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They can bite, chomp, chew, crush, nibble, and gnaw. They can be cleaned, crowned, drilled, filled, pulled, capped, and straightened. You can crack them, break them, brush them, and floss them. You can even replace them if you lose them. What are they? WHAT TEETH ARE Teeth are the hardest parts of the human body. They often survive long after the bones, or skeleton, have decayed. Scientists have discovered ancient teeth from animals and humans. These remains help scientists learn about the past. For example, they can tell whether a dinosaur ate other animals or plants from the kind of teeth it had Teeth are hard because they are made mainly of dentin and covered in a thin layer of enamel. Dentin is like bone only harder. Enamel is the hardest material in the body. Within this hard structure is a soft pulp full of blood vessels and nerves. If you have a toothache, it s probably because something is irritating a nerve in the pulp. Yet hard as they are, teeth can decay. Have you ever had a cavity? A cavity is a hole in a tooth. It develops when tiny bacteria eat away at the enamel and dentin. Luckily, a dentist can fill the holes that bacteria make. Once a tooth decay it can more easily crack and break. That s why it s so important to keep teeth .clean. Brushing your teeth helps get rid of bacteria and the bits of food that bacteria feed on. WHAT TEETH DO Teeth do lots of things. They help you eat by tearing, grinding, and chewing food. It s step one in the process of digestion. Teeth also help you talk. Say the word thistle. Did you feel your tongue touch your upper front teeth? You should have felt it twice, on the th and on the l. You need your teeth to create certain sounds in speech. Teeth help determine how you look. They support muscles in your face. If you didn t have teeth, your lips would collapse inward. KINDS OF TEETH Teeth are specialists. That s why your teeth don t all look alike. If your adult teeth have grown in, you ve got four different kinds of teeth.
Your front teeth, or incisors, are flat and sharp. You use these teeth like knives to cut into food. Next to the front teeth are your canines (your fangs!). You use these sharp, pointy teeth for tearing and shredding food. Beyond the canines are the bicuspids and the back teeth, or molars. You use these flatter teeth to chomp and grind. ANIMAL TEETH Animals have even more specialized teeth. They use their teeth for more than just eating. Beavers use their front teeth to gnaw down whole trees. A beaver s front teeth keep on growing. They would lengthen by about 4 feet (1.2 meters) every year if the beaver didn t chisel them down by gnawing. Walruses use their huge canines as hooks when they climb up onto ice. Elephant tusks are the largest teeth in the world. Elephants use them for digging or as weapons. Piranhas are fish that have scissor-like teeth. They use these teeth to cut flesh off prey. Sharks have rows and rows of razor-sharp teeth. If they lose a tooth, a new one grows quickly in its place. The narwhal is a whale that has only two teeth. In male narwhals, one tooth grows forward like a long, twisted sword. Scientists are unsure about the purpose of these teeth, but they have seen narwhals dueling with them. Some poisonous snakes have fangs for teeth. They use their fangs like needles for injections. These snakes bite and deliver deadly poison through their fangs! Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
The joint that joins your upper and lower arm is called the elbow. The outside of your arm is soft. The long bones in your arms and legs have lots of compact bone. There is cartilage in the tip of your nose and in the outer part of your ear. Muscles hook on to bones. It is the smallest bone in your body. Bones of the pelvis (hipbone). It lets you move your lower arm. ribs. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Muscles pull on your bones to make them move. breastbone. Your skeleton holds your body up. The hard part is a bone. There are bones in your arms and in your legs. but there is a hard part inside. Spongy bone is at the ends of arm and leg bones as well. Bones go up the middle of your back. Three tiny bones help you hear. White blood cells help your body fight germs. One of these bones is called the stirrup bone. It bends easily. WHAT ARE JOINTS? Joints are the places where two or more bones meet. They go around your chest. Bones and Skeleton Squeeze your arm. Move your lower arm up and down. Most bones are tied together at joints by tough bands called ligaments. Now swing your arm all around from your shoulder. A joint in your shoulder called a ball-and-socket joint lets you move your arm in many directions. There is cartilage in body parts that must be tough but able to bend. Red and white blood cells are made by bone marrow. Different kinds of joints let you move in different ways. The three bones are deep inside your ears. and walk around. Bones do many other important jobs in your body. . Your rib cage protects your lungs and heart. The center of a bone is filled with bone marrow. Your elbow works like a hinge. sit. Rib bones make a cage around your chest. Keep your upper arm still. Spongy bone usually lies under the compact bone. Your skeleton also contains cartilage. and skull also contain spongy bone. WHAT DO BONES DO? Many bones protect the soft parts inside your body. Compact bone is the hard and smooth part on the outside of a bone. One kind is called compact bone and the other is called spongy bone. Skull bones around your head protect your brain. All of your bones together make up your skeleton. Muscles and bones together let you stand. but only up and down. Cartilage is like bone but softer. WHAT ARE BONES MADE OF? There are two kinds of bone. Bone marrow is soft. backbone. Blood is made in the center of bones. It gives your body its shape.2.
The pieces grow together and heal the broken bone. Bones stop growing longer in adults. thick bones. Sometimes football players or other athletes break bones when they are playing sports. Some bones join together as you get older. Getting enough calcium and exercise can help keep bones from getting weak and thin. Your head and other parts of your skeleton had a lot of cartilage when you were born. New bone starts to grow around the break. in the upper leg. This replacement goes on for as long as you live. The longest and strongest bone in adults is the thighbone. the doctor fits the broken parts of the bone back together. All rights reserved. They are held together in one solid piece by suture joints. Some older people have thin. HOW DO BONES GROW? Bones grow or change as long as you live. Sometimes a broken bone must be put back together with wires or pins. Then. Bones replaced the cartilage as you got older. Running and other exercise also helps build strong. Bones get thicker and longer as you grow taller. . A broken bone should not be used until it is healed. This is called setting the bone. The doctor makes a hard case called a cast for an arm or leg with a broken bone. an X-ray picture shows the doctor what the broken pieces of bone look like. An adult has 206 bones. Bones are replaced a little bit at a time even after they stop growing. Bones keep growing in teenagers. Milk has lots of calcium. Their bones can break easily.Your skull is made of many bones that do not move. WHAT HAPPENS TO BROKEN BONES? Sometimes people have accidents that break bones. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. A doctor has to fix a broken bone. First. weak bones. Your skeleton had more than 300 bones when you were first born. Your body needs a mineral called calcium to keep strong bones. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Maybe they fall out of a tree or down a flight of stairs.
Your body digests. WHAT HAPPENS IN YOUR SMALL INTESTINE? The job of digesting your sandwich gets finished in your small intestine. That bite then begins an amazing journey. starches. You bite off a piece of sandwich. or meat anymore. winding tube. After you chew up the bite of sandwich. you swallow it.Digestive System You eat when you get hungry. Muscles surrounding this tube push the liquid along. proteins. When this happens. The juices break down the food. From there it gets squeezed into your small and large intestines. It then slides down a tube called the esophagus. Your stomach is like a bag made of muscles. It seems so simple. the food into smaller and smaller parts. Your tongue pushes the chewed-up food into your esophagus. It takes your stomach about four hours to do its job. Saliva helps make the bite of chewed-up sandwich soft and wet.3. That bite goes through every part of your digestive system. you can hear your stomach growl. . Food goes from your mouth to your throat. WHERE DOES DIGESTION START? You start to digest food in your mouth. Your esophagus is like a chute that sends the food into your stomach. You start to feel hungry again when your stomach is empty. lettuce. It drops into your stomach. and sugars. Your stomach then sends the liquefied food on to your small intestine. More juices break the food down even further. Your stomach muscles churn the food around to mix it with the juices. The small intestine is by far the longest part of the digestive system. You take a bite out of a sandwich. Your small intestine is a long and narrow. Your mouth waters with a liquid called saliva. The food turns into a liquid in your stomach. That bite of sandwich does not look like bread. Your teeth grind the bite up. Sometimes your stomach muscles start to churn when your stomach is empty. WHAT IS YOUR DIGESTIVE SYSTEM LIKE? Your digestive system is one long. Liquids called digestive juices pour into your stomach. At the end of the journey your blood carries chemicals from your sandwich to every part of your body. or breaks down. twisty tube. The digestive system of a grown-up is 20 to 30 feet (6 to 9 meters) long. WHAT HAPPENS IN YOUR STOMACH? Your stomach breaks down the food even more. It is broken down into chemicals called fats. cheese.
Eventually the food is broken down into chemicals that your body can use. Muscles in your large intestine push the waste along. Your pancreas creates the chemical insulin. Your liver also helps your body store extra food that it cannot use right away. They go into tiny blood vessels just outside the wall. The waste gets pushed out of your body through an opening called the anus. All rights reserved. The leftovers go into your large intestine. run. There are some leftovers that get to the end of your small intestine. Your large intestine takes water out of the leftovers. . WHAT HAPPENS IN YOUR LARGE INTESTINE? Your large intestine is shorter and thicker than your small intestine. Your liver and gallbladder help digest fats in foods. It also takes out some vitamins and minerals. The food chemicals go from your blood into your cells. Your cells use the chemicals to make the energy you need to do your homework. Insulin helps your body use sugar. Bacteria that live in your large intestine break down any leftover food. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. Your blood carries them to every part of your body. What is left in your large intestine is solid waste. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Your blood picks up the chemicals. It goes from your colon to your rectum. Other organs around your small intestine help it digest food. and play. These chemicals go through the wall of your small intestine. Bacteria are tiny living things that you can only see with a microscope.
