Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07

)
Guideline
BCA
Technology Development Division
Guide to the
Buildable Design Appraisal System


The Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System is electronically published by the Technology Development Division
of the Building and Construction Authority.

© Building and Construction Authority, September 2005

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without
permission in writing from the publisher.

This Guide is subjected to revision from time to time. Nothing herein shall be construed to exempt the person submitting
an application or any plans from otherwise complying with the provisions of the Building Control Act (Cap 29) or any
rules and/or guidelines made thereunder or any Act or rules and/or guidelines for the time being in force.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information presented in this publication, neither the Authority
nor its employees or agents can accept responsibility for any loss or damage incurred in connection with the use of the
contents.


Guide to the
Buildable Design
Appraisal System

for Code of Practice on
Buildable Design Sep 2005
(incorporating changes affecting
projects with planning applications
made on or after 1
st
Jan 200/)
Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Content Page

Introduction 1

General Guidelines
1. Gross Floor Area 2
2. Constructed Floor Area 4
3. Minimum Buildability Score 4
4. Decimal Points 6
5. Module 6
6. Structures to be Included in Computation 6
7. Basics of Buildable Design Appraisal System (BDAS) 7
8. Worked Examples 8

Part 1 Structural Systems
1. Labour Saving Indices for Different Structural Systems 13
2. Structural Areas Consideration 15
3. Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration 15
4. Structural Systems 16
5. Measurement 24
6. Worked Examples 26

Part 2 Wall Systems
1. Labour Saving Indices for Different Wall Systems 35
2. Wall Length Consideration 37
3. Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration 37
4. Measurement 37
5. Worked Examples 41

Part 3 Other Buildable Design Features

Points Awarded for Other Buildable Design Features 44
1. Standardisation 46
1.1 Columns 46
1.2 Beams 49
1.3 Door Leaf Openings 54
1.4 Windows 55



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Content Page

2. Grids 56
2.1 Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height 56
2.2 Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout 61


3. Others 64
3.1 Multi-tier Precast Columns 64
3.2 Precast or Pre-assembled/Metal Staircases 65
3.3 Precast Meter Chambers 66
3.4 Precast Refuse Chutes 67
3.5 Precast Service Risers 68
3.6 Non-screed Floor 68
3.7 Columns Sit Directly on Top of Piles 69
3.8 Ground Beams on Top of Pilecaps and/or Integrated into Pilecaps 70
3.7 No column stumps 71
(for projects with planning applications made on or after 1 Jan 2007)
3.8 Precast bay windows 72
(for projects with planning applications made on or after 1 Jan 2007)
3.9 Precast planter boxes 73
(for projects with planning applications made on or after 1 Jan 2007)


A. Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points) 74
A.1 Prefabricated Bathroom/Toilet Units complete with piping/wiring 74
A.2 Precast Household Shelters 75

B. Demerit Points 76
B.1 Non-functional void on slab 76










Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) 1
Introduction

This Guide serves to advise the industry on the computation of buildability score using the Buildable
Design Appraisal System. The guide is revised to the requirement specified in Code of Practice on
Buildable Design September 2005, and has incorporated changes affecting projects with planning
applications made on or after 1
st
January 2007. Interpretation on the terms and method of
measurement/computation are included to ensure that the buildability scores are computed by the
industry in a consistent manner. More examples of buildable design scoring are given to illustrate the
computation sequence and methodology.

The buildability score of a design consists of 3 main parts:
Part 1: Structural Systems (maximum 50 points);
Part 2: Wall Systems (maximum 40 points);
Part 3: Other Buildable Design Features (maximum 10 points + bonus points for single
integrated components)

Indices for structural systems are indicated in Table 1. Indices for wall systems are indicated in Table 2.
Buildability points for other buildable design features are indicated in Table 3.

If you have other queries that are not addressed in this Guide, please contact us at:
Technology Development Division
Building and Construction Authority
5 Maxwell Road, #16-00
Tower Block, MND Complex
Singapore 069110
Tel: 63257720 Fax: 63254800















































































General Guidelines

Gross Floor Area
Constructed Floor Area
Minimum Buildability Score
Decimal Points
Module
Structures to be Included in Computation
Basics of Buildable Design Appraisal System
Worked Examples


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  2

General Guidelines

1 Gross Floor Area
The gross floor area (GFA) of a project is used to determine whether a project is required to comply
with the minimum buildability score requirement or not. Once a project is affected by the buildability
legislation (GFA of at least 2000 square metres), then depending on the amount of GFA involved and
the category of building work, the corresponding minimum buildability score as set out in the Code of
Practice on Buildable Design (COP) will apply.

For new developments, the GFA would be as spelt out in the planning permission issued by URA,
including any bonus GFA granted (e.g. for balconies etc).

In the case of projects involving additions and alterations (A&A) work, the GFA would be the total GFA
of all new floor and/or reconstruction of existing floor. As such, an A&A project could be affected by the
legislation even if there is no increase in GFA to the existing building or the increase in total GFA of the
existing development is less than 2000 square metres as illustrated by the following examples:-

Example 1
Proposed A&A to an existing industrial development involving change of use and a new
extension







In this example, there is a decrease in GFA of 2000 m
2
of the existing building due to the change of use
of part of the building from warehouse to carpark. At the same time, there is an increase in GFA of
2000 m
2
to the existing building from the new side extension. Overall, there is no increase in the total
GFA of the A&A project.

However, the above project is subjected to the buildability legislation. This is because the legislation
looks at GFA of constructed floors, whether new or reconstructed. The amount of GFA in this case is
2000 m
2
(assuming that there is no work done for the portion of the building undergoing a change of
use).





PLAN
Existing Building
Change of use from
warehouse to carpark
(affected GFA = 2000 m
2
)
New extension with
GFA = 2000 m
2


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  3

Example 2
Proposed A&A and addition of a new mezzanine floor and 2 new storeys to an existing
7-storey commercial building


In this example, the net change in GFA of the existing development is 1350 m
2
while the total GFA of
new and reconstructed floors is 2950 m
2
.

The breakdown of the respective GFA is as shown in the
table below.


Net Change in GFA
Total GFA of new and
reconstructed floors
Re-layout of 1
st
storey - 900 m
2
0 m
2

New mezzanine floor + 300 m
2
+ 300 m
2

Reconstruction of 8
th
storey no change in GFA + 700 m
2

Construction of 2 new floors + 1950 m
2
+ 1950 m
2

Total GFA +1350 m
2
+ 2950 m
2


As in Example 1, by virtue of the definition of GFA in the context of A&A work, the above project is
subjected to the buildable design legislation since the total GFA of the new and reconstructed floors is
2950 m2. This is despite the increase in the total GFA of the existing building being only 1350 m
2
which
is less than 2000 m
2
.



roof

9
th
storey
mezzanine
3
rd
storey
8
th
storey
7
th
storey
6
th
storey
5
th
storey
4
th
storey
1
st
storey
reconstruction of part of existing floor involving GFA of 700 m
2

new mezzanine floor with GFA of 300 m
2

re-layout of existing floor with GFA of 900 m
2
less
2 new floors with GFA of 1950 m
2

2
nd
storey


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  4

2 Constructed Floor Area
Once a project is subjected to the minimum buildability score requirement, all constructed floor areas
(including reconstructed floor areas) are to be considered when computing the minimum buildability
score (except minor structures as defined in item 6). The constructed floor area is also used to derive
the overall buildability score of a project comprising multiple blocks, by pro-rating the buildabilty scores
of each of the blocks with its constructed floor area and summing up the pro-rated scores (please also
refer to item 7).

3 Minimum Buildability Score
Different minimum buildability scores are given for different categories of development. For a new
development, the corresponding minimum buildability score can be found in the COP stipulated under
Table B (for projects with planning applications made from 1
st
September 2005 to 31
st
December 2006)
or Table D (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
January 2007).

For a mixed development, the minimum buildability score will be pro-rated according to the GFA of
each type of development.

For an A&A project with the A&A work being carried out outside the existing building, such A&A work is
considered as new work. As such, the corresponding minimum buildability score required to be
complied by the A&A project is also set out in the COP under Table B (for projects with planning
applications made from 1
st
September 2005 to 31
st
December 2006) or Table D (for projects with
planning applications made on or after 1
st
January 2007). Examples of A&A work being carried out
outside the existing building are those that are constructed outside the envelope of the existing
building, such as
a new extension to the existing building,
additional storeys over the existing roof etc.
existing building
Illustration 1: Project with A&A work carried out outside an existing building
- Minimum buildability score for New Work shall apply
new extension

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  5

For a project with A&A work being carried out within the existing building (envelope), the minimum
buildability score is as shown under Table C – Minimum Buildability Score for A&A Work (for projects
with planning applications made from 1
st
September 2005 to 31
st
December 2006) or Table D (for
projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
January 2007) in the COP. Examples of such
A&A work are
a new mezzanine floor,
the slabbing over of an existing void within a building,
the replacement or reconstruction of existing floor etc.


In the case of a project with A&A work being carried out both within and outside the existing building,
the minimum buildability score will be pro-rated according to the GFA of the A&A work outside the
existing building (new work – Table B or Table D) and the GFA of the A&A work within the existing
building (Table C or Table D).

Illustration 2: Project with A&A work carried out within an existing building
- Minimum buildability score for A&A Work shall apply
roof
2
nd
storey
9
th
storey
new mezzanine
3
rd
storey
8
th
storey
7
th
storey
6
th
storey
5
th
storey
4
th
storey
1
st
storey
A&A work within existing building
A&A work outside existing building
(considered as new work)
Illustration 3: Project with A&A work carried out both within and outside an
existing building - Minimum buildability score for A&A Work
shall be pro-rated according to the GFA of each type of work
new mezzanine floor

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  6

4 Decimal Points
All calculations should be rounded off to the nearest 2 decimal places except for the overall buildability
score and percentage of coverage for other buildable design features, which should be expressed as
an integer.

5 Module
The basic module (M) denotes 100mm. For example, 3M denotes 300mm and 0.5M denotes 50mm.

6 Structures to be Included in Computation
All major structures, including clubhouse and multi-storey carpark, are to be considered when
computing the buildability score. Minor structures such as 22 KV substation, guard post, bin centre and
trellis can be excluded from the computation, provided that they are not within or structurally linked to
the main building.


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  7

7 Basics of Buildable Design Appraisal System (BDAS)

The Buildable Design Appraisal System (BDAS) was developed to measure the potential impact of a
building design on the usage of labour. The appraisal system provides a method to compute the
Buildability Score of a design. It consists of three main parts :-

(a) Structural System (including Roof System) (50 points max)
(b) Wall System (40 points max);
(c) Other Buildable Design Features (10 points max + bonus points for single integrated components)

The Buildability Score (BS) of a building design is expressed as :
BS
bldg
= (BS
Structural System
+ BS
Wall System
+ BS
Other Buildable Design Features
)

where
BS
Structural System
= 50 [ (% of total floor area of the building using a particular structural
system x respective labour saving index for structural system
(Table 1))]
BS
Wall System
= 40 [ (% of total wall length of the building using a particular wall system x
respective labour saving index for wall system (Table 2))]
BS

= [N Value obtained for other buildable design features used (Table 3)]


For projects that consist of more than one building, the buildability score for each building should be
computed first before deriving the buildability score for the whole project. In buildability score
computation, one can consider part of the building or a number of buildings as a block for simplicity.
Service structures such as toilets, staircases, lift shafts, corridors, link bridges should be grouped
together with a particular building or block for which the services are proposed.

The buildability score of the whole project (BS
proj
) is then derived by summing up the multiplication of
the respective buildability score of the individual building or block with its percentage of the total floor
area of that building or block in the project.

It can be expressed as :
BS
proj
= [ BS
bldg or block
x (A
st
)
bldg or block
/ (A
st
)
proj
]

where (A
st
)
bldg or block
= Total floor area which includes roof (projected area) and basement area of the
building or block
(A
st
)
proj
= Summation of total floor area of all buildings or blocks in a project
(i.e. (A
st
)
bldg or block
)

The worked examples in the next section will give some guidelines on the approach in grouping the
building structures into different blocks before proceeding with the details of the buildability score
computation.
Other Buildable
Design Features


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  8

8 Worked Examples

Example G1: Residential Development with Communal Facilities and Basement Carpark

A. Project Information




B. Demarcation of Blocks
For buildability score computation, the development
can be classified as 4 blocks.
They are :-
(a) Block 1 – Tower 1
(b) Block 2 – Tower 2
(c) Block 3 – Tower 3
(d) Block 4 – Clubhouse, environmental deck and
basement carpark


The buildability score of the project can be obtained by

BS
proj
= [(BS
block1
x (A
st
)
block1
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block2
x (A
st
)
block2
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block3
x (A
st
)
block3
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block4
x (A
st
)
block4
/ (A
st
)
proj
)


This project consists of three 10-storey residential tower blocks with basement carpark, swimming
pool, clubhouse and communal facilities.
Note: Detached 22 KV substation and bin centre
are excluded in buildability score computation.
Schematic Section A-A
SITE PLAN

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  9

Example G2: Commercial Development with Elevated Carparks

A. Project Information



B. Demarcation of Blocks
For buildability score computation, the development
can be classified as 3 blocks.
They are :-
(a) Block 1 – Office Tower
(b) Block 2 – Elevated Carparks and Retail Shops and
Substation
(c) Block 3 – Retail Shops at Basement

The buildability score of the project can be obtained
by

BS
proj
= [(BS
block1
x (A
st
)
block1
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block2
x (A
st
)
block2
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block3
x (A
st
)
block3
/ (A
st
)
proj
)]




This project comprising an 18-storey office tower with a 2-storey retail podium, 3 storey elevated
carparks and 3 levels of retail shops at basement.
Schematic Section A-A
SITE PLAN

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  10

Example G3: Mixed Development with Carparks

A. Project Information



B. Demarcation of Blocks
For buildability score computation, the
development can be classified as 5 blocks.
They are :-
(a) Block 1 – Residential Tower A
(b) Block 2 – Residential Tower B
(c) Block 3 – Residential Tower C
(d) Block 4 – Office Tower
(e) Block 5 – Podium with Retail Shops and Carparks

The buildability score of the project can be
obtained by

BS
proj
= [(BS
block1
x (A
st
)
block1
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block2
x (A
st
)
block2
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block3
x (A
st
)
block3
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block4
x (A
st
)
block4
/ (A
st
)
proj
) +
(BS
block5
x (A
st
)
block5
/ (A
st
)
proj
)]

This project is a 15-storey mixed development comprising three residential tower blocks, one
commercial office block with a 4-storey podium with retail shops and carparks.
SITE PLAN
Schematic Section A-A

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  11

Example G4: Institutional Development with New Extension and Addition & Alteration
Works to Existing School Buildings

A. Project Information




B. Demarcation of Blocks
For buildability score computation, the development can be classified as 7 blocks.
They are :-

(a) Block 1 – New classroom Block A
(b) Block 2 – New classroom Block B
(c) Block 3 – Multi-purpose Hall cum Canteen Block
(d) Block 4 – Extension & A/A works to existing classroom Block C
(e) Block 5 – Extension & A/A works to existing classroom Block D
(f) Block 6 – Library Block
(g) Block 7 – New Administration Block

The buildability score of the project can be obtained by
BS
proj
= [BS
bldg or block
x (A
st
)
bldg or block
/ (A
st
)
proj
]

Note : Detached 22 KV substation and bin centre are excluded in buildability score computation.
This project consists of two 4-storey classroom blocks, a 2- storey multi-purpose hall cum canteen
block, one administration block, one library block & extension and additions & alterations to two 4-
storey existing classroom blocks.
SITE PLAN

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  12

C. Considerations for Extension and Additions & Alterations Works

All new walls and doors/windows on both the new extension floors and existing floors are to be
considered in the buildability score computation, as illustrated in the Schematic Section A-A below.

For this case, the apportioned buildability score of Block 4 (same as for Block 5) attributing to the
buildability score of project will be as follows:-

BS
block 4
x (A
st
)
block 4
/ (A
st
)
proj


where

(A
st
)
block 4
= Total new floor areas extension
= (Extended Floor areas from 1
st
to 4
th
Sty + Roof area)






D. Change of Use to Existing Building with Extension & Additions and Alterations Works

The same principle adopted in the above Section C is applicable to all other types of development
involving change of use to existing buildings with extension & additions and alterations works.




