You are on page 1of 8

THE SOUTH AFRICAN ART TIMES

ART GUIDE MAY

onLong - auctionfa 4/30/08 12:14 PM Page 2
C M Y CM MY CY CMY K
(Detail) Stephan Hobbs, Hillbrow Walk, 2008. Digital photograph. To be seen at Bank Gallery, Durban, 15 May – 07 June 2008

contemporary fine art auction

10 june 18h30

34 long street onauction.co.za viewing 5/6 June 10h00-17h00, 7 June 10h00-14h00
William Kentridge edition of 60 estimate R22 000 - R25 000
Smoke Bomber take centre stage at National Arts Festival
an eye for good marketing, and and the USA.
canny understanding of the power So, if he can win over the locals,
of collaboration and networking as Mahomed feels jack about telling can he win over the different
a weapon in the struggle for excel- it like it was: “There was a lot of disciplines within the arts?
lence, he has achieved recognition cynicism with people saying ‘How How about the visual arts? Maho-
and success. does an Indian expect to survive in med immediately reverts back to
the arts?’ The stereotype was that the festival committee, saying it
And he has been hugely success- an Indian became a merchant or has “people who are very strong in
ful. He was even awarded teacher accountant.” the visual arts”.
of the year by the old segregated
education system, which he finds There was a sense that his work “I will shape the vision of this
somewhat ironic. would become the vehicle to festival in consultation with the
disprove that, but that was when artists on the committee and
Certainly not a party hack, he was younger. people who have exhibited her in
Mahomed’s philosophy leans more As he developed in his career, so the past, as well as a whole range
towards cross-over and exploration did his creative marketing skills. of stakeholders who have a vested
across lines of class, race, religion, He brought a whole herd of shows interest (in the visual arts).
gender – all the hot frontiers in our in the big party festival of ’95 – no
society. less than six shows. By the next Meanwhile, nothing seems to
year the figure had ballooned into displease the man. He loves Gra-
He believes coming from Lenasia a staggering 13 shows! hamstown, he loves the festival
has steeled him for yet another “We booked out Vickies (at Victoria team he has inherited, he is not
return to the smallness of town, Girls High) and played to full phased by the carnivorous political
especially this historical town, still houses every day, every perform- scene, he believes this is good for
a frontier alive with contradictions, ance.” the arts community!
divides, and lately, an ANC assault “When a regime begins to show
on its very name, Grahamstown. Besides writing, producing, direct- flaws, this is when the arts com-
ing and all the rest, he’s also been munity becomes most critical and
It’s way too early for Mahomed to on the festival boards in his own vibrant…”
be blooded by these local feuds, play, ironically acting as a white
the man is simply looking for a conscript in the apartheid army. He’s not phased about criticism
house to buy. He’s got the bike, a He’s still focused on theatre that leading to a spiteful withdrawal
knobbly dirt machine, bought from “breaks conventions, that is cutting of funding. Artists are by nature
the local outdoor cycle store, and edge, but it must reach standards innovative and will always find
he can’t wait to settle down into of excellence. I’d like the audience money to enable them to make
his beloved lifestyle of work, work, to walk out feeling challenged, their work.
work, reading four newspapers a stimulated and that they had value
day, cooking, entertaining, and, as for their money.” The 80s saw the arts playing an
stated, more work. extremely critical role, then going
After attending 23 festivals, into a more reconciliatory role in
He is unmarried, but one gets the Mahomed is preparing to ease into the mid-90s to now, where there
sense that he is absolutely de- the director’s chair as local pillar of is a “new wave” of work grappling
lighted with life and his new post. the Grahamstown community and with “succession, accountability
Like many things, he is an abso- festival pioneer through very dark and corruption.
lute festival veteran. It was a trip and bright years, Lynette Marais,
to fest in 1982, when he brought prepares to leave it. Back in the Madiba days artists
60 young Indian schoolchildren on were in “a state of euphorbia. Now
a long bus trip to Grahamstown, He is adamant that festival re- we are coming out and saying how
where his life changed. mains “the barometer of the South do we assert our identity?”
African arts community”, and He’s keen on “art on the left” which
“For the first time I witnessed the while it is a vital income earner holds a very clear “mirror to our
The new National Arts Festival Director: Ismail Mahomed Photo: Mike Loewe transformative nature and power of for Grahamstown, this is precisely society”, but he tacks on the notion
the arts. My students, who lived in because the festival is a “national of bureaucracy, administration and
a closeted little community, could, cultural treasure”. government.
Mike Loewe for the first time, interact with
others from other communities and He is seemingly utterly unafraid of Yet, he’s also keen on the old
The angry young performing artist international arts. in his works – by now too many worlds. The arts became a conduit conservative environments. One building of partnerships with
who once smoke-bombed the He’s erudite, passionate, prolific, to count – he has always strived for a whole range of issues which of his successes was turning the government, and believes that
offices of the National Arts Festival clever, gentle, proud, and a dedi- to “never stop at the level of di- were barred from discussion by Witbank Civic Theatre around, artists who do not want to play a
newspaper, Cue, in order to get a cated trooper for the peformers. dactism, but to always tell stories. formal schooling.” giving it life for all, regardless of its responsible role can be behaving
reviewer to attend his fringe show, He knew from the age of 14 that It’s about the characters and letting old Conservative Party stronghold in an irresponsible manner.
has returned to Grahamstown in his life was in the theatre. the audience go on a journey with A few days after getting back home history. The partnership with government
the somewhat anachronistic posi- But first the system evicted him the performers…” he resigned, cashed in his pension needs to be built on “honesty, trust
tion of festival director! and his family from Sophiatown and began his new life by launch- His last job, as senior cultural spe- and criticism”.
But that is how the wheel of fate and later from Vrededorp to So, thwarted, he became a teacher ing the Creative Arts Workshop, a cialist in the American Embassy in
has turned, and it feels appropriate Lenasia, a small, intense, bruised of maths and science – a brilliant community project in Lenasia. Pretoria was also at a time when And that smoking incident? He
that an authentic voice from the but stoic Indian community driven choice it turned out, because by This company would grow to be- American attitudes towards the says he arrived in the Cue offices
fringe has taken centre stage. 30km out of Joburg by racial ar- the time he decided to give the come one of the largest independ- Muslim world and vice versa were with a smoke machine, asked a
Ismail Mahomed, 48, diligent rogance and hatred. comfort of a regular pay check and ent theatre companies. on tenterhooks. America had just student where he could plug it in,
and thorough maths and science The young Mahomed was angry. other middle-class conventions invaded Iraq, but he describes his and was naively shown the socket.
teacher, performing artist extraordi- He watched in 76 as Soweto the old heave-ho and leap into the But it needed the oxygen of travel five years there as “stimulating”. Once he had it going, the entire
naire, is the first director of colour burned just beyond the railway arts, he had a special skill - – and so it did, to almost every fes- “The allowed me to build a bridge cast of a children’s show started
to head up the 34-year-old festival, tracks, Wits and Rau accepted him administration. tival available, from Grahamstown, of dialogue between a broad range demanding their review, and, when
a formative institution in shaping as a student but the regime would to KKK, to Durban, a women’s of justice institutions in Johannes- the smoke had settled, got it.
South African, and lately, not give him a permit. However, With the addition of business skills, festival, and later, to Copenhagen, burg and the embassy.” And it was pretty good too.
n

n
MAY GALLERY LISTINGS
www.gallerymomo.com Building (goldfields entrance), 5th
Eastern Cape Cape Gallery João Ferreira Gallery
Floor T. 012 4296255 Until 10 May: Leon de Bliquy Until 31 May - Sub Rosa - Sanell
Gordart Gallery ukun1@unisa.ac.za Northern Cape - Icons of a past life Aggenbach
East London 11-31 May: Hanje Whitehead and 11 May-8 June Martin Layton and 70 Loop Street T. 021 4235403
Craig Smith, Martin Osneran - pho- KwaZulu-Natal
Anne Bryant Art Gallery Kimberly Lin Barrie exhibition of recent info@joaoferreiragallery.com
tographs, Mpumelelo Guliwe paintings
08 – 24 May: Aubrey & Gary Klink- 72 Third Ave, Melville, 60 Church Street, Cape Town Michael Stevenson Gallery
William Humphreys Art Gallery
radt - Father and son art exhibition Johannesburg Durban Exhibition of Permanent Collection T. 0 21 4235309 15 May-05 July: Disguise - The art
9 St Marks Road, Southernwood, www.gordartgallery.com www.capegallery.co.za of attracting and deflecting attention
East London T. 043 7224044 Civic Centre, Cullinan Crescent
artSPACE durban Ground floor, Buchanan Building,
T. 053 8311724
Graham’s Fine Art Gallery Until 10 May: The Great Trek Curious, Whetstone & Frankley 160 Sir Lowry Road, Cape Town
Driftwood Studios 29 May-29 August: The Modern 12-31 May: Petros Ghebrehiwot 09-21 May: Two Karens T. 021 462 1500
Until 10 May: Ceramic Indaba Palimpsest - Envisioning South Crowd Power and Steve Mandy 87a Station Road, Observatory, www.michaelstevenson.com
26 Rainbow Valley,Kwelerha, East African Modernity Pre-Intervention Cape Town T. 021 448 8780
London T. 043 7374431 Corner Valley & Cedar Roads Broa- 3 Millar Road, Durban Western Cape Rust-en-Vrede Gallery
www.driftwoodstudios.co.za dacres, Fourways T. 011 465 9192 T. 031 312 0793 David Krut Publishing 6-27 May: Theo Paul, Vorster
www.grahamsfineartgallery.co.za www.artspacedurban.co.za
Cape Town Until 22 May: Mathew Brittan Dianne, Heesom-Green- Falling
Port Elizabeth Paintings from my mind
The Johannesburg Art Gallery Bat Centre 22 May-28 June David Koloane 10 Wellington Road, Durbanville
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Art Until 31 May: Spier Contemporary 07 May-07 June: Londiwe (Zee) Prints and Monotypes T. 021-9764691
34 Long Fine Art
Museum 2007 Nzimande Fabric 31 Newlands Avenue, Newlands, www.rust-en-vrede.com
10 June:
Until 08 June: About-face Until 31 May: Santu Mofokeng 45 Maritime Place, Small Craft Cape Town T. 021 6850676
Contemporary Fine Art Auction
1 Park Drive T. 041 5861030 Homeland Security Harbour, Durban (Off Victoria The A.R.T Gallery
34 Long Street, Cape Town
artmuseum@artmuseum.co.za King George Street, Joubert Park, Embankment) T. 031 332 0451 Erdmann Contemporary Until 03 May – Altered Im-
www.onauction.co.za
Johannesburg T. 011 725 3180 /81 www.batcentre.co.za Until 24 May: Themba Shibase ages: Rethinking Polaroids - Tessa
Free State Umhlaba Kabani? (Whose Land?) Frootko-Gordon
The Thompson Gallery DUT Art Gallery 26 May-28 June: Manfred Zylla No. 205, The Colosseum Building,
Alliance Francaise du Cap
11 May-07 June: Sites of Memory Until 23 May: Themba Shibase Recent paintings 3 St. George’s Mall T. 021 4192679
Bloemfontein 09-29 May: Steve Bandoma
78 Third Avenue, Melville Hybrid Culture – Durban 63 Shortmarket Street, Cape Town artbailey@netactive.co.za
155 Loop Street, Cape Town
T. 011 482 2039 1st Floor Library Building, Steve T. 021 422 2762
Oliewenhuis Art Museum T. 021 423 5699
www.thompsongallery.co.za Biko Campus, Berea, Durban www.erdmanncontemporary.co.za Tinus de Jongh Art Gallery
13 May: Cement and Mosaic T. 031 373 2207 During May and June: Charles
Project The University of Johannesburg Theodore Villet Retrospective exhi-
21 May-16 June: Hardy Botha Art Gallery bition of oils and watercolours
- Retrospective Exhibition 07-28 May: Peter Magubane Rites 13 Aberdeen Road, Newlands,
30 May-26 June: Pauline Gutter of Passage Cape Town T. 021 686 4141
- Opslag Kingsway Campus T. 011 559 2099
16 Harry Smith Street Bloemfontein www.uj.ac.za UCT Irma Stern Museum
T. 051 4479 609 06-24 May: Joan Peeters - The
Moja Modern Gallery Landscape Unveiled
Gauteng Until 10 May: Allen Reed, Slugs Cecil Road, Rosebank, Cape Town
and Snails
16th 7 Avenue, Parktown, Johan-
Johannesburg Whatiftheworld Gallery
nesburg T. 011 447 9000 01-31 May: Zander Blom - The
www.mojamodern.co.za Drain of Progress
Alliance Francaise of
Johannesburg 05-28 June: Prints and Editions
Obert Contemporary at Melrose First floor, 208 Albert Road Wood-
08-21 May: Cronjé Lemmer and
Arch stock T. (021) 448 1438
Erhardt Grobbelaar Collagraphy
17 – 31 July: Maja Maljevic - www.whatiftheworld.com
exhibition
Drawings
13-22 May: Short Film Festival:
www.obertcontemporary.com
“Voyages en Courts” Stellenbosch
22 May: Tribute to Aimé Césaire
Standard Bank Gallery
27-31 May: Ilana Seati Paintings Die Dorpstraat Galery
Until 10 May - Skin-to-Skin
exhibition Until 6 May: Mike Donkin exhibition
– Participating artists include:
17 Lower Park Drive, Corner Kerry 10 May- 17 June: Chris Diedericks
Tamlin Blake, Leora Farber, Fiona
Road Parkview T. 011 646 1169 Indigo Boy
Kirkwood, Walter Oltmann, Jane
www.alliance.org.za 21 June-12 August: Nora Newton
Makhubele and Yda Walt.
exhibition
Corner Simmonds and Frederick
Art Extra Gallery Peter Sibanda, Introduction, an exhibition of oil paintings - Association of Arts Pretoria - Until 28 May 144 Dorp Street, Stellenbosch
Street T. 011 6311889
07 May- 07 June: Aftermath T. 021 887 2256
373 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannes-
The Goodman Gallery Everard Read Gallery
burg T. 011 326 0034 SMAC Art Gallery
Until 24 May: KZNSA Gallery 08-22 May: Penelope Stutterheime
www.artextra.co.za art.b Gallery Until 25 May - Revisions plus works
David Goldblatt - Joburg Until 09 May: Alison Kearney, Put - A Way Through
Until 14 May – Scenes – Group by artists such as Trevor Makhoba,
163 Jan Smuts Avenue , Parkwood something in to get something out 3 Portswood Road, V&A Waterfront
Artspace Gallery exhibition by Len Tempelhoff, John Dumile Feni, Gerard Bhengu and
T. 011 7881113 and other, Recent work T. (021) 418 4527
10-26 May: Heptad - Seven Years Skotnes, Verna Jooste and Souls- Simon Mnguni will be on show
www.goodman-gallery.com Until 09 May: Nelson Makamo, www.everard-read-capetown.co.za
of Artspace capes and Reflections by Elizabeth De Wet Centre, Church Street
Moving into a light
T. 011 4821258 / 0836715139 Miller-Vermeulen T. 021 8873607
Pretoria 13 May – 8 June: Stephen Hobbs: Gill Allderman Gallery
www.artspace-jhb.co.za 21 May - 18 Jun – Argentium
D’urban Until 30 May: Second exhibition
- Theo Kleynhans Franschoek
Association of Arts Pretoria 13 May – 8 June: Dineo Bopape: works on paper
David Krut Print Workshop Library Centre, Carel van Aswegen
Until 28 May: Peter Sibanda, Lovestrung 278 Main Road, Kenilworth, Cape
Until 17 May: Deborah Bell David Street, Bellville T. 021 9182301 The Gallery at Grande Provence
Introduction, an exhibition of oil 13 May – 8 June: Johan Thom: Town T. 083 556 2540
Koloane Colbert Mashile Diane Vic- www.artb.co.za Until 28 May: exhibition of drawings
paintings twilight (of the idols) & bind/ontbind
tor DKW: New Editions 2008 and ceramics
173 Mackie Street, Nieuw Muckle- (series 1) Goodman Gallery Cape
24 May-17 June: Bronwyn Findlay AVA Gallery Main Road Franschoek
neurk T. 012 3463100 166 Bulwer Road, Glenwood 08 May – 31 May: Peter Schutz and
142 Jan Smuts Avenue, Parkwood, Until 09 May: Jean Brundrit, Nkoali T. (021) 876 8600
T. 031 2023686 Walter Oltman
Johannesburg T. 011 447 0627 Nawa, Zoë Moosman www.grandeprovence.co.za
Platform on 18th www.kznsagallery.co.za 3rd Floor, Fairweather House, 176
www.davidkrutpublishing.com 12-30 May: Christian Nerf and
Until 24 May: Content Douglas Gimberg - One More Day Sir Lowry Road, Woodstock, Cape
Everard Read Gallery 232 18th Avenue, Rietondale, Tatham Art Gallery
to Regret Town Knysna
Pretoria Until 04 May - New Acquisitions T +27- (0)21- 462 - 7573 / 4
11 May: Gary and Alexandre James 35 Church Street, Cape Town
Exhibition www.goodman-gallery.com Knysna Fine Art
- A Voyage to the interior continued T. 021 424 7436
Pretoria Art Museum Until 04 May - Edendale excels: an From 01 May: Leon Vermeulen
15 May-01June: Jean Jansem www.ava.co.za
Until 11 May – Mid-career retro- exhibition of four artists from Eden- Iziko South African National - The edge of desire
- Expressionniste humaniste
spective – Johann Louw dale. Includes works by Michael Gallery 45 Queen Street, Knysna
17 July: Franki Burger - Place and Bell-Roberts Contemporary
Cnr Schoeman and Wessels Zondi, Gerard Bhengu, Chicken- Until 18 Jun - A Private View – Cecil T. 044 382 5107
Belonging Gallery
Streets, Arcadia Park man Mkhize and Siyabonga Skotnes
6 Jellicoe Avenue, Rosebank, 07-31 May:
T. 012 3441807/8 Sikosana. Until 25 May: Reality Check photo-
Johannesburg T. (011) 788-4805 Kevin Brand - Set the world on fire
Cnr. Of Chief Albert Luthuli (Com- graphic exhibition
www.everard-read.co.za 89 Bree Street, Cape Town
Unisa Art Gallery mercial) Rd. and Church Street Government Avenue,
T. 021 422 1100
Until 02 May – Thematic Exhibition (Opposite City Hall) T. 033 3421804 Company’s Garden T. 021 4674660
Gallery Momo www.bell-roberts.com
08 - 31 May: Johannes Phokela - David Goldblatt, Keith Dietrich, info@iziko.org.za
- Exhibition of new works Penny Siopis, John Muafangejo,
52 7th Avenue, Parktown North Julie Mehretu and others
T. 011 3273247 Unisa Main campus, Theo van Wijk
WHAT’S ON AT IZIKO, CAPE TOWN

