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Introduction

:
This task is to help you know more about the types of report that you may be asked to
write in the workplace.
Instructions:
Match the types of report in the boxes on the left with the descriptions on the right:
Click in the table cell containing the Description phrase you want to move.
Click in the table cell where you want the phrase to go. The phrases will swap
position.
If a phrase is in the right position, it will have a green background and a tick.
When all the central table cells are green and have ticks, you have finished.
Score:
/8
Types of
Description
Report
1 Incident a report describing something that has happened
Report
2 Accident a report describing how someone was hurt or
Report something was damaged
3 Sales a report describing how many goods or services were
Report sold, and the reasons for any differences from the
plan
4 Progress a report describing how close you are to completing
Report something you planned
5 Feasibility a report on how practical a proposal is
Study /
Report
6 Recommen a report on what your organisation should do
dation
Report
7 Site a report on what has happened in a place, and how
close your organisation is to finishing construction
8 Case Study an academic report on how and why something has
changed over time
Back to EIW Report Writing
H
hits since 8 April 2003.

Congratulations, all correct!
If you have any suggestions or questions, please e-mail us at eccill@inet.polyu.edu.hk .

Report Writing

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A long report usually has the following sections:

• Title Page • Methodolo
gy
• Αχκνοωλ
εδγµεντσ • Φινδινγσ

• Συµµαρψ • Χονχλυσι
/ ονσ
Αβστραχ
• Ρεχοµµεν
τ
δατιονσ
• Χοντεντσ
• Αππενδιχ
Παγε
• Ιντροδυχ εσ
τιον
• Βιβλιογρ
• Λιτερατυ απηψ
ρε Ρεϖιεω

This is an example long report template for you to copy to your
word processor or print out. Then you can fill in your own
details.

Title Page
The Title; e.g. 'A Report on ....'
.....................'An Investigation into...'
.....................'An Analysis of ...'
.....................'A Comparison of ... and ...'
Your Name
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the
............................course.
If you are a HKPU student, your student number.
The date.
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page.

Acknowledgments
"I would like to thank my supervisor, Mr. _______, for the
valuable advice and support he has given me in the writing
of this report. I would also like to thank my teachers, Mrs.
_______ and Mr. _______ for their encouragement and
guidance. Thanks also to my typist, Ms. _______, for her
immaculate job and her suggestions. My deepest thanks go
to my wife/husband, for her/his love, understanding and
support."
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page.

Summary / Abstract
This study was to ______________________________
It was requested by ____________________________
It was requested on (date).
The investigation was done by ____________________
The main findings were that ______________________
It was concluded that __________________________
The recommendations are that _______should be ______
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page.

Contents Page
Section........................
..............................Pa
ge Number
Introduction......................................................................
.1
Literature
Review..............................................................3
Methodology....................................................................
.5
Findings...........................................................................
..7
Conclusions.....................................................................
14
Recommendations............................................................
16
Appendices......................................................................
18
Bibliography....................................................................
.25
List of Figures
Bar Chart of Answers to Question
1...................................8
Pie Chart of Socio-economic Status of the
Respondents.....9

List of Tables
Survey Findings by Gender and Age
Group........................10
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page.

1. Introduction
Background
This report has been written because ....
It was requested by ...
It was requested on (date).
Objectives
The objectives of this report are to ....
Scope
This report examines .... . It does not examine ..... because
...... .
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page.

2. Literature Review
The area of investigation has been commented on by
Channel (1994), Hoey (1993), Halliday (1993) and Lesser
(1979), who are in agreement that...
However, they have different opinions on ....
Due to the differences highlighted above, it was decided to
investigate ....
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page.
3. Methodology (also called the 'Method' or
'Procedure')
___ respondents, chosen by the method of _____ were
surveyed from (start date) to (end date). Of these, ______
were invited for interview on (date).
The statistics were analysed using a _______ test because
.........
The significance of the results was __________
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page.

4. Findings
4.1. Introduction
In general, the findings indicated that...
The major finding of the investigation was that...
In addition, ....
Surprisingly, ........ , which was an unexpected consequence
of .....
Related exercises:

• Trends - this exercise introduces the vocabulary
and grammar needed to describe trends.
Includes an exercise.

