 18.

Figure 19. Automated Blood Pressure System Circuit Figure 20. 21). Blood Pressure Sensor Actual Circuit Schematic [18] As blood begins flowing through the brachial artery again. This waveform is analyzed by the microprocessor to determine the systolic and diastolic pressures. it causes small pulsations that are picked up by the pressure sensor in the cuff (Fig. 38 .

Figure 21. a command from the microprocessor deflates the cuff quickly and completely. Blood Pressure Waveform Picked Up by Pressure Sensor [17] Where: MAP = Maximum Arterial Pressure SBP = Systolic Blood Pressure DBP = Diastolic Blood Pressure A threshold voltage level has been set. This was done by experimentally comparing blood pressure readings from a sphygmometer to those detected by our pressure sensor. Once 4 pulsations peak above the threshold level. The microprocessor continues to monitor the blood pressure readings and the diastolic pressure is taken when the voltage drops below the threshold voltage for 2 pulsations. 39 . the voltage is recorded and from that value the systolic pressure determined. After the diastolic pressure is determined.

This method bypasses the microprocessor. the automated blood pressure system was calibrated experimentally while relying on the work done by Wattanapanitch et al [18]. Block Diagram of Automatic Blood Pressure Measuring System Due to the safety issues that arise with automatic blood pressure systems. This will cut power to the whole device and open the pressure release valve. This was 40 . we have incorporated a “kill switch” into our design (Fig 22) [18]. avoiding any software bugs that an emergency stop button might encounter. If at any time during the blood pressure measurement the user wants to stop the inflation of the cuff and rapidly deflate it.Figure 22. they just need to press the vital signs monitor “On/Off” button. As stated previously.

we can determine respiratory rate. Final testing of the device was done by comparing its blood pressure readings to those of a sphygmometer. Figure 23. 23). By counting the number of inspiration and expiration pairs that occur in a given period of time. we expected and encountered slight differences in the measurements from our device and the sphygmometer because of the inherent degree of imprecision in manual blood pressure measurement. The thermocouple converts the changes in temperature it detects to changes in voltage.done through establishing a threshold voltage by which correct pressure measurements for systolic and diastolic pressures could be made.2. Image of Thermocouple Nose Clip 41 .2. voltages threshold were set to define the changes in temperature that correspond to inspiration and expiration. Nevertheless. Through experimentation.4 Respiratory Rate Respiratory rate is measured using a thermocouple. 2. The thermocouple is clipped to the client’s nose and measures the change in temperature caused by inspiration and expiration (Fig.

42 . I broke up the retractor on the cable (Fig. By pulling the jacks off each end of the cable. ). 24). Phone Plug and Exposed Wires After the Plug has Been Removed Because the cable was a two-way retractable. one end was soldered to the thermocouple and the other end to a 3/32” phone plug (Fig. and we only needed the cable to retract one way (back into the monitor).The respiratory rate probe itself was made with a two-way 3. Figure 24.5mm retractable cable.

Figure 25. The thermistor circuit uses the same low pass filter as the thermometer circuit (Fig 26). 43 . so the signal from the thermocouple only needs to be filtered and amplified before being A/D converted and processed by the microprocessor. I came to the conclusion that the best way to incorporate this will be to change nothing. The circuit for the thermocouple is powered by the battery. A Metal Spring Provides the Retraction Mechanism and is Contained in a Plastic Casing on the Cable Working with the cable and spring. 65°F to 98°F). and thus clean up some of the mess caused by excess wires. but instead permanently attach one end of the cable to the monitor (or use a locking mechanism). The voltage from the thermocouple is linear over our range of interest (approx. This will be the easiest way to provide a retractable cable for the thermocouple.

44 .535V. Circuit for Respiratory Rate As mentioned previously.5 Weight Weight is an important vital sign to monitor. We included weight monitoring into our vital signs monitor by buying a digital scale that exists on the market and connecting it to our device. 27). In addition to ensuring proper eating habits. The scale that is used is the Homedics SC-202 Digital Scale (Fig. Voltage output from the thermocouple was measured for inspiration and expiration (Table). weight is used to determine medication doses. 2.2.Figure 26. Table. this circuit was calibrated experimentally.2. From these measurements the voltage threshold was set as .

29).Figure 27. Homedics SC-202 Digital Scale Determining to connect the scale to the monitor was done through experimentation. it was taken from these two load cells. The positive and negative outputs from these load cells were connected together at the same spot on the PCB (Fig 28). two load cells were found at the rear corners. Figure 28. Opening up the scale. The load cell signal was then processed through an instrumentation amplifier and filtered (Fig. 45 . Location of Load Cells in Scale Because the signal from the scale cannot be taken after it has been processed by the microprocessor within the scale.

Figure 29. This was done by having lab members stand on the scale and comparing the voltage coming from our circuit to the weight displayed on the digital scale LCD (in pounds). The equation relating weight to voltage found by this was W = 9000V0 – 32374. but we still had to calibrate our scale (the signal we are processing). 2.6 Microprocessor The main component of this system is Microchips PIC16F877 microprocessor shown below.2.2. 46 . where W is weight in pounds and V0 is the voltage out from the filter of the scale circuit. Scale Circuit Schematic The scale itself had already been calibrated and tested by its manufacturer.

Figure 30: PIC16F877 The PIC16F877 is a 40 pin 8-bit microcontroller that was chosen due to the fact that it is capable of processing every aspect of the monitor. After the voltage was read into the analog pins. AN3. The internal A/D conveter does this using the following equation. AN1. the corresponding digital number was used in calculating the correct number to be sent to the LCD screen. 47 . This chip is required to make every part of the monitor function. convert this reading to digital data. and AN5. AN2.: Vin * 1024 5V Where : Vin = Voltage input to ana log pin 5V = reference voltage of 5V 1024 = number of bits in A / D The key features of this popular processor are listed below. The analog pins used for analog inputs were AN0. Needing only 5V to power up. Note the abundance of analog input channels as well as I/O ports which were needed for the 5 analog pins for our probes. the microprocessor was used to read the voltages sent to it by the probes. and send this result to the LCD display.

Each vital sign required its own A/D conversion. 48 . Also.Figure 31: PIC16F877 Features To configure the analog to digital converter. FOSC/32 was selected for the conversion clock. The ACON0 register shown below is control the operation of the A/D converter. to select the appropriate input channel. This was done by changing bits 5-3 as needed. the ADCON0 and ADCON1 registers were used.

bits 3-0 were configured as “0000”. Also. the result of the A/D conversion was right justified (bit 7) 49 .Figure 32: ADCON0 Register The ADCON1 register (shown below) controls the function of the port pins. Since all of our inputs were analog. allowing for all analog inputs.

AN0. // turn on the A2D conversion module 50 .Figure 33 ADCON1 Register Shown below is a sample of how the AN0 pin was initialized for the body temperature. A/D on // select right justify result. DelayMs(50). } // select Fosc/32. ADCON1=128. ADON=1. void init_a2dtemp(void) { ADCON0=129.

a viewing area of 99mm x 24mm makes the screens easy to read from a distance. it is important that the screen should be viewable from a wide variety of angles. Since the majority of our clients will be viewing the monitor from their bed. and wide viewing angles. http://www crystalfontz com/products/1602l/CFAH1602L-YYH-JP_front_bl_on jpg . 51 . and a character height of 8. Also. 2. LCD Screen The CFAH1602L-GGH-JP LCD screen is ideal for our design due to its easy to read characters. which takes strings of ASCII text and produces the resulting speech. It measures 122mm x 44mm. with a viewing area of 99mm x 24mm. especially in dark or dim-lighted areas.2.2. 34).2.8 Speech Output As well as being displayed onto the LCD screen. the vital signs are also spoken. .2. ideal size.06mm. This was made possible by utilizing the SP03 text-to-speech module. the yellow backlight makes this LCD screen easy to read. patients will have no problem seeing their vital signs from their bed. Figure 34. Also.2. This LCD screen was chosen due to the fact that many of the features meet the specific needs of our clients. . Since this screen has a wide viewing angle.7 LCD Screen The digital information from the output of the microcontroller will be sent to a character LCD screen (Fig.

The only pins that needed to be used on the SP03 was the Rx. and 5V pins. SP03 Module Image This was made possible by the use of RS232 serial communication. ground. To ***. 52 . Tx. the SP232ACP 16 pin chip was needed.Figure 35.

void speech(char c) { int cnum. DelayMs(1). a small subroutine had to written. Figure 37: SP03 Commands To send the SP03 a line of text. by sending it a sequence of commands. This subroutine. programmed in C. cnum=c. USART (Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) was used. allows the microchip to send the SP03 text one character at a time. This communication allows the SP03 to speak a line of text. cnum).Figure 36 SP232ACP The Rx and Tx pins from the SP03 were connected to the corresponding pins 13 and 14 on the SP232ACP. To communicate between the SP03 and microchip. } 53 . printf("%c". then sent to pins 25 and 26 on the PIC16F877.

the user is brought to a page where 54 .2. This website is currently being stored on the BME server. An approved username and password are required to enter the site. This speaker was chosen due to its small size and affordable price. 16mm High. minimizing the risk of interception. 28mm base diameter 2. To ensure that the website is secure. http://www futurlec com/Pictures/Sm_Speaker jpg . We will create an encrypted. a speaker from Futurelec (Fig. they need to be sent to their primary healthcare provider. allowing only those with the correct username and password to access it. Figure 3b8. 38) will be purchased and attached to the microcontroller. password protected website to which the patient uploads the information from their computer. HTML encryption software will be used to encrypt the contents of the website. . Small Speaker for Audio Output Features • Small Size • Power rating: 0. To maximize patient privacy we have devised a way to securely transmit the patients’ health information.9 Secure Website After the patient’s vital signs have been gathered and recorded.void Writespeech(const char* s) { while(*s) speech(*s++).5W • Impedance: 8 ohm • Dimensions: 50mm Diameter. } To play these computer generated sounds. This speaker will be used to play the data output from the microprocessor and SP03 module. When access is granted.2. .

2. These regulators are also very inexpensive at only around a couple of dollars each. Before and after the linear voltage regulator capacitors are needed to act as a filter.they can choose to upload any files on their computer.10 Power Supply To power the monitor we are using an 11.4V lithium ion rechargeable battery pack (Fig. The user can then download these files or leave the website. Once the file(s) are uploaded. Rechargeable Battery and Charger Although lead acid batteries can sometimes produce more voltage.2. they are saved to a database on the server. lithium ion batteries are safer and will recharge quicker. 39). 55 . These batteries are internal to the device and can be recharged with the included wall charger. From there. the best possible way is to use linear voltage regulator (Fig. This regulator will take in voltage from the power source and output a predetermined voltage of 5V (L7800) and -5V (L7900). The need for a rechargeable battery is so the patient can take their vital signs even if the power is gone and so that the system can be portable. 2. A physician or remote healthcare provider can access these files through the same site sequence. 40). Figure 39. To bring down the voltage levels. The regulator we have decided to use is the L7800 series and L7900. They are low drop regulators with 1. we will still have too much voltage and our machine will burn out. Regarding the power source.5A current output capability. it will be in charge of taking power from a battery and transferring that power into our system.

2. This will be in addition to the USB port. 56 . Voltage Regulator Circuit 2. 41). We will purchase the EmbeddedBlue eb505-SER OEM Bluetooth Serial Module from A7 Engineering for $40 to integrate into our vital signs monitor to provide Bluetooth connectivity (Fig.Linear Voltage Regulator V1 Pushbutton SW1 In Out Gnd C1 CAPACITOR C2 CAPACITOR Figure 40. we will add a Bluetooth option to transmit the data collected by the vital signs monitor to the client’s computer wirelessly.2.11 Bluetooth To increase accessibility.

a USB Bluetooth dongle will be purchased (usually at $10-$20) to provide connectivity on the PC end. scientific. The interface between our host processor and the eb505-SER radio will be done through UART communication. Many devices make 57 . Assuming that our clients’ computers are not Bluetooth ready. These USB dongles are easy to use and come with software to install on the PC to allow Bluetooth connectivity. This is the ISM frequency band. and medical devices (ISM).Figure 41. It has been internationally agreed upon to be used only for industrial. Bluetooth communicates data via low-power radio waves on the 2. the link will appear as a cabled serial connection which eliminates the need for any special wireless protocol knowledge. EmbeddedBlue eb505-SER OEM Bluetooth Serial Module This module contains all the components of the Bluetooth stack on the board so that no additional host processor code is needed. When a connection is made to another Bluetooth device.4 GHz frequency.

