Recycling involves processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce

the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.

Recycling is a

key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste ± such as food or garden waste ± is not typically considered recycling.

Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or

picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing. In a strict sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material²for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper, or used foamed polystyrene into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e.g.,paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., leadfrom car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from various items). Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs, and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection and transportation detract from (and outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring controversy. Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport.[1] Persons engaged in cycling arecyclists.[2] or bicyclists.[3] Apart from ordinary two-wheeled bicycles, cycling also includes riding unicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, and other similar human-powered vehicles (HPVs). Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide.[4] They are the principal means of transportation in many regions.

and access to both roads and paths. The number of casualties in Minamata is 6. In various ways (for example. The advantages are at less financial cost to the user as well as society (negligible damage to roads. including exercise. longer travel time (except in densely populated areas). In the 1970s. activism.500 as of November 2006. greater maneuverability. In the 1960s. thousands of inhabitants of Minamata City in Kumamoto Prefecture were poisoned by methylmercury drained from the chemical factory. "ouch ouch sickness") which causes severe pain in the back and joints. Consumers Union of Japan was founded in 1969 to deal with health problems and false claims by companies. An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behavior by supporting practices such as not being wasteful. . much reduced traffic congestion and likelihood of causing a fatality. difficulty in transporting passengers. known as theMinamata disease. chronic arsenic poisoning attributed to dust from arsenic mines occurred in Shimane and Miyazaki prefectures. Consumers Union of Japan led the opposition to nuclear power. easier parking. lit. and education in order to protect natural resources andecosystems. particularly [7] with motor vehicles. and less pavement required). Cadmium poisoning from industrial waste inToyama Prefecture was discovered to be the cause of the extremely painful itai-itai disease (       Itai itai by ?.Cycling is an extremely efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. a port in Mie Prefecture. and no new cases have been recorded since 1946. [6] [5] Criticisms and disadvantages of cycling include reduced protection in crashes. Bicycles provide numerous benefits compared to motor vehicles. and the skill and fitness required Environmentalism can also be seen as a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying. and degeneration of the kidneys. contributes to brittle bones that fracture easily. In Yokkaichi. air pollution caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions led to a rapid increase in the number of people suffering from asthma andbronchitis. no air or noise pollution. grassroots activism and protests). vulnerability to weather conditions. Recovery of cadmium effluent halted the spread of the disease. as Japan's rampant industrial development was seen as causing problems for consumers and citizens. environmentalists and environmental organizationsseek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. calling for a nation-wide Anti-Nuclear Power Week Campaign. In urban areas photochemical smog from automotive and industrial exhaust fumes also caused the rise in respiratory problems.[2] [edit]History Causes of deteriorationCurrent Japanese environmental policy and regulations were the consequence of a number of environmental disasters in 1950s and 1960s. In the early 1970s. an alternative to the use of fossil fuels.

[8] some raise objections against the plan to construct further plants. Indonesia.[10] . Japan. but citizens' groups oppose strongly against the plan. and host of the 1997 conference which created it. The United States. Japan is under treaty obligations to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions level by 6% less than the level in 1990. Chile. Waste management Japan has of recent taken a much more proactive approach to waste management.[6] and to take other steps related to curbing climate change. Because of the depletion of ocean stocks in the late 20th century. [edit]Global warming Main article: Climate change in Japan As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol. Japan's total annual fish catch has been diminishing rapidly. This of course is in response to the lack of affordable space available for landfill sites. occupies the large part of international fish trade. Their approach relies heavily on four major factors: 1) technological advancements in incineration 2) technological advancements in plastics recycling 3) Comprehensive production-side recycle stream package labeling and 4) wide consumer-side/household participation in recycling and waste material separation ("bunbetsu"). following China and Peru.. Some local cities announced a plan to conduct an environmental study at the disposal site. fish and its products are more prominent than other types of meat. along with the United States and the European Union. Japan is the world¶s fifth biggest emission emitter [7] The Cool Biz campaign introduced under former Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi was targeted at reducing energy use through the reduction of air conditioning use in government offices. [edit]Fishery and whaling Main articles: Fishing industry in Japan and Whaling in Japan In the Japanese diets. In particular. the site of theunderground nuclear-waste repository for the HLW and LLW has not yet decided. While majorities of citizens generally support the use of existing nuclear reactors. Japanese city and prefectural authorities have focused on the reduction of solid waste going to landfill.[9] Japanese fish catches were the third in the world in 2000. The treatment of radioactive wastes also became a subject of discussion in Japan. the Russian Federation and India were other major countries. New spent-nuclearfuel reprocessing plant was constructed in Rokkasho in 2008. [edit]Nuclear policy See also: Nuclear power in Japan Japan maintains one third of its electric production from nuclear power plants.

By 2004. . [edit]Urban planning Densely packed buildings in Hamamatsucho. and the development of the following decades. yellowfin and albacore. with an emphasis on interconnectivity to support long-term sustainability. led to even further urbanization and construction. bigeye. Examples include clean waterand healthy soils. and while Japan maintains a great many parks and other natural spaces. Tokyo. and the industry's lobbying power preventing the introduction of stricter zoning laws and other environmental protection efforts. Japanese government started its whaling for research purposes the following year. who say that the program is not for scientific research. there are few major restrictions on where and how construction can be undertaken. as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Japan has a quarter of the world supply of the five big species: bluefin. [11] After the moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986.[1][2] In particular there is an emphasis on the "life support" functions provided by a network of natural ecosystems. Alec Hyde and Eugene Victoria. of a number of authors who focuses heavily on the environmental problems related to Japan's construction industry. in their books "Lost Japan" and "Dogs & Demons". even in the hearts of its cities. The massive nationwide rebuilding efforts in the aftermath of World War II. [edit]Electronic [12] is one waste management Main article: Electronic waste in Japan Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990s that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. the number of adult Atlantic bluefin tuna capable of spawning had plummeted to roughly 19 percent of the 1975 level in the western half of the ocean. This whaling program has been criticized by environmental protection groups and anti-whaling countries. southern bluefin. The construction industry in Japan is one of its largest.

especially in a compact and bustling country like Englandwhere pressures on land are particularly acute.1 UK applications 1.[3][4] This use of the term "green infrastructure" to refer to urban "green" best management practices (BMPs). does contribute to the over health of natural ecosystems. Where life support functions are found to be lacking. acts as a nature reserve.[5] The term "green infrastructure" is sometimes expanded to "multifunctional" green infrastructure. provides a recreational green space and could also be productively farmed (probably through grazing). mechanisms that safeguard critical natural areas. to treat polluted runoff. [edit]UK applications In the United Kingdom. regional and local . An example might be an urban edge river flood plain which provides a repository for flood waters. or engineered systems that mimic natural systems. although not central to the larger concept. through regulatory or planning policy.The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has extended the concept to apply to the management of stormwater runoff at the local level through the use of natural systems.2 US applications 2 GIS applications 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links [edit]Planning approach The Green Infrastructure approach analyses the natural environment in a way that highlights its function and subsequently seeks to put in place. Multifunctionality in this context refers to the integration and interaction of different functions or activities on the same piece of land. Contents [hide] 1 Planning approach o o 1. plans may propose how these can be put in place through landscaped and/orengineered improvements. Green Infrastructure planning is increasingly recognised as a valuable approach for spatial planning and is now seen in national. This is key to the efficient and sustainable use of land.

[8] The policy was supported by the North West Green Infrastructure Guide.g.planning and policy documents and strategies.e. the linkage between grey and green infrastructure and also to identify areas where green infrastructure may play critical role in helping to overcome issues such as risks of flood or poor air quality. commissioned by The Mersey Forest to develop the evidence base for green infrastructure in the region. [edit]US applications Alley renovated with permeable paving located in Chicago. Illinois. guidance on green infrastructure planning was published by Natural England.[7] In North West England the former Regional Spatial Strategy had a specific Green Infrastructure Policy (EM3 . i. DP6). In particular it has work has been undertaken to look at the economic value of green infrastructure. for example in the Milton Keynes and South Midlands Growth area. Green infrastructure programs managed by EPA and partner organizations are intended to improve water quality generally through more extensive management of stormwater runoff.[6] In 2009. especially where new development is planned.[10] The Natural Economy Northwest programme has supported a number of projects.Green Infrastructure) as well as other references to the concept in other land use development policies (e. and can be accessed online at [1] This guidance promotes the importance of green infrastructure in 'place-making'. The practices are expected to reduce stress on traditional water drainage infrastructure--storm sewers and combined sewers--which are typically .[9] The Green Infrastructure Think Tank (GrITT) provides the support for policy development in the region and manages the web site that acts as a repository for information on Green Infrastructure. in recognising and maintaining the character of a particular location.