Schematic Section A-A
New walls and replacement of
windows/doors on existing
floors to be included




























































Part 1 Structural Systems

Labour Saving Indices for Different Structural Systems
Structural Areas Consideration
Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration
Structural Systems
Measurement
Worked Examples



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  13

Part 1 Structural Systems

1 Labour Saving Indices for Different Structural Systems

The labour saving index derived for each structural system and roof system is as shown in the following
Table 1. An index of 0.03 each would be given if prefabricated reinforcement/cage is used in cast in-
situ slab, beam and column.

Table 1 Structural Systems - Ss Value
(to be used for projects with planning applications made from 1
st
Sep 2005 to 31
st
Dec 2006)


NOTE:
(1) For cast in-situ floor with cast in-situ transfer beam, an index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor
area. This requirement does not apply to cast in-situ floor with transfer beam designed for ramp access.
(2) Slab/beam refers to the value of slab area over number of beams.



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  14

Table 1 Structural Systems - Ss Value
(to be used for projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
Jan 2007)
Structural System Description
Labour Saving
Index S
s

Full precast

1.00
Precast beam and precast slab

0.90
Precast beam and precast column/wall
(3)


0.85
Precast column/wall
(3)
and precast slab

0.80
Precast beam only

0.75
Precast slab only

0.75
Precast Concrete System
Precast column/wall only
(1) (3)


0.75
Steel beam and steel column
(without concrete encasement)

0.95
Structural Steel System
(applicable only if steel
decking or precast slab is
adopted)
Steel beam and steel column
(with concrete encasement)

0.85
Flat plate with no or minimal perimeter beams
(slab/beam
(2)
>15)

0.90
(4)

Flat plate with perimeter beams
(slab/beam
(2)
≤15)

0.80
(4)

Flat slab with no or minimal perimeter beams
(slab/beam
(2)
>15)

0.85
(4)

Flat slab with perimeter beams
(slab/beam
(2)
≤15)

0.75
(4)

One-directional banded beam

0.75
Two-directional beam (slab/beam
(2)
>10)

0.65
Cast In-situ System
(1)


Two-directional beam (slab/beam
(2)

≤10)

0.50
Integrated metal roof on steel truss

0.90
Metal roof on steel truss or timber truss

0.85
Tiled roof on steel beam or precast concrete
beam or timber beam

0.75
Metal roof on cast in-situ beam

0.60
Roof System
Tiled roof with cast in-situ beam

0.55

NOTE:
(1)

For cast in-situ floor with cast in-situ transfer beam, an index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor
area. This requirement does not apply to cast in-situ floor with transfer beam designed for ramp access.
(2) Slab/beam refers to the value of the slab area over number of beams. In flat plate or flat slab cases, this refers to the
value of the flat plate area (or flat slab area) over the number of perimeter beams bounding the flat plate (or flat slab).
(3) Precast wall refers to load-bearing walls only.
(4) An additional index of 0.05 would be given if flat plate/flat slab is used with precast columns (or precast load bearing
walls). For example, the index for flat plate with no or minimal perimeter beams (slab/beam > 15) with precast
columns would be 0.95 (0.90 + 0.05).

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  15

The respective labour saving indices for other common structural systems that are not shown in Table
1 are listed as follows :

LABOUR SAVING INDEX (LSI)
DESCRIPTION SIMILAR TO LSI TO BE USED
Precast hollow core slab Precast concrete slab Refer to Table 1
Precast planks (half slab) Precast concrete slab Refer to Table 1
Waffle slab (cast in-situ) Cast in-situ slab (slab/beam < 10) Refer to Table 1
Waffle slab (precast) Precast concrete slab Refer to Table 1
Precast shell column/beam Precast column/beam Refer to Table 1
Steel column with concrete infill Steel column without concrete encasement Refer to Table 1
One-way beam* One-way or One-directional banded beam Refer to Table 1
Skylight - Ss Value = 1.00

*Refers to one-directional beams. It does not refer to the design of the slab (contrast with one-way slab
design).

Indices for other systems that are not shown in these tables shall be determined by BCA on a case-by-
case basis. For such cases, the Qualified Persons (QPs) are advised to seek BCA's comments before
proceeding with the design.

2 Structural Areas Consideration

All floor areas including basement, roof, air-con ledge, staircase and suspended structural floor of open
link way are to be considered, with the exception of the following:
• Driveway, apron areas and landscape areas which are not within or structurally linked to the main
building.

3 Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration

The usage of prefabricated reinforcement in cast in-situ components is based on the following:

a. Floors
Cast in-situ floor using welded wire mesh can be considered for additional points under the structural
system. However, prefabricated reinforcement in precast concrete floor or in-situ concrete topping of
precast concrete floor/steel decking using welded wire mesh are not entitled to any points. The
percentage of coverage for the use of prefabricated reinforcement in floors is based on the total area
including the roof and basement, if applicable.

b. Beam Cage / Column Cage
The use of prefabricated link cages in cast in-situ beams / columns which are done on site or from
factory are given additional points. However, no points would be given for prefabricated link cages in
precast concrete beams / columns. The percentage of coverage for the use of prefabricated cages in
beams / columns is based on the total number of beams / columns which include precast and steel
components.

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  16

4 Structural Systems
The interpretation of the cast in-situ systems used in Table 1 is as follows:

a. Flat Plate
A structural floor system without column heads or drop panels (with or without perimeter beams).
Under BDAS, a flat plate system could be viewed as a floor with flat soffit (with the exception of
perimeter beams). From the buildability point of view, such floor with flat soffit would ease formwork
construction and reinforcement work at site considerably and helps to improve site productivity.
b. Flat Slab
A structural floor system with column heads or drop panels (with or without perimeter beams).
Perspective View of Flat Plate
Perspective View of Flat Slab

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  17

c. One-Way Banded Beam / One Directional Banded Beam
A structural beam-slab system with beams in one direction as shown.

d. Two-Way Beam / Two-Directional Beam
A structural beam-slab system with beams in two directions. This also applies to one way spanning
slab framed by beams on all four sides.
Perspective View of Banded Beam
Perspective View of 2-Way or 2-Directional Beam

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  18

e. Cast In-situ Floor with Transfer Beam (Table 1- Note 1)
A transfer beam is a beam that interrupts the paths of load bearing elements from above and
distributes the loads sideways to the ends of the beam. Cast in-situ flat plate, flat slab, one-way (or
one-directional) banded beam and two-way (or two-directional) beam are classified as cast-in-situ floor
system.

















For this system, an index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area including the other
parts of the same floor with different cast in-situ floors which may not have any transfer beam. This
requirement is applicable even if the cast in-situ floor is supported by precast column/wall.

Note : The index of -0.10 does not apply to cast in-situ floor with transfer beam designed for the
purpose of ramp access.

If there are different structural floor systems within the same floor layout, the index of -0.10 shall be
applied only to the entire cast in-situ floor area as illustrated below :



Assume that the total floor area of the whole block = 1400 m
2


The cast in-situ floors with transfer beams adopted for the block are as follows :
(1) Flat plate system with transfer beam at 2
nd
storey level
(2) Two-way (or two-directional) beam-slab system with transfer beam at 7
th
storey level

An index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area for the 2
nd
storey level & 7
th
storey
level.





Perspective View of Transfer Beam
Illustration on the Application of index - 0.10 for cast in-situ floor with transfer beam


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  19

The structural floor layouts are as shown below:























































2nd Storey Plan
7th Storey Plan
Transfer Beam
1st Storey
Transfer Beam
2nd Storey
3rd Storey
4th Storey
5th Storey
6th Storey
7th Storey
Roof
1st Storey
7th Storey
2nd Storey
3rd Storey
4th Storey
5th Storey
6th Storey
Roof
Schematic Section A-A
Schematic Section B-B
Two-Way (or Two-Directional) Beam System
Area = 70m
2

Flat Plate System
Area = 105m
2

Precast Concrete Slab
Area = 40m
2

Transfer Beam
Two-Way (or Two-Directional)
Beam System
Area = 50m
2

Flat Plate System
Area = 105m
2

Transfer Beam
B

B

A
A

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  20

Cast in-situ floor area at 2
nd
sty level = Flat plate area + Two-way (or Two-Directional) beam-slab area
= (105 + 70) = 175 m
2

Cast in-situ floor area at 7
th
sty level = Flat plate area + Two way (or Two-Directional) beam-slab area
= (105 + 50) = 155 m
2

Therefore, total Cast in-situ floor area = 175 + 155 = 330 m
2

% of total floor area = 330 /1400 x 100% = 23.57 %


Buildability Score
Negative Impact

LSI
(a)
Floor Area
(m
2
)
(b)
% of Total
Floor Area
(c)

(a)x(c)x50
2
nd
sty Cast in-situ floor with transfer beam (Flat
plate system)
7
th
sty Cast in-situ floor with transfer beam
(Two-way or Two-directional beam system)
-0.10 330 23.57% -1.18



f. Number of Beams
The beam between 2 supports is considered as one beam.








Total number of beams = 14

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  21

g. Slab/Beam (Table 1- Note 2)

The slab area over beam refers to the value of slab area over number of supporting beams. In the case
of flat plate (or flat slab) with perimeter beams, the slab area over beam refers to the flat plate (or flat
slab) area over the number of perimeter beams bounding the flat plate (or flat slab). This value is
required to determine the respective labour saving indices for flat plate system, flat slab system and the
cast in-situ system with two-way (or two-directional) beam.
If there are different structural systems within the same floor layout, the common beams supporting the
different structural systems such as flat plate system, flat slab system or cast in-situ system with two-
way (or two-directional) beam are to be counted for the purpose of computing the slab/beam value.







Example:
Slab area = 88m
2
Total no.

of beams = 14
Slab/beam = 88/14
= 6.3 < 10
Example:
Cast in-situ slab area = 66m
2
Total no. of beams = 12
Slab/beam = 66/12
= 5.5 < 10
Labour Saving Index = 0.50

Precast concrete slab area = 22m
2
Labour Saving Index = 0.75

Illustration 1 – Cast in-situ slab area over beam value
Illustration 2 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ beam/column with precast and cast in-
situ slab systems
Cast in-situ Slab
Area = 88m
2


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  22

Illustration 3 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ column with flat plate and perimeter beams

Example:
Flat plate area = 139.4m
2

Total no. of perimeter beams = 10
Slab/beam = 139.4/10
= 13.94 < 15
Labour Saving Index = 0.80




Illustration 4 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ column with flat plate and no perimeter beams

Example:
Labour Saving Index = 0.90






1 2 3
4 5
7
6
10
9
8

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  23

Illustration 5 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ beam/column with flat plate and cast in-situ
slab systems


Illustration 6 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ column with flat plate and perimeter beams

Example:
Total flat plate area = 243.35m
2

Total no.of perimeter beams = 19
Slab/beam = 243.35/19 Note : The slab/beam shall be determined based on the overall flat plate area
= 12.8 < 15 over the total number of perimeter beams
Labour Saving Index = 0.80
Cast in-situ slab
Area = 50m
2

Flat plate
Area = 105m
2

Example:
Flat plate area = 105m
2

Total no. of perimeter beams = 9
Slab/beam = 105/9
= 11.7 < 15
Labour Saving Index = 0.80

Example:
Cast in-situ slab area = 50m
2

Total no. of beams = 10
Slab/beam = 50/10
= 5 < 10
Labour Saving Index = 0.50


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  24

5 Measurement

a. Floor Area
The floor area is to be measured to edge of the floor slab.


b. Staircase Area
The staircase area is to be measured on plan area.






Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  25

c. Flat Roof Area (≤ ≤≤ ≤ 7½° °° ° inclination)
The flat roof is to be measured on plan area, if the inclination is 7½° or less.

d. Pitch Roof Area (> >> > 7½° °° ° inclination)
For pitch roof with an inclination of more than 7½°, the roof area is to be measured on inclined area.


Note: Other than the above-mentioned flat roof and pitch roof, please check with BCA before proceeding with the
design.









Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  26

6 Worked Examples
Example S1 : Computation of Buildability Score for Structural System



Step 1: Identify the structural systems used and determine the relevant
labour saving index (LSI) for the particular structural system

Structural System LSI(a)
1
st
storey (Cast in-situ system – Two-way or Two-directional beam) 0.65 or 0.50
2
nd
storey (Cast in-situ system – Two-way or Two-directional beam) 0.65 or 0.50
Roof (Cast in-situ system – Two-way or Two-directional beam) 0.65 or 0.50

Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) 0.75

The LSI to be used for
cast in-situ system
with two-way or two-
directional beam
would depend on the
value of slab/beam.




2nd Storey Plan
1st Storey Plan


Roof Plan

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  27

Step 2: Calculate the percentage of total floor area using a particular
structural system.

Structural System Floor Area (m
2
) % of Total Floor Area
1
st
storey (Cast in-situ) (11.6 x 4.6) + (6 x 3.8) + (3.7 x 3.2) = 88.00 88.00/316.34 x 100% = 27.82%
2
nd
storey (Cast in-situ) (11.6 x 4.6) + (6 x 3.8) + (3.7 x 3.2) = 88.00 88.00/316.34 x 100% = 27.82%
Roof (Cast in-situ) (6 x 3.8) + (3.7 x 3.2) = 34.64 34.64/316.34 x 100% = 10.95%
Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) (14 x 3.7)/cos 22
o
= 105.70 105.70/316.34 x 100% = 33.41%
Total (Floor Area) = 316.34 100.00%


Step 3: For cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam,
check for value of slab/beam

1
st
storey slab area = 88m
2

No. of beams on 1
st
storey slab = 13

= 6.8 <10

2
nd
storey slab area = 88m
2

No. of beams on 2
nd
storey slab = 14

= 6.3 < 10

Concrete flat roof area = 34.64m
2

No. of beams on the flat roof = 8

= 4.3 < 10

Therefore, we have

Structural System LSI
(a)
Floor Area (m
2
)
(b)
% Area
(c)
1
st
storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) 0.50 88.00 27.82%
2
nd
storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) 0.50 88.00 27.82%
Roof (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) 0.50 34.64 10.95%
Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) 0.75 105.70 33.41%
Total: 316.34 100.00%

Slab area
No. of beams
Slab area
No. of beams
Slab area
No. of beams
34.64
8
88
13
88
14
With slab / beam ≤ 10, the relevant LSI
should be 0.50
With slab/beam ≤ 10, the relevant
LSI should be 0.50
With slab/beam ≤ 10, the relevant
LSI should be 0.50

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  28

Step 4: Identify the cast in-situ floor with transfer beam and its percentage of
total floor area (if any)

For cast in-situ floor with transfer beam, an index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor
area. In this example, this step is not applicable.
An index of 0.03 each would be given if prefabricated reinforcement/cage is used in cast in-situ slab,
beam and column as shown in following Step 5.

