TECHTALK

in association with

COMMON RAIL DIESEL: LATEST SYSTEMS CALL FOR A NEW APPROACH TO FAULT DIAGNOSIS
Now that the mechanically controlled inline and DPA type of pump and indirect injection have given way to the electronically controlled common rail and pump duse systems with direct injection, there’s a need for a new approach to fault diagnosis. This means an understanding of the technical operating principles of the various systems when diagnosing faults using the vehicle’s serial data information. Illustrated below is a data stream taken from a correctly operating Peugeot 206 Hdi. We were looking for data that would show the fuel pressure and the fuel regulator operation. We selected 8 streams of data in the graphing mode so that we can watch the operation over a period of time and in various operating situations. We would always advise you take every opportunity to collect data and save it.

HERE’S A TYPICAL COMMON RAIL SYSTEM:

MODIS GRAPHING
In the bottom right of the screen can be seen the data stream of the fuel pressure/flow regulator; and in the top right, the fuel pressure. Observe the percentage change when the accelerator pedal is blipped.

An electrical scavenge pump submerged in the fuel tank driven by the 12 volt supply or a primary pump driven off the engine supplies fuel to the high pressure pump. A high-pressure rail with the injectors, fuel pressure and temperature sensors. The ECU monitors the various engine input sensors and controls the precise amount of fuel and timing of individual injectors. The scavenge pump delivers fuel at 2.5bars and up to 200 litres per hour to the high-pressure pump. The low-pressure delivery is important as the main pump has a safety check valve that is opened by 1 bar of pressure to allow fuel to the pumping pistons. The pump has a safety feature where if the primary pressure is low the fuel is ported inside of the pump to provide lubrication to prevent high-pressure fuel pump damage.

The running pressure regulation is around 18% (indicated by the red 18) and the fuel rail pressure is 300bar, which is what we would normally expect to see. Look at what happens when the accelerator pedal is snapped open; the regulator goes to a maximum of 27% and the rail pressure rises to 600bar. There is always a correlation between the regulator and the rail pressure when the system is working correctly.

The high-pressure pump has three pumping pistons driven by a cam, a third piston deactivation solenoid, a pressure regulator, low-pressure inlet port, a high-pressure outlet port and a leak off port. The pump does not need to be timed. The third piston deactivation solenoid and the pressure regulator control the pressure and flow. When less flow is required as in the over run situation the third piston is deactivated. The third piston will also limit the flow when the ECU detects a system fault. The ECU must detect a rail pressure of 200 bars before activating the injectors. A good pump with sufficient primary pressure will produce 200 bars of pressure within a few seconds of cranking the engine.

EUROTECH HELP LINE INCIDENT
EuroTech recently had a report of a vehicle fitted with common rail diesel injection system that would drive for a period of time and then just cut out. It would then be difficult to start. As is often the case, there is a history to the scenario. Normally we would check the low fuel pressure but in this case the customer reported that the scavenge pump

32 FEB 05 MOTOR INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

WWW.MOTOR.ORG.UK

and cleaning out the tank and filter housing. test values for diesel fuel pumps. onsite training to dealer staff on the use of engine treatments and sales promotion. Bosch has reduced the price of its range of DVD-based technical information.ORG. vehicle mechanics with service schedules.had been changed because of noise. New ‘Boutique’ batteries from Renault feature 10 part references covering over 85% of the UK vehicle parc. In addition. For more information. Contamination had managed to reach the regulator and was causing it to stick. The ECU had commanded a pressure regulation but the pressure sensor did not register any reduction in rail pressure. injectors and fuel-lines. It is also the software that powers Bosch's KTS range of diagnostic testers. Oxfordshire (an IMI approved centre) provides a guide to the Environmental Protection Act as well as hands-on training on the full Lesonal WB range. standard workshop fitting times. BOUTIQUE POWER ▲ WWW. wiring diagrams for comfort electric systems. the rail pressure went to 1600bar and the regulator to 35-40%. Further information on 024 76 474069 (www. The repair involved replacing the pump. The brushes had worn the armature and the brass segments had broken up.co.uk). log-on to www.boschautoparts. They incorporate technical developments such as lead calcium power supply and a ‘magic eye’ level check and come with a 3-year warranty. Bosch is offering one ESI [tronic] disc free of charge. Don’t forget that the serial data is what the ECU is commanding and not necessarily what is happening.forteuk. Further investigation revealed that the problem started with the noisy fuel pump. spare parts identification.co. PAINT TRAINING Vauxhall is among the franchised networks to take up Forté’s offer of free. Modules within the ESI [tronic] range cover: vehicle equipment listings. to help get technicians started. troubleshooting instructions for petrol. available from Renault dealerships. the helpline provided by Sun Diagnostics. Being able to read and then understand the serial data is the key to fast efficient accurate diagnosis. PRICE CUT WHERE WAS THE PROBLEM? Closer examination of the data revealed that the regulator command was trying to change the pressure in the rail but the pressure continued to rise. Lesonal has a new training course for 2005 to introduce customers to its range of paint products. repair and diagnostic information as well as wiring diagrams and cataloguing. There’s advice on how the treatments actually work to combat engine contamination and how to promote them to motorists.UK MOTOR INDUSTRY MAGAZINE FEB 05 33 . When the fault occurred. The ECU operated a safety strategy and deactivated the third piston and therefore reduced the pressure from the pump.uk. diesel and braking and safety systems. When the vehicle did eventually run again the answer to the problem was in the serial data. Further details on 01235 862226.MOTOR. The two-day course at Akzo Nobel's Car Refinishes Instruction Centre at Didcot. ESI [tronic]. ESI [tronic] covers service. The rail pressure was within tolerance (370bar) albeit slightly high as was the regulator 22-27%. FREE TREATMENT This article was contributed by Peter Doughty from EuroTech. control unit diagnosis.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful