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Prepared by: Mohammad Shahadad Hossain Shimul Reja Nazmul Hasan Asadullah Al Galib Anurug Chakma 6th semester Dept. of Peace and Conflict Studies University of Dhaka
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Motto: "One Vision, One Identity, One Community" Anthem: "The ASEAN Way"
ASEAN Fact Sheet
ASEAN Head office Demonym Member states Government : Association of Southeast Asian nations : Jakarta from 1976 : Southeast Asian : 10 : Regional organization
Working language : English
Existing President : Avijeet Vejjavija (Thailand) Founding S. general : Hartono Dharsono Secretary General Formation Charter Type Initial members Current members : Surin Pitsuwan : Bangkok Declaration 8 August 1967 : 16 December 2008 : Geo-political and economic organization : 5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) : 10 (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia) Observing country : Papua Neugini Very last convention: 25 February- 1 March, 2009 in Thailand
political. ASEAN is also concerned for their position on future. the another side is emerging influence of China in global economy and poor public orientation in ASEAN regional forum may characterized as a criticism of its achievements through last four decades. We included economic. And of the other hand it got comparatively more congenial policy setting in favor. security and some other factors contributing to the success of ASEAN. This is one side story. It maintained a constant code of conduct with the super power USA in the time of Cold War. radical areas of the Third World where nationalism is often anti-American in character (Buszynski 1987). many incidents had made cooperation harder in international arena. social. ASEANs security relationship with the West is unlikely to change as long as the organization is made up of fundamentally pro-Western governments. However. ASEAN was indeed a special arena of US policy: a grouping of Third world states which through its generally pro Western development policy could distinguish from unstable. Though the former Secretary General of ASEAN Ong Keng Young stated. outstanding political consensus among member states. after its foundation on 8th August 1967. In this paper we attempted to examine the contributing factors towards the success of ASEAN. ASEAN overcome those with patience without sacrificing its core values. extraordinary intellectual exchange and finally anti-communist stand point. With the changes of the world politics and economy through several shocking incidents like Afghan and Iraq war and global economic recession in early 21st century.Introduction: ASEAN is renowned for its miracle economic growth. If you are wondering about the future of . more pacific multi lateral relations. hostile toward communism (Buszynski 1987).
At that time. At this time china was openly adopted some policies towards the Southeast Asia to export communism with the association of some local rebel groups of Southeast Asia. rather than a desire to benefit from economic integration. The Philippines. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in 1967 with the signing of the Bangkok Declaration by the five original member countries . And the second one is. let me assure you that the future of ASEAN is still bright (Young: 2003). Territorial disputes and racial tensions between neighbors. economic reservation. . leading to a lengthen fragmentation of Southeast Asia. Beside the factors of war or economic crisis ASEAN is facing many challenges from different sides. Malaysia.Indonesia. Malaysia and Thailand. First one is. Singapore. These were led by the communist parties in Indonesia. worrying about how ASEAN will be hurt by the ongoing war on Iraq . Southeast Asia was divided by ideological conflict and war. the origins of ASEAN were similar to those of the European Union (EU). to promote peace and stability in the region. These are the factors what will play the key role in determining the future of ASEAN with inevitable action and reaction of international politics. 2. ASEAN is criticized for its poor record of democracy.ASEAN. In this respect. and Thailand. poor human security status and maintenance of environmental well-being. Establishment and Development of ASEAN: One of the most significant events in the history of the Southeast Asia was the formation of Asian. human rights and fundamental freedom. in that the founding countries initially came together for political and security reasons. Singapore. there was a possibility that the differences could degenerate into a full blown armed conflict. The objective of the formation was twofold. to contain the spread of communism to Southeast Asian countries. 1.
Singapore was also in danger of being taken over by a communist backed faction of the ruling party.The stages of development or brief history: Through different period ASEAN developed in its way. referendums conducted by the commission of Sabah. Brunei. the Philippines and Thailand. The concept of Malphilndo was mooted by former Philippines president Macapagal. The confrontation launched by Indonesia’s late president Sukarno also led to the demise of Malphilonido. the organization became obsolete one year later. was formed in 1961. in 1963. The association of southeast Asia ASA. ASEAN was not first regional group created to act as a forum for dialogue between leaders of the various countries. comprising the federation of Malay. However. which included Indonesia. an important minority of people was against the alliance. However. Sarawak and Singapore showed that a majority of people were in favors of joining the new federation of Malaysia. Sabah. after the Sabah dispute between the federation of Malay and the Philippines. the federation of Malay and the Philippines. which . had rejected the idea of joining the federation. In 1962. Thus. on the other hand. The fear instilled by a communist control Singapore contributed to the proposition of forming an alliance comprising Brunei. Sarawak and Singapore. Some minorities were uneasy over the political dominance of the Malays in the new federation. Diplomatic ties between Kualampur and manila were severed during 1962-66. A series of leftist inspired strikes and a wave of student demonstrations rocked the Singapore economy in the late 1950s and early 1960s. as the country would lose control of its vast oil reserves after joining the new federation. In the federation Malay. the federation of Malay. the communist carried out insurgent activities purportedly to free the countries from the British rule. the federation of Malaysia. The political stability of Malay was then threatened by the militancy of the communist.
Cambodia was not admitted until 1999 because of unresolved internal political . It was under these circumstances that Singapore was asked to leave the federation of Malaysia in 1965. national interests would precede communal interests. The leaders were aggressively pushing for the concept of a Malaysian Malaysia. Shortly after forming the federation of Malaysia. Cambodia. His intention was to direct attention away from the severe internal discount arose due to Sukarno’s mismanagement of the economy and the implementation of guided democracy. However. Under this concept. This was followed by Vietnam in 1995. UMNO) and it retaliated with similar activities amongst the Malays in Singapore. Atmosphere in the two countries was tense and explosion of massive racial riots seemed imminent. In 1963. President Sukarno ordered the Indonesian paratroops to instigate a military attack on Malaysia and to initiate acts of sabotage in Singapore. Myanmar and Vietnam declined. after an abortive coup the subsequent reaching of an agreement between Malaysia and Indonesia under the new Indonesians president. The formation of the federation of Malaysia was not viewed positively by some surrounding countries. The confrontation ceased in 1965. Brunei. Sabah. was formed. the ruling party in Singapore began to expand its activities into peninsular Malaysia. Brunei joined ASEAN as its sixth member. because of its dispute with Malaysia over the claim of Sabah. Sukarno’s pretext was that the new federation of Malaysia was a neo colonial plot to surround the republic of Indonesia. The Philippines also refused to recognize the new federation. In 1984. Although all the countries in Southeast Asia were invited to join the organization. Sarawak and the federation of Malaya..consisted of only Singapore. and Myanmar and Laos in 1997. This greatly alarmed the Malay dominated ruling party in Malaysia (united Malay national organization. Laos. All these development led to the formation of ASEAN.
barely a week after the country became independent on 1 January. the Melanesian state of Papua New Guinea was accorded observer status.wikipedia. following the Bali Summit of 1976. There are ten current members of ASEAN. The first project under the scheme was the production of the ASEAN car. soda ash to Thailand and diesel engine to Singapore. the main impetus for the formation of ASEAN was political in nature. intra regional trade was a mere 12% to 15%. However. This dramatic change in political environment rendered one of the two major reasons for forming ASEAN insignificant. . When ASEAN was established in 1967. The fall of the Berlin wall in 1980 marked the end of the cold war. The ACI scheme was launch in 1981. each member country was allocated an industrial project.issues.(www. In 1997. The bloc then grew when Brunei Darussalam became the sixth member after it joined on 8 January 1984. Brunei. phosphate fertilizer was to go to the Philippines.com) Main impetus: Although. economic cooperation was also high on the agenda of the organization. Under the AIP scheme. Indonesia and Malaysia were each to have urea plant. Laos. Myanmar. Malaysia. the amount of intra regional trade increased to 21%. prospect for the more recent projects looks more promising. Throughout the 1970s. (Indonesia. and In 1976. Singapore and Cambodia) Observing status: • Thailand. ASEAN has since evolved into a more economic oriented organization. Example of earlier economic co operation included the ASEAN industrial project (AIP) scheme and ASEAN industrial complementation (AIC) scheme. the Philippines. this erlier project disappointment. This floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area. the organization embarked on a program of economic cooperation. Vietnam.
Common theme of summits: cooperation between ASEAN Japan.ASEAN Formation: • 1967 ASEAN was founded. • 1984 Brunei Darussalam joined ASEAN • 1995 Vietnam joined • 1997 Laos and Myanmar joined • 1999 Cambodia. Founding members: Indonesia. information. social. All Southeast Asian countries are now ASEAN members ASEAN Free Trade Area: • 1992 ASEAN endorsed AFTA. First ASEAN Regional Forum • 1995 Accelerated tariff reduction to 2002. Abolition of tariff by 2010 for first 6 • Members. Spelled program of action to include political. Philippines. East Asian FTA: • 1997 First ASEAN +3 Summit in Malaysia. . and Singapore. • 1976 ASEAN Secretariat was established. • 1994 Agreement to accelerate realization of AFTA from 15 years to 10 years by • 2003. by 2015 for newer members. Important document: Framework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic Cooperation. cultural. Thailand. followed by successive ASEAN+1 Summit. economic. security. Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) was signed. Malaysia. Important document: Bangkok Declaration.
To promote ultimately regional peace and security.• ASEAN-Korea. social. social progress and cultural development in the region To promote collaboration and mutual assistance………. Trade Industry Agriculture and Forestry . cultural. Assess EAVG Recommendation. We can discuss the economic aspect of ASEAN on the basis of. ASEAN is viewed as a new economic grouping in Southeast Asia.. The main purposes of this organization are as following. and ASEAN-China. Like other regional arrangement. Prepare Action Plans Economic Aspect of ASEAN Representatives of Indonesia. in the economic. Singapore and Thailand met in the capital Bangkok of Thailand in August in 1967 with a view to establish a regional body named “Association of South East Asian Nations” to address the regional problems and challenges. the Philippines. Agreement to form East Asia Vision Group (EAVG) • • • 1998-2001 EAVG worked to discuss future cooperation in East Asia. scientific and administrative fields. to become building blocks for regional cooperation in East Asia • 1998 Hanoi Summit. Submitted recommendation in 2001 1999 East Asia Study Group (EASG) was formed to study practical ways and means to deepen and expand existing cooperation. To accelerate economic growth. Malaysia.
Banking and Investment Mineral and Energy Transport and Communications Social Development Trade: ASEAN has been slow to make progress in the areas of economic. • In 1975. heads of governments met in Singapore and concluded an agreement with the aim of creating an AFTA. 1992. a common effective preferential tariff (CEPT) scheme came into effect in accordance with the agreement. But the lack of direct involvement of ASEAN ministers restrained the impact of efforts for closer economic cooperation. • In 1991. technical. goods and processed agricultural . • In January. This proposal gained enthusiastic support at the ASEAN foreign ministers meeting Kuala Lumpur in 1991. and social cooperation. High level official dialogue has helped foster a sense of common economic purpose and mutual interest in the so-called ‘ASEAN spirit’. the idea of AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Agreement) was revived by Thailand’s then PM Anand Panyarachun. The important initiatives and policies taken by the South-East Asian Nations to promote trade are as followings. 1993. • Among other ultimate goals of ASEAN. the idea of a limited FTA and Custom union was firstly mooted during the ASEAN ministers meeting (AMM) in Manila in1971. the first meeting of ASEAN economic ministers was held in Jarkata. Finance. Singapore initiated a campaign to create an ASEAN FTA (Free Trade Agreement). • In January. The CEPT covered all manufactured products including capital.
ASEAN trade ministers agreed to modify the CEPT. • In November. China. • In December. the informal meeting of heads of state of ASEAN countries. The new AFTA programmes scheduled to begin tariff reduction from January 1. 1996. Tariffs were to be reduced to 0%-5% within 7-10 years. • The Hanoi Plan of Action (1998) was adopted at the meeting as a framework for the development of the organization over the period of 19942004. • In October. 1991. legislation. heads of governments convened in Bangkok and agreed to maintain the objective of of achieving AFTA by 2003. The Plan incorporated a series of measures `aiming at strengthening macroeconomic and financial cooperation and enhancing greater economic integration. 1997. • In September. ASEAN economic ministers made consent on accelerating the implementation of AFTA. 1994. Tariffs were to be reduced to a maximum of 20% within 5-8 years. ASEAN ministers of economic affairs reiterated their commitment to reduce restrictions to intra-ASEAN trade.products. 1998. and product classification. 1999. • In June. ASEAN’s Working Group on Customs Procedures completed a draft legal framework for regional cooperation in order to simplify and harmonize customs procedures. the Japan and the Republic of Korea was held and all . a custom agreement was concluded at the inaugural meeting of ASEAN finance ministers. • In October. 1 995. • In March.
facilitating further regional integration efforts. markets and transportation. The industries of the region are meager. ASEAN has taken many initiatives to promote trade in the region. But progress in the field of industrial sector has been slow because of some reasons. Most of them have been established by the West during colonialism which is basically located close to the coasts. . Many different plans and programmes to increase industrial production have been taken in different times by the governments of the region. Industry: the South East Asian nations have little to export in a subsistence economy. To establish a common market to be known as the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2. it has to be recognized that AFTA has made some progress. To establish an East Asian bloc on several grounds. Therefore. ASEAN countries have reduced the disparities of tariff structure.parties agreed to strengthen regional unity and discussed the long-term possibility of establishing an East Asian common market and currency. It is expected that AFTA will enable ASEAN countries to develop trade patterns on the basis of intra-industry specialization and to make ASEAN more attractive for foreign investment. Meanwhile. 1. Shortage of capital Lack of industrial experience Destruction caused by the war. It is argued that ASEAN can proceed in two possible directions on the future.
irrigation. The region has introduced more double-cropping. • The formation of ASEAN Consultative Committee on Standards and Quality (ACCSQ) is another important initiative which ultimate goal is to promote the understanding and implementing of quality and concepts and to eliminate trade barriers. especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some of region’s country can use only a small part of their land for agricultural purpose. Agriculture and Forestry: A significant proportion of Southeast Asia’s energies is concentrated to the development of food supply for its population. • The ASEAN industrial joint venture (1983) initiates projects with at least 40% participation by private companies from two or more ASEAN member states. • The ASEAN Industrial Complementation Programme (1981) encourages state party to produce complementary products for preferential exchange among themselves in specific industrial sectors. 1994.The initiatives adopted in various times by the member state of ASEAN to promote industrial development and economic progresses are as followings. As the . to formulate a framework agreement on intellectual property protection in the region. • The ASEAN fund was established in 1988 to provide finance for portfolio investments in ASEAN countries. • An ad hoc Working Group on Intellectual Property Cooperation was established in September. and improved strains of rice seed which have contributed to substantial progress in agriculture. • The ASEAN Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ASEAN CCI) aims to enhance economic and industrial cooperation and agreed to set up a permanent ASEANCCI secretariat at the ASEAN secretariat.
Besides.examples we can cite that Burma can cultivate only 10 percents of its land because of mountainous areas and Laos only 30 percents of its land. some are as followings. The main purposes of the conference were Enhancing fish production through the introduction of new technologies Aquaculture development Improvements of product quality Greater involvement of private sectors. the ASEAN Timber Technology Centre etc. many initiatives have been taken by the nations of Southeast Asia.Forest Tree Seed Centre. c) Cooperation in Forestry: There is cooperation in the field of forestry. b) Bangkok Conference: A conference on Fisheries Management and Development strategies in the ASEAN region was held in Bangkok in 1994. The main features of this agreement are Joint management of fish resources Sharing of technology Cooperation in marketing etc. Since the establishment of ASEAN. Among of them. 1983. . A number of organizations have been established such as. a) Agreement on Fisheries Corporation: This agreement was concluded in October. Many joint projects were run funded by ASEAN’s dialogue partners. Institute of Forest Management.
agricultural experts and members of agricultural cooperatives.there is an established ASEAN programme of training. d) Strategic Plan of Action: Ministers of agriculture and forestry met in Hanoi. Finance. a) ASEAN Reinsurance Corporation: The ASEAN Reinsurance Corporation came into manifestation as an initiative in the year of1988 with initial authorized capital of US $ 10 million. The purposes st forth in the Plan were Enhancing food security International competitiveness of ASEAN food. and Forestry for the period of19942004. ASEAN Task Force: The ASEAN Task Force was set up to harmonize regulations on agricultural products derived from biotechnology by 2000. . Banking and Investment: The initiatives taken by heads of governments in this field to support intra-ASEAN trade and investment are as followings. and study exchange for farm workers. Agriculture. Vietnam in September in 1998 and endorsed a Strategic Plan of Action on ASEAN Cooperation in Food. agriculture and forestry products Promoting the sustainable use Conservation of natural resources Encouraging greater involvement in the food and agricultural industry Strengthening joint approaches on international and regional issues etc.
ASEAN electricity grid ASEAN Energy Management. Minerals and Energy: Minerals and energy is another area of economic aspect of ASEAN. d) ASEAN funding facility: ASEAN ministers of finance met in Malaysia in December in 1997 and endorsed a proposal for the establishment of an ASEAN funding facility with a view to provide emergency assistance in support of international credit and structural reform progrrammes.b) ASEAN Investment Area (AIA): The establishment of an ASEAN Investment Area was proposed at the summit meeting of December. Recognizing the importance of minerals and energy. 1995. the heads of governments have taken many initiatives provided below in different times. especially in the field of banking and finance with the aim of strengthening the region’s economies and promoting the liberalization of financial services sectors. f) Summit meeting: The summit meeting concentrated to accelerate reforms. c) ASEAN Plan of Action: Many measures have been taken by heads of governments to attract greater financial resource flow in the region. From the view of promoting foreign direct investment. Training and Research Centre . 1998. the ASEAN Plan of Action was adopted. e) Framework Agreement on the AIA: In October. ministers of economic affairs met in Manila and concluded a framework agreement on the AIA. It is recognized widely that the significance of energy and power development can sustain the overall growth of the region’s economies.
language. Culture plays an important role in building the image of ASEAN. There is lots of diversity among the member countries in cultural. political. A framework of Cooperation in Minerals ASEAN Regional Development Centre for Mineral Resources. Among of them Plan of Action for Children An ASEAN Taskforce on AIDS Joint Declaration for a Drug-Free ASEAN ASEAN Rural Development and Poverty Eradication and Social Safety Nets. religion. wise and flexible approach that enables ASEAN to optimize its geo-political regional strength. It is impossible to build an ASEAN community without preserving and further enriching cultural . Social and cultural factors: The success of the ASEAN is recognized not only by the factors to increasing economic integration and political and security cooperation among the member states but also to the factors that make ASEAN as a unique association. geographical and economic sectors. and a dynamic. Another area of cooperation is to accelerate social development. However by the pleasant combination of national priorities and the Association’s interests. For this purpose. many initiatives have been taken. social. In addition to. ASEAN has an object to promote greater cooperation in the transport and communication sector.
Once it was the fearful region of conflict and violence now after the establishment of ASEAN Through political dialogue and confidence building. has the opportunity not only to broaden their knowledge but also develop a sense of ragionality Political factors: 1. peace and security. The concept of homeland is born and nurtured by a deeply imbued cultural environment since the early childhood. That helps the leaders of this region to achieve the goal and success of ASEAN. Second factor is that to deal with the collective security concept for the region it creates ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 1994. through frequent cultural interactions between distinctive cultures. ASEAN’s youth. Culture helps build the ASEAN spirit on which national citizens will think and act more regionally. Since its founding in 1967. one of ASEAN's most important achievements is that it changed Southeast Asia from a region of conflict or violence and poverty to a region of development. there has been no major armed conflict or confrontation between any ASEAN members. It deals with an uncertain security situation in the post-Cold War era by creating a setting or framework within which confidence building between countries of the region can begin. Indeed. Third one is that the member states of the ASEAN are somehow politically stable. 2. no tension has escalated into armed confrontation among ASEAN member countries. Stable Political condition: One of the most important factors is that ASEAN has a safe and sound regional environment.identities of ASEAN and its peoples. Strong leadership: . There people enjoy more democracy than the other part of Asia and Africa.
(http://app. C) ASEAN and other powers relation: Another factor is that accounted for ASEAN's success is its efforts in engaging and networking with the major powers who have traditionally played an . Here interesting factor is that each of the member states of ASEAN has individual relation with USA. IT has contributed to ASEAN's success is that the leaders of Southeast Asia focused their energies sharply on economic growth and development not for their own interest.The second most important factor is that ASEAN leadership. Relationship with external powers: A) ASEAN and its neighbors relationship: The increase of an economically leading and politically powerful China is one of the most important strategic challenges facing ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific as a whole Second challenge come from Japan which is economically powerful state among the world community. not confrontation and conflict. which lead ASEAN as a successful organization.mfa. ASEAN leaders realize that ASEAN is not only good for the region but also for the development of their own national economies. 3. Though there is a variety of political systems in Southeast Asia but all the ASEAN countries are united by their common emphasis on economic growth and cooperation.sg) B) ASEAN –US relationship: To mitigate the threat Of China and Japan or from other neighbor state it is needed to integrate with the USA. which helps for further integration.gov. However factor is that the political strategy of ASEAN leads a cooperative relation with China. USA has its own interest that’s why US must remain engaged in the region to protect not only its economic but also its vital strategic interests in Asia. Japan and other neighboring countries.
APEC and ASEM and the ASEAN dialogue processes. It did so by a series of innovative forums such as ARF. The ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting may confer on an external party the formal status of Dialogue Partner. which was adopted in the first summit meeting of the organization. ASEAN's dialogue relationships with other countries started in the 1970s and have now expanded to include the US. stability. ASEAN’s aspirations to achieve peace. (www. established a peaceful and stable Southeast Asia where each nation is at peace with itself and where the causes for conflict have been the rule of law and through the strengthening of national and regional resilience” -ASEAN VISION 2020 In 1971 ASEAN members endorsed a declaration envisaging the establishment of a zone of peace. Special Observer. Security and ASEAN: “ASEAN shall have by the year 2020. the EU. Japan. ASEAN’s activities to realize the ASC are guided by the five strategic thrusts in the ASC plan of actions. Guest. held in Bali. Shaping and sharing of norms . Australia. namely1. Russia. freedom and neutrality in the south-east Asian region. New Zealand and others.important role in Southeast Asia. China. democracy and prosperity in the region where ASEAN member countries live at peace with one another and with the world at large in a just democratic and harmonious environment . Development Partner. or other status. Canada.org) Peace. This objective was incorporated in the declaration of ASEAN concord.aseansec. Indonesia in February 1976. Scrotal Dialogue Partner. Political development 2.
