"This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant.

" (KRF-2003-072-AL2002)



KIM Juwon

KO Dongho CHAOKE D. O.

HAN Youfeng PIAO Lianyu BOLDYREV B. V.

Seoul National University Press

KIM Juwon

Department of Linguistics, Seoul National University, Korea

KO Dongho


Department of Korean Language and Literature, Chonbuk National University, Korea

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China

HA.N Youfeng

Heilongjiang Provincial Nation Research Institute, China


PIAO Lianyu

Heilongjiang Provincial Nation Research Institute, China

Institute of Philology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

1. Introduction



1.1 Spoken Manchu today 1.2 Fieldwork

1.3 Situations of Manchu speakers

1.4 Previous researches into spoken Manchu

1 3 5 5

2. The phonological system of Manchu


Altaic Languages Series 1 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Copyright © 2008 by The Altaic Society of Korea Printed in Seoul, Korea

2.1 Consonant system 2.2 Glide

2.3 Vowel system 2.4 Stress

2.5 Phonological process 2.6 Historical change

7 15 16 21 22 22

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, except for brief quotations, without written permission from Seoul National University Press.

3. Word-formation and vocabulary


Seoul National University Press

599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea

E-mail: snubook@snu.ac.kr

Home Page: http.z'/www.snupress.com

3.1 Derivation

3.2 Compound words 3.3 Vocabulary

31 33 33

4. Grammar


First Printing: August 29, 2008

ISBN 978-89-521-0947-7 93970

4.1 Nouns


4.2 Verbs

4.3 Adjectives

4.4 Invariant words

39 44 45

Appendix 1. Items in questionnaire Manchu-English English-Manchu

Appendix 2. Basic conversational expressions Appendix 3. Sentences for grammatical analysis

51 51 110 161 185

References Abstract

217 219



1.1 Spoken Manchu today

This book aims to describe the Manchu language spoken in Sanjiazi village, Fuyu County, Heilongjiang Province (~:it~l~' '~ttl-£. - ~~ =r+n in China. Because this spoken Manchu is a nearly extinct language, it is expected that this book will contribute to documenting endangered languages and to establishing method of investigating them.

Manchu is a descendant of Jurchen (fr~) language and was widely used in Qing dynasty U~, 1636-1911). But the number of Manchu speakers has been decreasing since 18th century. And this language is nearly extinct nowadays. The first report on spoken Manchu can be found in Kono (1944) in which several Manchu words are listed. The first full scale research into spoken Manchu was carried out by a research team from Inner Mongolia University. After getting the information that Manchu is spoken in Heilongjiang Province, this team went to do fieldwork in the village where Manchu is spoken in 1961. The results of this fieldwork were publicized in 1982. There were also some other reports on Manchu spoken in other areas in Heilongjiang Province.U

The Sanjiazi village belongs to Youyi Dawoerzu Manzu Ke'er-

2 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Introduction 3

(3), Dagur people (a Mongolian people), Fuyu Kirgiz people (a Turkic people), and Manchu people (a Manchu people) live together. The Manchu people mainly live in the Sanjiazi village. The Sanjiazi village was named after three clans with different family names, i.e. Meng (:;t, morjjir xala) , Tao (Wili), tokul xala), and Ji (~t, gibcu xala). Although Manchu people have their own native Manchu names, they use Chinese family names in everyday life.

The population in Sanjiazi village is 1,078 and the number of household is 297 in 2005. Among them, the number of Manchu people is about 600. They made their livelihood mainly by fishing in the past. Recently, they also engage in stockfarming under government supervision.

When we visited this village, only about 10 people over 70 years old could speak some Manchu. Their command of Manchu were different depending on individuals. Almost half of the people used spoken Manchu close to written Manchu. And the other people spoke Manchu very different from written Manchu. Besides there was a Manchu speaker in her early 60s. Her command of Manchu was very poor. There was also a young Manchu speaker in his early 30s, whose name was Shi Junguang C5:EL71';). He said he was learning Manchu from his grandmother. Our fieldwork was carried out twice, that is, in 2005 and in 2006.

1.2 Fieldwork

1) See 1.4 for details.

The first fieldwork was done from May 3 to May 8, 2005. We visited Sanjiazi village and looked for consultants. And we invited five consultants to a hotel in Fuyu county and made a recording of spoken Manchu for three days. We could evaluate their individual command of Manchu and the characteristics of their spoken Manchu.

The second fieldwork was carried out from February 7 to

Figure 1. The location of Sanjiazi village in Qiqihar

kezizu township, Fuyu county, Heilongjiang Province (~Jt1I~' ~rG±t-:tziB:jEljE[~~Jl!iC~f,JJlj*1'PJ~51.J3z:JJ!iC3 =~-=f/I"lJ Within the county

4 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Figure 2. Manchurian Meng Xianxiao (~j~:3t~:)

February 14, 2006 in Qiqihar (**[Ig-jj:::). The consultant was Mr. Meng Xianxiao (i1r~jl::Zf:) at the age of 73. We made a recording of Manchu vocabulary, basic conversation and basic grammar for 5 days. About 1,800 words, 340 conversational sentences and 370 sentences for grammar analysis were recorded. Seong Baeg-in (advisor), Kim Juwon (transcription and video recording), Shin Yonggwon (interpretation), and Kang Heejo (audio recording) participated in this fieldwork. The equipment used for the fieldwork is as follows:

Audio recording:

Recorder: Marantz PMD 670 Microphone:

AKG C-420 (professional headset condenser microphone) Audio Technica ATM 15A (Cardioid condenser microphone) Video recording:

Introduction 5

Camcorder: Sony DSR-PDXIO, SONY DCR-TRV940 Microphone: Audio Technica ATM 15A (Cardioid condenser microphone)

Mr. Meng Xianxiao had a very good memory and linguistic sense. When he was a child, he used Manchu only for very basic conversation. He began to learn Manchu with relative intensity from the age of 12. Although his native language is Chinese, he was the best available Manchu speaker. So we selected him as our consultant.

1.3 Situations of Manchu speakers

In 1961, the research team in Inner Mongolia University got the information that Manchu is used in Sanjiazi village near Nen (or Nonni) river. They visited Sanjiazi village, Fuyu county, Heilongjiang Province in summer and investigated Manchu and the culture and history of the Manchu people living there for more than one month. The results of this fieldwork could not be publicized during the Cultural Revolution period. The results were opened to public in 1982. According to the report, 355 Manchu people were living in Sanjiazi village in 1961. Old people could speak Manchu fluently. Middle aged people used both Manchu and Chinese. Young people could speak Chinese better than Manchu. This situation was almost the same in other Manchu speaking villages in Aixun region close to Heilongjiang river.

1.4 Previous researches into spoken Manchu

The following is a list of papers in which spoken Manchu is described.

6 Materials of Spoken Manchu

1944 Kono, Manshukoku kokuka chiho ni okeru manshugo no ichi tokushoku (= A Characteristics of Manchu in Xeihe)

1982 Qinggeltei, Manzhouyu Kouyu Yuyin (= Sounds of Spoken Manchu)

1984 Wang, Aihui Manyu Gaikuang (= An Introduction to Aihui Manchu)

1989 Ji et al., Xiandai Manyu Babaiju (= 800 Sentences in Modem Manchu)

1989 Zhao, Xiandai manyu yanjiu (= A Study on Modem Manchu)

1995 Enhebatu, Manyu Kouyu Yanjiu (=A Study on Spoken Manchu)

2001 Zhao and Chao, Heilongjiang Xiandai Manyu Yanjiu (=A study on Heilongjiang Manchu Language)

2005 Wang, Manyu Yanjiu (=A study on Manchu)


The Phonological System of Manchu

2.1 Consonant system

The consonant system of Manchu including glides is as follows.D

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plosive b p d t gk
Fricative f s S x
Affricate J c
Nasal m n 1]
Lateral 1
Glide w j The allophones of each phoneme are described below.

2.1.1 Plosives /b/

/b/ has two allophones - [pJ and [b]. Ibl is realized as [pJ (voiceless unaspirated bilabial plosive) in word-initial position

1) In this book, we use /b, d, g/ for voiceless unaspirated plosives and /p, t, k/ for voiceless aspirated plosives.

(1) dujn [tyn] 'four' dolxi [tolyi] 'inner'

(2) adem [adan] 'herd of cattle'

Figure 3. Spectrogram of bja [pja] 'moon' sixdon [civdon] 'between'

8 Materials of Spoken Manchu

as in (1) (cf. Figure 3 above) and as [b] (voiced bilabial plosive) between voiced sounds as in (2) and (3).2) At syllable final position it is optionally released.

(1) bila [pila] 'small river' bja [pja] 'moon'

(2) albixa [olbivx] 'sable' dalba [talba] 'around' amba [amba] 'big'

(3) tabu [thabu] 'to cause see' ilibu [ilibu] 'to cause stand' /p/

/p/ is realized as [ph] (voiceless aspirated bilabial plosive).

2) It is when a passive/causative affix -bu- is added to root that [b] is realized in intervocalic position.

The Phonological System of Manchu 9

This sound involves strong aspiration word-initially and weak aspiration word-medially. This sound usually occurs in loan words.

(1) pjolan [psjolan] 'blue'

(2) umpu [ump-u] 'a kind of berry' /d/

/d/ is realized as [t] (voiceless unaspirated alveolar plosive) in word-initial position as in (1) (cf. Figure 4 below) and as [d] (voiced alveolar plosive) between voiced sounds as in (2).

Figure 4. Spectrogram of dale; [tala] 'waist'

10 Materials of Spoken Manchu




Figure 5. Spectrogram of tatsrn [thathdmJ 'to shoot' It I

It I is realized as [thJ (voiceless aspirated alveolar plosive). This sound involves strong aspiration word-initially as in (1) (d. Figure 5) and weak aspiration word-medially as in (2).

(1) tasko [thaskhAJ 'tiger' tulxi [thulyiJ 'outer'

(2) tatsm [thath;:)mJ 'to shoot' /s/

Igl is realized as [kJ (voiceless unaspirated velar plosive) in word-initial position as in (1), and as [gJ (voiced velar plosive) between voiced sounds as in (2). This sound is optionally pronounced as [qJ or [GJ before back vowels 10, a/ as in (3).

(1) gulmaxo [kulmavx] 'rabbit'

The Phonological System of Manchu 11

(2) age [agx] 'elder brother' (3) galma [qalma] 'mosquito' gol [qol] 'distant' Ikl

Ikl is realized as [k"] (voiceless aspirated velar plosive) in word-initial position or after a consonant as in (1) and as [x] (voiceless velar fricative) between vowels as in (2). This sound is optionally pronounced as [qhJ or [X], before or after back vowels 10, a/ as in (3).

(1) kusun [k-uzun] 'power' sunko [sunk-o] 'footprint' (2) jaka [tsax»] 'thing'

(3) buka ixan [puqsaisan] 'bull' ufko [vuvq-o] 'lungs'

jakun [ti?axunJ 'eight'

2.1.2 Fricatives If!

If! is realized as [vJ (voiced labiodental fricative) after vowel as in (1) or [f] (voiceless labiodental fricative) in other positions as in (2).

(1) ifam [ivam] 'to sew'

afim [ejvim] 'to play' ljofkan [ljovksan] 'muddy' (2) fulxo [fulvo] 'root' fankilja [fjarjk-ile] 'low' lsi

lsi is pronounced as [<;;J before Ii! as in (1), as [z] between vowels (d. Figure 6) as in (2), or as [s] elsewhere as in (3).

12 Materials of Spoken Manchu

The Phonological System of Manchu 13

Figure 6. Spectrogram of susai [SUZf] 'fifty'

Figure 7. Spectrogram of sun [sun] 'sun' and sun [sun] 'milk'

(1) si [ci] 'you'

(2) gisan [gizsn] 'language' (3) sun [sun] 'milk'

sdld [sala] 'iron' Ixl

Ixl is realized (1) as [y] (voiced velar fricative) or (2) as [I:f] (voiced uvular fricative) between voiced sounds, and (3) as [x] (voiceless velar fricative) or (4) as [X] (voiceless uvular fricative) elsewhere. Uvular variant is optionally pronounced before or back vowels 10, a/. lsi

Retroflex fricative [e] contrasts with alveolar fricative Is/ (d. Figure 7). It is realized as [2;] intervocalically as in (1) and [e] elsewhere as in (2). Voiced fricative [2;] is sometimes realized as an approximant as in (3).

(1) bisum [pizum] 'to touch' kuso [khU~O] 'knife'

(2) sun [sun] 'sun'

sumin [sumin] 'deep' aSSdXd [aeedYA] 'to move' (3) ajsin [aj:(In] 'gold'

asnako [alnaxo] - [asnaxo] 'incorrect'

(1) ulxan [ulyan] 'trap'

oxo [oyo] 'did'

(2) buka ixan [puq-ainan] 'bull' (3) xoni [xojie] 'sheep'

( 4) xala [XalA] 'last name'

2.1.3 Affricates III

/5/ is pronounced as [te] (voiceless unaspirated alveolo-palatal

14 Materials of Spoken Manchu

retroflex affricate) before back vowels as in (1) and as [t<;;] (voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate) before a front vowel as in (2).

On the other hand, voiced allophone is realized between voiced sounds. [dz] (voiced alveolo-palatal retroflex affricate) is realized before back vowels as in (3) and [<t] (voiced alveolo-palatal affricate) is realized before a front vowel as in (4).

(1) julxi [tsulvi] 'south' (2) jixa [t<;;iYA] 'came' (3) sunja [sundza] 'five'

(4) ajilxan [adsilvan] 'stallion' lei

IC/ is realized as [teh] (voiceless aspirated alveolo-palatal retroflex affricate) before back vowels as in (1), and as [t<;;h] (voiceless aspirated alveolo-palatal affricate) before a front vowel as in (2).

(1) wanco [wonts-o] 'wide' (2) cicik;:J [t<;;hit<;;hikhA] 'bird'

2.1.4 Nasals Iml

Iml is realized as em] (bilabial nasal) in all contexts.

mo [mo] 'tree'

nima [pima] 'goat' jolum [jolurn] 'to ride' Inl

Inl is pronounced as [ji] (palatal nasal) before [i] or OJ as in (1) and as en] (alveolar nasal) in other contexts as in (2).

The Phonological System of Manchu 15

(1) njul [pjul] 'arrow' fanixa [f;:Jj1iYA] 'fur' (2) nadon [nadan] 'seven' alin [ajlin] 'mountain' 101

IIJI does not occur in word-initial pOSITIOn. Besides that position, this sound is always realized as [IJ] (velar nasal).

sunko [sunkso] 'footprint' t8IJ [th8IJ] 'hundred' mOIJIJun [morpjun] 'silver'

2.1.5 Liquid III

11/ is usually realized as [1] in all context as in (1). But this sound is sometimes pronounced as [r] as in (2).

(1) lodo [lodo] 'many' ilan [ilan] 'three' njul [jijul] 'arrow' adili [edile] 'same'

(2) tala [th;:JlA] - [th;:JrA] 'he or she'

2.2 Glide

2.2.1 /w/

/w/ is pronounced as [w] (bilabial glide) in all contexts as in (1). This sound is optionally pronounced as [v] (voiced labiodental fricative) in word-initial position as in (2). The sequence of Iw I and a vowel is regarded as a diphthong.