Lloyd Pollak returns
Popular art critic and lecturer for guests. Enquiries should be artistic revolution that in turn modern life’, portraying its hectic
Lloyd Pollak returns to Iziko South directed to Lizzie at 021 467 4662 spawned a number of new genres rush and teeming metropolitan
African Museum on 16 and 22 (Tue-Thu 10:00-14:00) or email such as Futurism, Purism and crowds.
April, 13 and 21 May, and 11 sangfriends@iziko.org.za. Vorticism. This lecture traces the
June, to present a further series evolution and stages of Cubism. 11th June – Russian Art of the
of lectures on 20th century art 16 April - Fauvism included the 20th Century - Once the seedbeds
styles, from Fauvism (or ‘wild works of Dufy, Roualt, Derain, 13 May – Explosive and angst- of artistic revolutions, Moscow
beasts’) to the artistic revolutions Vlaminck and Matisse whose ridden, German Expressionism and St Petersburg embraced a
of Russia. Hosted by the Friends ‘strident palettes sounded the birth achieved a blend of tortured and number of European avant-garde
of the South African National cry of Modernism’ and triggered Gothic art, tribal and Van Gogh, styles before State policy dictated
Gallery, all lectures begin at 17:30 the ‘outrage standard’ of 20th Ensor and Munch. that Socialist-Realism became the
in the TH Barry Lecture Theatre century art. order of the day.
and cost R40 per lecture (R160 21st May – Futurism, an Italian
Jean Brundrit: If my house went through airport security 2005/6 (detail) for the series) for Friends, or R50 22nd April – With Cubism, Picasso style dominated by light and move- For further information, visit
Selenium toned shadowgram per lecture (R220 for the series) and Braque unleashed a radical ment, celebrated the ‘dynamism of www.iziko.org.za