Little blood vessels called capillaries take blood to your cells. You can feel your heart pumping. One of these waste products is a gas called carbon dioxide. Tubes called arteries come out of your heart. When you run very fast. Your cells give off waste products when they make energy from food and oxygen. Every part of your body needs food and oxygen for energy. Capillaries connect to bigger veins. It is divided into four parts called chambers. Heart and Circulation Did you ever send a valentine with the shape of a heart on it? Did you ever hear someone say. the bottom chamber. First. The chambers on the bottom are called ventricles. Your right atrium pumps the blood into your right ventricle. . Your heart is a pump. your heart pumps hard and fast. pump blood out to every part of your body. The two chambers on top are called atria. Your ventricles. The chambers are hollow inside. It is just off to the left side. Arteries and veins are also called blood vessels. That came straight from my heart? People talk about hearts a lot. You have a heart. THE HEART PUMPS BLOOD Your heart pumps blood. or beating. Your heart does not look like a valentine heart. Blood going out of your heart carries food and oxygen. The arteries get smaller and smaller the farther out they go. Big arteries carry the blood to your legs and arms. The pumping of your heart pushes the blood through your veins. You need energy for your body to work and for you to stay alive. Blood comes into the atria or top chambers of your heart.4. Tubes called veins go into your heart. Your right ventricle pumps the blood through an artery into your lungs. WHAT DOES A HEART LOOK LIKE? Your heart looks like an upside-down pear. It is about the size of your closed fist. Everything in your body is made of tiny cells. Your heart also has four valves that let blood in and out of the chambers. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BLOOD IN VEINS? Your veins carry blood back to your heart. People have always known that hearts are very important. Your heart pumps blood carrying food and oxygen through your arteries. the blood comes into your right atrium. or bottom chambers. Your heart is made of muscle. the top chamber. The blood in your capillaries picks up the waste products. The chambers on the right side of your heart take care of blood coming back through your veins. It is almost in the middle of your chest.
Carbon dioxide from your blood goes into your lungs. It has to get a fresh supply of oxygen. . To open and close your fist. The special arteries that bring blood and oxygen to the heart muscle can clog up. The main way to keep your heart healthy. Blood cannot flow through clogged arteries. Your body needs more oxygen when you run. is not to smoke. Now your blood is ready to go out through your arteries to all the parts of your body. Your lungs fill up with oxygen. HOW DOES THE HEART PUMP? Make a fist. or top chamber. Your brain tells your heart to pump over and over again. Then you breathe in. and low-fat meats is another way to keep your heart healthy. Your heart pumps when you are asleep. You don t have to think about squeezing your heart muscles. Your blood picks up a new supply of oxygen from your lungs. HOW TO KEEP THE HEART HEALTHY Hearts can get sick. All rights reserved. Your lungs take care of both jobs. however. Your lungs get rid of the carbon dioxide when you breathe out. The muscles in your heart squeeze the chambers. Special veins send blood from your lungs to your left atrium. It has pumped about 179 million quarts (169 million liters) of blood. The blood goes from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Open and close your fist again and again. They can clog up with clumps of fat called plaque. Open your fist slightly. vegetables. Clogged arteries can cause heart attacks.WHAT HAPPENS TO BLOOD IN THE LUNGS? Your blood has to get rid of carbon dioxide. The heart of a 76year-old person has beat nearly 2. Exercise is one way to keep your heart healthy. day and night.8 billion times. Your heart pumps when you are awake. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. The chambers on the left side of your heart take care of blood going out through your arteries. you have to think about doing it. You should have regular physical checkups. No one can live if their heart stops beating for more than a few minutes. The left ventricle pumps the blood out through your arteries to every part of your body. This is sort of how your heart pumps blood. It beats over and over again. and then squeeze it closed. Your lungs get oxygen from breathing in air. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. Your heart is better than any pump made. Eating fruits. Your heart pumps faster when you run fast.
but they all work together to keep you alive. Some signals from your brain control your muscles. and other organs are at work 24 hours a day for your entire life. Some joints can move a lot. Your blood vessels could stretch all the way around the planet! White blood cells stand guard like soldiers waiting to attack any invader. The systems work together to keep you alive and healthy. There are too many parts inside you to count. Your heart. BONES AND MUSCLES The bones and muscles of your body let you move around. Each system has a job to do in your body. It sends blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen. Your brain sends signals that tell the muscles in your legs to move. hollow tubes. The muscles get their orders to move from your brain and nerves. Nerves tell your brain what your eyes see. Muscles attached to bones pull on them to make your body move. They tell your brain when you stub your toe. The connections are called joints. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood out to your body. Human Body Your body is amazing. You do not have to think about some of the signals your brain sends out through your nerves. Your lower leg at your knee joint can only move back and forth. The many parts of your body are grouped into systems. Suppose you want to walk across the street. lungs. . Did you know you have more than 200 bones and 600 muscles? Your nerves carry messages from your brain to make those muscles cooperate so you can stand up and move around. Your brain sends signals through your nerves. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to your heart. No machine is as complex as you are. Your heart pumps blood through blood vessels. Your arm at your shoulder joint can move in circles. the blood vessels are smaller. Your nervous system tells your heart to beat and your lungs to breathe even when you are sleeping. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Your brain and nerves make up your nervous system. It pumps blood out to all parts of your body. Your brain is the command center of your body. Nerves also send signals back to your brain.5. The bones in your skull have special joints that cannot move at all. The blood vessels near your heart are thick. Tough bands called ligaments connect your bones to each other. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Your circulatory system is made up of your heart and blood vessels. Blood vessels are flexible. stomach. Farther from your heart.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Respiration is breathing. The air contains oxygen. The endocrine system is made up of glands. They carry away waste products. . a waste gas. which differs in males and females. You use your lungs to breathe. Your blood carries the nutrients to all parts of your body. Glands control how your body burns food for energy. Special white blood cells and chemical watchdogs called antibodies stand guard. One is the reproductive system. They control how fast you grow and do many other important things in the body. Many T cells get stored in little pouches called lymph nodes. The pituitary gland under the brain is the master gland of the body. They give up oxygen and nutrients that your body needs.The tiniest blood vessels are called capillaries. The male reproductive system makes sperm. Your lungs send carbon dioxide out of your body when you breathe out. Nutrients pass through the walls of your intestine and into your blood. Your body gets rid of any leftover waste products. Solid waste products go to your large intestine. Some people call this swollen glands. All rights reserved. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. It controls the activities of other glands. Lymph nodes in your neck and other places sometimes swell up when your body is fighting off germs. Capillaries go all through your body. You breathe air into your lungs. a gas you need in order to live. Food goes from your stomach to your small intestine. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. You get rid of these waste products as feces. OTHER SYSTEMS Your body has other systems. It goes into your stomach where it gets broken down even more. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Your digestive system is like a long tube that goes down through your body. IMMUNE SYSTEM Your immune system defends against germs and other things that make you sick. Liquid waste products go to your kidneys. Blood in your lungs picks up the oxygen and carries it to all parts of your body. An egg fertilized by sperm grows into a baby. Sometimes antibodies grab onto a germ that shows up. You swallow the ground-up food. White blood cells called T cells attack germs directly. White blood cells and other chemical weapons of the immune system rush to find and destroy the germ. Blood coming back to your lungs gives off carbon dioxide. Your teeth grind up food in your mouth and mix it with saliva. The female reproductive system makes eggs. It breaks down food so that your body can use it for energy. Your digestive system breaks down the food you eat. You get rid of these waste products as urine.
THE TRIP OUT The air in your alveoli sends oxygen into your blood. Inside your lungs. Your heart is in between your lungs. and even some fish have lungs. your lungs empty out. When you breathe out. So far. Your heart is like a big pump. your lungs fill up with air. If you are running or playing hard. Lungs are the body organs you use for breathing. You probably breathe about 20 times every minute. or trachea. First it goes down the back of your throat. The job of the air in your alveoli is to bring oxygen into your body and take carbon dioxide out. The twigs end in tiny air sacs called alveoli. Capillaries reach every cell in your body and drop off the oxygen. birds.6. It doesn t matter whether the air goes to the right lung or the left lung. What happens to all this air? It goes to your lungs. Your lungs are inside a big cave in your body called your chest cavity. All mammals. THE TRIP BACK . that air takes off on an incredible journey. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are two invisible gases in air. most amphibians. AIR TAKES A TRIP When you inhale air through your nose or your mouth. In your cells. past your voice box. The blood vessels that deliver oxygen are called arteries. First. Lungs and Breathing Take a deep breath. of this cavity are made of thick muscles and bones called ribs. Your lungs are like two big sponges inside your chest. It sends the oxygen-filled blood whooshing off to all parts of your body. The other is on the left side. Arteries branch off into smaller and smaller tubes. Inside the alveoli the air really goes to work. blood full of oxygen goes to your heart. the bronchi are like upside-down trees. Both lungs do the same job. The muscles and ribs also protect your lungs from getting hurt. the oxygen works with food to make energy for you. Feel how your chest swells. reptiles. The tiniest blood vessels are called capillaries. Every time you breathe in. or walls. you might take 80 breaths a minute. The sides. Your trachea is like a tunnel that branches off into two more tunnels called bronchial tubes or bronchi. Its job is to keep you alive. and into your windpipe. Your blood flows through a system of tubes called blood vessels. The muscles make the walls move out and in when you inhale or exhale. or inhale. This makes your lungs fill up or empty out. One lung is on the right side of your chest cavity. Lungs inside your body are filling up with air. or exhale. the air has just been along for the ride. Each bronchial tube goes off to one of your lungs. They split into smaller and smaller branches and then into many twigs. The secret to doing this job is blood.
Plants use the carbon dioxide that you and other animals exhale. Carbon dioxide and sunlight help plants make food. A waste product that plants give off is the oxygen that you need for life. The best thing you can do for your lungs is to not smoke. This waste has got to go. Carbon dioxide is a waste product. Diseases caused by smoking can be deadly. It is very important to keep your lungs healthy. Smoking tobacco causes other lung diseases.After your blood drops off the oxygen in your body s cells. . People with emphysema have trouble getting enough oxygen in their blood. Your heart pumps the blood into your lungs. your blood drops off the carbon dioxide in your alveoli. Taking oxygen into your body and giving off carbon dioxide is called respiration. So your blood carries it back to your lungs. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. The story gets even better. These are serious health problems. Smoking also makes asthma and chronic bronchitis worse. it picks up carbon dioxide. KEEPING YOUR LUNGS HEALTHY Germs can cause lung diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia. The carbon dioxide leaves the opposite way that the oxygen came in. such as lung cancer and emphysema. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. These conditions make breathing difficult. Veins carry blood back to your heart. It is created when your body cells use oxygen and food to make energy. The blood vessels that carry blood full of carbon dioxide are called veins. Finally. All rights reserved. Your lungs push carbon dioxide out of your body when you exhale.