Our buttons are basically going to act like a switch either turning the power on or off. because of this.use of the ISM band. but we did find one called http://www. it is possible to determine the option of your pushbuttons including a Braille option. This limits Bluetooth’s range to about 10m (although advances in the technology have made it possible for transmission ranges up to 100m). making it and ideal technology for our use. These buttons are very easy to secure by a short. Connecting either choice of button to our main circuit does not really require a lot of work. Once the button is snapped into the hole. Through this site. After searching for a while. The only visible problem with this product is that the button may be too small. This is an acceptable range considering that our device is meant only for home use. Bluetooth transmitters use 79 randomly chosen frequencies and “hop” between them 1. We need to have our buttons customizable so we can include a universal sign and also Braille so they can be used by people vision impairment. When the start button is pressed. When the patient feels the process is complete they will be able to press the stop button. Another way in which Bluetooth limits interference is through frequency hopping. This also helps ensure the security of the data being transmitted. we determined that there were not many sites which made this option available. One way in which Bluetooth prevents interference is by only sending out very weak signals (of about 1 milliwatt). 2. The Bluetooth system was tested by acquiring vitals signs from the monitor and sending them to a computer in the design lab to which the USB dongle is installed. but Bluetooth has precautions in place to prevent interference with these other systems. We will also be able to choose what colors we want the buttons to be. simple process. It was programmed to set up a network with the Bluetooth USB dongle when it detects it. which will allow for the circuit to 58 .grayhill.com/pushbuttons. we do advise that users ensure they are within a 10 m radius of their computer when using their vital signs monitor. The start button will be connected to the beginning of the circuit.600 times per second. it has wings that will then open causing the button to not be removed. The model button that will fit our project the best is a rectangular button that is about 15 by 20 millimeters in size. However.2. The buttons will then be snapped into the whole.2. the switch on the circuit will close allowing for the power supply to be sent to and power the rest of the circuit. There will be a switch in the circuit that will either be open if the circuit is not working or closed if power is to be given to the entire circuit. The buttons seem to cost around $10 but could be more depending on if the customization of the buttons raises the price. Our Bluetooth communications system was calibrated through UART communication. The buttons require a proper size hole to be drilled in the area where the buttons will be placed.12 Pushbuttons Along with our design we decided one of our most important features was going to be the buttons that were involved.

2. The button is a two-probe button. LCD screen. Figure 42.13 Casing In order to safely enclose the internal circuitry of our design. 2. and probes machined in the machine shop and design lab (Figs 42 & 43). A casing from BoxEnclosures was ordered and holes for the buttons. One probe will be attached to the circuit by a switch and the other probe will be attached to the ground.2.open disallowing any power to get through to the circuit. a plastic enclosure needs to be manufactured. Box Enclosures Case 59 .

Figure 43. Enclosure Dimensions 60 .

2.14 Accessible Vital Signs Monitor Circuit Diagram Figure 44.2.2. Accessible Vital Signs Monitor Circuit Diagram 61 .

PCB Diagram of the Board The previous figure combines all of the above subunits into a circuit diagram. It includes probes to monitor six (6) different vital signs: heart rate.Figure 45. 47. 46. left corner of the monitor sends the acquired vital signs to a computer via a Bluetooth module within the device. 48).1 Overview The Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System uses noninvasive existing medical technologies to monitor a client’s vitals signs from home. This is a basic diagram of our complete vital signs monitor (Fig. a square. green button on the bottom. blood oxygen saturation. The square. red button on the bottom. When depressed. and four jacks on the right side of the monitor accept probes that acquire 4 of the 6 vital signs. temperature. 2. blood pressure. and respiratory rate. A 16x2 character LCD screen displays a client’s vital signs as they are acquired. right corner of the monitor starts the inflation of the blood pressure cuff. A rocker switch on the left side of the monitor turns the device on and off. and a speaker outputs the spoken vitals signs from a textto-speech module. weight. 44).3 Prototype 2. A cloth casing and cover provides style and pouches on the back of the monitor to hold probes and accessories (Figs.3. 62 .

Front View of the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor 63 .Figure 46.

Side View of the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor 64 .Figure 47.

Read View of the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor 65 .Figure 48.

3. Open View of Top of Accessible Vital Signs Monitoring System Monitor 2.2 Probes for Vital Sign Acquisition Four detachable probes are included with the Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System.Figure 49. The thermometer probe is attached to a 6-ft cable that ends in a 1/8” phone plug. All four probe plugs are different sizes and only fit into one jack on the right side of the monitor. 66 . To use. Each of the four probes plugs into a jack on the right side of the monitor. 50). the probe plug must be inserted into the corresponding 1/8” phone jack and the thermometer placed under the tongue (Fig.

67 . disposable thermometer probe covers are included and can be used on the end of the thermometer (Figs. or for hygenics. 51 & 52).Figure 50. Thermometer Probe Should the client wish to share use of the thermometer.

Figure 51. Included Probes Covers for CVS Model Thermometers 68 .

On the other end of the probe is a thermocouple which measures changes in temperature (Fig. the plug must be inserted into the corresponding 2/32” plug on the right side of the monitor. To measure respiratory rate. Figure 53. 53). Thermocouple Probe on Retractable Cable 69 . This probe terminates in a 3/32” plug. Breathing regularly with the mouth closed (through the nose only). the thermocouple end of the probe must be clipped or held up to the nose so that the thermocouple hangs under one of the nostrils. Disposable Probe Cover on the Thermometer Before the Excess Plastic is Removed The respiratory rate probe included is on a retractable cable.Figure 52.

Phone Plug that Connects the Scale to the Monitor 70 . 54 & 55). To use only as a bathroom scale. do not plug the scale into the monitor.To measure weight. When the scale is plugged into the monitor. The scale is activated by stepping on it (Figs. Figure 54. the weight measured is saved by the microprocessor and sent with the other vital signs to the computer via Bluetooth. a digital bathroom scale is included with a 1/4” phone plug that connects to the corresponding jack on the monitor.

Figure 55. 71 . 56). Digital Bathroom Scale that Can Be Used as a Stand Alone or as Part of the Monitoring System The last part to be plugged into the right side of the monitor is the blood pressure cuff (Fig.