16 Materials of Spoken Manchu

(1) waksan [waxson] 'frog' jwan [tswan] 'ten'

(2) [wa] - [va] 'smell'

2.2.2 /j/

/j! is realized as [j] (palatal glide) in all contexts. The sequence of /j/ and a vowel is regarded as a diphthong.

jolum [jolum] 'to ride'

jawoxa [jawdYA] 'to leave (perf.)'

2.3 Vowel system

The inventory of Manchu vowels is as follows:

y o


UIU U "0" 0 l\_ J

e r

d a

Among these vowels, we can set up 5 vowel phonemes.

d a

u o

Distinctive features of these vowels are as follows:

I -back + back
+ round + round
I + high i d u
I -high a 0 The Phonological System of Manchu 17

The system explains the following phonological phenomenon:3)


(1) unrounding < u-s >: [mudan] > madan 'turn' (2) rounding < o-a >: [basurnbi] > bosum 'satire'


(3) raising < o-u >: [songgombi] > sUIJIJum 'to weep' (4) raising <a-d>: [nadan] »-nadan 'seven'


(5) (phonetic) umlaut (All back vowel experienced umlaut) < a-r >: [majige] > [mrctiYA] 'some'

<d-e>: [erin] >[elin] 'time'

< 0-0 >: [teisun] > [th0j.:un] 'copper' < u-y >: [dulin] > [tyjlin] 'half'

2.3.1 Monophthong Iii

Ii! is usually realized as [i] (unrounded high front) as in (1). This vowel is pronounced as [e] as in (2) or as [r] as in (3) when unstressed. By influence of Chinese pronunciation Ii! is realized as [ji] or [jd] in front of nasal consonants, especially in front of [IJ] (4).

(1) ixan [iyan] 'ox' molin [molin] 'horse' (2) jali [jele] 'meat'

udali [u'dele] 'how many' (3) jamji [jcmjc] 'evening' dowuli [to'oule] 'night' (4) inirj [iJ1iIJ] 'day'

3) In this book, the forms in [ ] are written Manchu forms.

18 Materials of Spoken Manchu

nimin [pimjin] 'oil' /e/

Id/ is realized as Ed] (unrounded mid central) in the first syllable or a stressed syllable as in (1) and or as [A] (unrounded low central) in an unstressed syllable as in (2).4) When [i] comes in the following syllable, /dl is optionally pronounced as [e] (unrounded mid-high front) or as falling diphthong [ej] in (3). And this vowel is realized as [e] after /j/ as in (4).

(1) albixa [al'biv«] 'sable'

amcam [arn'tsham] 'to chase' (2) tasks ['thaskhA] 'tiger'

(3) alin [elin] 'time'

bali [pejli] 'bow'

(4) ujon [ujen] 'soft'

fdjd [faje] 'nest' /a/

/al is realized as [a] (unrounded low back) in the first syllable or in a stressed syllable as in (1), When [i] follows in the next syllable, /al is optionally realized as [2] (unrounded mid front) or [aj] as in (2) and (3).

(1) asko ['askhd] 'wing'

nima [jii'ma] 'goat'

nadan [na'dan] 'seven'

(2) tacim [th2tJphim] 'to learn' om adils [dD1D12dil2] 'same' majixo [m2ctiyd] 'a little' (3) alin [ajlin] 'mountain'

4) In narrow transcription, we can identify some other allophones which can be transcribed as [i, ¥, UI]. But these sounds are all facultative variants. So we just mention [;:J] and [A] as allophones of the phoneme /;:J/ here.

The Phonological System of Manchu 19 /0/

/01 is generally realized as [0] (rounded mid back) or as [;)] as in (1). When [i] comes in the following syllable, 101 is optionally pronounced as [0] (rounded mid front) as in (2). In this position, 101 is also realized as 10j/. 101 is sometimes realized as [uo] as in (3) because of the influence of Chinese.

(1) lodo [lodo] 'many' OSd [';)ZA] 'fishing net' (2) dolin [telin] 'center'

do limn ba [tej'limba] center

(3) domjo [tuome] 'to fall' olxo [olyuo] 'grass' soxo [suoyo] 'vegetable' mo [muo] 'tree, timber' /u/

In most position, lui is pronounced as [u] (rounded high back) or [o] as in (1). lui is optionally realized as [y] (rounded high front) or [yj] when Ii! follows in the next syllable as in (2).

(1) ulbum [ulbum] 'to feed' sunko [surjk-o] 'footprint'

buda [puda] 'boiled rice, meal' (2) cucim [tJphytGhim] 'to go out'

2.3.2 Diphthongs

There are rising and falling diphthongs in Manchu. Examples of rising diphthongs are as follows:

ja: njama [jiama] 'man' ja: fdjd [feje] 'nest'

jo: jolurn [jolum] 'to ride', gio [kjou] 'roe deer'

The Phonological System of Manchu 21

20 Materials of Spoken Manchu

ju: njulo [jioro] 'arrow'

ji: oji [oji] 'ceiling', swajin [swejin] 'yellow'

2.4 Stress

wa: wakscn [waxsan] 'frog', jwan [tswan] 'ten', gwajbuxo

[kWaj'buyo] 'to have been defeated' WCl: WCl [WCl] 'who', jwo [t§WCl] 'two' wi: wikun [wik-un] 'light'

wu: OWUSSClm [owusam] 'to swim'

Although stress and vowel length are not distinctive, stress and long vowels do appear in a certain syllable of a word. Stressed syllable is pronounced longer and higher.

It is not easy to formulate a stress rule. But in the case of 3 syllable words, the vowel of the first syllable is usually pronounced long and the second syllable is stressed as in (1) (d. Figure 8 above). In the case of 2 syllable words, the vowel of the first syllable is usually pronounced long and the second syllable is stressed as in (2) (d. Figure 9). As vowel length is not distinctive, we omit length mark henceforth.

Examples of falling diphthongs are as follows:

aj:5) ajsin [ajnn] 'gold', xajlin [xajlin] 'tree', ajsalo- [aj2j_CllA-]

'to help'

Clj: WCljXCl [vejvo] 'tooth' oj: rosin [th0j{m] 'copper' uj: dujn [tyjn] 'four'

(1) walibuxo [we.l'buso] 'to lost' takulum [tha:'qhulum] 'to use' ajsalom [aj'2j_CllAm] 'to help' albixa [a.l'bivz] 'sable'

Figure 8. Spectrogram of JibL",(J [a.l'bivz] 'sable'

5) /aj/ is optionally realized as [e.] as in the following examples:

baj- [pe.m] 'search', najlxun [ndyun] 'thin', najtkun Inctksun] 'dirty'

Figure 9. Spectrogram of kusuri [khu:'zun] 'power'

22 Materials of Spoken Manchu

(2) sawexo [sa.woxs] 'to find' kusunlk-u'zun] 'power'

2.5 Phonological process

The following phonological process was observed. In the first place, there are regressive and progressive consonant assimilation as in (1). On the other hand, Iml is added in word boundary, in case a word ending in -rn proceeds vowel initial word as in (2).

(1) mb-s-jmrn]: mimbo [mimma] 'me'

simbo [simms] 'you (acc.)'

nd----+ [nn]: sindam [cinnam] 'to put'

alindili [elinnile] 'from when' mj----+[nJ]: walim jio [welin tso] 'come back!' wasom jim [wazon tcim] 'to get off xn-s-Irjn]: xax njamo [xaij jiama] 'man'

XdX njama [XdIJ jiamo] 'woman'

(2) am aldo [ammalda] 'early'

dm adilo [ammsdile] 'same'

xala mokun [xaldmmokhun] 'clan'

One of the important phonological process related to vowel is the optional but productive deletion of vowel in unstressed word-final open syllable:

kimon njam [k=imanpam] 'enemy' cf. njamo [jiamx] 'man' omul saxon]i [omolsavanda] 'grand-daughter' cf. omulo [omulo] 'grandson'

2.6 Historical change

By comparing with written Manchu which is reflecting 18th century Manchu, we have observed the phonological process

The Phonological System of Manchu 23

that had taken place in modern Spoken Manchu. It is not certain that written Manchu is the direct forefather of modern Spoken Manchu in Sanjiazi. But we think that, in various respects, there is a close relation between written Manchu and modern Spoken Manchu.