They also committed to establish a conducive political environment which will ensure continued peace. Non-alignment Fostering of peace-oriented attitudes of ASEAN members countries. Shaping and sharing of norms: Shaping and sharing of norms aim at achieving a standard of common adherence to norms of good conduct among members of the ASEAN community. This is the highest political commitment that would serve as the basis for ASEAN political cooperation. post-conflict peace building 1. security and stability in the region here member’s countries intra-regional difference and disputes. tolerant. and contributing to the building of a democratic. Conflict prevention 4. ASEAN member’s countries shall promote political development in support of ASEAN leaders’ shared vision. These norms setting activities shall adhere to the following principles. Conference is to bring ASEAN’s political and security co operation to a higher plan. In working towards these objectives. Political development: One of the main objective of the ASEAN security as envisaged in the Bali. participatory and transparent community in Southeast Asia.3. 2. consolidating and strengthening ASEAN’s solidarity. Conflict resolution 5. cohesiveness and harmony. and . Conflict resolution through non-violent means Renunciation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and avoidance arms race in southeast Asia.
3. which is the key code of conduct governing relations between states and diplomatic instrument fir the promotion of peace. Post-conflict Peace Building: Post-conflict peace building seeks to create the conditions necessary for a sustainable peace in conflict-torn areas and to prevent the resurgence of conflict. It is a process involving broad-based inter-agency cooperation and coordination across a wide range of issues. Conflict prevention: Based on the principles contained in the TAC. the objective of conflict prevention shall be: To strengthen confidence and trust within the community To mitigate tensions and prevent disputes from arising between or among member countries as well as between member countries and non-ASEAN countries. and processes in the political and security areas and work towards innovative modalities. and To prevent the escalation of existing disputes. As an ASEAN family members should assist each other . Conflict resolution: It is essential that any disputes and conflicts involving ASEAN member countries be resolved in a peaceful way and in the spirit of promoting peace. security and stability in the region. 4. Renunciation of the threat or the use of force. While continuing to use national. bilateral. ASEAN member countries shall endeavour to use the existing regional dispute settlement mechanisms. 5. ASEAN activities related to post-conflict peace building shall include the establishment of appropriate mechanism and mobilization of resources. and international mechanisms. security and stability in the region.
Non-traditional security issues: At the ARF seminar on Enhancing Cooperation in the field of nontraditional security issues shared their best practices and experiences in coping with non-traditional security threats. such as Terrorism Illicit drugs . The ASPC recommended exploring and developing ways and means of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on various areas. such as humanitarian relief assistance. reconstruction and rehabilitation. Development and Achievements: 1. 2. Defense and security policy dialogue: Defense dialogue and cooperation in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was elevated with the convening of the 1st ARF security policy conference (ASPC) in November 2004 in Beijing.in post-conflict peace building effort to. These included: Intelligence and information sharing Capacity building Training programmers The sharing of experiences on the legal aspects of the role of the armed forces in dealing with non-traditional security threats.
ARF participants also agreed on the need to take collective efforts to address maritime threats and agreed to share their efforts in such sections: Fostering information sharing Establishing maritime domains awareness Initiating joint maritime security exercise Co operating on consequence management and Sustaining capacity building initiatives 4. privacy and human rights. effective. Intelligence exchange and Document integrity and security: The 3rd ARF ISM on country-terrorism and transactional crime . cochaired by Thailand on information sharing and intelligence exchange . the ISM agreed on the need to balance the timely. 5. Treaty of amity and cooperation in Southeast Asia: . Maritime security: The ARF workshop on Maritime security in September 2004 in Kualalampur was important in forging a general consensus among ARF participants on the reality of threats to maritime security. Piracy People smuggling and human trafficking HIV /AIDS. and systematic sharing of information and exchange of intelligence with the appropriate protection for the sources of information. 3. and Cyber crime.
everlasting amity and cooperation in the region. Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-free Zone: ASEAN started activity exploring the control of Southeast Asia as a nuclear weapons-free zone in the mid-1980s. China a nuclear weapons state supported them. held in April 1994.The 1976 treaty of amity and cooperation in Southeast Asia is legally –binding instrument to promote perpetual peace. At the same time the ministers adopted standards for air quality and river water which were to be achieved by all ASEAN . These measures form the preparatory steps towards the conclusion of an ASEAN convention on counterterrorism and the establishment of an ASEAN extradition treaty as envisaged by the ASC plan of action. approved an ASEAN strategic plan of Action on the environmental quality and standards for the ASEAN region and aimed to enhance joint action to address environmental concerns to achieve durable peace. Counter-terrorism: The Vientiane Action Programme (VAP) adopted at the 10th ASEAN summit contained several measures to guide ASEANS efforts in countering terrorism from 2005-2010. 6. 7. The 1995 treaty in the Southeast Asia nuclear weapon-free zone is crucial to both confidence building in Southeast Asia and to worldwide nuclear disarmament. This treaty has been accepted by a growing number of countries outside Southeast Asia. Environmental security and ASEAN: A ministerial meeting on the environment. This treaty is the sign of Peaceful coexistence Friendly consultation Resolution of conflict through peaceful way.