• Τρενδσ Ηεαδινγσ - this exercise shows how to
use headings when describing trends. Includes
an exercise.

• ∆εσχριβινγ Σατισφαχτιον - choosing between
'satisfy', 'satisfied', 'satisfying' and 'satisfactory',
etc.

• Ιµπορταντ ορ Ιµπορτανχε? Explanation and
exercise on which word to use.

• ∋Λαχκ∋ ορ ∋Λαχκ οφ∋? - an explanation and
an exercise.
Back to the top of this
page.
5. Conclusions
The main conclusion that can be drawn is therefore that...
In the light of this, it is recommended that... (+ a general
recommendation; e.g. that something needs to be changed.
The detailed recommendations should go in the
Recommendations section below.)
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page.

6. Recommendations
In the light of these conclusions, I recommend that _____
should be ____
In addition, a _______ could ______
Grammar Note:
To make suggestions and recommendations you should use
'could + infinitive verb' (if you are less sure), or 'should +
infinitive verb' (if you are more sure). You could also use
'suggest + _ing' or 'suggest that + a subject noun (e.g. 'we')
+ a verb (e.g. 'could' + infinitive verb). Do NOT use
'suggest to'.
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page.

Appendices
Appendix 1: Sample Survey Form

Appendix 2: Results of Statistical Analysis by ______
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page.

Bibliography
(Click here to find out more about references.)
Channel, J. (1994). Vague language. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Halliday, M.A.K. (1993). Quantitative studies and
probabilities in grammar. In Hoey, M. (Ed.) Data,
description, discourse. London: HarperCollins, 1-25.
Hoey, M. (1993). Data, description, discourse. London:
HarperCollins, 1-25.
Lesser, R. (1979). Linguistic investigations of aphasia.
Studies in language disability and remediation 5. London:
Edward Arnold.

Stages and Content of a Report

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Introduction:
This task is for you to practise matching the stages and content
of a report. You should already know that reports usually have
the following stages: Introduction, Procedure or Method,
Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations. This activity
helps you to understand what is in each of these stages.
Instructions:
Match the items in the boxes on the left with the items on the
right:
Click in the table cell containing the item you want to
move.
Click in the table cell where you want the item to go.
The words will swap position.
If an item is in the right position, it will have a green
background and a tick.
When all the table cells are green and have ticks, you
have finished.
Sc
or
e:

/
10
Re
po
rt
Report Content
St
ag
es
1 Introduction Section 1 Who requested the report

2 Introduction Section 2 When the report was requested

3 Introduction Section 3 Why the report was requested, and the Aim

4 Introduction Section 4 Overview of the structure of the report

5 Procedure Section 1 When the data was collected

6 Procedure Section 2 How the data was collected

7 Findings Description of the information you
discovered
8 Conclusion Section 1 Summary of what you discovered

9 Conclusion Section 2 Your ideas about the reasons for the things
you discovered
10 Recommendations What you think should happen
Stages and Language of a Report

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ELC Home
Where am I?: HKPU > ELC > CILL > EIW > this page.
Introduction:
This task is for you to practise matching the stages of a report
with common phrases found in these sections. You should
already know that reports usually have the following stages:
Introduction, Procedure or Method, Findings, Conclusions and
Recommendations. This activity helps you to understand what
language is used in each of these stages.
Instructions:
Match the items in the boxes on the left with the items on the
right:
Click in the table cell containing the item you want to
move.
Click in the table cell where you want the item to go.
The words will swap position.
If an item is in the right position, it will have a green
background and a tick.
When all the table cells are green and have ticks, you
have finished.
Sc
or
e:

/
10
Re
po
rt
Phrases
St
ag
es
1 Introduction - Who requested the report This report was requested by...

2 Introduction - When the report was The report was requested on ...
requested
3 Introduction - Why the report was The report aims to...
requested, and the Aim
4 Introduction - Overview of the structure of The report presents ...
the report
5 Procedure - When the data was collected Data for the report was gathered from ... to
...
6 Procedure - How the data was collected Primary data was collected by surveying...