2.6.1 Vowel change Vowel raising o>u

Idonji-l +-+ dunji- 'to hear'6) lsonggo-l +-+ sUIJu- 'to weep'

[eJ> [iF)

Idergil +-+ dilxi [tilvi] 'west' Ifegil +-+ fixa [fiy AJ 'brain'


[jalin] +-+ jalin [tcelin] 'for the sake of lyali) +-+ jali [jeli, jeli] 'fresh' Vowel lowering u>»

When there are two adjacent syllables containing lui, one of lui is lowered to 101 optionally. This is regarded as a kind of dissimilation.

Ijugtinl +-+ joxon 'way' Ihutul +-+ kuto 'ghost' ldutul +-+ duto 'dumb' lfushul +-+ fusko 'fireplace'

6) symbol +-+ is read as 'is corresponding to.'

7) Change of [e] to [i], and [t:] to [e] occurred after umlaut had occurred.

24 Materials of Spoken Manchu a>» change

This process occurred in non-initial syllables. This process resulted in the weakening of vowel harmony.

Iara-l <-> ala- 'to write' Iamalal +-+ amslo 'after' Ihalal +-+ xalo 'family name' Itanta-l +-+ tanda- 'to hit' Unrounding

This process occurred before or after a bilabial consonant. This process can be regarded as a kind of dissimilation.

Iyabu-] +-+ jawo- 'to walk' Isabu-l -e-e- sawa- 'to see' Ifuniyehel +-+ fanixo 'fur' [umesi] +-+ amassi 'very'

Imudanl +-+ madan 'number of times' Imusal +-+ mass 'we'

In the next examples, change of unrounding exceptionally occurred before In/.

Iadunl +-+ adan 'herd'

Isonjiml +-+ sanjim 'to choose'

On the other hand, the change from uri- to wan- in word-initial syllable can be regarded as a kind of unrounding.

lunca-l +-+ wonca- 'to sell' [unenggi] +-+ wonin 'true' Iundehen) +-+ wonduxo 'plank' Fronting after a palatal consonant

The fronting to [iJ after IJ, c, j! occurred in all positions.

The Phonological System of Manchu 25

Iuncehenl -e-e- uncikin 'tail' [cecike] +-+ ciCikd 'bird' [ice] <-> ici 'new'

lbuce-l +-+ bici- 'to die' Iinje-l <-> inji- 'to smile'

ljergil <-> jilga 'kind, sort' Ijuwe falil +-+ tciwali 'two' Idengjan) <-> daijjin 'lamp'

Ioyol <-> oji 'roof Iuyunl +-+ ujin 'nine' Ideye-l H deji- 'to fly'

Ifuye-l +-+ foji- 'to boil, to peel'

But in some words, change of the opposite direction was observed as followings:

lebcil +-+ dbcd 'rib' lecikel +-+ dCd 'uncle' Umlaut

Umlaut is a process by which Ii! in the following syllable assimilates a back vowel in the preceding syllable to front vowel. This process has occurred very productively.

lyamjil +-+ jam]i [jemdsi] 'evening' [talkiyan] +-+ talkin [telkin] 'lightning' [war gil +-+ walxi [wdyiJ 'east' lmajigel +-+ majixo [mrctiYA] 'little'

lwalgiya-l +-+ walxi- [welvim] 'to bathe in the sun' Iwangkiya-I +-+ waijki- [wrIJkhim] 'to smell' Ibargiya-l +-+ balxim [pd'yimJ 'to collect'

26 Materials of Spoken Manchu

[ebi-] +-+ dfixd [eviYA] 'to be full' Ierinl +-+ olin [elin] 'time'

Iergil +-+ oxi [ejye] 'toward'

Idulinl +-+ dulin [tylin] 'half

[tuci-l +-+ cucim [tcphytGhim] 'to go out' [tukiye-] +-+ tikim [thikhim] 'to raise' lbuce-) +-+ bici- [pitc-im] 'to die'

Idolinl +-+ dolin [tolin] 'inner'

The umlaut process has occurred as follows:

a --+ 2

As a result of the umlaut process, new front vowels [2, e, y, 0] are generated. The phonemic status of these vowels is controversial. According to the phonemic analysis, this change is analyzed as a primary split in a sense of terminology of structural linguistics.


-. a I elsewhere

Considering above rule, we can find that, for example, the phoneme lal has acquired one more conditional allophone [2]. As long as [2] appears only before Ii!, this conditional allophone does not affect the inventory of the phoneme and the phonological system. Therefore we do not give phoneme status to the new sounds [2, e, y, 0].

The Phonological System of Manchu 27 j-addition

The phonological environment of j-addition is the same as that of umlaut. But this process causes fronting of the preceding back vowel and j-addition at the same time. 8)

[aniya] +-+ anja [ajjic] 'year'

lberil +-+ bali [bejli] 'bow'

Ialinl +-+ alin [ajlin] 'mountain' [turn +-+ tuli [t-ujle] tuli 'bean' [tuweri) +-+ tuli [thujle] tuli 'winter' Iali-l +-+ ali- [ajli(m)] 'to wait'

lerc-l +-+ oti- [ejti(Yd)] 'to win' Monophthongization

[susan +-+ susaj [SUZ2] 'fifty'

Ibai-l +-+ baj- [pe.m] 'to look for' Isai-l +-+ saj- [se.me] 'to bite'

[weihe] +-+ wajxma [wey'ma] 'teethridge' lduinl +-+ dujn [tyn] 'four' Breaking of i

[i] in the first syllable is changed into other vowels by assimilation to distinctive features of vowel in the following syllable. As in the next examples, the most general case is that Ii! changed into lui or Ijul with influence of lui.

[niru] +-+ njul [pul] 'arrow'

[simhun] +-+ sUIJIJun [?UIJ IJ un] 'finger' Icirkul +-+ culko [t?hulkho] 'pillow' Inimekul +-+ njunkun [jnnjk-un] 'illness' lilenggul +-+ julurj [julun] 'tongue' [ninju] +-+ njun [jrun] 'sixty'

8) This process was described in Qingwenqimeng U~JtJ2f~O (1735) already.

28 Materials of Spoken Manchu

2.6.2 Consonant change Deletion of final Inl

[niman] +--+ nima 'goat' lindahunl +--+ indaxo 'dog' Igalmanl +--+ galma 'mosquito' lhadufunl +--+ xadaws 'sickle' Weakening of medial If, bl

If! is realized into [ v] between vowels in a small number of words. But in most words, [ v] which was the reflexive of "f was changed to [w] or [D], or deleted in certain contexts.

jaa- [t§ a' am] , jaws- [tsa'wam] jawu- [tsa'wum] (+--+ Iiafa-l ) 'to
taa- [tha'am], tawd- [tha'wdm] tawu- [t+a'wum] (+--+ Itafa-l ) 'to
climb' In the above examples, we can find the fact that the same word underwent different change depending on phonological environments. (1) Sequence of the same vowel is formed by the deletion of the allophone [v] of the phoneme If! in the second syllable. In this case as the second syllable is pronounced with stress, this sequence is realized as falling-rising tone. (2) On the other hand, former /v I remains as [w] when the vowel in the second syllable was changed into Idl or lui. As a result of these processes, these words happened to have more than one stems. The following examples seem to have undergone similar processes.

di- [e'ern] (+--+ Iefi-l ) 'to play'

jaa- [ja'am] (+--+ Iyabu-l ) 'to walk'

The Phonological System of Manchu 29

The rounded vowels of the next examples are explained reasonably with influence of former w. This w is the result of weakening of If! or Ib/.

[labdu] +--+ (lawdo) +--+ lodo [lodo] 'many'

[jibehunl +--+ (tsiwason) +--+ juxun [tsusun] 'quilt' Iebise-l +--+ (awisam) +--+ owussom [owussm] 'to swim' Ihefelil +--+ (howali) +--+ kowuls [khODUlA] 'abdomen' Ieful +--+ (owa) +--+ OWd [OWA] 'sister's husband' [ubadeJ +--+ owuda [owuda] 'here'

ltubadel +--+ towudo [t-owuda] 'there'

2.6.3 Other change Deletion of word-final syllable lJV of lJlJV in word-final was deleted.

Inimanggil +--+ nimin [nimirj] 'snow' [silenggil +--+ silin [silin] 'dew' (inenggil +--+ inin [inin] 'day' [ilenggul +--+ julun [julurj] 'tongue' [unenggiJ +--+ wonirj [venin] 'true' [tangglil +--+ tal) [thalJ] 'hundred' [giranggi] +--+ giran [giljan] 'bone' lcifenggul +--+ cifilJ [tx;hvil)] 'saliva' Change of VyV and VwV sequences

Sequences of -iya-, -iye-, and -uwe- in written form were changed into monophthongs, as is listed in the following examples.

[aniya] +--+ ani [ajii] 'year'

[walgiya-] +--+ walxim [wdyim] 'to bathe in the sun' Ifuniyehel +--+ fanixa [fd]1]1iYA] 'fur'

30 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Ituweril +-+ tuli [t=uile] 'winter'

Ihuwesi) +-+ kuso [khu2i_o] 'knife' [guwejihe] +-+ gUJOXd [kudzova] 'stomach'

Isuwel +-+ so [so] 'you (pl.)'


Word-formation and Vocabulary

3.1 Derivation

Root-forming suffixes are as follows:

(1) -bu- or -ba-: passive/causative suffixes

1) Causative

sajwu taCi-bu-niI]l]d bitk» (textbook)

a book that causes students to learn mind» smd» ta-bu

Allow me to look at it.

2) Passive

ja stti gada b» taruis-bu-xo? which part did you hit? malin dmol]ba gam wasi-bu-xd Go take a saddle off. saulu-bu-xo

I caught cold.

told woCi amxid» uka-bo-xo

He hided himself behind the door.

(2) -na-: directional suffix

bila jaleddd in-na-me') utka walin. fix»

(I) went to the riverside and came back immediately.

32 Materials of Spoken Manchu

moso awul-na-m ba Let's go hunting.

(3) -na-: Reciprocal movement (-nu- in written Manchu). fWo njam tal-na-m/)

The two people fight with each other. duli-na-m

(They) deprive each other of something.

(4) -ca-, -ce-, -co-: Cooperative-iterative suffix shatang (fib'fJ:lD fobni7] lod oii boji do dali ak03) It is not good for health to eat sugar much. ing dolbum « infoco(m) dollium)

joke (lit. begin to smile together)

(5) -7]7]a/7]7]o: nominalizing suffix from adjective or gerund form of verb

cja-!1!E satisfaction

mini-!1!E mine

sako-!1!E niceness

(6) -la: verbalizer from noun. awu-la-m to hunt mafan-l£.-xo to cause trouble

(7) -kon/-kun: denominal adjective jamfi-s-kon afternoon

tondo-kun upright

(8) -ko/-ku: suffix representing agent or instrument.

1) In this sentence, 'in-' originated from the written form isi- 'to approach'.

2) tal- originated from taruis-,

3) Henceforth, Loan-words from modern Chinese will be presented in its pingying form with Chinese letter in parentheses.

Word-formation and Vocabulary 33

ol-ko broom otu-ku clothes

3.2 Compound Words

There occurs truncation of syllable when two words are compounded.

man njam « ma1'lf.y_ njam) Manchurian bit SoWo « bitk» sowo) teacher

fak so «fakun so) 8 years old

bo ninggo( < boco ninggo) colored

Rarely this truncation occurs in phrase level.

gjak «giyarr g}co) very

ais» lo jixa?( < lodo jixa) How much is it?

3.3 Vocabulary

Manchu vocabulary was greatly influenced by Chinese. There are many Chinese loan-words in Manchu. We will skip over giving examples here.

In some cases Chinese words are used as adverb.

(1) me

olt;; jill walin fim - olt;; utka walin fim I'll come back shortly.


Wo E fix» ako Nobody came. (3) fI}

amzl. zai fo Come again later.



4.1 Nouns

4.1.1 Number

A plural form is marked by -sa, -s».

JakSd (jake-sa) things JUSd (JUj-SCl) children

Chinese loan word -tnsti (1m is sometimes used instead.

sajwdmdn sewumsn students and teachers

4.1.2 Case

There are nominative, gerutrve, accusative, dative-locative, and ablative cases in Manchu.

There is no nominative case marker. Stem itself is used to mark nominative case.

malin suJim A horse is running. JWd njam fix» Two men came.

36 Materials of Spoken Manchu

In most cases, there is no genitive case marker. So the preceding noun modifies the second noun.

moliri xoto horse's head wil]gjo jali pork's meat bitk» xuda book's price

Dative-locative case is marked by -d».

gimu koeon do tuli »lind» nimii; gjak amba In Beijing, it snows a lot in winter.

bi msti tokso do min bojo omos don

I'm the tallest in my neighborhood.

Accusative case is marked by -b». This morpheme is sometimes realizes as -wa, -(w)u.

bitk» bo tam bi]»

I'm reading a book.

tolo tsl [us» bo gjak Cialom

He loves his kids very much. nimaxu. wiiim

(Someone) catches fish.

Ablative case is marked by diU. It means 'origin, comparison, instrument. '

(1) Origin

tolo molin. dili tuxxnsm waSoxo He fell off from a horse.

bi iran bo diU fix»

I came from Sanjiazi village.

(2) Comparative

olom olin. tolom olin. diU go1) (5E) dzri

Grammar 37

This mountain is higher than that one. ago do diU iran so amba

Elder brother is three years older than his younger brother.

(3) Instrument

bo sab dilr buda [sm.

We eat meal with chopsticks. am» mo dili dolon alsx»

Father has made a desk with wood.

The personal pronouns in Manchu can be tabulated as follows:

personxcase nominative genitive dative-locative accusative
1 bi min mindd mimbz
2 si sin sind» simb» I
sg. in in ind» imb»
3 CllC!
talC! tal tztsmd» talClbCl
I exclusive bo mCin-mun msnd» mClmbCl
I inclusive mClsCi msssd»
pl. 2 so son-sun sund» sumb»
3 taSCI bndCl bmbCl
Cd I The followings are the list of possessive pronouns.

singular plural
1st person miniqtj» monuitj» /m2soni1)1)0
2nd person sinintj» sonintj»
3rd person tolonin1)1)o tos2nil]1)0 The followings are also used as possessive pronoun.

38 Materials of Spoken Manchu

1st person 2nd person 3rd person

singular minin sinil] tCJldnil]


monin /msssnir; soniij


N oun/Pronoun + -nin is used as a possessive form.

SClWU!Ji!l bo teacher's house

mi!Ji!l bitb-bitb mi!Ji!1 my book

Demonstrative pronouns are as follows.

el», Clldm( < sl» + Clm) this tsl», tCJIClm( < tsl» + Clm) that ClSCI these

tCJSCl those

The following is the list of simple numerals.