cancer. Physician s assistants sometimes work in places where there is no doctor nearby.7. Other specialists do surgery. Many other people also contribute to medical care. Medical Care Do you ever visit the doctor? Sometimes people visit doctors because they are not feeling very well. Sometimes the doctor tells you your body will get well on its own. Special nurses called nurse practitioners do many things that doctors once did. nurses probably took care of you. Sometimes people visit doctors for a physical examination. The doctor looks into your nose. Some doctors are specialists. Nurses help doctors do examinations and give treatments. They also talk to a physician by telephone or e-mail. Some surgeons fix broken bones and replace knees and hips. Laboratory technicians also examine blood samples for signs of illness. the doctor examines you with a stethoscope. Other medical imaging tools can show if there are any clumps of abnormal cells called tumors inside the body. medical imaging technicians take X rays of the bones. Medical laboratory technicians study this material to see if there are disease-causing germs. Different kinds of specialists treat heart disease. The pictures show if any bones are broken. . Nurses. for example. and other diseases. or checkup. arthritis. Have you had your tonsils out? Did you go to the hospital? If you did. The doctor uses the stethoscope to listen to your heartbeat and to the sound your lungs make when you breathe. Then the doctor diagnoses your problem. are very important to medical care. Psychologists and psychiatrists work on mental health. Nurses care for sick patients. your doctor may take some mucus from the inside of your throat. They diagnose what is causing an illness and prescribe drugs. They do many of the things that doctors do. WHAT DO DOCTORS DO? Doctors try to diagnose. or figure out. Surgical nurses help with operations. Dentists look after your teeth. Sometimes the doctor orders drugs to help you. Nurse-midwives deliver babies and care for mothers. ears. WHAT DO OTHER MEDICAL WORKERS DO? If you have a sore throat. If you have a sore throat or a bad cough. lungs. When people fall and hurt themselves. Some specialists only treat children or old people. Visits to doctors are part of medical care. and livers. and throat and may order some laboratory tests. They have extra training. WHAT DO NURSES DO? Many other people besides doctors provide medical care. Surgeons can take out diseased organs and even replace hearts. what makes people sick.
Prehistoric people danced and made magic charms to drive the spirits away. Some doctors work in a clinic. BEFORE MODERN MEDICAL CARE People long ago thought evil spirits caused disease. The doctor cut a blood vessel and drained out some blood. If you broke a bone. You may have seen a doctor in a hospital. you probably went to the emergency room at a hospital for medical care. Hippocrates. They have made discoveries that saved millions of lives. Until the mid-1800s. They thought this brought the humors back into balance. Researchers also found vaccines that protect against smallpox. One of the greatest medical research discoveries was that bacteria. or a big medical center. There were few cures for serious illness. doctors used the ideas of Hippocrates and Galen to treat illnesses. and other microscopic germs cause infections. however. called the father of medicine. Most doctors share an office with other doctors. Medical researchers work in research laboratories. Then they try to find treatments to cure or prevent the disease. They called these fluids humors. doctors could carry all their instruments and medicines in one little black bag. Doctors used bleeding as a treatment for almost all illnesses. Many of their ideas were wrong. polio. a hospital. viruses. Researchers in the mid-1900s discovered antibiotics. Until the mid1800s. French scientist Louis Pasteur and German scientist Robert Koch in the 1800s showed that germs spread disease. Nurses work in many of the same places as doctors. drugs that cure infections by killing bacteria. Making sure people had germ-free water and food stopped deadly diseases such as cholera and typhoid. WHAT DO MEDICAL RESEARCHERS DO? You never see some of the people who take part in your medical care. The ancient Greeks were the first to understand that evil spirits and gods do not cause disease. Vaccines work by getting the body ready to kill these germs if they attack. Doctors also gave powerful drugs to clean harmful poisons from the body. Medical researchers try to find the cause of diseases.WHERE DO YOU RECEIVE MEDICAL CARE? You may have visited the doctor in an office. . and another Greek physician named Galen believed that disease was caused by an imbalance of four body fluids. and other diseases caused by viruses. Other ancient peoples thought that illness was a punishment from the gods. Sometimes they cut a hole in the sick person s head to let the evil spirit out.