Step 5: Determine the percentage of prefabricated reinforcement/cage used
in cast in-situ slab, beam and column (where applicable)

Cast In-situ System LSI
(a)
Floor Area or No. of
beams/columns using
prefab reinforcement/cage
(b)
Total Floor Area
or No. of beams
/columns (b1)
*see note
% Coverage
(c)
1
st
, 2
nd
storey & Roof –
Floor (mesh) in areas
0.03 210.64 m
2
316.34 m
2
66.59%
1
st
, 2
nd
storey & Roof –
Beam Cage in nos.
0.03 27 nos. 27 nos. 100.00%
1
st
, 2
nd
storey & Roof –
Column Cage in nos.
0.03 21 nos. 21 nos. 100.00%

Note : The total floor area refers to the total constructed floor area for the block, and includes roof (projected
area) and basement area where applicable. The total number of beams/columns refers to all beams and
columns used in the project including precast and steel components

Step 6: Multiply the percentage of area / coverage by the corresponding LSI
and the weight factor 50 to obtain the buildability score

Buildability Score
Structural System LSI
(a)
Floor
Area (m
2
)
(b)
% Area
(c)
(a) x (c) x 50
1
st
storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) 0.50 88.00 27.82% 6.96
2
nd
storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) 0.50 88.00 27.82% 6.96
Roof (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) 0.50 34.64 10.95% 2.74
Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) 0.75 105.70 33.41% 12.53
Sub-total for structural system (A1): 29.19
Buildability Score
Prefabricated reinforcement for cast in-situ
components
LSI
(a)
% Coverage
(c)
(a) x (c) x 50
1
st
, 2
nd
storey & Roof – Floor (mesh) in areas 0.03 66.59% 1.00
1
st
, 2
nd
storey & Roof – Beam Cage in nos. 0.03 100.00% 1.50
1
st
, 2
nd
storey & Roof – Column Cage in nos. 0.03 100.00% 1.50
Sub-total for using prefabricated reinforcement (A2): 4.00
Total Buildability Score for Structural System (BS) = (A1 + A2):
(maximum 50 points)
33.19



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  29

Example S2 : Computation of Buildability Score for Structural System

1st Storey Plan
Basement Plan
<T> Columns taking load from 2
nd
storey
& above
<TB> Transfer beams (one-way or one-
directional banded beams)

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  30






2nd & 3rd Storey Plan
Roof Plan

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  31
Step 1: Identify the structural systems used and determine the relevant
labour saving index (LSI) for the particular structural system
Structural System LSI
(a)

Basement Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam
0.65 or 0.50
1
st
storey Cast in-situ system with one-way or one-
directional banded beams (& transfer beam)
0.75
Flat slab with perimeter beams 0.85 or 0.75
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (slab next to opening)
0.65 or 0.50
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (slab area at drop)
0.65 or 0.50
2
nd
storey &
3
rd
storey
Precast staircase 0.75
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (roof slab)
0.65 or 0.50

The LSI to be used
for cast in-situ system
with two-way or two-
directional beam and
flat slab would
depend on the value
of slab/beam
Roof
Metal roof on steel truss 0.85

Step 2: Calculate the percentage of total floor area using a particular
structural system
Structural System Floor Area (m
2
) % of Total Floor Area
Basement Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam
56 x 28 = 1568.00 m
2

1568.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 21.94%
1
st
storey Cast in-situ system with one-way or
one-directional banded beams (&
transfer beam)
56 x 28 = 1568.00 m
2
1568.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 21.94%
Flat slab with perimeter beams (56 x 24) – [(5 x 2)(2) + (3 x 5) +
(8 x 8) + (4 x 5)]
= 1225.00 m
2

1225.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 17.14%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab next to
opening)
(2 x 5) + (2 x 5) = 20.00 m
2
20.00/7148.32 x 100% = 0.28%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab area at drop)
8 x 8 = 64.00 m
2
64.00/7148.32 x 100% = 0.89%

2
nd
storey
Precast staircase 3 x 5 = 15.00 m
2
15.00/7148.32 x 100% = 0.21%
Flat slab with perimeter beams (56 x 24) – [(5 x 2)(2) + (3 x 5) +
(8 x 8) + (4 x 5)]
= 1225.00 m
2

1225.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 17.14%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab next to
opening)
(2 x 5) + (2 x 5) = 20.00 m
2
20.00/7148.32 x 100% = 0.28%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab area at drop)
8 x 8 = 64.00 m
2
64.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 0.89%
3
rd
storey
Precast staircase 3 x 5 = 15.00 m
2
15.00/7148.32 x 100% = 0.21%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (roof slab)
32 x 24 = 768.00 m
2
768.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 10.74%
Roof
Metal roof on steel truss
[(12 x 24) + (12 x 24)]/cos 15
o

= 596.32 m
2

596.32.00/7148.32 x 100%
= 8.34%
Total : (Floor Area) = 7148.32 m
2
100.00%


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  32
Step 3: For cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam and flat
slab, check for value of slab/beam

Basement
Slab area = 1568m
2

No. of beams on basement slab = 32
= 49 > 10

2
nd
Storey (3
rd
Storey Similar)

(i) Flat slab area = 1225m
2

No. of perimeter beams bounding flat slab = 20




= 61.25 > 15


(ii) Slab area 1 = 20 m
2
(next to opening)
No. of beams on slab area 1 = 4
= 5 < 10

(iii) Slab area 2 = 64 m
2

(at drop area)
No. of beams on slab area 2 = 6
= 10.67 > 10

Roof

(i) Concrete flat roof area = 768 m
2
No. of beams on concrete flat roof area = 43




= 17.86 > 10
Therefore, we have
Slab area
No. of beams
1568
32
=
Slab area
No. of beams
20
4
=
Slab area
No. of beams
64
6
=
Slab area
No. of beams
768
43
=
With slab / beam > 10, the relevant LSI
should be 0.65
With slab / beam > 10, the relevant LSI
should be 0.65
With slab / beam ≤ 10, the relevant LSI
should be 0.50
With slab / beam > 10, the relevant LSI
should be 0.65
Flat slab area
No. of perimeter beams
1225
20
=
With slab / beam > 15, the relevant LSI
should be 0.85

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  33
Structural System LSI (a) Floor Area (m
2
)
(b)
% Area
(c)
Basement Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam
0.65 1568.00 21.94%
1
st
storey Cast in-situ system with one-way or one-
directional banded beam (& transfer beam)
0.75 1568.00 21.94%
Flat slab with perimeter beams 0.85 1225.00 17.14%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (slab next to opening)
0.50 20.00 0.28%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (slab area at drop)
0.65 64.00 0.89%
2
nd
storey
Precast staircase 0.75 15.00 0.21%
Flat slab with perimeter beams 0.85 1225.00 17.14%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (slab next to opening)
0.50 20.00 0.28%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (slab area at drop)
0.65 64.00 0.89%
3
rd
storey
Precast staircase 0.75 15.00 0.21%
Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-
directional beam (roof slab)
0.65 768.00 10.74%
Roof
Metal roof on steel truss 0.85 596.32 8.34%
Total : 7148.32 100.00%
An index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area as shown in the following Step 4.

Step 4: Identify the cast in-situ floor with transfer beam and its percentage of
total floor area (if any)
Negative Impact LSI (a) Floor Area (m
2
)
(b)
% Area
(c)
1
st
storey Cast in-situ system with transfer beam (one-
way or one-directional banded beam)
-0.10 1568.00 21.94%
An index of 0.03 each would be given if prefabricated reinforcement/cage is used in cast in-situ slab,
beam and column as shown in following Step 5.

Step 5: Determine the percentage of prefabricated reinforcement/cage used
in cast in-situ slab, beam and column (where applicable)
Cast in-situ System LSI
(a)
Floor Area or No. of
beams/columns using
prefab reinforcement/cage
(b)
Total Floor Area or
No. of beams
/columns
(b1)*
see note

%
Coverage
(c)
1
st
, 2
nd
& 3
rd
storey & Roof –
Floor (mesh) in areas
0.03 2450.00 m
2
7148.32 m
2
34.27%
1
st
, 2
nd
& 3
rd
storey & Roof –
Beam Cage in nos.
0.03 105 nos. 169 nos. 62.13%
1
st
, 2
nd
& 3
rd
storey & Roof –
Column Cage in nos.
0.03 103 nos. 103 nos. 100.00%
Note : The total floor area refers to the total constructed floor area for the block, and includes roof (projected area)
and basement area where applicable. The total number of beams/columns refers to all beams and columns used
in the project including precast and steel components


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  34
Step 6: Multiply the percentage of coverage by the corresponding LSI and
the weight factor 50 to obtain the buildability score
Buildability
Score
Structural System
LSI
(a)
Floor Area (m
2
)
(b)
% Area
(c)
(a)x(c)x50
Basement Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam
0.65 1568.00 21.94% 7.13
1
st
storey Cast in-situ system with one-way or
one-directional banded beam (&
transfer beam)
0.75 1568.00 21.94% 8.23
Flat slab with perimeter beams 0.85 1225.00 17.14% 7.29
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab next to
opening)
0.50 20.00 0.28% 0.07
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab area at
drop)
0.65 64.00 0.89% 0.29
2
nd
storey
Precast staircase 0.75 15.00 0.21% 0.08
Flat slab with perimeter beams 0.85 1225.00 17.14% 7.29
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab next to
opening)
0.50 20.00 0.28% 0.07
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (slab area at
drop)
0.65 64.00 0.89% 0.29
3
rd
storey
Precast staircase 0.75 15.00 0.21% 0.08
Cast in-situ system with two-way or
two-directional beam (roof slab)
0.65 768.00 10.74% 3.49 Roof
Metal roof on steel truss 0.85 596.32 8.34% 3.54
Sub-total for structural system (A1): 37.85
Buildability
Score
Negative Impact
LSI
(a)
Floor Area (m
2
)
(b)
% Area
(c)
(a)x(c)x50
1
st
storey Cast in-situ system with transfer
beam (one-way or one-directional
banded beam)
-0.10 1568.00 21.94% -1.10
Sub-total for negative impact (A2): -1.10
Buildability
Score
Prefabricated reinforcement for cast in-situ
components
LSI
(a)
% Coverage
(c)
(a)x(c)x50
1
st
, 2
nd
& 3
rd
storey & Roof – Floor (mesh) in areas 0.03 34.27% 0.51
1
st
, 2
nd
& 3
rd
storey & Roof – Beam Cage in nos. 0.03 62.13% 0.93
1
st
, 2
nd
& 3
rd
storey & Roof – Column Cage in nos. 0.03 100.00% 1.50
Sub-total for the use of prefabricated reinforcement (A3): 2.94
Total Buildability Score for Structural System (BS) = (A1 + A2 + A3):
(maximum 50 points)
39.69






















Part 2 Wall Systems

Labour Saving Indices for Different Wall Systems
Wall Length Consideration
Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration
Measurement
Worked Examples



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  35




Part 2 Wall Systems

1 Labour Saving Indices for Different Wall Systems
The labour saving index derived for each wall system is as shown in the following Table 2.

Table 2 Wall System - Sw Value


NOTE:
(1) The higher indices apply to no finishes, finishes done off-site or where skim coat and/or paint is applied on site.
(2) Dry partition walls include sandwich panel wall systems, stud and sheet partition wall systems, demountable wall systems.
(3) Precast concrete panels/walls include normal weight concrete panels, lightweight concrete panels, autoclaved aerated
concrete panels.
(4) PC formwork refer to precast formwork panel with concrete infill.

Indices for other systems that are not shown in this table shall be determined by BCA on a case-by-
case basis. For such cases, the Qualified Persons (QPs) are advised to seek BCA's comments before
proceeding with the design.


The relevant labour saving indices to be adopted in buildability score computation for wall system
depend on (a) types of wall system and (b) wall finishes used. Where there is a combination of wall
systems and/or wall finishes, the lowest labour saving index should be adopted for the entire wall
length as shown in the following illustrations:














Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  36




Illustration 1 - Same wall system with different finishes
















Labour saving index = 0.40 (based on lowest labour saving index for the entire wall)

Illustration 2 - Different wall systems with different finishes










Labour saving index = 0.40 (based on lowest labour saving index for the entire wall)

Illustration 3 - Different wall systems with different finishes










Labour saving index = 0.30 (based on lowest labour saving index for the entire wall)
Sectional View of
Precision Block Wall
Skim coat and paint finish
Tiled finish

Sectional View of Precision Block
Wall with Cast in-situ Wall
Skim coat and paint finish
Tiled finish

Sectional View of Brickwall with
Cast in-situ Wall (with prefab
reinforcement)

Plaster and paint finish
Tiled finish


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  37




2 Wall Length Consideration

Generally, the buildability score computation for wall system includes all wall lengths, with some
exceptional cases as listed below.

Include
• External and internal walls
• Full height windows and doors
• Lining walls to external basement wall
• Parapet walls

Exclude
• External basement wall
• Hand-rails mounted on staircases and parapet
walls
• Toilet cubicle walls and doors
• Sun-shades or any sun-shading devices
• "Collapsible" wall that divides rooms
• Vertical barrier at air-con ledges


3 Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration

The labour saving indices given to cast in-situ RC wall with prefabricated reinforcement in Table 2 only
apply to RC wall that uses welded wire mesh from factory. The indices cannot apply to RC wall with
prefabricated reinforcement tied on site and prefabricated reinforcement in precast concrete panel/wall.

4 Measurement

a. Wall Length

The length of the wall is to be measured along its centre line as follows:

Measure along this line
Length

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  38




In the case where there are windows and doors, the wall length is measured on plan accordingly.
Doors and windows are measured as part of wall systems as illustrated below :













Buildability Score
Wall System
= 40 [ (% of total wall length of the building using a particular wall
system x respective labour saving index for wall system (Table 2))]

Assume total wall length for the whole block to be L
T

Buildability score
Brickwall
= 40
(weightage)
x [L
B
/ L
T
x LSI
(brick)
]

Note: If full height windows & doors are used, the labour saving index of 1.00 can be applied for the
subjected window & door length.

b. Full Height Windows & Doors
Length of windows and doors could be separately considered in wall measurement if they are full
height. Labour saving Index of 1.00 could be applied for the length of full height window, door and
sliding door used. The lengths measured (i.e. the width of windows or doors) are inclusive of frame.


L
B

window
door
brickwall

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  39




c. Parapet Wall
Only the length of the parapet wall is to be considered in computation.

In the case of a parapet wall consisting of mild steel (MS) railing, the length of the wall should be
considered as shown in the illustration below.














Note : Labour saving index for MS railing = 1.00












Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  40




d. Cavity Walls
Cavity walls are considered as 2 separate walls. Therefore, the wall lengths are to be measured twice.


e. Toilet Cubicle Walls and Doors
Toilet cubicle walls and doors are to be excluded from computation of wall lengths.











Toilet Cubicle Wall
(Excluded)
Toilet Cubicle
Door (Excluded)

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  41




5 Worked Examples
Example W1 – Computation of Buildability Score for Wall System

Step 1: Identify the wall system and finishes used and determine the relevant
labour saving index (LSI) for the particular wall system

Note: * denotes Lowest LSI to be adopted
Typical Floor Plan

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  42




Step 2: Calculate the wall length (include doors and windows) and the
percentage of total wall length using a particular wall system


Note :
(1) Length of walls is measured from plans.
(2) Railing for air-con ledge is to be excluded in computation.











Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  43




Step 3: Multiply the percentage of wall length by the corresponding LSI and
the weight factor 40 to obtain the buildability score



Note: The above example consists of only one apartment with different wall types for illustration purpose.













































































Part 3 Other Buildable Design Features

Points Awarded for Other Buildable Design Features
Standardisation
Columns
Beams
Door Leaf Openings
Windows

Grids
Repetition of Floor to Floor Height
Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout

Others
Multi-tier Precast Columns
Precast or Pre-assembled/Metal Staircases
Precast Meter Chambers
Precast Refuse Chutes
Precast Service Risers
Non-screed Floor
Columns Sit Directly on Top of Piles
Ground Beams on Top of Pilecaps And/Or Integrated with Pilecaps
No column stumps
Precast bay windows
Precast planter boxes


Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points)
Prefabricated Bathroom/Toilet Units complete with piping/wiring
Precast Household Shelters

Demerit Points
Non-functional Void on Slab


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  44
Part 3 Other Buildable Design Features

Points awarded for Other Buildable Design Features
The points given to each buildable design feature is as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Other Buildable Design Features - N Value
(to be used for projects with planning applications made from 1
st
Sep 2005 to 31
st
Dec 2006)

NOTE:
(1) Sizes based on dimensions of frames.
(2) The module of 0.5M does not apply to steel columns and beams.
(3) 1M for width and 1M for height (1M = 100 mm).
(4) Percentage of coverage is to be based on total floor area or on total number of components such as columns, beams,
doors, windows etc.
* For void on slab that does not serve any functional requirement and is enclosed by walls, 1.00 point will be deducted even if
there is only one such void within a block.