1 stn, smk» 6 njWJl]un
2 JWCl, Jiwali 7 nadCln
3 ilan, ilawcli 8 Jakun
4 dujn 9 ujin
5 sunJa 10 Jwan Among the above numerals, Jiwali and ilawoli originated from JWCl + fali and ila + [ali, respectively (Enhebatu 1995: 206).

Interrogative pronouns are as follows. WCl who

aj what

ja who, what

Grammar 39

4.2 Verbs

4.2.1 Verbal Inflection

Inflectional system in Spoken Manchu is very simple. Verbal endings are divided into two grammatical categories according to the function of them: sentence-final, non-sentence-final. Sentence-final endings

Sentence-final endings are classified into three categories according to their meaning: indicative, imperative, desiderative.

(1) -m: indicative form, carrying imperfective meaning JUSCI ClltCJ gCJm bitk xolal ba d» bini

All children are in their school now. si bila dCl nimax» gamm

You are going to river for fishing? tCJlCl gim bbn dCl banJim

He is living in Beijing.

Clnil] ClgCJCi axCl axCl!I]jCl

It's very likely to rain today. bi sind» [asixan. bum muturnj» I can send a letter to you.

(2) -0: Imperative form

Imperative form is principally verb stem itself as the following examples.

minds gCJtkun Ja.sixan bo Send me a postcard.

iCi orrum bCl otum ta Wear this new clothes.

40 Materials of Spoken Manchu

'so lim + imperative form' is also used as a courteous imperative form. 'solim' means 'to request'. It is very likely to be a loan-translation from Chinese qing 'i*'.

The following examples are the exceptional imperative forms which have endings -CJ or -0.1)

olxo ga/CJ

Bring the grass! so da7Jgu otno Smoke cigarettes!

Interestingly, our consultant used an imperative form even in a sentence other than an imperative one.

sind bo

I give it to you. jixa sind bo

I give you money.

On the other hand, indicative form was also used in an imperative sentence.

CJlCJ okto CJm inin ilari msdan JCJm

Take this medicine three times a day.

(3) ken»: desiderative form

Desiderative form expresses desire of speaker. It is used also as courteous order to hearer.

tCJsCJ owu dCJ jisiZ cja1J7JCJ jiu (~f)t) jikcmCJ.

If they want to come here, let them come.

1) And in the case of j<J- 'to eat', -W<J or -wu is attached in an imperative form.

okto j<Jw<J Take medicine!

Grammar 41 Non-sentence-final endings

Non-sentence-final endings function as other part of speech as well as verb. According to the functions, they are classified into converbal endings and participles.

(1) Converbal endings 1) -mCJ, -m

This ending is used to connect other verb with it, expressing various meanings.

jobblCJmCJ jawa. Go carefully.

sin »xin. walim2) fix» no? Is your husband back? aj jab tandem. box»? What have you hit?

2) -ci

This form is used to connect other sentence with it, representing meaning of condition.

tCJlCJ og WCJ fix» Then who came?

shatang lod jCJg bCJj dCJ doli ako.

If you take sugar much, it is not good for your health.

(2) Participles

Participles function both as a verbal and as a nominal.

1) -xs/sxo: carrying perfective meaning.u

2) Mr. Meng pronounced this form as walin, which is assimilated by the following m.

3) In the case of the word j<J- 'to eat', -k» is attached to mark past tense.

sajn lodu j<Jk<J I ate very much.

42 Materials of Spoken Manchu

The followings are examples as a verbal.

am» minds sok saWd UdOXd

My father bought me leather shoes. bi »ni maipja »mbod» tun d» joxo

I went to the forest with my mother. bi db »m bitk» b» ind» buxo

I gave him this book.

The followings are examples used as a nominal. dl shi (;,~D min dnnil]l]d olsx» otuku

This is the clothes that my mother made. sin banJixd inir;

Your birthday

banika. bi Cicikal d» bixz dd si minds ajsdldm

Thank you for your helping me when I was in Qiqihar.

2) -l/-ld/-lo: carrying imperfective meaning.f The followings are examples as a verbal.

OWU d» bisdL ba (fll:1.) Let's take a rest here. damx» dm omulo

No smoking!

The followings are examples as a nominal. wsjx» tal. sienszt;


dnjd am» im jawul£. b» Ciako.

My parents was very sorry that he would go.

Construction in which dm(d) 'never' is used with this morpheme expresses a meaning of negative imperative.

4) Some morphological exceptions can be found. bi-ibisil» to be, Ji-:JiJilC! to come

Grammar 43

dm gunin Jobul£. Don't worry.

bi jaam oxo. dmd ajbl£.

I'm going. Don't be disappointed.

(3) Combined forms

Combined forms of -m bi and -xa bix» represent imperfective progressive and perfective progressive, respectively.

JUSd gam bo dd bitk» b» tam bii» Children are all reading books at home.

bi Jwan ani otpslo gim kdbn d» banJixd bixd I was living in Beijing 10 years ago.

4.2.2 Invariant verbal forms

There are some stems which do not inflect.

(1) bi: meaning 'existence' tzl» xaxafi bi

He has a son.

ftm doixi d» muko bi no?

Is there water in the basin?

We can also find some examples in which -j» is attached to bi.

min molin bo dd bijd

My horse is in the stable.

sin (tsl») bit xolal ba jawu dd bi jd? Where is your school?

(2) ako meaning 'there is no _' conveys a negative meaning, together with verbal participle -lor -xo, xs.

44 Materials of Spoken Manchu

bi damxu b» omul ako I don't smoke.

bi uiulux» in ucul ako

I sang a song. But he didn't. si sisk» bitk xolol ba joxo ako

You didn't go to school yesterday.

Sometimes -ko is connected directly to stem -l.


(I'm) not sick. solko

I don't know.

»it» bi bitk xolol ba jom mutulko I can't go to school now.

Rarely, 'ako' functions as inflective verbal stems.

tujg;; akoxCi.

The clouds are gone.

x;:;x;:; jawu d» jom bi je ell:!.) salkuxo I don't know where my wife went.

4.3 Adjectives

Adjective is used as noun without inflection.

den high, height wCinco wide, width sajn good, goodness saxd» old, old man

Grammar 45

4.4 Invariant Words

These words are used without inflection as adverbs. Here we give some examples:

(1) Postposition

There are many postpositions in Manchu. Here we give only a few forms among them.

mal)l]a/mmJ1P/mal] means 'with, together.'

bi gucu maU71Ci »mbad» bitk tax» I read a book with a friend.

bi X;:;XCi mary »mbad» [aiixan. xolax» I read a letter with my wife.

[olin means 'because of, for.'

tzli omsttu; nimkun [aIm d» bucix» His father died of a disease.

bi min bCiji [aIm d» tdl bad» joxo I went to that place for myself.

tulxun means 'reason'

aj tulxun jom mutuZ ako oxo Why you can't go?

(2) particles

no/n» is used as a interrogative particle.

bstxsm. sajn oxo no? Is it well prepared?

46 Materials of Spoken Manchu

tdwu d» olin wi7JgjCi bi rio? Are there any wild hogs? gja jawu d» joxs m?5) VVhere did the roe deer go?

ja/j», the latter of which is realized as [e] or [je], is used as a 'intimacy' particle.

aj sliri gCJI Jim j_g?

VVhen are you coming again? ulgam bii»

There is a pheasant. omi»

That's OK.

ba is a loan-word from Chinese ba (nt:J.) and used in imperative sentences.

mim daxzm [o ba (111:1.) Follow me!

xodun jawu ba (11m Let's go quickly.

bo »mbad» jawu ba (111:1.) Let's go together.

ina is affirmative particle.

tdl gja ina

That's a roe deer. bi sajw» ina

I am a student.

5) This ne is the same as Chinese interrogative particle ne (11~).

Grammar 47

(3) interjection

VVe observed the following forms.

Ci7J/UlJ is injection of affirmative meaning.

?!1 jox» aka

No, I didn't gO.6)

YJl Cijni7] min do walin. jix».

Yes, my younger brother will coming back today.

aka is also used as an interjection of negative meaning. aka, joxo

yes, I went.

6) In Manchu the literal meaning is 'yes'.

In appendix 1, we list items in our questionnaire in Manchu-English and English-Manchu respectively in an alphabetic order. In Manchu-English section, for each Manchu word, we give the phonological form, the phonetic form (put in [ n, the meaning in English, the meaning in Chinese, and the written Manchu form in a row. In the phonetic and phonological forms, pronunciation variants are also given if there are any. Written Manchu forms given here are those which, we thought, are closely related to the corresponding spoken data in form and/or meaning. In English-Manchu section, we give the meaning in English and the corresponding phonological form of Spoken Manchu. We give only phonetic forms to the loan-words from modern Chinese.

In appendix 2 and 3, we give the basic conversational expressions and the sentences for grammatical analysis respectively. We give the meaning in English and in Chinese in parenthesis on the upper line, and spoken Manchu forms corresponding to the meaning on the next line.

Appendix 1

Items in Questionnaire

Manchu - English

aam [a'am]

abdaxa [ab'dasx] abka ['abqhl\.]

acaxa [a't~hdyl\.] adaki [ada'k-i] adolman [a'dalzrnsn] aden [a'dan]

adi sun [aj'disun] agarnxa [a'garnvx]

battle 4$- afambi leaf Pi-r abdaha

sky '7(, weather '7(4: abka meet:i5Jl!. acambi neighborhood ~fl@/qijw adaki how ;TI:~ff/;'&ff adarame herd, flock ilf adun

honey ~~ hibsu

one's wife's brother I*J 5L/1*J 5§, brothers of one's husband ;t;K as {If {lJ-

elder brother age

brother and sister 5L~* age nun how many, how much $&

ai labdu

what 1t-:z\ ai

something 1f1t~ ai bi anyone 1fiiiJA ai durun niyal-


when 1t~Bt11J( ai erin

aga ['agA]

age nun [a'ganun] aiso lodo [ajz'lodo]

aj [aj]

aj bi [ajpi]

aj dulun njam [ajtu'lunpjarn]

aj alin ['aj'elin]

52 Materials of Spoken Manchu

aj ganleninno [ajkan'lonimja] aj jaks [aj't?aXAJ

aj tulxun [ajt-ul'vun] ajkam [aj'khdmJ

ajsalom [aj'zplzm]

ajsm [aj'nn]

ajtko [ajth'khAJ

ajtin [aj'thiIJJ

ajxma [ajv'mal


aJi batka [aj'dd'PdtlzhAJ

aji bila [aj'dsibi'la] aJi bja [aj'dsibja]

aJi duxa [aj'dsito'va]

aji indaxo [aj'dsiin'davo] aji kuso [aj'eti'khu2j_o J

aJi kuto [aj'dsi'ksutso]

aji mjocjan [aj'etimjo'tJpheJ aji sistko [aj'dsicistkso]

aji usa [aj'dsrcza] aji xaxs [aj'dsi'xava] ajixin [ajdsi'vin]

aJixin tam [adsi'vinteam]

ajixin bal ajko [ajcBi')'imbalajkhd] aJilxan [adsil'san]

ajinin [aj'dsinirj] ajininn» [aj'etiniIJIJA]

akom [a'k-am] ako ['aqo]

occupation If9.:ill'. ai what 11-~ ai jaka why A'ft~\ ai turgun begin

help aisilambi

gold ~ aisin

guest ~~A antaha whenft~n~-fl~ atanggi tortoise i1,E@. aihiima small Ij\ ajige

shank, shin IHill, shin D£

ajige bethe

riv-ulet INiiJ ajige bira

abort, miscarry iJiIr0: ajige biya small intestine Ij'Diij ajige duha doggie INSfTI ajige indahim knife Ij\ J] ajige huwesi goblin Ij\% ajige hutu

pistol 'f-Hl: ajige miyoocan

underlay , cushion ,i0:'!1:':'f

ajige sishe

child IH-?UL jui aji urse concubine Ij\~~ ajige hehe miserly, stingy Ij\~, infant

i;)]/j" small, little Ij\ ajigen despise ~Pl!~t:\V:'@-/FiEl ajigen tuwambi

shrink fFs + ajigen

breeding horse ;yrrr1:b, stallion i~1:b ajirgan

baby ajige ningge baby fJJJL ajige ningge

sad :Wf95 akambi

don't have &~l, there is not aku

aktalom [ax'thdlAm]

aktala molin [ax'thdldmo'lin]

ala ['alA]

ala [alz]

alban bajti [al'bam'bajtr] alam [a'larn]

alam [alim] alim [aj'lim] alin [a j'lin]

alin kacka [aj'lin'khdt?hkhl\_] alin wirjgaj [aj'linoirj'gs] alina [allina] (imp.)

alb ['alke]

amba [am'ba]

amba duxa [am'bato'va] amba dnjd [am'bsnjie]

amba futa [am'bafu'ta]

amba joxon [arn'batso'von] amba micin [am'bami'tc-in] amba muko [am'bamuk-o] amba mulo [am'barnu'lo] amba njams [am'bajiarnx] amba odun [am'bao'dun] amba pijojn [ambapt'i'dsen] amba saxanji [am'basa'vandse]

amba umo [am'ba'umo]

amba woci [am'ba'wejtc-i] amba wejxa [am'ba'vejva] amba xaxaJi [am'baya'sadse] amba CjdniIJIJd [am'batc-e'nirpja]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 53



gelding, castrated horse -t-t;l} 1:bj~;'l1:b aktalambi, morin plain :s:r ffii:, stock farm fJ::l:JiJ


chaff ara

public affairs i~~ alban baita

set up (house) make

write EJ arambi inform ~:ttE JEW alambi wait ¥f{~ alimbi mountain ill alin

wild cat alin kesike

wild bore llln'&' alin ulgiyan meet, receive iffit~ alinambi alcoholic drink ~lbq arki

large amba

large intestine :;\:D!ij amba duha wife of father's elder broth-

er {sf±]: amu

rope jdql;=j'" j~Rf1g 'f amba futa broad road jei~ amba jugun

cauldron amba mucen

flood, inundation ~:Jl<7lc bisan about/by :;ij=_75 amba muru adult je)\. amba niyalma

storm, tempest amba edun

trunk 'f amba pijan

first daughter *:Y:: amba sar-

gan jui

big needle ::Ieofj- amba ulme gate ::Ie n amba uce

back tooth ::Ie;f weihe

first son J,,='f amba haha jui three days ago ::Ie liv 7C amba

54 Materials of Spoken Manchu

pursue iI§., chase i@.!Gf, am-


amcom baxarn [am'tehdm'baydm] be in time jlf{~J::. amcame bahambi

arne ['aIIlA]

arne dnjd xaxaji saxan]i ['aIIlA'dj1Axa'ya&esa'ydn&e]

amala ama [a'mala'arnx] amala dnjd [a'mdlA'dj1A] amalo sitam [a'malaci't-am]

dad ,@;,@;, father :>t:* ama parents and children :>t1±]:r~ ama, eniye, haha jui, sargan


father and son :>tr ama juse

the next ri')z, after this (that)

time ~J§, future *t:i* amala stepfather ~fE:>t amala ama stepmother ~1iJ: amala eniye fall behind ?'!&J§ amala sitambi