Reality Check is a photographic exhibition that
runs at Iziko South African National Gallery New changes at Iziko
until 25 May 2008. Changes at Iziko Museums particularly for the youth. sionary entrance fee for South rica Day (25 May), Youth Day (16
As a public education facility in a African pensioners and students June), National Women’s Day (9
The inspiration for the exhibition around identity, self-representation developing economy and a newly We are proud to announce that, remains unchanged. August), Heritage Week 2008 (22
arose out of an invitation to the and gender are explored along- democratic society, Iziko Museums with effect from 1 April 2008, all – 28 September), National Aids
South African National Gallery side landscape and post-apartheid of Cape Town is acutely aware of children under the age of 16 years Our visitor surveys have shown Awareness Day (1 December) and
in 2006 from the Neuer Berliner memory. its mandate, which is to manage will be able to visit the museums that, except where such a day Human Rights Day (from 2009).
Kunstverein, in Germany, to curate and promote Iziko’s unique com- operated by Iziko free of charge. was a public holiday, the public
an exhibition called Contemporary The following are represented bination of South Africa’s heritage School groups will continue to have not taken advantage of free Iziko remains committed to ena-
Art Photography from South Af- in Reality Check: Bridget Baker, collections, sites and services for have access to special guided entrance on Saturdays, as we had bling visitors to enjoy maximum
rica, which ran in various German Lien Botha, Jean Brundrit, David the benefit of present and future tours and other educational activi- hoped. From 1 April therefore, access to our collections, exhibi-
cities. Reality Check is a selection Goldblatt, Pieter Hugo, Santu generations. ties, at a subsidised cost. entrance to Iziko museums will tions and programmes.
from the larger exhibition. Mofokeng, Zanele Muholi, Jo no longer be free on Saturdays.
Ratcliffe, Mikhael Subotzky, Guy In keeping with this mission, the For those schools that cannot Instead, there will be free entrance We’d like to take this opportunity
The work of the twelve contem- Tillim, Andrew Tshabangu and Council of Iziko Museums of Cape afford to visit the city, our outreach to all patrons on the following to thank the public for their loyal
porary photographers and artists Nontsikelelo ‘Lolo’ Veleko. Town (Iziko) has reviewed Iziko’s programme and mobile museum selected commemorative days: patronage and support.
provide an indication of the di- entrance fees and concessionary will bring the museum’s collections
verse practices through which the The Gallery is open daily from prices, with the aim of enabling to them. Freedom Day (27 April), Interna-
realities of our radically changing 10:00-17:00 except Mondays. maximum access to our museums, Furthermore, the current conces- tional Museums Day (18 May), Af-
world are explored.
Enquiries: Pam Warne,
The exhibition demonstrates an Tel. 021 467 4660, or Subscribe to The South African Art Times
engagement with a wide range of e-mail pwarne@iziko.org.za.
concerns and forms: the personal R 180 for 12 issues
is given new weight; and issues Go to www.arttimes.co.za for further information