ASEAN as an organization of 10 states with multi ethnic and religion background have potentials for conflict but fortunately or with charismatic leadership this did not happen.wikipedia. This led the leaders of each country particularly Mahathir Mohammad of Malaysia to further integration of the region. At the turn of the 21st century. Crisis affected the economies of each member state and the other Asian countries. In the mid 1997 a financial crisis swept the region. ASEAN Plus Three was the first step. In June 1995 ministers also agreed to co-operate in order to counter the problems of trans-boundary pollutions. issues shifted to involve a more environmental perspective. ASEAN: Realities and Future Challenges: ASEAN: some realities None can deny the extreme reality of present international political and economic recession. But due to outbreak of the 2005 Malaysian haze and 2006 Southeast Asian haze this agreement and organization could not fulfill its agenda (www. .com). But the storm came from other sides. Since the haze pollution is an important environmental issue. This crisis made people understand that “miracle age” is over (Tay: 2001). ASEAN is called “Unity of Diversity” (Yong: 2003). Now the question is how far this will be able to go in such a situation of balancing and counter balancing in world trade between the USA and China? Beside this devastating Indonesian forest fire in 1997 and 1998 blanketed the region with haze pollution. But the USA and Japan opposes that plan. Member states signed a treaty ASEAN Agreement on Trans-boundary Haze Pollution in 2002 to deal with haze pollution.member countries by 2010.
Future of ASEAN: Challenges and Recommendations As world entered into a new century. A long Mahathir Regime in Malaysia about 4 decades. situation between North Korea and South Korea might affect in this region. Though on 15 December 1995. the Southeast Asian Nuclear Free Zone Treaty was signed. protection of human rights and fundamental freedom of expression more space for media and public involvement equal political participation in intrastate the determining factors of the future of ASEAN as I stated before. state of human security. Governments of member states of ASEAN are known to adopt reserved attitude to the idea of Pacific Economic Co-operation (PEC) (Soesastro: 1983). the development gap in ASEAN. human security and domestic and regional security ( Shedden paper: 2003). Another thing is ASEAN countries often been leveled ‘soft authoritarian states’ (Tay: 2001). North Korea near the shoulder of the region. There are at least five challenges faced by the ASEAN: democracy. 32 years of power of president Suharto in Indonesia . Beside economic and environmental issues.ASEAN region is a comparatively peaceful region (Young: 2003). Mayanmar Janta rule and recent Thailand political crisis emerged as new challenges foe further development and success of ASEAN. It has made a significant effort to indicate regional and international willingness to deal with the grouping seriously. cope up with militancy and radical religious campaigns all are . ASEAN phased new challenges from different sides. economic liberalization. democratization . level . However. there are so many remaining challenges faced by ASEAN. In recent time peace and security of ASEAN region is obscure where there is a country with WMD.
So that highest priority is given to maintain foreign relation. 1. So future expansion of economic opportunity of ASEAN is largely depends on the cooperation with other actors like. Maintaining external economic linkages: Separately each state of ASEAN is too small in economic terms. During 1997 crisis these states shared views. Here I’ll describe the future challenges of ASEAN. In future the more democratic the block will be the better opportunity will be ensured. experimented with controls over capital flows and currency rate ( Tay: 2001).One of the major challenges for the ASEAN to fulfill mandates stated in its charter signed in November 2007. China. USA and so on. Collectively ASEAN is the fourth biggest trader of the world (Young: 2003). This charter should be implemented carefully so that ASEAN can be more people oriented and more away from being state centric as is largely the case at this moment (Wanandi 2006). countries hoped discourage policies that might lead to another devaluation and crisis. Economic liberalization: One of the major challenges for the ASEAN member states to liberalize their internal economic system so that more foreign investment can be drawn. 3. Democratization: Democracy will not necessarily be a factor that all states will welcome nor will it solve every states every problem (Tay: 2001). Once the economic recession has passed some countries tried seek to greater control over it . 2. For example. By subjecting the information to peer review. Furthermore. Our experience about ASEAN is a well democratic environment in member states particularly in the case of Indonesia aggravated the organization to come out from financial crisis. it is a fact that no universal values of democracy should be applicable to all countries (Shedden Paper: 2003). Malaysia a very open economy. EU.
