Bachelors in Business Administration

Unit - V STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Session 4 Trends in Management II
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Session Objective
• By the end of this session you will be able to understand:
– Meaning of Management Change – Crisis Management – Total Quality Management (TQM) – Stress Management
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Content Outline
• Management Change • Management of Crises • TQM • Stress Management • International Management
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Types of Organisational Change Transformational Change Revolutionary Change Evolutionary Change Developmental Change In Collaboration with .

Factors of Change • Vision • Organising Arrangements • Social Factors • Physical Settings • Technology In Collaboration with .

Lewin’s Three Step Change Model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing In Collaboration with .

Unfreezing • Is referred to as status quo • Individual resistance to change is found • Two forces are generated – Status quo – Equilibrium stage • The state tries to overcome the pressures of individual resistance In Collaboration with .

Moving • The change once introduced is made accepted by the employees • The employees encounter the change • The actual change to the desired stage of change is practiced In Collaboration with .

Refreezing • The change is implemented here accepted and • Is a process where the change is sustained or maintained • The change becomes temporary due to lack of Refreezing In Collaboration with .

Organisational Resistance to Change • Factors for Organisational resistance to change are: – Structural Inertia – Interdependence of Sub-Systems – Group Inertia – Threat to Expertise and Established Resource Allocations In Collaboration with .

Crisis Management • A relatively new field of Management • Includes activities like forecasting and planning • Includes identification of crises interventions to minimise damage and • Includes strong focus on public relations In Collaboration with .

Benefits of Crisis Management • Ability to asses the situation better • Techniques to direct actions • Rapidly trigger Management Business Continuity • Better Organisation Resilience • Compliance with regulatory and ethical requirements In Collaboration with .

Benefits of Crisis Management • Better Management of incidents • Improved Staff Awareness • Increases Ability and Morale • Enhanced Risk Management • Protected and Enhanced Reputation In Collaboration with .

products.Total Quality Management (TQM) • Is an approach that motivates. supports and enables quality management • Focuses on the needs an d expectations of internal and external customers • All members participate in improving processes. services & culture In Collaboration with .

ELEMENTS TQM Prevention of Defects Customer Focus Universal Responsibility for Quality Benefits of Crisis Management In Collaboration with .

Benefits of TQM • Reduction in Quality Costs • Increase in Profitability & Productivity • Reduced Cost of Rework • Improved Market Share • Reduced Service Expenses • Satisfied customer • High Employee Morale In Collaboration with .

Improve constantly the system of production and service 6. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag 5. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service 2.Deming’s 14 Points of Quality 1. Institute training on the job In Collaboration with . Adopt New Western Philosophy 3.

Encourage right to joy of workmanship 12. Eliminate Work Standards (quotas) 11. 9.Deming’s 14 Points of Quality 7. to work effectively Break down barriers between departments Eliminate Slogan 10. Institute vigorous program of education 13. Start Transformation in every job 14. Institute Leadership and Supervision In Collaboration with . Drive out fear. 8.

Stress Management • The word ‘Stress’ is defined as ‘a state of affair involving demand on physical or mental energy’ • It’s a condition of circumstance which can disturb the normal physical and mental health of an individual • Stress at work can cause serious risk of litigation for employees and Organisation In Collaboration with .

Causes of Stress at work • Bullying or Harassment • Feeling Powerless & Uninvolved • Continuous demands unreasonable Performance • Lack of Conflict Resolution In Collaboration with .

Causes of Stress at Work • Lack of Job Security • Long Working Hours • Excessive time away from Home & Family • Office Politics In Collaboration with .

Steps to Reduce Stress • Work Should be Planned • Regular off to personnel employed on shift duties • Improvement in working Conditions • Two-way Communication System • Encouragement Awards of Annual Sports & In Collaboration with .

Steps to Reduce Stress • Encouragement of Unit/Squadron • Anniversary and other Programms • Regular Welfare Meeting • Proper Leave Sanction Method • Realistic Goal Setting In Collaboration with .

International Management • Is the practice of managing business operations in more than one country • Involves management of Cross-Cultural Issues • Requires careful assessment International Environment of In Collaboration with .

Factors Evaluated in International Management • Cultural Factors • Economic Factors • Political Actors In Collaboration with .

Cultural Factors • Culture is a influence on: – – – – complex environmental Knowledge Believes Values Morals & Customs • Culture influences attitudes of individuals concerning: – – – – Work Authority Time & Profit Decision Making In Collaboration with .

Economic Factors • Economic factors performance of MNCs • Economic factors Organisation are: – – – – Income Levels Economic Growth Inflation Rates Balance of Payments influence the influencing an In Collaboration with .

Political Factors • Political factors can influence functioning of an Organisation • The major factors to be considered are: – Governments Attitude – Efficiency of Government – Government Stability In Collaboration with .

Read the topic from the handout 10 minutes In Collaboration with .

Review Questions • What are the major reasons for the individual resistance to change • Explain with diagram the Lewin’s three step model and process of resistance to change • Enumerate the reasons for Organisational resistance to change In Collaboration with the .

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