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  45


Table 3 Other Buildable Design Features - N Value
(to be used for projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
Jan 2007)
N VALUE
PERCENTAGE OF
COVERGE
(4)
BUILDABLE FEATURES MODULE
UNIT OF
COVERAGE
≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% TO <
80%
≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
1. Standardisation
1.1 Columns (3 most common sizes) 0.5M
(2)
no. 2.00
1.2 Beams (3 most common sizes) 0.5M
(2)
no. 2.00
1.3 Door leaf openings (width) (3 most common sizes) 0.5M no. 1.00
1.4 Windows (3 most common sizes) 1M/1M
(3)
no. 1.00
2. Grids
2.1(a)
Repetition of floor-to-floor height
For blocks more than 6 storey
The repetition should omit bottom floor, top floor and above.
0.5M no. 1.50 2.00
2.1(b) Repetition of floor-to-floor height
For blocks up to 6 storey
The repetition should omit bottom floor, top floor and above.
Only applicable if there are at least 2 floor heights remaining after
the floor omission.
0.5M no. 0.75 1.00
2.2(a) Vertical repetition of structural floor layout
For blocks more than 6 storey
The repetition should omit bottom floor, top floor and above.

area 1.50 2.00
2.2(b) Vertical repetition of structural floor layout
For blocks up to 6 storey
The repetition should omit bottom floor, top floor and above.
Only applicable if there are at least 2 floor heights remaining after
the floor omission.

area 0.75 1.00
3. Others
3.1 Multi-tier precast columns

no. 2.00
3.2 Precast or pre-assembled/metal staircases

no. 2.00
3.3 Precast meter chambers

no. 1.50
3.4 Precast refuse chutes

no. 1.50
3.5 Precast service risers

no. 1.00
3.6 Non-screed floor

area 1.00
3.7 No column stumps

no. 1.00
3.8 Precast bay windows

no. 1.00
3.9 Precast planter boxes

no. 1.00
A. Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points)
A.1
Prefabricated bathroom/toilet units complete with
piping/wiring

no. 2.00 3.00
A.2 Precast household shelters
Household shelter is considered as precast if the total length of
the in-situ joints is not more than 20% of its wall perimeter on
plan.

no. 2.00 3.00

NOTE:
(1) Sizes based on dimensions of frames.
(2) The module of 0.5M does not apply to steel columns and beams.
(3) 1M for width and 1M for height (1M = 100 mm).
(4) Percentage of coverage is to be based on total floor area or on total number of components such as columns, beams,
doors, windows etc.
* For void on slab that does not serve any functional requirement and is enclosed by walls, 1.00 point will be deducted even if
there is only one such void within a block.


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  46
1 Standardisation
1.1 Columns (3 most common sizes)
All structural columns should be accounted for. Stumps at foundation level need not be considered.
The sectional length (L) of the concrete column is to be equal or less than four times its width (W).

For steel columns encased in concrete, the dimension
including the encasement should be used as the size of
the column in computation.

Module
The 3 most common sizes of all column shapes must fit
the module requirement of 0.5M, with the exception for
steel column (without encasement) as illustrated below:

Module requirement for various column shapes
Coverage

Measurement – Number of Columns
Description Method of Measurement
Typical Column Floor-to-floor height = 1 column
2-tier precast column = 2 columns Multi-tier Precast Column
3-tier precast column = 3 columns




(Applicable for irregular
column shape)

(No module requirement
for steel column without
concrete encasement)
Definition of concrete column : L ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 4W
No. of columns (3 most common sizes in 0.5M)
Total no. of columns
x 100 %

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  47
Grouping Sizes

Column Sizes Group
400 x 600 and 600 x 400 Considered as same size
Note : The reinforcement details need not be considered in computation.

Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
0.5M - 2.00 points


Example BF1 : Computation of Standardisation of Columns

A typical column schedule is shown as follows:

Note:
Assume 1 column marking represents 1 number of column.
C9, C10, C11, C21, C22, C23, C24, C25, C26 are cast in-situ columns.
All other columns are precast columns.

The steps to calculate standardisation of columns are as follows:
Step 1: Group and count columns with same cross-sectional dimension.
Step 2: Identify groups that have the module of 0.5M for cross-sectional dimension.
Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with the module of 0.5M.
Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of columns.
Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage.

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  48
Step 1: Group and count columns with same cross-sectional dimension

Step 2: Identify groups that have the module of 0.5M for cross-sectional
dimension

Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with the module of 0.5M


Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of
columns
Number of columns (3 most common sizes) = 108 + 39 + 60
= 207
Total number of columns = 253
Percentage of coverage = 207/253 x 100%
= 82%

Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
0.5M - 2.00 points
Points awarded = 2.00



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  49
1.2 Beams (3 most common sizes)
All beams should be accounted for. For steel beams encased in concrete, the dimension including the
encasement should be used as the size of the beam in computation.

Module
The 3 most common sizes of all beam shapes must fit the module requirement of 0.5M, with the
exception for steel beam (without encasement). The module requirement for beams with two or more
depths/widths is illustrated as follows:


Illustration 1 - Module requirement for beams with 2 or more depths/widths


Coverage




Measurement – Number of Beams

Description Method of Measurement
Typical Beam Support to Support = 1 beam *see illustration 2
Cantilever Beam Support to Free end = 1 beam *see illustration 2
Beam with different width/depth Support to Support = 1 beam *see illustration 3





Multiples of
0.5M (Depth)
No. of beams (3 most common sizes in 0.5M)
Total no. of beams
x 100 %
Multiples of
0.5M (Depth)

Multiples of
0.5M (Width)


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  50
Illustration 2 - Number of beams to be accounted



Illustration 3 - Beam with different depth between supports are considered as one beam

Grouping Sizes

Beam Sizes Group
400 x 600 and 600 x 400 Considered as 2 different sizes
Note : The reinforcement details need not be considered in computation.

Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
0.5M - 2.00 points
Points awarded = 2.00 points

Beams with different width/depth

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  51
Example BF2: Computation of Standardisation of Beams
Assume the following information for a 2-storey detached dwelling house:

1st Storey Beams


2nd Storey Beams


Roof Beams

The steps to calculate Standardisation of Beams are as follows:
Step 1: Group and count beams with same cross-sectional dimension.
Step 2: Identify groups that have 0.5M for same cross-sectional dimension.
Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with module of 0.5M.
Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of beams.
Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage.


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  52
Step 1: Group and count beams with same cross-sectional dimension



Step 2: Identify groups that have 0.5M for same cross-sectional dimension







Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  53
Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with the module of 0.5M




Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of
beams

Number of beams (3 most common sizes) = 40 + 40 + 42
= 122
Total number of beams = 159
Percentage of coverage = 122/159 x 100%
= 77%


Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
0.5M - 2.00 points
Points awarded = 0.00 points











Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  54
1.3 Door Leaf Openings (width) (3 most common sizes)

All door leaf opening for doors (see definition below) should be accounted for, with consideration of the
following:

Include
• Roller shutters
• Sliding doors
• Glass doors

Exclude
• Doors for services (M&E risers, TAS risers,
fire service risers)
• Doors for civil defence shelters
• Service doors for substation, switchroom &
AHU

Note : The type of door material does not affect this computation


Definition of Door Leaf Opening (3 most common sizes)


Coverage





Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
0.5M (width) - 1.00 points




x 100 %
No. of door leaf openings (width) (3 most common sizes)
Total no. of door leaf openings

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  55
1.4 Windows (3 most common sizes)
All windows should be accounted for, including louvres. Non-operable glass within curtain wall system
is not to be included in computation.


Module
The 3 most common sizes of windows must fit the module requirement of 1M width and 1M height as
illustrated below:













Note :
(1) The type of window material does not affect this computation.
(2) Window size includes window frame.



Coverage




Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage

Module (Width & Height) ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
1M /1M - 1.00 points
No. of windows (3 most common sizes in 1M/1M)
Total no. of windows
x 100 %
Module Requirement for Window (3 most common sizes)
Width (in multiples of 1M)
Window frame
Window frame
Window frame
H
e
i
g
h
t

(
i
n

m
u
l
t
i
p
l
e
s

o
f

1
M
)


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  56
2 Grids
2.1 Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height
2.1a Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height (For block more than 6 storeys)
2.1b Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height (For block up to 6 storeys)

The floor-to-floor height of all levels inclusive of mezzanine floor level should be accounted for, with the
following exceptions:


Exclude
• Top floor and above
• Bottom floor


Criteria
Applicable if there are at least 2 floors after the floor omissions.


Module
The most common floor height must fit the module requirement of 0.5M.


Coverage





Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage

Item Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
2.1a 0.5M 1.50 points 2.00 points
2.1b 0.5M 0.75 points 1.00 points










No. of most commonly repeated floor heights with 0.5M


x 100%
Total no. of floor heights

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  57
Example BF5 : Computation of Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height
(For block more than 6 storeys)

A typical elevation is shown as follows:

The steps to calculate the repetition of floor-to-floor height are as follows:
Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights.
Step 2: Identify floor heights that have the module of 0.5M.
Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0.5M.
Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total number of floor heights.
Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage.





Exclude when computing
floor-to-floor height
Exclude when computing
floor-to-floor height

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  58
Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights


Note : Top floor & above and bottom floor are excluded


Step 2: Identify floor heights which have the module of 0.5M



Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0.5M




Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total
number of floor heights

Number of the most common floor heights = 6
Total number of floor heights = 7
Percentage of Coverage = 6/7 x 100%
= 85.71%


Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
0.5M 1.50 points 2.00 points
Points awarded = 2.00 points



Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  59
Example BF6: Computation on Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height
(For block up to 6 storeys)

A typical elevation is shown as follows:

The steps to calculate the repetition of floor-to-floor height are as follows:
Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights.
Step 2: Identify floor heights that have the module of 0.5M.
Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0.5M.
Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total number of floor heights.
Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage.








Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  60
Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights

Note : Top floor & above and bottom floor are excluded


Step 2: Identify floor height which have the module of 0.5M




Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0.5M




Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total
number of floor heights

Number of most common floor heights = 3
Total number of floor heights = 2
Percentage of Coverage = 2/3 x 100%
= 67%


Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage

Item Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
2.1b 0.5M 0.75 points 1.00 points
Points awarded = 0.75 points




Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  61
2.2 Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout
2.2a Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout (For block more than 6
storeys)
2.2b Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout (For block up to 6 storeys)

All floors should be accounted for, with consideration of the following:


Exclude
• Top floor & above
• Bottom floor


Criteria
Applicable if there are at least 2 floors after the floor omissions.


Coverage




Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Item Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
2.2a - 1.50 points 2.00 points
2.2b - 0.75 points 1.00 points















Area of floors with most repeated structural floor layout
Total floor area
x 100 %

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  62
Example BF7: Computation on Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout
(For block more than 6 storeys)










Total area per floor = 550m
2
Total floor area = 3300m
2

Area of floors with the most repeated
structural floor layout = 550 x 6
= 3300m
2
Percentage of Coverage = 3300/3300 x 100%
= 100%


Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Item Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
2.2a - 1.50 points 2.00 points
Points awarded = 2.00 points








Exclude when
computing repetition of
structural floor layout
Exclude when
computing repetition of
structural floor layout


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  63
Example BF8: Computation on Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout
(For block more than 6 storeys)
Total area per floor = 500m
2

Total floor area = 500m
2
x 6

= 3000m
2
Area of floors with the most repeated
Structural floor layout (shaded portion) = 420m
2
x 6
= 2520m
2
Percentage of Coverage = 2520/3000 x 100%
= 84%


Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Item Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
2.2b - 0.75 points 1.00 points
Points awarded = 1.00 points

Typical Floor Plan
(2
nd
to 5
th
Storey)
Elevation B
Typical Floor Plan
(6
th
to 8
th
Storey)
Area = 420 m
2

Area = 80 m
2

Area = 420 m
2

Area = 80 m
2

B
B
Exclude when
computing repetition of
structural floor layout
Exclude when
computing repetition of
structural floor layout

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  64
3 Others
3.1 Multi-tier Precast Columns


Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of columns are precast multi-tier concrete columns.


Coverage




Measurement – Number of Columns
Each tier is considered as one column. For example, a 3-tier precast columns is considered as 3
columns.


Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 2.00 points


Example:
Number of precast multi-tier columns = 85
Total number of columns = 100
Percentage of coverage = 85/100 x 100%
= 85%

Therefore
Points awarded = 2.00 points








No. of precast columns (multi-tier)
Total no. of columns
x 100 %

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  65

3.2 Precast or Pre-assembled/Metal Staircases

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of staircases are precast or pre-assembled.


Include
• Precast staircases
• Prefabricated permanent steel stairform complete with reinforcement bars (if required)
• Metal staircases


Coverage




Measurement – Number of Flights
Every flight of staircase is considered as one number of staircase.


Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 2.00 points


Example:
Number of precast staircases = 36
Total number of staircases = 40
Percentage of coverage = 36/40 x 100%
= 90%

Therefore
Points awarded = 2.00 points






No. of precast or pre-assembled/metal staircases

x 100%
Total no. of staircases

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  66
3.3 Precast Meter Chambers

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of meter chambers are precast.


Coverage




Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.50 points

























No. of precast meter chambers
Total no. of meter chambers
x 100 %

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  67
3.4 Precast Refuse Chutes

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of refuse chutes are precast (i.e. the external walls of the refuse
chutes are precast).

Coverage




Measurement – Number of Refuse Chutes
A refuse chute within one floor is considered as one number of shaft. For example if a shaft is
extended from the first floor to the fourth floor, it is considered as 3 numbers. (See figure below)

Consideration of Numbers of Shafts
Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.50 points

Example:
Number of precast refuse chutes = 90
Total number of refuse chutes = 100
Percentage of coverage = 90/100 x 100%
= 90%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.50 points

No. of precast refuse chutes
Total no. of refuse chutes
x 100 %

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  68
3.5 Precast Service Risers

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of service risers are precast.


Coverage




Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points


3.6 Non-screed Floor

Criteria
At least 80% of the total floor area with no screed (i.e. trowel smooth without adding a layer of
screeding).

Coverage




Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points

Example:
Area of non-screed floor = 4500m
2
Total floor area = 5000m
2

Percentage of coverage = 4500/5000 x 100%
= 90%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.00 points

Area of non-screed floor
Total area of concrete floor
x 100 %
No. of precast service risers
Total no. of service risers
x 100 %

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  69
3.7 Columns Sit Directly on Top of Piles
(for projects with planning applications made from 1
st
Sep 2005 to 31
st
Dec 2006)

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of columns (at foundation level) sitting directly on top of piles
(i.e. no pilecap).


Coverage




Measurement – Number of Columns (at foundation level)
Every column that sits directly on top of piles is considered as one column.


Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points


Example:
Number of columns that sit directly on top of piles = 200
Total number of columns (at foundation level) = 250
Percentage of coverage = 200/250 x 100%
= 80%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.00 points











No. of columns sit directly on top of piles

x 100%
Total no. of columns (at foundation level)

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  70
3.8 Ground Beams on Top of Pilecaps and/or Integrated into Pilecaps
(for projects with planning applications made from 1
st
Sep 2005 to 31
st
Dec 2006)

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of ground beams are on top of pilecaps and/or integrated into pilecaps
(i.e. no column stump).

Ground beams on top of pilecaps Ground beams integrated into pilecaps
Coverage





Measurement – Number of Ground Beams
Every ground beam from support to support (i.e. pilecaps) is considered as one beam.


Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points

Example:
Number of ground beams on top of pilecaps = 220
Total number of ground beams = 250
Percentage of coverage = 220/250 x 100%
= 88%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.00 points


No. of ground beams on top of pilecaps
and/or integrated with pilecaps
x 100%
Total no. of ground beams

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  71
3.7 No Column Stumps
(for projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
Jan 2007)

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of columns (at foundation level) have no column stumps.


Coverage





Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points

Example:
Number of columns with no stumps = 220
Total number of columns (at foundation level) = 250
Percentage of coverage = 220/250 x 100%
= 88%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.00 points















No. of columns with no stumps

x 100%
Total no. of columns (at foundation level)

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  72
3.8 Precast Bay Windows
(for projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
Jan 2007)

Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of bay windows are precast.


Coverage





Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points

Example:
Number of precast bay windows = 150
Total number of bay windows = 180
Percentage of coverage = 150/180 x 100%
= 83%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.00 points

No. of precast bay windows

x 100%
Total no. of bay windows

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  73
3.9 Precast Planter Boxes
(for projects with planning applications made on or after 1
st
Jan 2007)


Criteria
At least 80% of the total number of planter boxes are precast.


Coverage




Points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- - 1.00 points

Example:
Number of precast planter boxes = 120
Total number of planter boxes = 140
Percentage of coverage = 120/140 x 100%
= 86%
Therefore
Points awarded = 1.00 points
No. of precast planter boxes

x 100%
Total no. of planter boxes


Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  74
A Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points)
A.1 Prefabricated Bathroom/Toilet Units Complete with Piping/Wiring

Criteria
At least 65% of the total number of bathroom/toilet units are prefabricated.

Coverage




Measurement – Number of Bathroom/Toilet Units
Every bathroom/toilet unit is considered as one number.