GALLERY : MAGGIE
Featuring:
Maggie Laubser

489 Alsation Road, Faerie Glen, Pretoria

E-mail: sagallery@hotmail.com

Cell: +27 (0) 833754844 –Johan

Tulips , Oil on Board 40cm x50cm
Hout Street Gallery

David and Gail Zetler. 270 Main Street, Paarl, 7646. Phone + 27 (0) 21 872 5030 Fax + 27 (0) 21 872 7133
E-mail: zetler@icon.co.za www.houtstreetgallery.co.za Artwork: Peter Fincham, Afternoon Shadows

Cape Town’s largest contemporary art gallery
exhibiting works by leading South African artists

Exclusive

Carmel Art distributors of
Pieter
66 Vineyard Road, Claremont van der Westhuizen
Ph: 021 671 6601
etchings
Email: carmel@global.co.za
Website: www.carmelart.co.za full selection on website

We’ve been making the worlds finest brushes since 1793- before
Napoleon conquered Europe. The intervening years have given us
time to perfect this art. That’s why Raphael is known as the finest
brush maker in the world. Our ‘Paris Classic’ range was developed for
the impressionists and is still made the same way today. Try them
and banish inferior brushes to St Helena…

Available in leading art shops around South Africa
www.italianartshop.co.za
������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������
������������������������������������������ �����������������������������������
��������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������
�������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������
��������������������������������������������� �����������������������������������������
������������������������������������������ �����������
����������������������������������������� �������������������������������������������
������������������������������������������ ���������������������������������������
�������������������������������������������� ���������������������������������������
�������������������������� ���������������������������������������
�������������������������������������� ��������������������������������
������������������������������������������� ���������������������������������������
����������������������������������������� �������������������������������������
����������� �������������������������������������������
������������������������������������ �������������������������������������������
�������������������������������������� �����������������������������������
�������������������������������� ��������������������������������������
���������������������������������� ����������������������������������������
�������������������������������������� ���������������������������