7 Findings - Description of the information The survey respondents said that...
you discovered
8 Conclusion - Summary of what you In conclusion, the results show that...
discovered
9 Conclusion - Your ideas about the reasons I believe that the reasons for this include...
for the things you discovered
10 Recommendations - What you think should These conclusions lead to a number of
happen possibilities for further action. These are...

http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/CILL/eiw/reportphrasesmatching.htm

Sections of a Report
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ELC Home
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Introduction:
This task is to help you understand the type of information
which each section of a report should contain.
Instructions:
Match the report section headings in the boxes on the left with
the paragraphs on the right:
Click in the table cell containing the Paragraph you
want to move.
Click in the table cell where you want the phrase to go.
The phrases will swap position.
If a phrase is in the right position, it will have a green
background and a tick.
When all the central table cells are green and have
ticks, you have finished.
Score:
/7
Section
Headin Paragraphs
gs
MEMO
H From: T.C. Ma, Rodent Inspector To: Senior Health Officer
e Date: 12 April 2008
a
d
i
n
g
1 I I received a telephone complaint about rats from Mr Chan
n Hing hung, householder of Ground Floor, 29A, Wanchai
t Road, HK on 8 Apr.
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
2 P I visited the premises on 9 April to talk to Mr Chan and to
r make observations.
o
c
e
d
u
r
e
3 F I found: a) four large rat holes in the back yard of the
i premises b) rat droppings in the yard, but none in the house,
n and c) that the yard was clean and tidy and there was no
d edible refuse.
i
n
g
s

3
.
1

O
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
s
3 Mr Chan informed me that rats had never been seen in the
. house but had been seen crossing the yard late at night.
2

I
n
t
e
r
v
i
e
w
4 C Since the rats cannot find food in the premises, it is likely that
o they find their food in the neighbourhood.
n
c
l
u
s
i
o
n
5 R I suggest that: a) we visit other premises in the neighbourhood
e in order to find out where the rats get food, and b) we place
c two rat traps (model AN2) near the rat holes and ask Mr Chan
o to ring this department if a rat is caught.
m
m
e
n
d
a
t
i
o
n
Back to EIW Report Writing

Subject Headings

English in the Workplace
Finding a Job
Memos &
Letters
Reports
Exercises
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Vocabulary
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Aim:
This page is to help you write correct subject headings for
business documents.
Guidelines:
The purpose of a subject heading is to tell the reader:

• what the document is for (the purpose of the
document), and

• what it is about (the topic of the document)

e.g. in Complaint about Late Delivery of Order 12345, the
subject heading tells the reader that the purpose of the
document is to complain, and that the topic is Order 12345.
Purposes:
Business documents can have many purposes. In a subject
heading these are written as nouns. Here are some
examples, with the usual prepositions that go with them:

• Complai • Congratul
nt about ations to (
(+ +a
problem) person
who has
• Apology done
for ( + well)
problem)
• Congratul
• Informati ations
on on ( + from ( + a
topic) person
sending
• Warning the
about ( + message)
danger)
• Congratul
• Report ations on
on ( + (+ a topic;
topic) e.g.
Passing
• Investiga
your
tion into Exams)
( + topic)
• Request
• Proposal
for (+ a
to (+ noun
verb phrase;
phrase; e.g. a
e.g. to Day's
Reduce Leave)
Waste)
• Request
• Proposal
to (+ a
for (+ verb; e.g.
noun to Miss a
phrase; Lesson)
e.g. for
Waste • Applicati
Reductio on for ( +
n) a noun
phrase;
e.g. a
License)

• Applicati
on to (+ a
verb; e.g.
Use the
Company
Junk)
If the purpose of the document is to inform the reader, the
purpose is often missed out, and the most important
information is used; e.g. Late Arrival of Order 12345, or
Estimated Time of Arrival of Order 12345.
Formatting
Subject headings should be highlighted in some way. This
can be by using:

• Bold Font,

• Larger Writing
• Underlined Writing, or,

• less commonly, Italics.