exercise. British surgeon Joseph Lister showed how to make operating rooms germ-free. Genes are the basic units of heredity. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. Operating rooms were filthy. Others occur later on. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. All rights reserved. Through genes. surgeons learned how to perform longer. Genes are made of DNA. Genes also give instructions to our body s cells. They tell us to eat nutritious food. Operations once had to be done quickly because there was no way to put patients to sleep. These drugs. more complicated operations to save lives. With anesthetics. Doctors do not yet have good treatments for diseases caused by genetic problems. After germ theory was discovered by Pasteur and Koch. . reduce pain during surgery. avoid smoking. and have regular physical checkups.Doctors performed surgical operations. and surgeons did not even wash their hands. Most operations in the 1800s were amputations of arms and legs. Ether and other drugs let surgeons put patients to sleep during operations. parents transmit traits such as eye color to their children. the gene can make trouble. Some problems with genes appear at birth. WHAT S NEXT? Medical researchers are now looking for ways to cure diseases caused by problems with genes. About half of the surgical patients died from infection. called anesthetics. A doctor and a dentist first used ether in the 1840s. If something goes wrong with its DNA. Doctors and researchers are also working to prevent diseases by helping people lead healthy lives.
you could not survive! There are three kinds of memory: sense memory. but they connect one moment to the next. Erie. students sometimes memorize the Great Lakes with the word homes. A mnemonic device puts information into a form that s easy to remember. Sense memories last only a few seconds. IMPROVING MEMORY Learning and remembering are connected. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. That way. A memory usually stays in your working memory for just a few days at most. For example. All rights reserved. WORKING MEMORY You keep a few items in working memory. and what you are doing. You ll probably remember the number for a little while. In long-term memory. and Superior. people have trouble finding a particular long-term memory. too. It stands for Lakes Huron. But if you get distracted. you are bringing up memories that are stored in your long-term memory. LONG-TERM MEMORY Memories you want to keep for a long time go into your long-term memory. you use it every moment of every day. Only a small number of items fit into it at any given time. you can store what you ve learned in your long-term memory. Everything you are sensing right now is stored here. working memory. even though they are quickly forgotten. Perhaps you feel the Sun on your face or smell the aroma of food. Have you ever struggled to remember a familiar name or fact? When this happens. These are memories you need for what you are doing. You remember who you are. where you live. you might quickly forget it. Can you remember how to play your favorite game? Do you recall your first birthday party? If so. The trick to remembering something is learning it well in the first place. and longterm memory. One way to improve your memory of something is by using a mnemonic (neh-MON-ick) device. Suppose you look up a friend s telephone number in the phone book. They give your life a flow. . Michigan.8. people sometimes say the information is on the tip of the tongue. They can stay with you all your life. Memory Is memory important to you? How often do you think you use yours? Actually. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Ontario. Think of them as three connected rooms in which you store different kinds of memories. Working memory has another limit. Without memory. you can store a huge number of items. SENSE MEMORY The first kind of memory is sense memory. Sometimes.
Sponges reproduce in simple ways. the female eggs to form new cells. Some female animals store sperm in their bodies until they are ready to lay eggs. Bumps called buds form on the body of a sponge. Frogs. Spiders. Males put their sperm near the floating eggs. or join with. There is only one parent. WHAT IS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION? Sexual reproduction means that there are two parents. toads. The offspring (children) get half of their genes from each parent. Males have sex cells called sperm. and people reproduce in more complicated ways. Spiders and queen bees are animals that store sperm. They all have the same genes as the parent. In many other animals.9. The male spider is not really dating the female. HOW DOES A SPERM FERTILIZE AN EGG? In some animals. He brings a gift so the female will not mistake him for dinner and eat him. WHAT IS COURTSHIP? Most animals have a time of courtship before they mate. WHAT IS ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION? Asexual reproduction means that there are no male and female parents. Reproduction Do spiders date? Do sponges have parents? Are there boy plants and girl plants? All these questions have to do with reproduction. polar bears. the male sperm fertilize. Budding is a form of asexual reproduction. They determine the traits of offspring. Genes are found in the cells of all living organisms and are passed on to the organism s offspring. Sponges reproduce by budding. the egg gets fertilized outside the female s body. Male birds show off colorful feathers. The female eggs of sharks. The sperm find and fertilize the eggs. Females have sex cells called eggs. Male and female fireflies flash their lights. plants. and most female fish lay eggs in the water. When animals mate. Every species (kind) of living thing reproduces. . Human males and females date. Each parent has different genes. and human beings are fertilized inside the female s body. such as blue or brown eyes and straight or curly hair in humans. Some male spiders bring a dead fly to a female. wolves. Reproduction is how a species survives. the male deposits its sperm inside the female s body and the egg gets fertilized there. Frogs croak to get the attention of females. The buds break off and become new sponges. But there are just two basic ways of reproducing: by asexual or sexual reproduction. All the offspring (new organisms) that develop are just like the parent. Animals court by instinct. Two sets of genes make the offspring different from their parents.