Bonus points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- 2.00 points 3.00 points


Example:
Number of prefabricated bathroom/toilet units = 50
Total number of bathroom/toilet units = 60
Percentage of Coverage = 50/60 x 100%
= 83%
Therefore
Points awarded = 3.00 points









No. of prefabricated bathroom/toilet units

x 100%
No. of bathroom/toilet units

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  75
A.2 Precast Household Shelters

Criteria
At least 65% of the total number of household shelters are precast.
Household shelter is considered as precast if the total length of the in-situ joints is not more than 20%
of its wall perimeter on plan.

Coverage



Measurement – Number of Precast Household Shelters
Every individual precast household shelter unit is considered as one number.

Bonus points awarded based on percentage of coverage

Module ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 65% to < << < 80% ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 80%
- 2.00 points 3.00 points

Example:

If cast in-situ joints are used, first check on the percentage of cast in-situ joint length over its wall
perimeter on plan.
Criteria Check
Total length of cast in-situ joint = 530 x 2 = 1060 mm
Total wall perimeter = (2500-125-125) + (2200-125-125) x 2 + (2500-700-125-125)
(measured along centerline) = 7700 mm
% Cast in-situ joint length over its wall perimeter = 1060/7700 x 100% = 13.77% < 20%

Therefore, the household shelter shown on the plan can
be considered as precast.

Number of precast household shelters = 75
Total number of household shelters = 100
Percentage of coverage = 75/100 x 100% = 75%
Therefore
Points awarded = 2.00 points

No. of precast household shelters
Total no. of household shelters
x 100%
Typical Precast Household Shelter
SECTIONAL PLAN

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  76
B Demerit Points
B.1 Non-functional Void on Slab

Criteria
A void on a slab enclosed by full walls / columns that do not serve any functional requirement such as a
void that results solely from a design to suit GFA computation. On the other hand, a void such as a duct
for services is considered a functional void.


Coverage
As long as there is a non-functional void within a block.


Demerit Points given

Module Point deduction
- -1.00 point


non-functional void due to
GFA computation
Illustration of a non-functional void within a dwelling unit

Content
Introduction General Guidelines 1. Gross Floor Area 2. Constructed Floor Area 3. Minimum Buildability Score 4. Decimal Points 5. Module 6. Structures to be Included in Computation 7. Basics of Buildable Design Appraisal System (BDAS) 8. Worked Examples Part 1 Structural Systems 1. Labour Saving Indices for Different Structural Systems 2. Structural Areas Consideration 3. Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration 4. Structural Systems 5. Measurement 6. Worked Examples Part 2 Wall Systems 1. Labour Saving Indices for Different Wall Systems 2. Wall Length Consideration 3. Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration 4. Measurement 5. Worked Examples Part 3 Other Buildable Design Features Points Awarded for Other Buildable Design Features 1. Standardisation 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Columns Beams Door Leaf Openings Windows

Page
1

2 4 4 6 6 6 7 8

13 15 15 16 24 26

35 37 37 37 41

44 46 46 49 54 55

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Content
2. Grids 2.1 2.2 Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout

Page
56 56 61

3. Others 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.9 Multi-tier Precast Columns Precast or Pre-assembled/Metal Staircases Precast Meter Chambers Precast Refuse Chutes Precast Service Risers Non-screed Floor Columns Sit Directly on Top of Piles Ground Beams on Top of Pilecaps and/or Integrated into Pilecaps No column stumps (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1 Jan 2007) Precast bay windows (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1 Jan 2007) Precast planter boxes (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1 Jan 2007)

64 64 65 66 67 68 68 69 70 71 72 73

A. Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points) A.1 Prefabricated Bathroom/Toilet Units complete with piping/wiring A.2 Precast Household Shelters B. Demerit Points B.1 Non-functional void on slab

74 74 75 76 76

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Introduction
This Guide serves to advise the industry on the computation of buildability score using the Buildable Design Appraisal System. The guide is revised to the requirement specified in Code of Practice on Buildable Design September 2005, and has incorporated changes affecting projects with planning applications made on or after 1st January 2007. Interpretation on the terms and method of measurement/computation are included to ensure that the buildability scores are computed by the industry in a consistent manner. More examples of buildable design scoring are given to illustrate the computation sequence and methodology. The buildability score of a design consists of 3 main parts: Part 1: Structural Systems (maximum 50 points); Part 2: Wall Systems (maximum 40 points); Part 3: Other Buildable Design Features (maximum 10 points + bonus points for single integrated components) Indices for structural systems are indicated in Table 1. Indices for wall systems are indicated in Table 2. Buildability points for other buildable design features are indicated in Table 3. If you have other queries that are not addressed in this Guide, please contact us at: Technology Development Division Building and Construction Authority 5 Maxwell Road, #16-00 Tower Block, MND Complex Singapore 069110 Tel: 63257720 Fax: 63254800

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

1

General Guidelines Gross Floor Area Constructed Floor Area Minimum Buildability Score Decimal Points Module Structures to be Included in Computation Basics of Buildable Design Appraisal System Worked Examples .

This is because the legislation looks at GFA of constructed floors. As such. At the same time. Overall. then depending on the amount of GFA involved and the category of building work. the GFA would be the total GFA of all new floor and/or reconstruction of existing floor. there is an increase in GFA of 2000 m2 to the existing building from the new side extension.g. the corresponding minimum buildability score as set out in the Code of Practice on Buildable Design (COP) will apply. there is no increase in the total GFA of the A&A project.General Guidelines 1 Gross Floor Area The gross floor area (GFA) of a project is used to determine whether a project is required to comply with the minimum buildability score requirement or not. Once a project is affected by the buildability legislation (GFA of at least 2000 square metres). The amount of GFA in this case is 2000 m2 (assuming that there is no work done for the portion of the building undergoing a change of use). However. the above project is subjected to the buildability legislation. For new developments. there is a decrease in GFA of 2000 m2 of the existing building due to the change of use of part of the building from warehouse to carpark. In the case of projects involving additions and alterations (A&A) work. whether new or reconstructed. for balconies etc). an A&A project could be affected by the legislation even if there is no increase in GFA to the existing building or the increase in total GFA of the existing development is less than 2000 square metres as illustrated by the following examples:- Example 1 Proposed A&A to an existing industrial development involving change of use and a new extension Change of use from warehouse to carpark 2 (affected GFA = 2000 m ) Existing Building New extension with GFA = 2000 m2 PLAN In this example. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  2 . the GFA would be as spelt out in the planning permission issued by URA. including any bonus GFA granted (e.

the net change in GFA of the existing development is 1350 m2 while the total GFA of new and reconstructed floors is 2950 m2. by virtue of the definition of GFA in the context of A&A work.Example 2 Proposed A&A and addition of a new mezzanine floor and 2 new storeys to an existing 7-storey commercial building roof 9 storey 8 storey 7 storey 6 storey 5th storey 4 storey mezzanine 3rd storey 2 storey 1 storey st nd 2 th th th th th 2 new floors with GFA of 1950 m2 reconstruction of part of existing floor involving GFA of 700 m 2 new mezzanine floor with GFA of 300 m2 re-layout of existing floor with GFA of 900 m less In this example. the above project is subjected to the buildable design legislation since the total GFA of the new and reconstructed floors is 2950 m2. The breakdown of the respective GFA is as shown in the table below. This is despite the increase in the total GFA of the existing building being only 1350 m2 which is less than 2000 m2. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  3 . Total GFA of new and reconstructed floors 0 m2 + 300 m2 + 700 m2 + 1950 m2 + 2950 m2 Net Change in GFA Re-layout of 1st storey New mezzanine floor Reconstruction of 8th storey Construction of 2 new floors Total GFA .900 m2 + 300 m2 no change in GFA + 1950 m2 +1350 m2 As in Example 1.

the minimum buildability score will be pro-rated according to the GFA of each type of development. all constructed floor areas (including reconstructed floor areas) are to be considered when computing the minimum buildability score (except minor structures as defined in item 6). As such. The constructed floor area is also used to derive the overall buildability score of a project comprising multiple blocks. For a new development. additional storeys over the existing roof etc. existing building new extension Illustration 1: Project with A&A work carried out outside an existing building . Examples of A&A work being carried out outside the existing building are those that are constructed outside the envelope of the existing building.2 Constructed Floor Area Once a project is subjected to the minimum buildability score requirement. by pro-rating the buildabilty scores of each of the blocks with its constructed floor area and summing up the pro-rated scores (please also refer to item 7). the corresponding minimum buildability score required to be complied by the A&A project is also set out in the COP under Table B (for projects with planning applications made from 1st September 2005 to 31st December 2006) or Table D (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st January 2007). the corresponding minimum buildability score can be found in the COP stipulated under Table B (for projects with planning applications made from 1st September 2005 to 31st December 2006) or Table D (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st January 2007). such A&A work is considered as new work. For an A&A project with the A&A work being carried out outside the existing building. such as a new extension to the existing building.Minimum buildability score for New Work shall apply Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  4 . 3 Minimum Buildability Score Different minimum buildability scores are given for different categories of development. For a mixed development.

Minimum buildability score for A&A Work shall be pro-rated according to the GFA of each type of work Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  5 . Examples of such A&A work are a new mezzanine floor. roof 9th storey 8th storey 7th storey 6th storey 5 storey 4 storey new mezzanine 3 storey 2 storey 1 storey st nd rd th th A&A work outside existing building (considered as new work) A&A work within existing building Illustration 3: Project with A&A work carried out both within and outside an existing building . the minimum buildability score is as shown under Table C – Minimum Buildability Score for A&A Work (for projects with planning applications made from 1st September 2005 to 31st December 2006) or Table D (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st January 2007) in the COP. the slabbing over of an existing void within a building.Minimum buildability score for A&A Work shall apply In the case of a project with A&A work being carried out both within and outside the existing building. new mezzanine floor Illustration 2: Project with A&A work carried out within an existing building . the replacement or reconstruction of existing floor etc. the minimum buildability score will be pro-rated according to the GFA of the A&A work outside the existing building (new work – Table B or Table D) and the GFA of the A&A work within the existing building (Table C or Table D).For a project with A&A work being carried out within the existing building (envelope).

5 Module The basic module (M) denotes 100mm. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  6 .5M denotes 50mm. which should be expressed as an integer. 6 Structures to be Included in Computation All major structures. 3M denotes 300mm and 0.4 Decimal Points All calculations should be rounded off to the nearest 2 decimal places except for the overall buildability score and percentage of coverage for other buildable design features. provided that they are not within or structurally linked to the main building. including clubhouse and multi-storey carpark. For example. Minor structures such as 22 KV substation. bin centre and trellis can be excluded from the computation. are to be considered when computing the buildability score. guard post.

It consists of three main parts :(a) Structural System (including Roof System) (50 points max) (b) Wall System (40 points max). The appraisal system provides a method to compute the Buildability Score of a design. corridors. In buildability score computation. staircases. lift shafts.7 Basics of Buildable Design Appraisal System (BDAS) The Buildable Design Appraisal System (BDAS) was developed to measure the potential impact of a building design on the usage of labour.e. The buildability score of the whole project (BS proj) is then derived by summing up the multiplication of the respective buildability score of the individual building or block with its percentage of the total floor area of that building or block in the project. the buildability score for each building should be computed first before deriving the buildability score for the whole project. It can be expressed as : BS proj = [ BS bldg or block x (Ast) bldg or block / (Ast) proj ] where (Ast) bldg or block = Total floor area which includes roof (projected area) and basement area of the building or block (Ast) proj = Summation of total floor area of all buildings or blocks in a project (i. (c) Other Buildable Design Features (10 points max + bonus points for single integrated components) The Buildability Score (BS) of a building design is expressed as : BS bldg = (BS Structural System + BS Wall System + BS Other Buildable Design Features ) where BS Structural System = 50 [ (% of total floor area of the building using a particular structural system x respective labour saving index for structural system (Table 1))] BS Wall System BS Other Buildable = 40 [ (% of total wall length of the building using a particular wall system x respective labour saving index for wall system (Table 2))] = [N Value obtained for other buildable design features used (Table 3)] Design Features For projects that consist of more than one building. one can consider part of the building or a number of buildings as a block for simplicity. Service structures such as toilets. link bridges should be grouped together with a particular building or block for which the services are proposed. (Ast) bldg or block) The worked examples in the next section will give some guidelines on the approach in grouping the building structures into different blocks before proceeding with the details of the buildability score computation. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  7 .

swimming pool. the development can be classified as 4 blocks. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  8 . SITE PLAN B.8 Worked Examples Example G1: Residential Development with Communal Facilities and Basement Carpark A. environmental deck and basement carpark The buildability score of the project can be obtained by BS proj = [(BS block1 (BS block2 (BS block3 (BS block4 x (Ast) block1 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block2 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block3 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block4 / (Ast) proj) Schematic Section A-A Note: Detached 22 KV substation and bin centre are excluded in buildability score computation. They are :(a) Block 1 – Tower 1 (b) Block 2 – Tower 2 (c) Block 3 – Tower 3 (d) Block 4 – Clubhouse. Demarcation of Blocks For buildability score computation. clubhouse and communal facilities. Project Information This project consists of three 10-storey residential tower blocks with basement carpark.

the development can be classified as 3 blocks. Project Information This project comprising an 18-storey office tower with a 2-storey retail podium. Demarcation of Blocks For buildability score computation. They are :(a) Block 1 – Office Tower (b) Block 2 – Elevated Carparks and Retail Shops and Substation (c) Block 3 – Retail Shops at Basement The buildability score of the project can be obtained by BS proj = [(BS block1 x (Ast) block1 / (Ast) proj) + (BS block2 x (Ast) block2 / (Ast) proj) + (BS block3 x (Ast) block3 / (Ast) proj)] Schematic Section A-A Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  9 . SITE PLAN B. 3 storey elevated carparks and 3 levels of retail shops at basement.Example G2: Commercial Development with Elevated Carparks A.

They are :(a) Block 1 – Residential Tower A (b) Block 2 – Residential Tower B (c) Block 3 – Residential Tower C (d) Block 4 – Office Tower (e) Block 5 – Podium with Retail Shops and Carparks The buildability score of the project can be obtained by BS proj = [(BS block1 (BS block2 (BS block3 (BS block4 (BS block5 x (Ast) block1 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block2 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block3 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block4 / (Ast) proj) + x (Ast) block5 / (Ast) proj)] Schematic Section A-A Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  10 . SITE PLAN B.Example G3: Mixed Development with Carparks A. one commercial office block with a 4-storey podium with retail shops and carparks. Project Information This project is a 15-storey mixed development comprising three residential tower blocks. the development can be classified as 5 blocks. Demarcation of Blocks For buildability score computation.

one library block & extension and additions & alterations to two 4storey existing classroom blocks. Demarcation of Blocks For buildability score computation. They are :(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Block 1 – New classroom Block A Block 2 – New classroom Block B Block 3 – Multi-purpose Hall cum Canteen Block Block 4 – Extension & A/A works to existing classroom Block C Block 5 – Extension & A/A works to existing classroom Block D Block 6 – Library Block Block 7 – New Administration Block The buildability score of the project can be obtained by BS proj = [BS bldg or block x (Ast) bldg or block / (Ast) proj] Note : Detached 22 KV substation and bin centre are excluded in buildability score computation.storey multi-purpose hall cum canteen block. one administration block. a 2. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  11 . Project Information This project consists of two 4-storey classroom blocks. the development can be classified as 7 blocks.Example G4: Institutional Development with New Extension and Addition & Alteration Works to Existing School Buildings A. SITE PLAN B.

C. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  12 . as illustrated in the Schematic Section A-A below. Change of Use to Existing Building with Extension & Additions and Alterations Works The same principle adopted in the above Section C is applicable to all other types of development involving change of use to existing buildings with extension & additions and alterations works. the apportioned buildability score of Block 4 (same as for Block 5) attributing to the buildability score of project will be as follows:BS block 4 x (Ast) block 4 / (Ast) proj where (Ast) block 4 = Total new floor areas extension = (Extended Floor areas from 1st to 4th Sty + Roof area) New walls and replacement of windows/doors on existing floors to be included Schematic Section A-A D. Considerations for Extension and Additions & Alterations Works All new walls and doors/windows on both the new extension floors and existing floors are to be considered in the buildability score computation. For this case.

Part 1 Structural Systems Labour Saving Indices for Different Structural Systems Structural Areas Consideration Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration Structural Systems Measurement Worked Examples .