When ready. aligning the artery mark on the cuff correctly. Should any discomfort occur during blood pressure measurement. the cuff does not inflate immediately upon power-up of the system. but also heart rate. the cuff can be immediately deflated by turning off the monitor (toggle the on/off button on the left side of the monitor to the “off” position). For safety. The blood pressure system measures not only but pressure. The cuff will automatically deflate upon reaching 160mmHg. wrap the cuff around the upper arm. press the blood pressure button and the cuff will begin to inflate.Figure 56. 72 . To operate. which leads to the air pump. Blood Pressure Cuff The cuff plugs into the connector at the top of the right side of the monitor.

To activate the pulse oximeter and measure blood oxygen saturation. stick a finger in the rubber-lined hole on the top of the monitor (Fig.Blood oxygen saturation is measured through a pulse oximeter that is installed inside the monitor. 58). 57). The pulse oximeter is mounted to the inside rear of the monitor (Fig. Figure 57. Pulse Oximeter Mounted Inside the Monitor The pulse oximeter is accessed through a hole drilled in the top of the monitor. 73 .

Figure 58. 59). Figure 59. the LCD screen displays a welcome message to the user (Fig. which is echoed auditorally at the same time by a spoken message. Welcome Message Display on the LCD Screen on Power-up 74 .3 Monitor Communications Upon power-up.3. Pulse Oximeter in Use 2.

it is displayed on the LCD screen as well as spoken by the text-to-speech module through a speaker on the front of the monitor (Fig. but they must be taken one at a time. A phantom serial port connection is automatically made between the Bluetooth module and the Bluetooth dongle (also included). The Bluetooth module within the monitor is activated as soon as the device is powered. Figure 60. Example of the Message Shown While the Monitor is Taking a Vital Sign Once the vital sign is acquired. a message is displayed on the LCD screen indicating as such (Fig. Figure 61. 60). The Speaker is Mounted Inside the Front of the Monitor. 61). As each vital sign is being measured. pressing the red button sends them via Bluetooth to the computer. Behind the Speaker Holes in between the Two Buttons Once all (or any) of the vital signs have been measured. the “Send” button will have no effect (Fig 62). 75 .Vitals signs can be acquired in any order. If the Bluetooth dongle is not plugged into one of the computer’s USB ports.

Figure 62. Bluetooth Dongle Plugged into One of the Computer’s USB Ports 76 .

Once the Bluetooth dongle has been plugged into the computer. if it does not. once the monitor and computer have been turned on. To check to see if the Bluetooth module needs to be installed. If the module needs to be installed. follow these easy steps to install the module. Select “Add a Bluetooth Device” 77 . Right click on the symbol in the time tool bar. 2. the following steps can be followed to do so. press the “Send” button and see if the data sends. The Bluetooth module should connect immediately to the computer upon device powerup. However. the Bluetooth module may have to be installed. 1.

Follow the directions on the screen that pops up and click “Next”. 78 . then click “Next”. 4.3. Highlight (click) on eb505.

Click the circle that says “Choose a Passkey” and enter your passkey. This will secure your vital signs monitor’s connect to your computer.5. but no one else can guess. 79 . Choose a number that you can easily remember.

they can be save (as a text file). Once connected. The incoming COM port is the one which Hyperterminal is assigned. and then uploaded to the secure website. 80 . a screen will show up indicating which COM ports the Bluetooth module will connect with. A mock-up of the website is currently held on the Team #3 website on the BME server (Fig 63). Once the vital signs have been sent to the computer.6. Use these COM ports to set up a Hyperterminal link.

Figure 63. Secure Login Site

Once the client logs in, they are taken to a site where they can upload their files (Fig. 64).

81

Figure 64. Upload Site When the User Can Upload up to Three Files at a Time

Once upload, the client is taken to a site containing the files that they have just uploaded. This site also allows the vital signs files to be downloaded. A remote healthcare provider can use the same path to download vital signs files, simply by not entering a file name in the upload field on the Upload Site.
2.3.4 Client Testing

Because our clients our hypothetical, we tested our device with our clients by simulating their disabilities. The Accessible Home Vital Signs Monitoring System was tested by simulating blindness and dominant side paralysis. Only the use of the monitor was tested, as from the RERC project brief it is assumed that the clients can already use a computer or have family or assistants that can use a computer. Multiple subjects were tested plugging in and using the probes and the monitor. 2.3.4.1 Partial Paralysis Simulating partial paralysis on the dominant side, subjects were able to plug all of the probes into the side of the device one-handed.

82

Figure 65. Subject Inserting the Scale Plug into the Jack

Figure 66. Subject Plugging the Smaller Probes in with One Hand

83

Figure 67. locate buttons.2 Blindness To simulate blindness. subjects were able to plug all of the plugs into the proper jacks. subjects were blindfolded and asked to operate the device.3. the subject was also able to attach the blood pressure cuff using only one hand.4.Though it was difficult. This should not pose a problem to our clients because they all have assistance available at home. 84 . Subject Simulating Partial Paralysis Wrapping the Blood Pressure Cuff Around His Arm 2. With no description of the device. and use the pulse oximeter.

Blindfolded Subject Plugging in the Probes 85 . Subject Using Touch to Find the Thermometer Probe Figure 69.Figure 68.

Subject Finding and Operating the Blood Pressure Button Figure 71. Blindfolded Subject Using the Pulse Oximeter 86 .Figure 70.

We may need to order replacement parts or additional parts as we go and we cannot do that if we have no money left within our budget. nor was it designed to be one.). along with Braille and raised universal symbols were used to make the device user friendly to anyone with vision or hearing impairment. Our accessible home vital signs monitor is meant for use in the home. That being said. The device will have a durable plastic casing has been designed to withstand the typical rigors of home electronic life (movement. This leads into sustainability. It may be especially important to have room left in our budget next semester when we begin the actual construction of our device. it has very little effect on the environment as a whole. Our device was designed to be properly accessible so that it will be of use to our clients and meet their needs. being used in the home. food. However. Our device will be exposed to dust. A balance had to be maintained between using parts that meet the needs of our design and not overspending our budget. and water. Audio and visual output. These standards must be followed in the design and production of our device to ensure that it is acceptable and safe for our clients and the health care community. There are little to no concerns over our device’s effect on the environment. In many vital signs monitors being used. This device has been designed with the economic constraint of cost in mind. As it is a piece of home electronics. Our device was designed with its ability for future and continued use in mind. Offshoots of the environmental constraints laid on our device are the accessibility constraints that it needs to meet. the device is not a toy. so parts were chosen carefully. Though it is not meant to withstand an onslaught of any of these things. They provide for purchase the current standards of medical device design and use.3 Realistic Constraints The main source for medical instrumentation standards is the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). and the user should keep in mind the device’s purpose when using it. there were a few things we needed to keep in mind as we made our design. Also. the simple user interface of the device allows it to be used by individuals of all ages and technological savvy. so varying environmental conditions are not a large concern of the device. cleaning. We have a maximum budget of $2000 to build a working prototype of our device. children. Not only must the device be designed so that it can last and function properly for years. spills. etc. rechargeable lead batteries power the device. sunlight. but it also needs to use up-to-date parts and technology so that it does not become outmoded. animals. lead materials are currently being phased out of medical devices so we chose to use a nickel cadmium rechargeable 87 . An example of this was the selection of the rechargeable battery for our device. it was designed to be relatively robust in these conditions. No parts were used that are very sensitive to movement or other household factors that could affect their use. However.

which could cause an explosion when used in the presence of pure oxygen. To protect patient privacy and abide by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). and at the extreme this could lead to tissue death. Because this is a medical device and will have direct contact with our clients. but it does have social and privacy constraints.battery in our design. client/patient safety was an important constraint in our design process. Our accessible vitals signs monitoring system has really no political constraints. the transmission of vital signs will be done via a secure. This is one step that was taken to ensure that our device will still be acceptable for use years from now. 72). It should not spark or create flames. Pain and circulation cutoff can occur if the cuff does not deflate. Self-inflating blood pressure cuffs can cause injury if not properly calibrated and used (Fig. one of its safety constraints is that it should not be explosive. but a major point of health and safety constraint was the design and incorporation of the automatic blood pressure measuring device. Bruising Caused by One Use of an Automatic Blood Pressure Cuff [15]. password protected website. Bruising can result if the cuff inflates too much. This will protect our clients’ personal information while still giving them flexibility in the 88 . Most components of our design are relatively benign (provided that basic electrical safety is followed). Figure72. Since this is a medical monitoring device. All circuits and power sources must be properly grounded to prevent accidental electrocution and safety measures had to be put in place to prevent an injury use of the device might cause. Part of our system includes the transmission of vitals signs of the internet to a health care provider.

It is for this reason that it will be recommended that all liquids be kept off of and way from the monitor. Loose wires have the potential to not only cause the device to operate ineffectively. Also. If they are electrically common. By grounding one side of the power system's voltage source. it is always important for an electrical design to have a solid connection to earth ground. A power system with no secure connection to earth ground could pose a safety hazard. regardless of how good the casing. could cause a spark and start a small fire. If the casing were conductive and the “hot” wire touches the side of the case. The patient’s skin plays an 89 . In addition. at least one point in the circuit can be assured to present no shock hazard. There is no way to guarantee how much or how little voltage will exist between any point in the circuit and earth ground. it will create a direct short-circuit back to the voltage source through the ground wire. then the case would be made electrically common to the wire and touching the case would be just as hazardous as touching the bare wire. but it is filled with predators and opportunists who like to access the private information of others. Because our design will be comprised mainly of electrical components. there is no danger to the user of the monitor. not around them. especially one that contains electrical components. non-conductive. affordable for our clients. This is an important and valid constraint in our device design. The casing of our final design will show no wires. or any part of the inner circuitry. Even if the “hot” wire accidentally touches the metal casing. or water accidentally spilled near the device. Any moisture from the air. then there cannot be any voltage dropped between them. it is important for the casing to be made of a non-conductive material (such as plastic). but they could also be hazardous to the patient. our accessible home vital signs monitoring system has been designed with the best interests of our clients and society at heart. This ensures that we have designed an economically feasible device. 4 Safety Issues Safety plays a crucial role when designing a product. so that if the “hot” side of the power system touches the side of a casing. The inner part of the monitor should be designed so that neither the “hot” or “neutral” part of the power cord touches the casing. completely closed casing. we have strived to effectively enclose the inner circuitry of our final design with a durable. making the two points electrically common with each other. By paying heed to these constraints and working with them. It is important for us to protect our clients when they are contacting their physicians so that their medical information does not end up all over the World Wide Web.transmission of their vital signs to their physicians or HMOs. One way to ensure proper ground is to use a three-prong plug. Our device is appropriately designed for the environment which it will be used in. The third prong on the power cord provides a direct electrical connection from the appliance case to earth ground. circuit boards. The internet provides rapid transfer of information. and with careful part selection it will sustain and continue to be appropriate for the home monitoring of vital signs.

it is still not completely foolproof.6 million individuals receive home care in the United States. To minimize this potential hazard. This device will allow those individuals the ability to go home to recuperate while still being effectively monitored by their health care provider. young or physically impaired. The Center for Disease Control reported that in 90 . If a wire is too small for the current it is supposed to carry. The heated wire could have the potential to cause a fire inside the monitor. An electrical hazard exists when the wire is too small a gauge for the current it will carry. There are few. the automatic blood pressure cuff makes gathering data relatively simple. we will use an automatic blood pressure cuff. Patent and web searches have not revealed devices on the market comparable in that regard to the device that we have designed. Out of the four vital signs being obtained. it was also made sure that the operator of the monitor does no harm to the patient while taking measurements. Frayed wires have the potential to interact with other wires causing the monitor to not work properly or starting a fire. accessible vital sign monitors currently available. the only one which requires any skill to operate is blood pressure. The design of an accessible vital signs monitor will improve the quality of life for those individuals with hearing and vision impairment who need to have their vital signs monitored. it is important to make sure that all wires are properly insulated and cleanly soldered to their respective positions on the circuit board. Home health care is a growing industry. This is especially important in cases where home health care would be a treatment option for someone without visual or hearing impairments but not for someone with them. and even ventricular fibrillation [1]. A circuit that is not properly grounded will have the potential to cause microshock. if any. Since the people taking the vital sign readings may be elderly. After selecting the correct wire gauge. but also harm the patient. Using the blood pressure cuff incorrectly could not only cause the monitor to record the wrong vital signs. 5 Impact of Engineering Solutions Much of the technology used in our design for an accessible home vital signs monitoring system is not new. Approximately 7. Choosing the correct gauge wire is also an important factor to consider. but the manner in which it is being employed is valuable. Microshock is defined as the passing of high current from one body part to another. such as from arm to arm and therefore directly through the heart. Squeezing the blood pressure cuff too tightly could injure the patient. But when the skin becomes wet or broken. Such high doses of current can cause difficulty breathing. allowing the person who is taking the readings to have no prior skill. this resistive value drops to 1% of its original value putting the patient in serious harm if electrical safety precautions are not followed correctly [1]. the wire will heat up. In addition to the electrical safety issues. Even though the automatic blood pressure cuff is simple to use. Each instrument used to obtain measurements was carefully chosen to be as simple and safe as possible.important resistive role in protecting the body from such hazards.

Figure 73.the United States in 2000. it is important to have reliable technology to support home care. 74). Excerpt from Table of Number of Current Home Heath Care Patients with Aides and Devices in 2000 [12]. but living at home can provide patients a welcome and comfortable environment in which to recover and be monitored.600 individuals in home care were using medical devices (Fig. As such. 91 . 317. Home care can not only save patients and insurance companies money (Fig. 73).

blood oxygen saturation. they free up hospital beds for more acute cases. and many times the patients themselves are happier at home than in the hospital. If a patient’s health insurance will not cover this cost than it becomes a large out-of-pocket expense for them. easy-to-use method to monitor patients’ health at home. By designing a 92 . but can take their rechargeable battery powered vital signs monitor with them if they need to monitor their vital signs. Economically. Vitals sign monitors (and many of these are not accessible) currently range in cost from $2500 up to $5000. But. give doctors more time to work with sicker people. their families. the design for our device will reduce some of the costs of healthcare. Table of Home Care Cost Savings [2]. making it an ideal device for the home environment. and physicians. patients are not even stuck at home. When patients choose (or have the option) to enter home care. patients cannot be cared for at home unless they have the proper technology to do so. blood pressure. Most of the monitors that measure four of the same vitals signs that our device does (heart rate. Since vitals signs are saved on a USB flashdrive to be uploaded to a secure website.Figure 74. This offers flexibility and comfort to patients. This is detrimental to their health and recovery. Our accessible vital signs monitoring device is a simple. It can be operated by patients. and temperature) cost closer to $5000. or they may not be able to afford the device at all.

Although we have already learned about FIR and IIR filters thus far in our engineering curriculum. software based DSPs provide flexibility in modification and maintenance. Also. We learned to integrate microcontroller based data gathering with digital signal processing to achieve a cheaper. which is compatible with the SpeakJet. This can be done over a small temperature range. and because vital signs are saved onto a USB flashdrive. we have learned about the Steinhart-Hart equation and the properties of thermistors. but any readings outside the 93 . In order to use the thermistor output. There are many devices out there used for speech synthesis. we were now able to apply these concepts to a real life situation. 6 Life-Long Learning During the research of this design. but we needed to find the one that would be compatible with the microcontroller we selected. the text-to-speech function in our design was a new and exciting function to learn about. It is important to realize that thermistors behave nonlinearly and to understand what effects this has on designing a thermometer. it also eliminates additional hardware associated with analog circuits. we learned about the Blackfin and digital signal processing. it may be useful in countries with a low level of technology. With its two-button user interface. A layperson (with no medical training) could use our device to visit a patient who does not have access to a hospital or doctor and record their vitals signs on a USB flashdrive. Our device is designed for home use. which is why we integrated the TTS256 Text to Code microcontroller to convert text to phonetics. Through designing the thermometer for the accessible vital signs monitor. Most algorithms associated with speech chips cannot convert English text straight to audio. Since none of us have ever worked with such a unique and advanced tool. this design may translate into an affordable piece of medical equipment for undeveloped countries. as well as capable of converting the text output from the microcontroller to sound. it would be useful in a hospital or emergency room. Globally. Through researching digital signal processing we were able to compare it to traditional microcontroller design and see the differences. we were introduced to new and challenging engineering applications. detachable transducers. Although analog circuits are cheap and easy to assemble. we will be able to alleviate some of this financial stress and provide more comprehensive health care and monitoring to more people. our accessible vital signs monitoring system is an excellent option for remotely monitoring patients in areas where there are few trained medical personnel. more efficient way of data analysis. These measurements could then be uploaded to the secure website and accessed by doctors anywhere. Because it is lightweight and has a rechargeable battery. and simple design. it made the research enjoyable and informative. In updating our processing technique. it must be linearized.monitor that’s expected cost is $700 (a third of the cost of the cheapest monitors currently available). Digital signal processing is not only substantially faster. but in countries and areas with poor healthcare systems and little to no medical equipment.

pressure release valves. we saw the application of transistors to switching and timing. We learned about the optical properties of blood and the Beer-Lambert law to design a pulse oximeter circuit. as well as rely on each other to make deadlines. we learned to interact and communicate with each other to assess and resolve problems. and the oscillometric method for blood pressure measurement was introduced to us. senior design has also taught us to work and function as a group. This design also required us to learn about pressure sensors. Even for something as seemingly benign as an automatic blood pressure cuff system. safety precautions have to be taken to ensure that a patient is not harmed through the use of the device. not air temperature or a cold beverage. 94 . a team of healthcare professionals. Since communication is an essential element of being an engineer. In addition to learning new technical engineering applications. Also from the pulse oximeter. Research into an automated blood pressure measurement system highlighted the importance of control systems in medical devices. or in a corporate environment when we graduate. and air pumps. This means that one should only use an oral thermometer to measure oral body temperature. Blood pressure waveforms were studied. Whether we will be working with an engineering design team. we will need to use these group skills we are currently developing to drive a successful career.temperature range will be increasingly inaccurate the farther away they are. By working as group. working on these skills before we graduate will give us an edge over the majority of graduating engineers.

97 CREDITS ITEM RCVD. LED 3mm Micropump E-Z Mount Fingertip Pulse Oximeter # 18700 Parker Pneumatic Valve Homedics LED Digital Bathroom Scale eb505 Development Kits on 50% student sponsor ship Microchip w/2 day shipping Li-ion 18650 11.04 $56.62 $176.8mm.95 $16.60 $43.00 VENDOR Analog Devices Crystal Fontz Crystal Fontz Whole Sale Point Digi Key Open Tip ACRONAME Newark IN One (w/o shpg) Omega Eng.93 $214.46 95 .33 TOTAL CREDITS: $95. 1/15/2007 1/9/2007 DESCRIPTION Blackfin BF535 Processor 122mm x 44 mm PCB Size.79 $26.64 $115.74 $37.06 $38.00 $32.35 $57. Green LED Backlight Credit for returning (5) crystal Fontz LCD Screens RMA: DP7245 Homedics Digital Bathroom Scale USB Chip and Linear Voltage Regulator 9V Rechargable Battery Devantech Speech Synthesizer Infrared LED-Fairchild Semi Conductor Glass Insulated T/C's 5 PK Sensor Pressure.40 1/3/2007 1/3/2007 1/4/2007 1/22/2007 1/30/2007 1/30/2007 1/30/2007 2/13/2007 2/13/2007 2/20/2007 3/28/2007 3/28/2007 4/6/2007 4/17/2007 4/17/2007 4/18/2007 4/23/2007 4/25/2007 2/22/2007 1/9/2007 1/9/2007 1/16/2007 1/29/2007 2/1/2007 1/31/2007 2/5/2007 2/26/2007 2/15/2007 2/26/2007 3/30/2007 3/30/2007 4/10/2007 4/20/2007 4/19/2007 4/20/2007 4/30/2007 4/26/2007 TOTAL EXPENDITURES $1.7 Budget Table 3: Design Budget TEAM 3 Project Name: FRS #: Accessbile Home Vital Signs Monitor RERC .42 $29.41 $47.xx2.47 $172.95 $4.Com CT Fluid Power (without shipping) Amazon A7 Engineering Digi Key Battery Space Digi Key Box Enclosures Express PCB Digi Key COST $48.00 $29.436.523217 SPRING '07 SENIOR DESIGN ORDER DATE 1/1/2007 1/3/2007 1/3/2007 Beg. Digi Key Hargraves Fluidics America RX.04 $232.79 REMAINING BALANCE $659.000.34 $30.1V Battery & Smart Charger PIC18F4620 Instrument Case PCB Board PIC16F877 Microchip $95.40 $26. Photodiode 2. Budget $2.

and he got the USART up for the Bluetooth and SP03 module. As the project began. Sullivan Jenna worked mainly on the transducers and their circuitry. where Rob researched the respiratory belt) devices. and respiratory rate (except Design 2. Rob was mainly responsible for the software. which will be used in filtering the incoming signals form the patients body. Rob has continued to learn about this latest digital processor. She is responsible for all of the research. He did all of the work with the microprocessor (PIC 16F877) and its code. Each team member’s specific work is described below. 96 . and part selection of the thermometer. it was concluded that either multiple processors or one large processor would be needed. He has been working on LabVIEW code. And. as well as the analog to digital converters. The Blackfin Digital Signal processor was then chosen. At first. These filters. pulse oximeter. design. Team #3 met once a week to present our work to our advisor. as well as the initial prototype of the respiratory rate design. She also integrated the sections of the final report into one cohesive work. He also researched the display units and speech chips and has been working on sending the information to these units. In the second semester. the highly popular PIC16F877 Microchip seemed like it would handle the majority of the operations in the design. including the code to analyze the signals from the vital sign acquisition circuits. Jenna did research into client needs and the home health care environment. Michael Kapinos Mike found the two buttons that were used on the front panel of the monitor.8 Team Members Contributions to the Project Throughout the semester. As more research went into the design. Throughout the fall semester. Jenna was responsible for the Bluetooth wireless option seen in Design 3 and the Final Design. Since then. can be found in the LabVIEW Embedded Module for Analog Devices Blackfin Processors software. Rob wrote the Operations Manual and provided input to the Final Report and RERC Report. blood pressure. Jenna M. he began looking into which microprocessors would be suitable for the specific information that had to be processed. He has also revisited the Biosignals class to reread FIR and IIR filters. Rob also considered the casing of the unit. Rob designed the PCB and the circuit schematic. which will be used to program this processor. He did the A/D conversion of the analog signals as well as setting up the LCD screen and working on its code. Jenna focused on group communication and timeliness in completing work. Finally. Robert Croce Rob’s main contributions were in the areas of processing and displays. In addition to this. Rob developed the text-to-speech module code and got the device working and incorporated with the analog circuits and LCD screen. She created the final circuit diagram of the vital signs monitor and did much of the writing in the project reports.

Vital signs monitors provide basic. 9 Conclusion As healthcare moves out of the hospital and into the home. More devices are needed that are designed specifically for home use by patients. To create a reliable medical device. resources). Jenna chose the batteries used to power the monitor and put together the voltage regulator circuit. user-friendly. and respiratory rate. and also provided the mock-up of the secure upload site that is currently linked from the Team #3 homepage. those with motor skills impairment. Blood oxygen saturation and pulse are calculated from pulse oximetry readings. including the cloth outer cover. body temperature is measured by a thermistor circuit involving a Wheatstone bridge.In regards to the prototype. she did some of the initial work with the Bluetooth module. yet important. scale. we were able to design an affordable and manufacturable device. thermocouple. As in the optimal design. She also assisted Rob with the SP03 module and the code to analyze the signals acquired from the vital sign acquisition circuitry. reliable technology for monitoring patients’ health is needed. timelines. pulse oximeter. blood pressure. Jenna applied for the sponsorship that produced the Bluetooth development kit. and caregivers. Unfortunately. By keeping realistic constraints in mind throughout the design process (cost. This rate is analyzed by a microprocessor to determine the respiratory rate. large LCD screens. information about a patient’s physical well being. The accessible home vital signs monitoring system described in this report fulfills the need for an accessible. many of the vital signs monitoring systems available today are very expensive and inaccessible. She developed all of the probes and their circuitry. The simple 3button design makes the device easy to use for all ages and abilities. existing technologies were brought together and combined into a single functioning unit. An automated blood pressure system using the oscillometric method measures blood pressure. She did all of the construction and machining work required on the casing. heart rate. our device is designed to record the following six (6) vital signs: body temperature. home-use vital signs monitor. To provide comprehensive health care monitoring. Most are designed for hospital use and have complicated interfaces that do not blend well with the home environment. Safety was always in 97 . Jenna wrote the Final Report and the RERC final report. With Rob’s input. blood pressure). and buttons customized with Braille or Universal Symbols. auditory and visual alarms. Jenna maintained the team website for the year. a simple scale is used to measure weight. their families. Jenna was responsible for all of the probe and vital signs acquisition hardware (thermometer. and with Rob’s help. Finally. To measure respiratory rate. Accessibility is addressed through the speech module. blood oxygen saturation. weight. and patients of all ages. a thermocouple registers the changes in the temperature of air being inhaled and exhaled. These features allow us to meet the needs of our clients with a device that is accessible to the hearing and visually impaired.

” Analog Devices. Aside from physical safety.com/fi2003/abstracts/ F190abstract. <http://www.com/files/sensors/ doc/app_note/AN1571.ieee.S.com/UploadedFiles/Data_Sheets/ADSP-BF535. 2006. May 2005.ecircuitcenter. “Digital Blood Pressure Meter.” 2004. Hasan.pdf>. <http://www. “Electrical Safety of Medical Equipment”. < http://www. New York: CRC Press.analog. 1983. Toolless Plastic Solutions. [2] “Basic Statistics About Home Health Care.com>. Robert B. so as to design a vital signs monitor that would be a help to our clients’ health rather than a hindrance. Bioelectronic Measurements.pdf>... toolless.nahc.ewh. Noninvasive Instrumentation and Measurements in Medical Diagnosis. and David Michaels. < http://www.htm>. Dean A. 2006. School of Engineering. [3] “Blackfin Embedded Processor: ADSP-BF535.analog. [7] “Design and Engineering”.consideration during the three alternative designs and the optimal design.pdf>. personal safety and privacy is ensured by the password protected website through which clients can upload their vital signs to their physicians or healthcare providers. 2006. [9] “Lineared NTC Thermistor.circuitcellar.” Freescale Semiconductor. 98 .com. <http://www. Analog Devices. 10 References [1] Al-Nashash.” National Association for Home Care & Hospice. Inc.>. University of Sharjah. [8] “Getting Started with Blackfin Processors”. [5] Chua. <http://www. <http://www.freescale.pdf>. <http://www.” eCircuit Center..org/04HC_Stats. [6] DeMarre. 2002. 2002. C. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.pdf>. and Siew Mun Hin. It is from all this that our accessible home vital signs monitoring system will improve quality of life by improving the quality of care.org/r8/uae/Elect_Safety _Med_Equip.com/ Circuits/therm_ckt1/therm_ckt1. [4] “Blood Pressure Monitor”. [10] Northrop.

” Medical Electronics.com/article/CA149117. [15] Townsend. Woradorn. <http://www. University of Connecticut: Oct.htm l+circuit+design+safety&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1>. [18] Wattanapanitch. and race: United States.” Current Home Care Patients. [16] Townsend.pdf>.14. 11 Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the following people.uk/~neil/teaching/lectures/med_elec/notes6. [14] “Safe Circuit Design”. 2001. John Enderle. <http://www. and Warut Suampun.ac.209.edu/pages/ws62/>.gov/nchs/data/nhhcsd/curhomecare00. “Pulse Oximetry.html>. [19] Webster.edn.uk/~neil/teaching/lectures/med_elec /notes7. August 2.” Cornell University. All About Electric Circuits. Client Contact and Advisor Mr. devices used. cdc. Neil.cornell.people. < http://www. <http://www. <http://www. Michaelmas Term 2001.104 /search?q=cache:HYM2hyPm4rcJ:www. [17] Volk. [13] “SpeakJet User’s Manual”. Willian Pruehsner. Publishing.” Medical Electronics.robots. “Class notes”. <http://72.allaboutcircuits. Karl R.pdf>. “Non Invasive Blood Pressure. Magnivation. ed. “Portable Digital Blood Pressure Monitor. 2000. Design of Pulse Oximeters. J.ox. Feb. to thank them for their support and assistance with our project: Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Accessible Medical Instrumentation RERC-AMI National Student Design Competition (funding) Dr. 2004.com/ downloads/speakjetusermanual. Philadelphia: IOP Ltd.pdf>. by type of aids. 2004. Michaelmas Term 2001. sex. Robert B. “Using thermistors in temperature-tracking power supplies.G.com/vol_1/chpt_3/8.[11] Northrop.ac. 17 2006.speechchips.” EDN. Advisor John Chandy David Price 99 . BME 255.ox.robots.pdf>. Neil. 1997. 2003. [12] “Number of current home health care patients. <http://www.

87” x 7.75” x 0.99” 0.2°F 30seconds (oral) 98% -.David Kaputa Lisa Ephraim Jennifer Godino Emily Dufresne Rich and Serge (Machine Shop) A7 Engineering (partial sponsorship of Bluetooth development kit) 12 Appendix 12.35” 4.1 Updated Specifications Mechanical Weight (unit without peripheries) Size Button size Durability Water Resistance Anchoring/Mounting Electrical <6 pounds 9.4V Rechargeable Li-Ion battery with charger 1.-- 100 .10” x 3.75” Able to transported and withstand minor bumps and disturbances Recommend avoid water and spills Rubber treads on bottom of device Power Source Display Height Width Illumination Data Output Temperature Measurements Scale Range Accuracy Response Time Pulse Oximetry Saturation Range Accuracy Non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) 11.20’ Back-lit LCDs Bluetooth Wireless Transmission °Fahrenheit (F) 94-105°F + .

Cuff Pressure Range Measurement Time Heart Rate Beats per Min Range Accuracy Respiratory Rate Range Measurement Time Weight Scale Type Range Hardware and Software Parameters 0-160mmHg <60 seconds 0-220 bpm + 3 bpm 0-60 breathes per min. 30 seconds Digital 0-300 pounds Microprocessor Programming Language PIC16F877 C Environmental Location Dust Operating Temperature Storage Temperature Home (indoors) Recommend preventing large amounts of dust from settling on the device 40-105°F 40-110°F 101 .

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