the City of Philadelphia has installed or supported a variety of retrofit projects in neighborhoods throughout the city.[13] [edit]GIS applications The continued development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and their increasing level of use is particularly important in the development of Green Infrastructure plans.[11][12] For example. cities. and thereby reduce the extent of system overflows during rainstorms. Installed improvements include:    permeable pavements in parks. basketball courts and parking lots rain gardens and bioretention systems at schools and other public facilities constructed wetlands for management of stormwater runoff. Some of these facilities reduce the volume of runoff entering the city's aging combined sewer system. Photograph by Lori Adamski/Sport/Jupiterimages . The plans frequently are based on GIS anaysis of many layers of geographic information. towns and suburban areas.extensive networks of underground pipes and/or surface water channels in U. Improved stormwater management is expected to reduce the frequency of combined sewer overflowsand sanitary sewer overflows.S. and provide other environmental benefits. Green Tips: Save Power Text by Emily Busch Play outside instead of using electricity.

The best way to protect environment is to reduce the overgrowing population. Close your curtains to keep out daytime summer heat or keep in nighttime winter warmth. Set the thermostat to no lower than 78°F in the summer and no higher than 68°F in the winter. Turn off the TV or video game console and play outside. . They last up to ten times longer and can use a quarter of the energy. Carpool. which is known as harmful for the enviroment. Use fluorescent bulbs in your room. Don't use the machine for one item just because it's your favorite shirt. The use of CFC sprays also affects the ozone layer and in the upcoming years the ozone layer is supposed to suffer a large gap/hole which will allow ultra-violent rays from the sun to the earth directly. Ask Mom or Dad to turn off the car instead of letting it idle while you're waiting.This problem can be cured by banning CFC perfume sprays or by using CFC free perfume bottles or sprays. Belize reserve The initial steps that can be taken to improve the enviroment in some ways is through decreasing the disposal of waste materials and toxic waste into water and by eliminating the smoke that is left off by factories in industrial area's. Ride a bike or walk instead of using the car.another ways are to keep nature free from pollutants. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. Heating water uses energy. Unplug chargers when not in use. Plug electronics into a power strip and flip off the switch when the gadgets aren¶t in use. Replace incandescent lightbulbs with compact fluorescent ones. So get green and give the tips a try.) Commit to turning off your computer before bed each night and before you go out for the day. (make sure this won¶t mess up clocks and recordings. Place your desk next to a window and use natural light instead of a lamp. you will use about 85% less energy each day. this is the main problem of the enviroment the smoke left out by the factories is completly destroying the enviroment and only eliminating this hazard can heal a lot of enviromental loss we hav been suffering for years. So help keep the world clean!.It¶s easy to protect the planet! These tips help save energy. · Turn off your computer or the TV when you're not using it. Also set the computer's sleep mode for when the computer is idle for just a little while. Switch off the light every time you leave a room. · Take shorter showers. Other than that. By doing these two simple acts. the smoke released from car's and other automobiles is also seriously having an effect on our natural enviroment and this problem can be overtaken by using smoke filters in automobiles. · Wait until you have a lot of clothes to wash before using the washing machine. Make sure to ask your parents before trying any of these tips! y y y y y y y y y y y y Keep those fans buzzing in summer instead of turning on the air conditioner.

To not to cut the tree's to stop the air be polluted and not to throw any thing on the Colony keep the environment . Or use a fan. · Dress warmly inside your house when it's cold. · Offer to help your parents keep the air filters on your AC and furnace clean. · Walk short distances instead of asking for a ride in a car.· Close the blinds on a hot day if the sun is shining in. instead of turning up the heat. Dress lightly instead of turning up the air conditioning.

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