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The negative effects of tobacco use go well beyond health problems. College student tobacco use is also associated with mental health issues, lower academic performance, high-risk drinking, illicit drug use, and highrisk sexual behavior.
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Health Effects Environmental Tobacco Smoke Tobacco and Mental Health Tobacco and Other High-Risk Behaviors Tobacco and Lower Academic Performance References
Health Effects of Tobacco Use: • • Smoking causes more than 440,000 US deaths per year, accounting for 1 out of every 5 deaths (CDC, 2003). Smoking is associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, ulcers, respiratory infections, lung cancer (as well as cancer of the larynx, esophagus, bladder, pancreas, stomach, & uterine cervix), bronchitis, emphysema, early menopause, and stillborn & premature children (NIDA, 1999). Smokeless tobacco users, and pipe and cigar smokers are more susceptible to mouth cancer, cancer of the larynx, and cancer of the esophagus (NIDA, 1999). College students who smoke have higher rates of respiratory infections and asthma as well as a higher incidence of bacterial meningitis, especially among freshman living in dorms (Halperin, 2002). Women smokers with human papilloma virus (HPV) are at increased risk of progressing to cervical dysplasia or cancer. Women who smoke and use oral contraceptive pills are at higher risk for thromboembolic diseases such as stroke (Halperin, 2002). Of the 15 million college students in the United States today, it is estimated that 1.7 million will die of smoking-related illnesses, most prematurely (Halperin, 2002). That amounts to over 10.0% of current college students.
Return to top Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS): • Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), or “secondhand” smoke, is harmful to both smokers and nonsmokers alike.
and carbon monoxide than the mainstream smoke that smokers inhale (Brownson.000 lung cancer deaths per year in US nonsmokers (EPA.000 ischemic heart disease deaths per year in the U. 1995).ETS is an important student and employee issue on college campuses. benzene.0% increased risk of heart disease (Brownson. These drastic risk increases are thought to be tied to • • • . 1996) The relationship between depression and smoking among adolescents is bidirectional. 1997). The CDC estimates that ETS causes 35.6 times the risk of developing panic disorder than non-smokers and light smokers. Adolescent smokers are two times more likely to develop a major depressive disorder than adolescent nonsmokers. 1993). 2002). 1996). ETS contains higher concentrations of ammonia. As far back as 1986. The workplace and the home are the top sources of ETS exposure for nonsmokers (Brownson. had 5. especially among adolescents and young adults. ETS causes approximately 3. College students who are daily smokers are more than five times more likely to have either seriously thought about or attempted suicide than nonsmokers (Halperin and Eytan). Nonsmokers exposed to ETS have a 20. 71. Depressed teens are more likely to smoke. people find ETS irritating and uncomfortable. Implementing worksite smoking policies has been found to have to significantly lowered people’s exposure to nicotine and the other dangerous substances in ETS (Hammond. 1997). well before the anti-tobacco campaign was moving at full steam. • • Return to top Tobacco and Mental Health Problems: • • Mental health disorders have been strongly associated with smoking. (Brown. 1997). 1997). 1993).S. A National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 25-year study concluded that smoking is connected with several mental health disorders in adolescents and young adults.8 times more likely to develop agoraphobia. Beyond health risks. and those who smoke are more likely to become depressed (Brown. and had 15. nicotine. Heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day) were 6. (CDC. Smoking has been associated with suicidal tendencies. • • • • • ETS has been classified as a Group A carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.5 times the risk of generalized anxiety disorder.0% of people reported being annoyed by ETS (Brownson.
Smokers are more likely to use illicit drugs than high-risk drinkers (Halperin and Eytan). Adolescents who smoke are seven times more likely to abuse or become addicted to illicit drugs than are nonsmoking teens (Brown. 2000). Daily smokers were found to have even lower GPAs than high-risk drinkers (Halperin and Eytan). • • Return to top Tobacco Use and Lower Academic Performance: • Smokers have lower grade point averages (GPA) than nonsmokers.0% more likely than nonsmokers to have had two or more sexual partners in the last month (Rigotti. Illicit Drug Use. 2000). 2000). 1996). Why do they smoke when we have seen billions of dollars .the damage that nicotine can do to the blood vessels that lead to the brain (NIDA. College students who are smokers are 50. 1998). Even light smokers are over three times more likely to participate in high-risk sexual behavior when concurrently using alcohol or other drugs than nonsmokers (Halperin & Eytan). • • Return to top Teens and Smoking Tobacco The differences between subjective feelings of those who smoke and those who don’t are shown in behavioral changes that are more apparent in teens than adults. The Harvard College Alcohol Study found that smokers are 27. Lower individual performance among students results in lower academic overall standings for colleges.6 times more likely to engage in high-risk drinking than are nonsmokers (Rigotti.0% less likely than nonsmokers to have an above B grade average (Rigotti. 2001). The Harvard College Alcohol Study determined that student tobacco users are 4. High-Risk Drinking. Concurrent dependence on tobacco and alcohol occurs in about 10.0% of young adults ages 21-25 (Anthony. Smoking prevalence in colleges has been found to be lower at highly selective schools (Wechsler. and High-Risk Sex: • • • College students who smoke are more likely to participate in the risky behaviors that pose some of the greatest health threats to18-24 year olds. 2000). Return to top Tobacco. Teens seem to be more abrasive when smoking or they feel like they are older and wiser when they smoke.62 times more likely to smoke marijuana and 3.