5. Maintenance of security: One of the major challenges for the V is how efficiently will it be able to maintain its security by combating against supranational and intrastate security threats. huge disputes between urban and rural areas and also small elite group that have tended to monopolies wealth. Mitigating development gap: Development gap between the six old members and four new members in widening. Human security: Human security situation in member countries are diversified. Due to economic recession many people lost their job and fell below the poverty line. The charter should strengthen ASEAN identity among the people in the region as well as contribute to international and regional . Vietnam. Laos and Myanmar. riots. On the other hand it can give rise to many criminal activities such as violence. trade and financial policies. In such a situation. strengthening implementation of ASEAN Charter and so on. It has been stated that. In such situation tension may arise among people. 4. On the other hand Thailand and Singapore are following the IMF prescription. Malaysia. especially for countries with large population. This will be a challenge for ASEAN countries. it potentially becomes harder for the group to achieve greater co-operation.their economy like. which hare generally failed to provide social safety nets. The emergence of ARF membership has showed as that the world community needs ASEAN. Peace and stability: Maintaining peace and stability in this region is dependent on effective mechanism to settle interstate boarder disputes. 6. The war on terrorism has compelled ASEAN to be much more proactive in dealing with regional security. Bridging development gap in ASEAN members to catch up with rest and join them in advancing the association into a more meaningful and more prosperous economic community. 7. robbery or even terrorism.
III. Ensuring sustainable natural and human environmental development ASEAN should pressurize Mayanmar and Thailand to rwstore democracy withing a given time.affairs. I. V. Highest co-operation should be ensured in the arena. ASEAN threats posed by international terrorism can answer this challenge adequately only when regional powers like China and India co-operate warmly (Wanandi: 2006). Introducing track III diplomacy beside rack I and track II diplomacy to ensure consensus. under existing framework of the UN and ASEAN Charter. Recommendations to cope with these challenges I find it important to recommend something that may or may not be helpful to overcome these multi-dimensional challenges. especially those with religion influence . Effectiveness of ASEAN plans in economic. IV. political and environmental areas should be analysed and reviewd from peoples perspective. Combating with extremism and radical practice: One of the major security threats of each country of the world is to combat with intra or supra non state violet groups. ASEAN will strengthen peace and security (Wanandi: 2006). In this way. In response to this challenges the Secretary General of ASEAN states “intensifying the presence and voice of the moderate force. II. Resolving all by lateral and multilateral disputes threaten regional and global security through diplomacy. so that radical elements do not turn the multi-racial and multi-religious characteristics of ASEAN into antiestablishment advantages( Young:2003). .
this will help it to modify its role Conclusion: Regional forum like ASEAN.I. vol. VII.S. No. 1975. Krishan Nagar.1 EUROPA Publications Ltd. A. 2003. Diablo Press/ Canfield Publications. However. “Southeast Asia Emerges”. But it hardly can deter clash of exclusive national interest of small or big powers. Asian Survey.. are facing enormous challenges due to emergence of regional superpowers and inevitable clash between or among big powers.6. No. Countries can ensure freedom of media so that thay can criticize ASEAN . SAARC etc. 2003. “ International Relations”. John and Chan Sarah.43. . members maintained their response for noninterference and territorial status quo for a long period. Delhi-110 05. ASEAN member states have to take immediate steps to develop human rights situationa in Mayanmar. 2000. • Daquila. Steven./Decem.3 May/June.43. • Wong. ASEAN. vol. J-5/6.Le Huu. VIII.B. “ Singapore and ASEAN in the Global Economy”. Nov. • WARSHAW. and Huy. “ China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement”. • Palmer and Perkin. Teofilo C. Asian Survey.T. This regional forum shall come forward to stop political exclusion and marginalization in member countries. References : • The EUROPA WORLD YEAR BOOK.VI. Publishers and Distributors. vol.
Vol.com • www. 2001. Simon. • Buszynski.• Soesastro. Asien 100. 2006. pp. Asian Survey. • www. Leszek.org . 12. Winter 2001. July. Economies and Institution in Southeast Asia. 1255. 27.85-87. Jusuf. No. ASEAN Future Challenges and the Importance of An ASEAN Charter. 1957.wikipedia. Southeast Asia. PP. No. 07. 1983. • Wanandi. Asian Survey. ASEAN A Changing Regional Role.535. Vol. The Future of ASEAN: An Assessment of Democracy. pp. Hadi.asean . Asean and the Political Economy of Pacific Cooperation. 23. • Tay.