NOTE: DO NOT USE ALL CAPITAL LETTERS
BECAUSE IT LOOKS UGLY AND IS HARD TO READ.
You can use Re: before a subject heading, but it is not
necessary if the heading is highlighted in some other way.
Do not underline Re:
Do not put a full stop at the end of subject headings.
Title Case
Subject headings should be in title case. This means that
the first letter of the first word should have an upper-case
letter, and so should all the other words, except for articles
and prepositions; e.g. Complaint about the Late Delivery
of Order Number 12345
Exercise
Instructions:
Correct the following subject headings:
Report Writing: Introductions

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Aim:
This page is to help you understand the content and grammar
of report introductions.
On this page: Explanation, Example, Exercise
Explanation
The Introduction contains 2 types of information:
1. information about the report
2. an introduction to the content of the report.
It is also aimed at two types of readers:
1. the manager who wants solutions to a problem or
suggestions for future action
2. readers in the future who want to know what they can learn
from the organisation's past experience, such as why a decision
was made.
1. Information about the report (called the 'Terms of
Reference').
1.1 Who asked for the report (Past tense, passive voice)
Most reports are requested by a manager, but some are
commissioned by people or organisation outside the company,
and some are written by staff to suggest something.
1.1.1 Their name
1.1.2 Their job title or post
This changes over time as they are promoted.
1.1.3 Their department
This may change over time as they are promoted.
1.2 The date that the report was asked for. (Past tense)
e.g. This report was requested by Ms Amy Chan, Operations
Manager in the Production Department, on 11 August 2008.
2. An introduction to the content of the report.
2.1 The background of the report (Past tense or present
perfect)
The situation or problem that the report discusses
2.2 The aim of the report (Present tense, as the aim is true all
the time)
The report might make suggestions to solve a problem, or to
take advantage of a situation
2.2 An overview of the organisation of the report (Present
tense, as this is the organisation all the time)
Reports can have a wide variety of organisational structures, so
it helps the reader to inform them of the structure of this one.

Figure 1: Example organisational structures.
Introduction
1. Introduction 1. Introduction 1. Introduction
2. Method 2. Method 2. Method
Background
3. Findings and 3. Findings 3. Findings and Discussion
Discussion 4. Discussion 4. Conclusion and
Method
4. Conclusion 5. Conclusion Recommendations
5. Recommendations
Findings 6.
Recommendation
Conclusion s
Recommendation

e.g. In the past two months our output of products has
increased, but a larger number have failed quality control. The
aim of this report is to analyse this situation and recommend
appropriate action. Firstly the method of investigation is
described, followed by the findings. Then conclusions are
drawn and a number of recommendations are made.
Grammar note:
In order to show that you are being objective, which means
not letting your personal opinions and interests affect the
report, you should avoid using personal pronouns such as I
and We. You can do this by using the report as the subject
of the sentence (e.g. This report shows...) or by using a
passive voice (e.g. Conclusions are drawn...).
Example Introduction
1. Introduction
This report was
requested by Mr. P Y
Fung, Managing
Director of Everbright
Ltd. on 11 August
2008. The report
concerns the recently
observed declining
morale of our staff.
The main aims of the
report are to identify
the causes of the
decline in staff morale
and recommend ways
to boost it.

In the report the
findings describe the
decline in staff
morale, which can be
traced back to the
period following the
reduction of the
company budget.
Following these
findings, conclusions
are drawn and a
number of
recommendations are
made as to how staff
morale might be
increased.
Exercise
Instructions:
Choose the correct option from the drop-down boxes, then
click the 'Show Answers' button below:

(1)
(2) (3)
(4) Mr K.K.
Chan, (5) (6)
(7) (8)
11 August 2008.
The report (9)
staff
dissatisfaction with
sick pay regulations.
The aim of the report
is (10)
affordable
improvements in
these regulations that
would satisfy both
staff and
management.
The report (11)
the method and
findings of a
questionnaire survey
of staff and results of
discussions with
management. Then
various options are
presented and
discussed. (12)
a conclusion (13)
and
recommendations
(14) . (15)