03 each would be given if prefabricated reinforcement/cage is used in cast insitu slab.Part 1 Structural Systems 1 Labour Saving Indices for Different Structural Systems The labour saving index derived for each structural system and roof system is as shown in the following Table 1. An index of 0. beam and column. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  13 . This requirement does not apply to cast in-situ floor with transfer beam designed for ramp access. Table 1 Structural Systems . Slab/beam refers to the value of slab area over number of beams.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area.Ss Value (to be used for projects with planning applications made from 1st Sep 2005 to 31st Dec 2006) NOTE: (1) (2) For cast in-situ floor with cast in-situ transfer beam. an index of -0.

Precast wall refers to load-bearing walls only.90 + 0.75 0.55 Precast Concrete System Structural Steel System (applicable only if steel decking or precast slab is adopted) Steel beam and steel column (without concrete encasement) Steel beam and steel column (with concrete encasement) Flat plate with no or minimal perimeter beams (slab/beam(2) >15) Flat plate with perimeter beams (slab/beam(2) ≤15) Flat slab with no or minimal perimeter beams (slab/beam(2) >15) Flat slab with perimeter beams (slab/beam(2) ≤15) One-directional banded beam Two-directional beam (slab/beam(2) >10) Two-directional beam (slab/beam(2) ≤10) Integrated metal roof on steel truss Metal roof on steel truss or timber truss Cast In-situ System (1) Roof System Tiled roof on steel beam or precast concrete beam or timber beam Metal roof on cast in-situ beam Tiled roof with cast in-situ beam NOTE: (1) (2) (3) (4) For cast in-situ floor with cast in-situ transfer beam.60 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.95 0.65 0.00 0. An additional index of 0.85 0. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  14 . In flat plate or flat slab cases.50 0.Table 1 Structural Systems .90 0.85 0.80 (4) 0.05 would be given if flat plate/flat slab is used with precast columns (or precast load bearing walls). For example. the index for flat plate with no or minimal perimeter beams (slab/beam > 15) with precast columns would be 0.75 (4) 0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area.90 0. Slab/beam refers to the value of the slab area over number of beams.05).90 (4) 0.85 (4) 0.Ss Value (to be used for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st Jan 2007) Structural System Description Full precast Precast beam and precast slab Precast beam and precast column/wall (3) Precast column/wall (3) and precast slab Precast beam only Precast slab only Precast column/wall only (1) (3) Labour Saving Index Ss 1. this refers to the value of the flat plate area (or flat slab area) over the number of perimeter beams bounding the flat plate (or flat slab).85 0. This requirement does not apply to cast in-situ floor with transfer beam designed for ramp access.95 (0.80 0. an index of -0.

no points would be given for prefabricated link cages in precast concrete beams / columns.00 *Refers to one-directional beams. 2 Structural Areas Consideration All floor areas including basement. if applicable. The percentage of coverage for the use of prefabricated reinforcement in floors is based on the total area including the roof and basement. b. It does not refer to the design of the slab (contrast with one-way slab design). The percentage of coverage for the use of prefabricated cages in beams / columns is based on the total number of beams / columns which include precast and steel components. 3 Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration The usage of prefabricated reinforcement in cast in-situ components is based on the following: a. the Qualified Persons (QPs) are advised to seek BCA's comments before proceeding with the design. Beam Cage / Column Cage The use of prefabricated link cages in cast in-situ beams / columns which are done on site or from factory are given additional points. Floors Cast in-situ floor using welded wire mesh can be considered for additional points under the structural system. prefabricated reinforcement in precast concrete floor or in-situ concrete topping of precast concrete floor/steel decking using welded wire mesh are not entitled to any points. air-con ledge.The respective labour saving indices for other common structural systems that are not shown in Table 1 are listed as follows : LABOUR SAVING INDEX (LSI) DESCRIPTION Precast hollow core slab Precast planks (half slab) Waffle slab (cast in-situ) Waffle slab (precast) Precast shell column/beam Steel column with concrete infill One-way beam* Skylight SIMILAR TO Precast concrete slab Precast concrete slab Cast in-situ slab (slab/beam < 10) Precast concrete slab Precast column/beam Steel column without concrete encasement One-way or One-directional banded beam LSI TO BE USED Refer to Table 1 Refer to Table 1 Refer to Table 1 Refer to Table 1 Refer to Table 1 Refer to Table 1 Refer to Table 1 Ss Value = 1. However. with the exception of the following: • Driveway. For such cases. However. apron areas and landscape areas which are not within or structurally linked to the main building. Indices for other systems that are not shown in these tables shall be determined by BCA on a case-bycase basis. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  15 . staircase and suspended structural floor of open link way are to be considered. roof.

Structural Systems Flat Plate The interpretation of the cast in-situ systems used in Table 1 is as follows: A structural floor system without column heads or drop panels (with or without perimeter beams). Under BDAS.4 a. Perspective View of Flat Plate b. such floor with flat soffit would ease formwork construction and reinforcement work at site considerably and helps to improve site productivity. From the buildability point of view. a flat plate system could be viewed as a floor with flat soffit (with the exception of perimeter beams). Perspective View of Flat Slab Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  16 . Flat Slab A structural floor system with column heads or drop panels (with or without perimeter beams).

c. One-Way Banded Beam / One Directional Banded Beam A structural beam-slab system with beams in one direction as shown. Two-Way Beam / Two-Directional Beam A structural beam-slab system with beams in two directions. Perspective View of Banded Beam d. Perspective View of 2-Way or 2-Directional Beam Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  17 . This also applies to one way spanning slab framed by beams on all four sides.

10 for cast in-situ floor with transfer beam Assume that the total floor area of the whole block = 1400 m2 The cast in-situ floors with transfer beams adopted for the block are as follows : (1) Flat plate system with transfer beam at 2nd storey level (2) Two-way (or two-directional) beam-slab system with transfer beam at 7th storey level An index of -0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area for the 2nd storey level & 7th storey level.e.0. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  18 . one-way (or one-directional) banded beam and two-way (or two-directional) beam are classified as cast-in-situ floor system. an index of -0. flat slab.Note 1) A transfer beam is a beam that interrupts the paths of load bearing elements from above and distributes the loads sideways to the ends of the beam.10 does not apply to cast in-situ floor with transfer beam designed for the purpose of ramp access. Note : The index of -0. Cast in-situ flat plate.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area including the other parts of the same floor with different cast in-situ floors which may not have any transfer beam. Perspective View of Transfer Beam For this system. Cast In-situ Floor with Transfer Beam (Table 1.10 shall be applied only to the entire cast in-situ floor area as illustrated below : Illustration on the Application of index . If there are different structural floor systems within the same floor layout. This requirement is applicable even if the cast in-situ floor is supported by precast column/wall. the index of -0.

The structural floor layouts are as shown below: Roof 7th Storey Two-Way (or Two-Directional) Beam System Area = 70m2 Precast Concrete Slab Area = 40m2 6th Storey 5th Storey Flat Plate System Area = 105m2 4th Storey 3rd Storey A Transfer Beam A 2nd Storey 1st Storey Transfer Beam 2nd Storey Plan Schematic Section A-A Two-Way (or Two-Directional) Beam System Area = 50m2 Transfer Beam B Roof 7th Storey 6th Storey 5th Storey 4th Storey 3rd Storey 2nd Storey 1st Storey Transfer Beam Flat Plate System Area = 105m2 7th Storey Plan B Schematic Section B-B Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  19 .

Cast in-situ floor area at 2nd sty level = Flat plate area + Two-way (or Two-Directional) beam-slab area = (105 + 70) = 175 m2 Cast in-situ floor area at 7th sty level = Flat plate area + Two way (or Two-Directional) beam-slab area = (105 + 50) = 155 m2 Therefore.10 -1.57% Cast in-situ floor with transfer beam (Flat plate system) Cast in-situ floor with transfer beam (Two-way or Two-directional beam system) -0.57 % Buildability Score (a)x(c)x50 Negative Impact 2nd sty 7 sty th LSI (a) Floor Area (m2) (b) 330 % of Total Floor Area (c) 23.18 f. Total number of beams = 14 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  20 . total Cast in-situ floor area = 175 + 155 = 330 m2 % of total floor area = 330 /1400 x 100% = 23. Number of Beams The beam between 2 supports is considered as one beam.

Slab/Beam (Table 1.5 < 10 Labour Saving Index = 0. If there are different structural systems within the same floor layout.50 Precast concrete slab area = 22m2 Labour Saving Index = 0. the slab area over beam refers to the flat plate (or flat slab) area over the number of perimeter beams bounding the flat plate (or flat slab). flat slab system and the cast in-situ system with two-way (or two-directional) beam.g.3 < 10 Illustration 2 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ beam/column with precast and cast insitu slab systems Example: 2 Cast in-situ slab area = 66m Total no. Illustration 1 – Cast in-situ slab area over beam value Cast in-situ Slab 2 Area = 88m Example: Slab area = 88m2 Total no. of beams = 12 Slab/beam = 66/12 = 5. the common beams supporting the different structural systems such as flat plate system. flat slab system or cast in-situ system with twoway (or two-directional) beam are to be counted for the purpose of computing the slab/beam value.75 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  21 .Note 2) The slab area over beam refers to the value of slab area over number of supporting beams. of beams = 14 Slab/beam = 88/14 = 6. In the case of flat plate (or flat slab) with perimeter beams. This value is required to determine the respective labour saving indices for flat plate system.

94 < 15 Labour Saving Index = 0.4m2 Total no.4/10 = 13.90 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  22 .Illustration 3 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ column with flat plate and perimeter beams 1 2 3 9 7 8 10 4 5 6 Example: Flat plate area = 139. of perimeter beams = 10 Slab/beam = 139.80 Illustration 4 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ column with flat plate and no perimeter beams Example: Labour Saving Index = 0.

Illustration 5 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ beam/column with flat plate and cast in-situ slab systems

Cast in-situ slab 2 Area = 50m

Example: Cast in-situ slab area = 50m2 Total no. of beams = 10 Slab/beam = 50/10 = 5 < 10 Labour Saving Index = 0.50

Flat plate Area = 105m2

Example: Flat plate area = 105m2 Total no. of perimeter beams = 9 Slab/beam = 105/9 = 11.7 < 15 Labour Saving Index = 0.80

Illustration 6 – Slab/beam and LSI for cast in-situ column with flat plate and perimeter beams

Example: Total flat plate area = 243.35m2 Total no.of perimeter beams = 19 Slab/beam = 243.35/19 = 12.8 < 15 Labour Saving Index = 0.80

Note : The slab/beam shall be determined based on the overall flat plate area over the total number of perimeter beams

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  23

5 a.

Measurement Floor Area

The floor area is to be measured to edge of the floor slab.

b.

Staircase Area

The staircase area is to be measured on plan area.

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  24

c. d.

Flat Roof Area (≤ 7½° inclination) ≤ ° Pitch Roof Area (> 7½° inclination) > °

The flat roof is to be measured on plan area, if the inclination is 7½° or less.

For pitch roof with an inclination of more than 7½°, the roof area is to be measured on inclined area.

Note: Other than the above-mentioned flat roof and pitch roof, please check with BCA before proceeding with the design.

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  25

6 Worked Examples Example S1 : Computation of Buildability Score for Structural System

1st Storey Plan

2nd Storey Plan

Roof Plan

Step 1: Identify the structural systems used and determine the relevant labour saving index (LSI) for the particular structural system
Structural System 1 storey (Cast in-situ system – Two-way or Two-directional beam) 2nd storey (Cast in-situ system – Two-way or Two-directional beam) Roof (Cast in-situ system – Two-way or Two-directional beam) Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam)
st

LSI(a) 0.65 or 0.50 0.65 or 0.50 0.65 or 0.50 0.75 The LSI to be used for cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam would depend on the value of slab/beam.

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07)

Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  26

7 x 3. of beams 88 14 = 6. of beams on 1st storey slab = 13 Slab area No.70/316.50 0. the relevant LSI should be 0.6) + (6 x 3.50 LSI (a) 10) 10) 0. Structural System 1 storey (Cast in-situ) 2 storey (Cast in-situ) Roof (Cast in-situ) Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) Total nd st Floor Area (m ) (11.6 x 4.00 88.75 Total: Floor Area (m ) (b) 88.64 8 = 4.3 < 10 Therefore.34 x 100% = 33.00% Step 3: For cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam.Step 2: Calculate the percentage of total floor area using a particular structural system.00% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  27 .00 (6 x 3.41% 100.34 x 100% = 10.50 With slab/beam ≤ 10.70 316.00 (11.64 105.64 (14 x 3.8) + (3.7 x 3.7 x 3.95% 33.64/316.7)/cos 22 = 105.82% 10. of beams 34.6) + (6 x 3.34 x 100% = 27. of beams on 2 nd storey slab = 14 Slab area No. the relevant LSI should be 0.82% 88.34 x 100% = 27.00/316. of beams 88 13 = 6. check for value of slab/beam 1st storey slab area = 88m2 No.00/316.34 2 % Area (c) 27.82% 27.95% 105.00 34. we have Structural System 1 storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 2 storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam Roof (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) nd st With slab / beam ≤ 10. of beams on the flat roof = 8 Slab area No.50 With slab/beam ≤ 10.2) = 88.2) = 34.64m2 No.6 x 4.50 0.41% 100.50 0.8 <10 2nd storey slab area = 88m2 No.3 < 10 Concrete flat roof area = 34.8) + (3. the relevant LSI should be 0.34 o 2 % of Total Floor Area 88.82% 34.70 (Floor Area) = 316.2) = 88.8) + (3.

of beams /columns (b1) *see note 316.50 0.82% 10. 2nd storey & Roof – Floor (mesh) in areas 1st . 2 % Coverage (c) 1st . 2 storey & Roof – Floor (mesh) in areas 1 .50 4. 21 nos.64 105.34 m 27 nos.95% 33. 2nd storey & Roof – Column Cage in nos.82% 27.59% 100. st nd st nd 0.03 each would be given if prefabricated reinforcement/cage is used in cast in-situ slab. An index of 0. In this example.00% 100.03 66.96 6.19 1 storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 2 storey (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam Roof (Cast in-situ) (slab/beam 10) Roof (Tiled roof on timber beam) nd st Sub-total for structural system (A1): LSI % Coverage Prefabricated reinforcement for cast in-situ (a) (c) components 1 . beam and column (where applicable) Cast In-situ System LSI (a) Floor Area or No.53 29.70 % Area (c) 27.00 34.Step 4: Identify the cast in-situ floor with transfer beam and its percentage of total floor area (if any) For cast in-situ floor with transfer beam.00% 100. Step 5: Determine the percentage of prefabricated reinforcement/cage used in cast in-situ slab.00 88.96 2. 2nd storey & Roof – Beam Cage in nos. and includes roof (projected area) and basement area where applicable. st nd 0.64 m 27 nos. 1st.00 1. an index of -0. 21 nos.41% Buildability Score (a) x (c) x 50 6. beam and column as shown in following Step 5.03 0.00% Sub-total for using prefabricated reinforcement (A2): Total Buildability Score for Structural System (BS) = (A1 + A2): (maximum 50 points) Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  28 . The total number of beams/columns refers to all beams and columns used in the project including precast and steel components Step 6: Multiply the percentage of area / coverage by the corresponding LSI and the weight factor 50 to obtain the buildability score Structural System LSI (a) 10) 10) 0. 1 .00% Note : The total floor area refers to the total constructed floor area for the block.03 0.74 12.03 0.50 0.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area. 2 storey & Roof – Column Cage in nos.03 0.03 66.00 33.75 Floor Area (m2) (b) 88. 2 Total Floor Area or No.19 Buildability Score (a) x (c) x 50 1. 2 storey & Roof – Beam Cage in nos.50 0.59% 100. of beams/columns using prefab reinforcement/cage (b) 210. this step is not applicable.50 1.

Example S2 : Computation of Buildability Score for Structural System Basement Plan 1st Storey Plan <T> Columns taking load from 2 storey & above <TB> Transfer beams (one-way or onedirectional banded beams) nd Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  29 .

2nd & 3rd Storey Plan Roof Plan Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  30 .