Teens like to act as if they are someone special or dangerous. The problem is that when they take that first puff. Research has proven the fact that nicotine has the ability to suppress feelings. is used as stimulation after sex. When the body tolerance levels high then one ends up needing to use larger doses of nicotine to maintain a certain level of the physiological effect. They crave attention and by smoking they get big attention. Nicotine is considered the number one entrance drug into other substance abuse problems. ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ They tried their first cigarette in sixth or seventh grade They often do not perform well in school They feel like they are not a part of the school They become isolated from other students They can’t perform as well at sports events . taking in the last drag before the break is over. The fact that teen smoking rates are steadily increasing is disturbing. it does not matter if it’s good attention or bad attention. The use of other drugs is part of the peer pressure that our children have to face. When the body becomes accustomed to the presence of nicotine. suppress appetite for food. or they find some kind of shelter to smoke their cigarettes. Here are some common experiences from teens who smoke. We now see a lot of smokers giving each other rewards in social aspects such as conversations. There they are huddled up against each other in an area. The other teens look at them in all kinds of ways and the adults get upset and don’t know what to do. body. Research shows that teens between 13 and 17 years of age who smoke daily are more likely to use other drug substances. Kids like to get attention. which is stimulating the mind. The idea that they are breaking the law or going against their parents and schools is an addiction within itself.spent on antismoking campaigns? The American Lung Association estimates that every minute four thousand eight hundred teens will take their first drag off a cigarette. We are finding out that about 80% of adult smokers started smoking as teenagers. the more likely they will continue using into adulthood. and other common social contacts. People that smoke go to designated areas and congregate around the one that has the light. By smoking they can act on those feelings. This level of dependence is referred to as an addiction. about two thousand will go on to be chain smokers. companionships. Of those four thousand eight hundred. it then requires the use of the chemical to help the body to function normally. even when the weather is sub-zero. The earlier that our youth begin using tobacco. they can become addicted. and is a good way to relax from troubles and feelings of insecurities. Because it is so forbidden it becomes more alluring to teens. and spirit. Why is tobacco so addicting? It is because nicotine acts as a stimulant.
what the public and science did not know twenty years ago is now coming to the surface. This is the truth about cigarettes. When tobacco companies lost the lawsuit that made them pay for anti-smoking ads. d) The truth on the effects of nicotine that are in tobacco products. such as those participating in sports. particularly a best friend. c) There is an increase in youth exposure to both state and national mass media campaigns. The times are changing. high blood pressure. We are also seeing teens speak out in the media and in person and they have been capturing the attention of their peers and changing attitudes about how un-cool and unhealthy teen smoking is. The risk factors do not apply because those who are young think that they are indispensable. The amount of teens smoking cigarettes dropped about 28% in 2001. We are seeing people live longer and healthier lives and the old idea that smoking makes you cool and attractive is gone. On the other hand.♣ They feel like they have little hope of going to college ♣ They feel like they need a job to support their smoking habit ♣ They are reported to school officials for skipping classes ♣ They start using other illegal substances ♣ They begin experimenting with alcohol and other drugs ♣ They experience pressure from home and school and use tobacco as a form of relief ♣ Teen smokers enjoy trying to hide their smoking This has made school more fun for some tobacco users. or any club that promotes healthy living. . The fact is that smoking cigarettes can cause many health problems including emphysema. The peers who use or have favorable attitudes toward tobacco use are more likely to use other illegal substances. they are loaded with harmful chemicals and the end result is that they are a dangerous drug that can seriously harm people. and various forms of cancer. they raised the cost of cigarettes. The following are some reasons why: a) The increase of cost in the retail price of cigarettes has gone up 70% b) The schools have implemented efforts to fight the use of tobacco (teen smoking). who smokes. if the teen becomes a member of a pro-social group. the likelihood that the teen will attempt to stop smoking improves. These types of behaviors get attention because the initiation of smoking is influenced by having a friend. Young people are having a harder time finding ways to smoke because smokers are paying top dollar for their cigarettes. For info on boarding schools and treatment centers. cheerleading.
900 teens under 18 start smoking each day. Lack of parent support / involvement 6. Only 2 percent of smokers have parents who don't smoke.9% in 2003.1500 will become regular smokers. Low socioeconomic status 2. 3.4%. Chronic cough . 3. A study that was done by the CDC also found some interesting facts and estimates: 1. Bad breath 4. There is no concrete evidence at this time to show why the teen smoking statistics have declined since 1997. A similar study which was published by the American Lung Association website shows 90% of smokers begin before the age of 21. According to a 2005 study done by the CDC. Yellow teeth 5. (Mayo Clinic). 4. The CDC study showed that 80% of smokers begin before the age of 18. and high-risk sexual behavior. 2. 23% of high school students reported smoking cigarettes in the last month. drug/alcohol use. Teach the teen or child refusal skills Monitoring the Future study . Those who smoke often have secondary behavioral issues such as violence.if smoking is continued 2. While this data is somewhat discouraging it is far better than the 1997 level of the same survey at 36. Use or approval of smoking by siblings/peers 3. Stinky clothes 6. Some also feel that it is due to a decline in media glamorizing smoking. but some believe it is in better awareness efforts. The rise appears to be greatest among white and Hispanic teens while the rates of teen smoking declined among black teens.1 pack/day = about $1000/year. This is compared with a previous study of high school students that showed 21. but recent data shows that the adolescent smoking rates are rising slightly. 2. Expensive habit . Don't leave cigarettes where children or teens may have access to them. About 3. Educate your child about the dangers of smoking early on. Availability and price of tobacco 5.900 teens that start smoking each day . Of the 3. Some tips for parents to help prevent teen smoking: 1. Smoking by parents 4. Some of the contributing factors of teenage smoking are: 1. Reduced stamina 3. Be a good example. Teen smoking had been on a sharp decline since the mid-late 1990's.Visit our FAQ page for details. Lower self-image or self-esteem Consequences of teen smoking: 1.
including: • The intense adverse publicity suffered by the tobacco industry during the 1990s.Cigarette smoking among American teens continues 8-year decline Related story Overall teen drug use continues gradual decline. The gender differences in smoking are quite small at present. The authors of the forthcoming report on the 2004 findings are Johnston. competitive research grants made to U-M." Johnston says. . Finally. the researcher who is principal investigator of the Monitoring the Future study. which appeared in Camel cigarette advertisements • The cessation of billboard advertising as part of the settlement • The initiation of anti-smoking ads by a number of states and nationally by the American Legacy Foundation. and it is good news indeed. The study has been funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse under a series of investigator-initiated. Youth living in rural areas and small town areas are considerably more likely to smoke than those living in metropolitan areas Those students with more educated parents are less likely to smoke. though it still continues for the most part. For example. where it remains in 2004." says Lloyd Johnston. After a sharp increase in teen smoking rates in the early 1990s. Students who plan to complete a four-year college education are much less likely to smoke than those who do not have such plans. "That's the good news. A number of attitudes about smoking shifted in a negative direction. while they also have become les accepting of cigarette use. there was a turnaround after 1996 in the lower grades and after 1997 among 12th graders. partly as a result of the industry's need to recoup monies lost in the settlement • Retirement of the Joe Camel character. and whites te to have the highest rates of the three groups. with the proportion who are current smokers in 2004 down from recent peak levels in the mid-1990s by onehalf among the nation's 8th and 10th graders and by a third among 12th graders. as their practices were brought unde public scrutiny • The master settlement agreement between the state attorneys general and the tobacco industry that led to a number of changes in marketing practices • A sharp rise in cigarette prices. African American youngsters continue to have a substantially lower rate of smoking than do whites or Hispanics. and these changes continued into 2004. but use of inhalants rises> By Joseph Serwach News Service Smoking rates among American teens continue to decline. which wa created and funded under the settlement. particularly at younger ages. "We know that young people have come to see cigarette smoking as more dangerous. or not. the proportion of 12th graders who say that they prefer to date people who do not smoke rose from 64 percent in 1977 to 72 percent in 2002. along with 16 percent of 10th graders and 9 percent of 8th graders. Patrick O'Malle Jerald Bachman and John Schulenberg—all psychologists and research professors at the Institute for Social Research. The investigators conjecture that a number of factors contributed to that turnarou and to the substantial decline that followed it." And the number of teen smokers is still substantial: 25 percent of 12th graders reported smoking in the prior 30 days. are very large. There are some important subgroup differences in teen smoking. but the differences associated with planning to go to college. "The bad news is that the decline has decelerated sharply in the past two years.
Some say they get an intensified sensation from mixing tobacco and alcohol. That kind of reminds me. To be honest."Whether we will see teen smoking continue to decline in the future is likely to depend on what actions society and the tobacco companies take. The overall smoking prevalence in the United States has been reduced considerably over the past 20 years. And we have seen stomach-turning photos of smokers' blackened lungs and ulcerated tongues. We have seen the anticigarette ads that use humor to prevent smoking. Shortly before writing this paper I did some research and asked a few of my friends the same question. Among college students. long way off. Give me at least one good reason why you are ignoring the danger that you know about so well? Some say that they smoke to relieve stress from school. determinants of smoking among college students and the amount of harm it causes to their health and health of others are largely unknown. however. this can happen to me. the prevalence of use of cigarettes is still about 35%. Although smoking among adolescents and young adults is often associated as a bad. Besides. I once was asked a question for which I can’t find the answer even today. alarmed by the dangers of smoking. To them. Some say they've tried to stop so many times but can't. driving. dying of cancer in 40 or 50 years seems to them a long. and smoking Marlboro or Newport all go together. My friends and I belong to a generation of teens that have received more education about the hazards of tobacco than any generation in history. As kindergartners. We have been shown the tricks cigarette makers used to seduce children. At least one out of five death in American society caused by disease directly related to cigarette smoking. Their main light-up time is usually right after school. but temporary habit. That's the best cigarette of the day. But they don’t smoke often until they turn 16 and get a car. Others say it gives them something to do at parties. And you never know-you could get hit by a truck first. music. Most of the young smokers try smoking for the first time in middle school. but does it really make me stop smoking? Does seeing fat people make . Others say that their grandparents have smoked all their life and are still alive and healthy. we flushed our mothers' menthols." Johnston say Smoking Among Teenagers Young Adults and Cigarette Smoking. none of these answers really answered my question. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer and many other illnesses. there have been only minimal reductions in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults.
even the most colorful and sexiest advertisement in the whole world would ever make them start. Especially at the entrances to Penn Hall and Founders Hall large clouds of smoke are rising up from the mouths of young adults who are standing in a little groups that from far away look like ant . secondhand smoke causes lung cancer and increases the risk of heart disease. not even ruining health of other people that are around us. Marlboro and Newport are two the most popular brands among young smokers. hold the breath and try to walk very fast. and nonsmoking adults can not control the smoky air they breathe at work. Yong adults. According to John R. Sometimes the amount of smoke in these areas is so large that it is hard to see a person that’s standing next to you. I personally think that this is wrong because the only people that do get attracted by these commercials and advertisements are teenagers of 12 to 16 years old that are still trying to decide weather or not they should star smoking. It also becomes very hard for people that do not smoke to get in or to get out from the building. I understand the problems that are caused by secondhand smoke and even though I also smoke I always try to find not too crowded place and than have a needed dose of nicotine. already made their choice and if they chose not to smoke then not one.” Take for example Bucks County Community College. However. even though smoking inside of all the buildings on campus is restricted.hills. nonsmokers still have to breathe the air full of smoke while walking along buildings’ entrances. It seems like nothing in this world can stop young adults . The companies that make these products are often blamed for their colorful ads and commercials that attract young adults to by these cigarettes. and smoking makes me happy.you stop eating? You've got to do what makes you happy. Secondhand smoke is harmful to the health of nonsmokers.000 deaths that are caused by cigarette smoke among nonsmokers in the United States. Secondhand smoke affects the health of adults and children who can not always protect themselves: “Children do not choose to live in smoke-filled homes. This leads to about 53. American Government is also trying to lower the percentage of young smokers by raising up tobacco tax. on the other hand. Many young adults and teenagers that do smoke often don’t realize the harm that they cause to their nonsmoking friends even though the cigarettes they smoke are always the best brands like Marlboro and Newport. Garrison. I have noticed how some of them close his or her mouth. But it seems that it doesn’t bother young smokers more over the larger population of adult smoking have to deal with it. Nothing can stop us from getting rid of something that we think to be just a bad habit. if they chose to smoke then no commercials or ads would be able to stop them from doing so. in order not to breathe the polluted air.
” I didn't do anything. They just think the risks are worth taking compared to the enjoyment they get. Young adults ruin their health and health of their nonsmoking friends.from smoking. the decision to smoke is their choice. Even though the overall smoking prevalence in the United States has been reduced considerably over the past 20 years the percentage among the college students is still very high. Every year thousands of people in the United States are dying form lung cancer and related decease caused by smoking cigarettes. Their parents criticize them smoking all the time. than live to 95 and say. . And laws that punish teens and young adults for buying cigarettes only make smoking more attractive. especially those that tell parents to talk to their kids about smoking. Finally. however. They think the antismoking commercials are corny and out of touch. They would much rather die at 65 and look back and say. yet they still do it. Many people have been looking for a good answer why do young adults choose to smoke but unfortunately not many could find this answer. Their reasons why they choose to smoke are very different. “ I did what floated my boat”. family members and neighbors by making them breathe in polluted by the cigarettes’ smoke air. none of them are real reasons.
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