The male and female parts are in the flowers of some plants. HOW DO PLANTS REPRODUCE? Plants can reproduce asexually or sexually. . The egg grows inside the pistil. Put each piece in a cup. The eggs are protected by a shell. When an embryo is fully formed. The female part is called a pistil. Plants reproduce asexually by growing new parts. Cut a potato into several pieces. Bees. Some plant species have different male and female plants. All rights reserved. frogs. and birds are animals that lay eggs. The shell holds food for the growing embryo. crocodiles. Soon you will see new potato plants growing. turtles. and even the wind carry the pollen to the pistils. Plants that grow from seeds reproduce sexually. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. The male part is called a stamen.HOW DOES A FERTILIZED EGG GROW? A fertilized egg divides again and again to become an embryo. Humans develop as embryos. But in many species. the male and female parts are on the same plant. Alligators. the babies must break out of their shells. Set the cup in sunlight and give it water. You can watch a potato reproduce asexually. Once grown. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Other animals lay eggs outside their bodies. the mother gives birth. The sperm is called pollen. Embryos grow inside the bodies of female mammals and some other animals. fish. birds.
dirt. The taste buds can only detect four tastes: sweet. the nose collects the molecules of substances that cause odors. That s why food is so rich and varied in taste. too. your taste buds don t work well either. That s where the smelling gets done. The nasal cavity is the big space behind your nostrils. one of them is dirty socks. and long or short. Smell plays a big part in the sense of taste. It s what gets stuffed up and swollen when you have a cold. cartilage (tough tissue). and you recognize it. The size. shape. and bitter. Once inside the nose. the answer is yes! Even though the nose is the organ of smell. and insects that you might take in when you breathe. and hearing. That s because there are nerve endings called olfactory nerves located there. The stiff hairs in the nostrils help keep out dust. THE NOSE There are all kinds of noses in the animal world: big or small. these nerve endings send a signal to your brain. taste. Smelling takes place deep inside the nasal cavity. sight. and health of your nose help determine the way your voice sounds. Pinch your nose shut and talk. what we call the nose is the formation of bone. the air you breathe is warmed and moistened in the big nasal cavity before going to the lungs. In people. It s one of the five senses. The others are touch. sour. too.000 different odors! Unfortunately. salty.10. The nose has two openings called nostrils. and skin on the front of the face. When that happens. Most people can detect about 10. You actually smell stuff somewhere roughly between your eyes! When a molecule that represents an odor hits the olfactory nerves. The brain then determines what the smell is. They allow air to come in and go out. There s an inside part that you can t see. That s also why if your nose is blocked up. Your sense of smell adds to these tastes. would you still be able to smell? Believe it or not. it s only the outside part. The nose has other functions. Nose and Smell Here s a question: If you lost your nose. flat or round. . Can you hear the difference? SMELL Smell is the detection of odors.
Many animals have noses with extra talents. Its ability to smell is that good! Can you imagine finding your way home from school only using your nose? Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Horses and camels can open and close their nostrils the way you can open and close your eyes. the nose and sense of smell are crucial to survival. Years later. It helps them keep dirt or sand out when the wind is blowing. The elephant s trunk is long like an arm and useful like a hand. All rights reserved. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. They can help animals tell friends from enemies and find mates. . A young salmon will travel thousands of miles downriver and into the ocean to live. It s a trumpet when an elephant calls.ANIMAL NOSES For most animals. it can use its sense of smell to return to the exact place it was born. and it s a hose that allows an elephant to drink or give itself a shower. They help animals find food.
A germ called a fungus causes athlete s foot. Diabetes. Sometimes babies can inherit (get from their parents) a disease that occurs later in life. Sick people get these germs on their hands. WHAT ELSE CAUSES DISEASE? Contact with poisons can cause disease. . HOW DO GERMS SPREAD? Many germs spread in coughs and sneezes. many people in Europe and North America died from diseases called cholera and typhoid. Diseases caused by germs are called infectious diseases. Smoking tobacco can cause lung cancer and other lung diseases. babies are born with diseases or birth defects. Bacteria are living things made of just one cell. The germs that cause these diseases live in dirty water. high blood pressure. Lead in drinking water or paint can cause mental problems in children. The kinds of diseases that are contagious (catching) are caused by microscopic germs.11. polio. Malaria is caused by a germ called a protozoan. and AIDS. chicken pox. flu. Parkinson disease. Disease Is it catching? People sometimes ask this question when they hear that someone is sick. They are talking about a kind of human disease. measles. Arthritis. Drinking lots of alcohol can damage the brain and liver. Protozoans are made of one cell and are like tiny animals. and Alzheimer s disease are diseases that most often occur as people age. Viruses are even tinier than bacteria. mumps. Germs called viruses cause colds. and muscular dystrophy are diseases that people can inherit. Washing your hands regularly can help keep you safe from many diseases caused by germs. and food poisoning are some of the diseases caused by germs called bacteria. Other human diseases can be caused by many things. strep throat. Mad cow disease may be caused by a strange bit of protein called a prion. These diseases are still a problem in poor countries. Long ago. Sometimes. You can pick up these germs by touching a doorknob or something else that a sick person touched. Clogged blood vessels cause heart disease. WHAT DISEASES DO GERMS CAUSE? Pneumonia. Good sewers and clean water stopped the spread of these diseases in many countries. Many older people get diseases caused by body parts wearing out.
Doctors have drugs that can slow the AIDS virus. Researchers in laboratories are looking for ways to help people with these diseases. sailors on long voyages often died of scurvy. flu. Pain can be a sign of disease. WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF DISEASE? Chills and fever are often signs of diseases that are caused by germs. Doctors give drugs to lower high blood pressure. Vaccinations help your body fight off disease. Doctors can kill most disease-causing bacteria with drugs called antibiotics. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Scurvy makes the skin bleed and teeth fall out. . This system is called the immune system. Getting plenty of sleep and exercise and eating the right foods can help keep you healthy. Some diseases have no signs that you can see or feel. Touching poison ivy can cause an itchy rash. Not eating the right foods can cause disease. Doctors tell people it is best to keep from getting diseases. The rash is a sign of an allergy. HOW DO DOCTORS TREAT DISEASES? Doctors treat many kinds of diseases with medicines. and some other diseases caused by viruses. Trouble breathing can be a sign of asthma. and some other viruses. You cannot see or feel high blood pressure. All rights reserved. Your body can fight off colds and flu. Doctors treat some diseases with surgery. polio. Not having enough vitamins can cause some diseases. Allergies come from the immune system fighting too much. measles. The body cannot fight off AIDS. Some diseases doctors cannot yet cure or even treat. A lack of vitamin C causes scurvy. polio. Asthma is a breathing problem caused by the immune system. People can die from a bad asthma attack. They use surgery to take out diseased organs or tumors. Itchy eyes and a runny nose can be a sign of hay fever or other allergy. Some diseases can only be found during a physical exam by a doctor. Hundreds of years ago. Doctors cannot really cure diseases caused by viruses. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. It is important to have regular checkups. A diseased appendix or other organ causes pain. Doctors can vaccinate you against some diseases caused by viruses.Some diseases are caused by the body s disease-fighting system. There are vaccines against chicken pox.
love. It looks like a lump of pinkish-gray jelly. and fear all come from your brain. The cerebral cortex is the outer part of the cerebrum. The surface of the brain is wrinkled. Nerves from your eyes and ears go to parts of the cerebrum that let you see and hear. The right side of your brain controls the left side of your body. sadness. Nerves from the right and left side of your body cross over when they enter your brain. your brain weighed about pounds (about 0. Your cerebrum also gets signals from your senses. By the time you reach the age of 20. see through eyes. You don t even have to think about many of the things your brain does. hear someone talking. Your brain is protected by bone called your skull. When you were born. and taste. Nerves carry signals to your cerebrum that let you feel. Your brain has three main parts. The left side of your brain controls the right side of your body. especially your cerebral cortex. . Liquid and skinlike tissues also protect your brain.35 kilograms).12. even when you are sleeping. Your cerebrum solves problems and makes wishes. Your brain keeps on growing while you grow up.3 kilograms). and deep grooves divide it into sections. Your cerebrum and cerebellum are divided into two parts. It tells your lungs to breathe in and out. Such feelings as joy. A network of blood vessels brings oxygen and food to your brain cells and carries away wastes. It tells your legs to walk and run. talk back. draw pictures. and network with devices that make snacks in the microwave oven? Your brain and nervous system can do all these things. Nerves carry the signals. Brain and Nervous System What kind of supercomputer can write stories. WHAT IS MY BRAIN MADE OF? Your brain is made of about 100 billion nerve cells. smell. and emotions come from your cerebrum. The parts are called the cerebrum. do math problems. Your brain also controls your feelings. All of your thinking goes on in your cerebrum. language. anger. The cerebellum is underneath the back part of the cerebrum. your brain will weigh about 3 pounds (1. Your brain also sends signals through a network called your nervous system. the cerebellum. and the brain stem. It tells your hands and arms to put popcorn in the microwave. The cerebrum makes up the largest part of the brain. WHAT DOES THE CEREBRUM DO? Your cerebrum makes up most of your brain. Your brain tells your heart to beat. Speech. play games. The brain stem connects with the spinal cord at the bottom of the brain. These parts are called the right brain and the left brain. Do you think a computer will ever be as powerful as your brain? You think with your brain.
© 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. or backbone. guitar. jump rope. It starts in your neck and goes down your back. The nervous system carries messages to your muscles and organs. It keeps your lungs breathing air. WHAT DOES THE CEREBELLUM DO? Your cerebellum coordinates and fine-tunes your body movements.Your cerebrum sends messages out along nerves. or violin. The messages tell your legs to walk or run. WHAT DOES THE BRAIN STEM DO? Your brain stem takes care of all the things that you do but don t need to think about doing. Nerves from the spinal cord extend to the tips of your fingers and toes. . It makes your eyes blink. Your spine. spinal cord. All rights reserved. Your cerebellum helps your fingers play the piano. It keeps your heart pumping blood. It pulls your hand back really fast if you touch a hot pot on the stove. Your cerebellum controls how you swing the bat and make contact with the ball. Nerves go out from the spinal cord to other parts of your body. These messages tell your body what to do. WHAT IS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? Your nervous system consists of the brain. protects your spinal cord. It helps you keep your balance when you run. They tell your arm and hand to wave when you see a friend across the street. or walk along a curb. Your spinal cord is made of bundles of nerves. and nerves that run throughout your body. Your cerebrum might tell your hands and arms to hit a baseball. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005.
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