00/7148.32 x 100% = 17.00 m 2 64.00 m (2 x 5) + (2 x 5) = 20.00 m 3 x 5 = 15.Step 1: Identify the structural systems used and determine the relevant labour saving index (LSI) for the particular structural system Structural System Basement 1 storey 2nd storey & 3rd storey st LSI (a) 0.14% 20.74% 596.50 0.32 x 100% = 0.28% Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam Cast in-situ system with one-way or one-directional banded beams (& transfer beam) Flat slab with perimeter beams 2 2nd storey (56 x 24) – [(5 x 2)(2) + (3 x 5) + (8 x 8) + (4 x 5)] 2 = 1225.32 x 100% = 17.14% 20.89% 15.32 x 100% = 10.32 m2 (Floor Area) = 7148.32 x 100% = 21.75 0.85 or 0.32 x 100% = 0.32 x 100% = 0.00/7148.32 x 100% = 0.00/7148.00% 2 2 [(12 x 24) + (12 x 24)]/cos 15o = 596.32.50 0.00 m 2 2 % of Total Floor Area 1568.32 x 100% = 0.85 The LSI to be used for cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam and flat slab would depend on the value of slab/beam Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam Cast in-situ system with one-way or onedirectional banded beams (& transfer beam) Flat slab with perimeter beams Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase Roof Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (roof slab) Metal roof on steel truss Step 2: Calculate the percentage of total floor area using a particular structural system Structural System Basement 1 storey st Floor Area (m ) 56 x 28 = 1568.00 m 2 Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase 3 storey rd 8 x 8 = 64.00 m 56 x 28 = 1568.00 m 2 Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase Roof Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (roof slab) Metal roof on steel truss Total : 8 x 8 = 64.21% 1225.65 or 0.75 0.65 or 0.00/7148.50 0.00/7148.00/7148.32 x 100% = 8.32 x 100% = 0.00 m (2 x 5) + (2 x 5) = 20.21% 768.00/7148.00/7148.34% 100.65 or 0.89% 15.00/7148.28% 2 Flat slab with perimeter beams (56 x 24) – [(5 x 2)(2) + (3 x 5) + (8 x 8) + (4 x 5)] 2 = 1225.00/7148.00/7148.94% 1225.00 m 3 x 5 = 15.94% 1568.65 or 0.32 x 100% = 21.00/7148.00 m 32 x 24 = 768.00 m 2 64.75 0.50 0.32 m 2 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  31 .

of beams on concrete flat roof area = 43 Slab area 768 No. the relevant LSI should be 0.85 1225 20 61. check for value of slab/beam Basement Slab area = 1568m2 No. the relevant LSI should be 0. of perimeter beams bounding flat slab = 20 Flat slab area No.65 .50 With slab / beam > 15.Step 3: For cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam and flat slab. of beams = = (iii) Slab area 2 = (at drop area) 20 4 5 < 10 64 m2 No.25 > 15 (next to opening) No. we have Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  32 With slab / beam > 10.65 = 10.86 > 10 Therefore. of beams = 64 6 With slab / beam > 10. of beams on slab area 1 = 4 Slab area No. of beams = 43 = 17. of perimeter beams = = (ii) Slab area 1 = 20 m2 With slab / beam ≤ 10.65 2nd Storey (3rd Storey Similar) (i) Flat slab area = 1225m2 No. the relevant LSI should be 0. the relevant LSI should be 0.67 > 10 Roof (i) Concrete flat roof area = 768 m 2 No. the relevant LSI should be 0. of beams on basement slab = 32 Slab area No. of beams = = 1568 32 49 > 10 With slab / beam > 10. of beams on slab area 2 = 6 Slab area No.

st nd rd st nd rd Total Floor Area or No. 2nd & 3rd storey & Roof – Beam Cage in nos. beam and column (where applicable) Cast in-situ System LSI (a) Floor Area or No.28% 0.21% 17.32 2 % Area (c) 21.00 1225.21% 10.50 0.50 0. of beams /columns (b1)* see note 2 % Coverage (c) 34.10 shall be applied to the entire cast in-situ floor area as shown in the following Step 4.03 2450. 1 .00 20. 2 & 3 storey & Roof – Column Cage in nos.28% 0.14% 0.03 0.Structural System Basement 1 storey 2 nd st LSI (a) 0. and includes roof (projected area) and basement area where applicable. beam and column as shown in following Step 5. 2 7148.34% 100.03 each would be given if prefabricated reinforcement/cage is used in cast in-situ slab.00 15.13% 100.00 64.00 596.00 64.85 0.10 Floor Area (m2) (b) 1568.14% 0.00 m 105 nos.00% 0.89% 0. 103 nos.00 1568.32 m 169 nos.00 768.00 15. Step 4: Identify the cast in-situ floor with transfer beam and its percentage of total floor area (if any) Negative Impact 1 storey st LSI (a) -0.00 20.74% 8.03 0.32 7148.00% Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam Cast in-situ system with one-way or onedirectional banded beam (& transfer beam) Flat slab with perimeter beams Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase storey 3 storey rd Flat slab with perimeter beams Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase Roof Cast in-situ system with two-way or twodirectional beam (roof slab) Metal roof on steel truss An index of -0.94% Cast in-situ system with transfer beam (oneway or one-directional banded beam) An index of 0. 2 & 3 storey & Roof – Floor (mesh) in areas 1st.65 0.65 0.75 0.75 0. of beams/columns using prefab reinforcement/cage (b) 1 .27% 62.85 Total : Floor Area (m ) (b) 1568.75 0.89% 0.65 0.94% 17. Note : The total floor area refers to the total constructed floor area for the block. Step 5: Determine the percentage of prefabricated reinforcement/cage used in cast in-situ slab. 103 nos.65 0.94% 21.00 % Area (c) 21. The total number of beams/columns refers to all beams and columns used in the project including precast and steel components Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  33 .00 1225.85 0.

rd rd rd Sub-total for the use of prefabricated reinforcement (A3): Total Buildability Score for Structural System (BS) = (A1 + A2 + A3): (maximum 50 points) Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  34 .65 0.94% Buildability Score (a)x(c)x50 -1.51 0.07 3 storey rd Flat slab with perimeter beams Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase 0.00 1568.00 0.65 64.00 % Area (c) 21.07 0.50 2.94% 21.21% 17.00 20.74% 8.32 0.03 % Coverage (c) 34.94% Buildability Score (a)x(c)x50 7.14% 0.50 1225.08 7.13 8.29 0.23 Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam Cast in-situ system with one-way or one-directional banded beam (& transfer beam) Flat slab with perimeter beams Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab next to opening) Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (slab area at drop) Precast staircase 2 nd storey 0. & 3 storey & Roof – Column Cage in nos.03 0.28% 0.54 37.00% & 3 storey & Roof – Floor (mesh) in areas & 3 storey & Roof – Beam Cage in nos.75 0.28% 7.00 20.93 1.29 0.21% 10.2 1 .85 0.00 % Area (c) 21.75 0.2 st st st nd nd nd -1.Step 6: Multiply the percentage of coverage by the corresponding LSI and the weight factor 50 to obtain the buildability score Structural System Basement 1 storey st LSI (a) 0.00 0.10 Cast in-situ system with transfer beam (one-way or one-directional banded beam) Sub-total for negative impact (A2): Prefabricated reinforcement for cast in-situ components 1 .34% 0.85 0.89% 0.08 3.94 39.89% 0.65 64.29 0.00 1225.10 Buildability Score (a)x(c)x50 0.13% 100.00 17.49 3.00 768.50 15.27% 62.69 LSI (a) 0.00 0.00 596.75 Floor Area (m2) (b) 1568.03 0.85 Roof Cast in-situ system with two-way or two-directional beam (roof slab) Metal roof on steel truss Sub-total for structural system (A1): Negative Impact 1 storey st LSI (a) -0.29 0.2 1 .14% 0.85 15.65 0.10 Floor Area (m2) (b) 1568.

Part 2 Wall Systems Labour Saving Indices for Different Wall Systems Wall Length Consideration Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration Measurement Worked Examples .

Sw Value (1) The higher indices apply to no finishes.Part 2 Wall Systems 1 Labour Saving Indices for Different Wall Systems The labour saving index derived for each wall system is as shown in the following Table 2. lightweight concrete panels. Where there is a combination of wall systems and/or wall finishes. NOTE: Indices for other systems that are not shown in this table shall be determined by BCA on a case-bycase basis. (2) Dry partition walls include sandwich panel wall systems. stud and sheet partition wall systems. (4) PC formwork refer to precast formwork panel with concrete infill. the lowest labour saving index should be adopted for the entire wall length as shown in the following illustrations: Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  35 . the Qualified Persons (QPs) are advised to seek BCA's comments before proceeding with the design. finishes done off-site or where skim coat and/or paint is applied on site. autoclaved aerated concrete panels. Table 2 Wall System . The relevant labour saving indices to be adopted in buildability score computation for wall system depend on (a) types of wall system and (b) wall finishes used. demountable wall systems. (3) Precast concrete panels/walls include normal weight concrete panels. For such cases.

Illustration 1 .Same wall system with different finishes Skim coat and paint finish Tiled finish Sectional View of Precision Block Wall Labour saving index = 0.Different wall systems with different finishes Skim coat and paint finish Tiled finish Sectional View of Precision Block Wall with Cast in-situ Wall Labour saving index = 0.Different wall systems with different finishes Plaster and paint finish Tiled finish Sectional View of Brickwall with Cast in-situ Wall (with prefab reinforcement) Labour saving index = 0.30 (based on lowest labour saving index for the entire wall) Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  36 .40 (based on lowest labour saving index for the entire wall) Illustration 3 .40 (based on lowest labour saving index for the entire wall) Illustration 2 .

4 a. the buildability score computation for wall system includes all wall lengths. with some exceptional cases as listed below. Include • • • • External and internal walls Full height windows and doors Lining walls to external basement wall Parapet walls • • Exclude • • • • External basement wall Hand-rails mounted on staircases and parapet walls Toilet cubicle walls and doors Sun-shades or any sun-shading devices "Collapsible" wall that divides rooms Vertical barrier at air-con ledges 3 Prefabricated Reinforcement Consideration The labour saving indices given to cast in-situ RC wall with prefabricated reinforcement in Table 2 only apply to RC wall that uses welded wire mesh from factory. Measurement Wall Length The length of the wall is to be measured along its centre line as follows: Length Measure along this line Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  37 .2 Wall Length Consideration Generally. The indices cannot apply to RC wall with prefabricated reinforcement tied on site and prefabricated reinforcement in precast concrete panel/wall.

the width of windows or doors) are inclusive of frame. The lengths measured (i. b. Doors and windows are measured as part of wall systems as illustrated below : LB window door brickwall Buildability Score Wall System = 40 [ (% of total wall length of the building using a particular wall system x respective labour saving index for wall system (Table 2))] Assume total wall length for the whole block to be LT Buildability score Brickwall = 40(weightage) x [LB/ LT x LSI (brick)] Note: If full height windows & doors are used.e.In the case where there are windows and doors. the wall length is measured on plan accordingly. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  38 .00 could be applied for the length of full height window. the labour saving index of 1.00 can be applied for the subjected window & door length. Full Height Windows & Doors Length of windows and doors could be separately considered in wall measurement if they are full height. door and sliding door used. Labour saving Index of 1.

the length of the wall should be considered as shown in the illustration below.00 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  39 . Parapet Wall Only the length of the parapet wall is to be considered in computation.c. Note : Labour saving index for MS railing = 1. In the case of a parapet wall consisting of mild steel (MS) railing.

Toilet Cubicle Walls and Doors Toilet cubicle walls and doors are to be excluded from computation of wall lengths. the wall lengths are to be measured twice. e. Toilet Cubicle Wall (Excluded) Toilet Cubicle Door (Excluded) Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  40 . Cavity Walls Cavity walls are considered as 2 separate walls.d. Therefore.

5 Worked Examples Example W1 – Computation of Buildability Score for Wall System Typical Floor Plan Step 1: Identify the wall system and finishes used and determine the relevant labour saving index (LSI) for the particular wall system Note: * denotes Lowest LSI to be adopted Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  41 .

Step 2: Calculate the wall length (include doors and windows) and the percentage of total wall length using a particular wall system Note : (1) Length of walls is measured from plans. (2) Railing for air-con ledge is to be excluded in computation. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  42 .

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  43 .Step 3: Multiply the percentage of wall length by the corresponding LSI and the weight factor 40 to obtain the buildability score Note: The above example consists of only one apartment with different wall types for illustration purpose.

Part 3 Other Buildable Design Features Points Awarded for Other Buildable Design Features Standardisation Columns Beams Door Leaf Openings Windows Grids Repetition of Floor to Floor Height Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout Others Multi-tier Precast Columns Precast or Pre-assembled/Metal Staircases Precast Meter Chambers Precast Refuse Chutes Precast Service Risers Non-screed Floor Columns Sit Directly on Top of Piles Ground Beams on Top of Pilecaps And/Or Integrated with Pilecaps No column stumps Precast bay windows Precast planter boxes Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points) Prefabricated Bathroom/Toilet Units complete with piping/wiring Precast Household Shelters Demerit Points Non-functional Void on Slab .

The module of 0.N Value (to be used for projects with planning applications made from 1st Sep 2005 to 31st Dec 2006) NOTE: (1) (2) (3) (4) * Sizes based on dimensions of frames. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  44 . windows etc. Percentage of coverage is to be based on total floor area or on total number of components such as columns.00 point will be deducted even if there is only one such void within a block. beams.5M does not apply to steel columns and beams. Table 3 Other Buildable Design Features . 1. 1M for width and 1M for height (1M = 100 mm). For void on slab that does not serve any functional requirement and is enclosed by walls.Part 3 Other Buildable Design Features Points awarded for Other Buildable Design Features The points given to each buildable design feature is as shown in Table 3. doors.

00 1.1(b) The repetition should omit bottom floor.N Value (to be used for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st Jan 2007) BUILDABLE FEATURES MODULE UNIT OF COVERAGE N VALUE PERCENTAGE OF (4) COVERGE ≥ 65% TO < ≥ 80% 80% 2. Standardisation 1.75 1. Percentage of coverage is to be based on total floor area or on total number of components such as columns.00 point will be deducted even if there is only one such void within a block. Grids 0.2 1. beams. 0. 2.00 The repetition should omit bottom floor.00 The repetition should omit bottom floor.2 no. 0.00 1.50 1.00 1. no.1 1.5M 1M/1M (3) 2.5M 0. windows etc.1(a) Columns (3 most common sizes) Beams (3 most common sizes) Door leaf openings (width) (3 most common sizes) Windows (3 most common sizes) Repetition of floor-to-floor height For blocks more than 6 storey Repetition of floor-to-floor height For blocks up to 6 storey 0. NOTE: (1) (2) (3) (4) * Sizes based on dimensions of frames.00 1. no. no. 2.7 3.5M does not apply to steel columns and beams.8 3.Table 3 Other Buildable Design Features . doors. area 0. no. no.00 3.00 1. top floor and above.50 2. Only applicable if there are at least 2 floor heights remaining after the floor omission.50 2. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  45 . Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points) A.00 2. Others 3.00 3. no. The module of 0. Only applicable if there are at least 2 floor heights remaining after the floor omission.50 1. 1. 2.2(a) Vertical repetition of structural floor layout For blocks more than 6 storey area 1. top floor and above. no.5M (2) (2) no.4 2. 1.1 3.6 3. no. top floor and above.00 1. no. top floor and above.5 3.5M no. 2.5M no.2(b) Vertical repetition of structural floor layout For blocks up to 6 storey The repetition should omit bottom floor.75 1.00 2.00 3.00 2. 1M for width and 1M for height (1M = 100 mm).00 Household shelter is considered as precast if the total length of the in-situ joints is not more than 20% of its wall perimeter on plan.00 2.00 1.00 1. no.00 A.9 Multi-tier precast columns Precast or pre-assembled/metal staircases Precast meter chambers Precast refuse chutes Precast service risers Non-screed floor No column stumps Precast bay windows Precast planter boxes Prefabricated bathroom/toilet units complete with piping/wiring Precast household shelters no. area no. For void on slab that does not serve any functional requirement and is enclosed by walls.4 3. 0.2 3.3 1.1 A.3 3.

the dimension including the encasement should be used as the size of the column in computation.1 Standardisation Columns (3 most common sizes) All structural columns should be accounted for.5M) Total no. The sectional length (L) of the concrete column is to be equal or less than four times its width (W). with the exception for steel column (without encasement) as illustrated below: Definition of concrete column : L ≤ 4W (Applicable for irregular column shape) (No module requirement for steel column without concrete encasement) Module requirement for various column shapes Coverage No. Stumps at foundation level need not be considered.1 1. Module The 3 most common sizes of all column shapes must fit the module requirement of 0. of columns (3 most common sizes in 0. For steel columns encased in concrete. of columns x 100 % Measurement – Number of Columns Description Typical Column Multi-tier Precast Column Method of Measurement Floor-to-floor height = 1 column 2-tier precast column = 2 columns 3-tier precast column = 3 columns Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  46 .5M.

Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage. C9. C26 are cast in-situ columns. C10. Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of columns.5M. Step 2: Identify groups that have the module of 0.5M ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 2.00 points Example BF1 : Computation of Standardisation of Columns A typical column schedule is shown as follows: Note: Assume 1 column marking represents 1 number of column. C22. C25. C21. Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with the module of 0.Grouping Sizes Column Sizes 400 x 600 and 600 x 400 Group Considered as same size Note : The reinforcement details need not be considered in computation. C24. C23. C11. All other columns are precast columns. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  47 . The steps to calculate standardisation of columns are as follows: Step 1: Group and count columns with same cross-sectional dimension.5M for cross-sectional dimension. Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage Module 0.

5M for cross-sectional dimension Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with the module of 0.Step 1: Group and count columns with same cross-sectional dimension Step 2: Identify groups that have the module of 0.00 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  48 .5M ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 2.5M Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of columns Number of columns (3 most common sizes) = 108 + 39 + 60 = 207 Total number of columns Percentage of coverage = 253 = 207/253 x 100% = 82% Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage Module 0.00 points Points awarded = 2.

Module requirement for beams with 2 or more depths/widths Multiples of 0. with the exception for steel beam (without encasement). the dimension including the encasement should be used as the size of the beam in computation. of beams x 100 % Measurement – Number of Beams Description Typical Beam Cantilever Beam Beam with different width/depth Method of Measurement Support to Support = 1 beam *see illustration 2 Support to Free end = 1 beam *see illustration 2 Support to Support = 1 beam *see illustration 3 Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  49 . of beams (3 most common sizes in 0.5M) Total no.5M (Width) Multiples of 0.5M (Depth) Multiples of 0.1.5M (Depth) Coverage No.5M.2 Beams (3 most common sizes) All beams should be accounted for. Module The 3 most common sizes of all beam shapes must fit the module requirement of 0. For steel beams encased in concrete. The module requirement for beams with two or more depths/widths is illustrated as follows: Illustration 1 .

Beam with different depth between supports are considered as one beam Beams with different width/depth Grouping Sizes Beam Sizes 400 x 600 and 600 x 400 Group Considered as 2 different sizes Note : The reinforcement details need not be considered in computation. Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage Module 0.Illustration 2 .00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  50 .00 points Points awarded = 2.5M ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 2.Number of beams to be accounted Illustration 3 .

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  51 . Step 2: Identify groups that have 0.Example BF2: Computation of Standardisation of Beams Assume the following information for a 2-storey detached dwelling house: 1st Storey Beams 2nd Storey Beams Roof Beams The steps to calculate Standardisation of Beams are as follows: Step 1: Group and count beams with same cross-sectional dimension.5M. Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of beams. Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with module of 0. Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage.5M for same cross-sectional dimension.

5M for same cross-sectional dimension Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  52 .Step 1: Group and count beams with same cross-sectional dimension Step 2: Identify groups that have 0.

Step 3: Extract 3 most common sizes with the module of 0.5M ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 2.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  53 .5M Step 4: Divide the number of 3 most common sizes by the total number of beams Number of beams (3 most common sizes) Total number of beams Percentage of coverage = 40 + 40 + 42 = 122 = 159 = 122/159 x 100% = 77% Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage Module 0.00 points Points awarded = 0.

fire service risers) Doors for civil defence shelters Service doors for substation.1. switchroom & AHU Note : The type of door material does not affect this computation Definition of Door Leaf Opening (3 most common sizes) Coverage No. of door leaf openings x 100 % Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 0.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  54 . TAS risers.3 Door Leaf Openings (width) (3 most common sizes) All door leaf opening for doors (see definition below) should be accounted for. with consideration of the following: • • • Include Roller shutters Sliding doors Glass doors Exclude • • • Doors for services (M&E risers.5M (width) - 1. of door leaf openings (width) (3 most common sizes) Total no.

Non-operable glass within curtain wall system is not to be included in computation. of windows (3 most common sizes in 1M/1M) Total no. of windows x 100 % Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage Module (Width & Height) 1M /1M ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1. (2) Window size includes window frame.1.4 Windows (3 most common sizes) All windows should be accounted for. Module The 3 most common sizes of windows must fit the module requirement of 1M width and 1M height as illustrated below: Width (in multiples of 1M) Window frame Window frame Window frame Module Requirement for Window (3 most common sizes) Note : (1) The type of window material does not affect this computation. including louvres. Coverage No.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  55 Height (in multiples of 1M) .

Coverage No.1a Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height (For block more than 6 storeys) 2.75 points ≥ 80% 2.50 points 0. Module The most common floor height must fit the module requirement of 0.1a 2.5M.1b Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height (For block up to 6 storeys) The floor-to-floor height of all levels inclusive of mezzanine floor level should be accounted for.5M Total no. with the following exceptions: • • Exclude Top floor and above Bottom floor Criteria Applicable if there are at least 2 floors after the floor omissions.2 Grids 2.1 Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height 2. of floor heights x 100% Points awarded based on module and percentage of coverage Item 2.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  56 . of most commonly repeated floor heights with 0.1b Module 0.5M ≥ 65% to < 80% 1.5M 0.00 points 1.

Example BF5 : Computation of Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height (For block more than 6 storeys) A typical elevation is shown as follows: Exclude when computing floor-to-floor height Exclude when computing floor-to-floor height The steps to calculate the repetition of floor-to-floor height are as follows: Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights. Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  57 . Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage.5M. Step 2: Identify floor heights that have the module of 0.5M. Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0. Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total number of floor heights.

5M ≥ 65% to < 80% 1.5M Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0.50 points ≥ 80% 2.71% Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage Module 0.5M Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total number of floor heights Number of the most common floor heights Total number of floor heights Percentage of Coverage =6 =7 = 6/7 x 100% = 85.00 points Points awarded = 2.Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights Note : Top floor & above and bottom floor are excluded Step 2: Identify floor heights which have the module of 0.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  58 .

Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  59 . Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0. Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total number of floor heights.5M.Example BF6: Computation on Repetition of Floor-to-Floor Height (For block up to 6 storeys) A typical elevation is shown as follows: The steps to calculate the repetition of floor-to-floor height are as follows: Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights. Step 5: Points are awarded according to the percentage of coverage. Step 2: Identify floor heights that have the module of 0.5M.

00 points Points awarded = 0.Step 1: Group and count number of floor heights Note : Top floor & above and bottom floor are excluded Step 2: Identify floor height which have the module of 0.5M ≥ 65% to < 80% 0.75 points ≥ 80% 1.5M Step 4: Divide the number of the most common floor heights by the total number of floor heights Number of most common floor heights = 3 Total number of floor heights Percentage of Coverage =2 = 2/3 x 100% = 67% Step 5: Points are awarded according to module and percentage of coverage Item 2.5M Step 3: Extract the most common floor heights with the module of 0.1b Module 0.75 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  60 .

with consideration of the following: • • Exclude Top floor & above Bottom floor Criteria Applicable if there are at least 2 floors after the floor omissions.2b Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout (For block up to 6 storeys) All floors should be accounted for.2a Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout (For block more than 6 storeys) 2.2b Module ≥ 65% to < 80% 1.2a 2.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  61 .00 points 1. Coverage Area of floors with most repeated structural floor layout Total floor area x 100 % Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Item 2.2.50 points 0.75 points ≥ 80% 2.2 Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout 2.

00 points Points awarded = 2.50 points ≥ 80% 2.2a Module ≥ 65% to < 80% 1.Example BF7: Computation on Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout (For block more than 6 storeys) Exclude when computing repetition of structural floor layout Exclude when computing repetition of structural floor layout Total area per floor Total floor area Area of floors with the most repeated structural floor layout Percentage of Coverage = 550m2 = 3300m2 = 550 x 6 = 3300m2 = 3300/3300 x 100% = 100% Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Item 2.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  62 .

00 points Points awarded = 1.Example BF8: Computation on Vertical Repetition of Structural Floor Layout (For block more than 6 storeys) Exclude when computing repetition of structural floor layout Area = 420 m2 B Typical Floor Plan (2nd to 5th Storey) Area = 80 m2 Exclude when computing repetition of structural floor layout Area = 420 m2 Elevation B B Area = 80 m 2 Typical Floor Plan th th (6 to 8 Storey) Total area per floor Total floor area = 500m2 = 500m2 x 6 = 3000m2 Area of floors with the most repeated Structural floor layout (shaded portion) Percentage of Coverage = 420m2 x 6 = 2520m2 = 2520/3000 x 100% = 84% Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Item 2.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  63 .75 points ≥ 80% 1.2b Module ≥ 65% to < 80% 0.

For example. Coverage No. of precast columns (multi-tier) Total no. of columns x 100 % Measurement – Number of Columns Each tier is considered as one column. a 3-tier precast columns is considered as 3 columns.00 points Example: Number of precast multi-tier columns Total number of columns Percentage of coverage = 85 = 100 = 85/100 x 100% = 85% Therefore Points awarded = 2. Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 2.1 Others Multi-tier Precast Columns Criteria At least 80% of the total number of columns are precast multi-tier concrete columns.3 3.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  64 .

00 points Example: Number of precast staircases Total number of staircases Percentage of coverage = 36 = 40 = 36/40 x 100% = 90% Therefore Points awarded = 2. of staircases Measurement – Number of Flights Every flight of staircase is considered as one number of staircase. Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 2.00 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  65 . of precast or pre-assembled/metal staircases x 100% Total no.3.2 Precast or Pre-assembled/Metal Staircases Criteria At least 80% of the total number of staircases are precast or pre-assembled. • • • Include Precast staircases Prefabricated permanent steel stairform complete with reinforcement bars (if required) Metal staircases Coverage No.

3 Precast Meter Chambers Criteria At least 80% of the total number of meter chambers are precast. of precast meter chambers Total no.50 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  66 . Coverage No. of meter chambers x 100 % Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1.3.

of precast refuse chutes Total no. (See figure below) Consideration of Numbers of Shafts Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1. For example if a shaft is extended from the first floor to the fourth floor.e. the external walls of the refuse chutes are precast). of refuse chutes x 100 % Measurement – Number of Refuse Chutes A refuse chute within one floor is considered as one number of shaft.50 points Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  67 .4 Precast Refuse Chutes Criteria At least 80% of the total number of refuse chutes are precast (i.50 points Example: Number of precast refuse chutes Total number of refuse chutes Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded = 90 = 100 = 90/100 x 100% = 90% = 1. it is considered as 3 numbers.3. Coverage No.

00 points 3.00 points Example: Area of non-screed floor Total floor area Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) = 1.e. Coverage Area of non-screed floor Total area of concrete floor x 100 % Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1.6 Non-screed Floor Criteria At least 80% of the total floor area with no screed (i.5 Precast Service Risers Criteria At least 80% of the total number of service risers are precast.3.00 points Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  68 = 4500m2 = 5000m2 = 4500/5000 x 100% = 90% . trowel smooth without adding a layer of screeding). of precast service risers Total no. Coverage No. of service risers x 100 % Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1.

00 points = 200 = 250 = 200/250 x 100% = 80% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  69 . of columns (at foundation level) x 100% Measurement – Number of Columns (at foundation level) Every column that sits directly on top of piles is considered as one column. no pilecap). Coverage No.00 points Example: Number of columns that sit directly on top of piles Total number of columns (at foundation level) Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded = 1.3. Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1. of columns sit directly on top of piles Total no.7 (for projects with planning applications made from 1st Sep 2005 to 31st Dec 2006) Columns Sit Directly on Top of Piles Criteria At least 80% of the total number of columns (at foundation level) sitting directly on top of piles (i.e.

e.e.3.00 points = 220 = 250 = 220/250 x 100% = 88% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  70 . pilecaps) is considered as one beam. Ground beams on top of pilecaps Ground beams integrated into pilecaps Coverage No.00 points Example: Number of ground beams on top of pilecaps Total number of ground beams Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded = 1.8 (for projects with planning applications made from 1st Sep 2005 to 31st Dec 2006) Ground Beams on Top of Pilecaps and/or Integrated into Pilecaps Criteria At least 80% of the total number of ground beams are on top of pilecaps and/or integrated into pilecaps (i. Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1. of ground beams x 100% Measurement – Number of Ground Beams Every ground beam from support to support (i. of ground beams on top of pilecaps and/or integrated with pilecaps Total no. no column stump).

00 points Example: Number of columns with no stumps Total number of columns (at foundation level) Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded = 1.3. of columns (at foundation level) x 100% Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1. Coverage No. of columns with no stumps Total no.7 (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st Jan 2007) No Column Stumps Criteria At least 80% of the total number of columns (at foundation level) have no column stumps.00 points = 220 = 250 = 220/250 x 100% = 88% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  71 .

00 points Example: Number of precast bay windows Total number of bay windows Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded = 1.3.00 points = 150 = 180 = 150/180 x 100% = 83% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  72 . of precast bay windows Total no. Coverage No. of bay windows x 100% Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1.8 (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st Jan 2007) Precast Bay Windows Criteria At least 80% of the total number of bay windows are precast.

Coverage No. of planter boxes x 100% Points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% ≥ 80% 1. of precast planter boxes Total no.3.9 Precast Planter Boxes (for projects with planning applications made on or after 1st Jan 2007) Criteria At least 80% of the total number of planter boxes are precast.00 points = 120 = 140 = 120/140 x 100% = 86% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  73 .00 points Example: Number of precast planter boxes Total number of planter boxes Percentage of coverage Therefore Points awarded = 1.

of prefabricated bathroom/toilet units No. Coverage No.1 Single Integrated Components (Bonus Points) Prefabricated Bathroom/Toilet Units Complete with Piping/Wiring Criteria At least 65% of the total number of bathroom/toilet units are prefabricated. of bathroom/toilet units x 100% Measurement – Number of Bathroom/Toilet Units Every bathroom/toilet unit is considered as one number.00 points Example: Number of prefabricated bathroom/toilet units Total number of bathroom/toilet units Percentage of Coverage Therefore Points awarded = 3.00 points = 50 = 60 = 50/60 x 100% = 83% Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  74 .A A.00 points ≥ 80% 3. Bonus points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% 2.

of precast household shelters Total no. Bonus points awarded based on percentage of coverage Module ≥ 65% to < 80% 2.00 points Example: If cast in-situ joints are used. Criteria Check Total length of cast in-situ joint = 530 x 2 = 1060 mm Total wall perimeter = (2500-125-125) + (2200-125-125) x 2 + (2500-700-125-125) (measured along centerline) = 7700 mm % Cast in-situ joint length over its wall perimeter = 1060/7700 x 100% = 13.00 points = 75 = 100 = 75% Typical Precast Household Shelter SECTIONAL PLAN Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  75 . Household shelter is considered as precast if the total length of the in-situ joints is not more than 20% of its wall perimeter on plan. the household shelter shown on the plan can be considered as precast. Coverage No.77% < 20% Therefore.00 points ≥ 80% 3.A. first check on the percentage of cast in-situ joint length over its wall perimeter on plan.2 Precast Household Shelters Criteria At least 65% of the total number of household shelters are precast. of household shelters x 100% Measurement – Number of Precast Household Shelters Every individual precast household shelter unit is considered as one number. Number of precast household shelters Total number of household shelters Percentage of coverage = 75/100 x 100% Therefore Points awarded = 2.

1 Demerit Points Non-functional Void on Slab Criteria A void on a slab enclosed by full walls / columns that do not serve any functional requirement such as a void that results solely from a design to suit GFA computation. On the other hand.B B. a void such as a duct for services is considered a functional void. Coverage As long as there is a non-functional void within a block. Demerit Points given Module Point deduction -1.00 point non-functional void due to GFA computation Illustration of a non-functional void within a dwelling unit Sep 2005 (rev Jan 07) Guide to the Buildable Design Appraisal System  76 .

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