amalo sosulum [a'molso'zulum] retreat J§ill amala sosorombi

amxa ['amyAJ father in law 1{;)l:A/fu).t amha

amxi bali [am'yi'bajle] amxida [am'yidA]

amil coko [aj'milts-o'qso] anam [a'nam]

ani, anja ['ajju], ['ajjic] ani alsm ['anpiealern] ani bja [ajju'bja] anidali [ajii'dele]

antku [antk-u] anfan [an'fan]

aIJIJd ['aIJIJA -'aNNA] aIJIJdld [aIJ'IJdlAJ aIJIJdSd [aIJ'IJd~A]

to sleep Hill[!R: amgambi, am-


backward 11J§ amargi baru back J§[ll]/J§:1tL amargi de cock i~x~ amila coko

push tili anambi

year ~ aniya

celebrate tt aniya alambi January - )=]llE)=] aniya biya annually, every year t±}.~ aniya-


celebrate a new year :iJ'.i!!~ ani-


key IfflJtt anaku

lips lIitT lIS' femen angga femen

beak lIit mouth angga

jar fIT anggar

widow 1,t;!Cl anggasi

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 55

arjxi [arc'vi]

anxu saxulum ['aIJYUea'yulumJ

north :It amargi

sleepy :&m amgambi, saburambi

keepl~~ asarabumbi

receive 4)[, preserve asara-


wing asha

elder brothers wife t.zr!lr asa animal ijJr0 assara jaka suitable ilWi!\t1SIi!\t:§:, exact lE

right )(1- acanambi

wrong :;r'xj" unsuitable /F1Sift,

mistaken acanarakii

young ~~£ asihan middle-aged 1J~, lad j>~,

asalbum [a'zalbum] asolam [a'zolxm]

aska ['asqhAJ aSd ['a~A]

assdl jaka [a'edlteaXdJ asnam [as'nam]

asnako [a.:(naxoJ, [ae'naxo]

askon [ae'khdn]

askan njam [ae'khdn'njam]

young man

asihan niyal-

askan saxan]i [ae'khdnsa'ydn&e] assdxd [a'edM]

awulom [a'wulam]


maiden j>~ asihan sargan jui move (vi.) Z9J assambi

hunt 1n~/~'t:jI:ii, war ~~$- aba-


hunter :j~1 A abalara niyalma

booty, game abalame

baha jaka

corn 35:* aiha SUSU

lean against akdulambi

believe akdambi

faith thunder ~-, lightning stroke


strong, solid ~ii:v;; akdun rain rn aga

it rained. rrnT aga agaha rainy season fll):rn:¥l'1/rn:¥ agara


awulo njama [a'oulajiarna] awulom bax jake [a'wulampas'tsaya]

ax SUSd [aI:s'eU~A] axdulum [as'dulum] axdum [as'dum] axdun [as'dun] axdun [as'dun]

axdun [as'dun] axa ['aM]

axe axaxa ['aHA a'HdHA] axala alin [avx'Iar'Iin]

56 Materials of Spoken Manchu

b. na [pa'na]

baba ['paba]

bain njama [pa'injiamx]

bajbim ['pajpim] bajin [pajin]

bajin njam [pajnnjam] bajlin njams [paj'rinnjams] bajm [pern]

bajti ['pajthje]

bajt eieixd [p21u;;hi'1J;;hiYA] bajt ganlsm [pajtkan'lom] bajtilom [ps't-ilxm]

baksolam [paX'SdLVll] bala [pa'la]

balxim [pd'yim]

bali [pali]

banika [pajii'xa] banJim [pan'dsim]

banJim bija [pan'dsimbje] banjixo inin [pan'dsivaijiarj] banjixs jake [pan'dsiva'tsakva]

banjixo xaxaJi takam [pan'ctiydxa'yactetha'khdm] ji banjim [dsiban'dsim]

banxun [pan'vun]

place ±ihn, region ±ihn, address tEll!: ba na everywhere ~!J 5zt, here and

there 5zt5zt/~2)-5zt baba

rich man ~ A/1'f/~A bayan,

bayan niyalma stay 5f~

rich 1i!; bayan

land owner ±ih.:l:: bayan niyalma nation :',sSltl:

seek for ;fj(;, search for -i3L:1JU K~', pray tJi':s:R, need ~ baimbi

business trouble t1:\ work


baita tucimbi baita

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 57

baxam [pa'vam]

take, get q~n!J/~1J!J, to fall ill


harvest baha jaka go back [i'iJ1;; bederembi body ~1* beye

healthy beye sain

for oneself 7') T § G beyei ja-

lin de

suicide § '* beye wambi rice jc7lt bele handu bele bow CJ beri

archery fH$ beri niru tatambi

prepare i]f-0- belhembi send :G benembi

see off :GiT baname yabumbi noisy n~*lnYI\1iJ, quarrel Py~g

becunumbi earthworm ~li~51 beten

foot leg Jjjf& bethe

finger J]i;P~ll: bethe simhun

toenail 93 hitahiin, be-

thei hitahun

use baitalambi

bunch jm baksalambi scar

collect, gather qy:~~, store


toward, place ~iJ baru

thank baniha

grow (vi.) )JX;-~ banjimbi

be born :±\:I banjime bi birthday ~[::_ El banjiha inenggi living thing, creature :I~m

banjihe jaka

adopt v, fF~'f'f banjihe haha jui takambi

bear :I banjimbi

idle neglect, be idle


urge itt drive ili, expel basambi

baxo jake [paYA't§axll.] badalom [pa'dalxm]

bdjd ['Pdje]

bej sajn [(~i)pdjsm(no?)] boj jalin de [pajitce'lindz]

boj waxanin [paji'wavnirj] balo [('Xandu)'pdlA]

bali ['pejli]

bali njulo tatam [pelijiulotsa't'ssm] balxam [pal'vam] bsnam [pa'nam]

banom jaam [po'namja'am] bosinarn [pozj'nam]

bato [pa't-a] batka ['PdthkhA]

be sUIJIJun [pd§UIJ'IJUn] bat kitaxa ['Pdthkhi'thayd]

bethe fa-

sole of foot

bat fatan [patfa't-an] batk ondc [patk-an'(daj]

botke fulakan ['pdt(khd)fu'lakhdn] bi [pi]

bi [pi]

bicim [pi'tc-im]

bicil gulun [pi'tc-ilqu'lun]

bicixs njam bdjd [pi'tcivpampeje]


heel J]i;D J§ ~R bethe fatan ankle n1:jJiT#'f bethe gen

barefooted bethe fulahim

there is 1:1:, have 11 bimbi I:ft bi

die % bucembi

hell ±IMvt bucere gurun

corpse F' bucehe niyalma


the dead JEA/"I=JU\. bueche niyalma

bicixa njama [pi'tc-iv'njama]

58 Materials of Spoken Manchu

bicixo [pi'tcivx] bikun [pi'kun] bila [pi'la]

bila jaka [pi'la'tsak-a] bilam [pi'lam]

bilam lakcibo [pi'Iamlak'tc-ibo] bilxa [pils'a]

bim [pim] bisum [pi'zurn]

death JEL: bucembi



bo [po]

bociki ['po1(;;hikhe] boco ['pot?hO] bodum [po'dum] bolokun [po'lok-un] bolola [po'lolx] bolxun [pol'yun] bon [pon]

bondo [ponda] boso [puozo] bosum [po'zum]

character :=j':, book cj=5 bithe desk cfHl bithei dere

school +1'2 bithe hiilara ba moon R :;t, month R biya new moon, crescent moon R?Of.JL eden

bja muxuri oxo ['pjamu'vumrvo] full moon WII.A biya muhe-

bitko ['pithkhA]

bit dalon [pitts'lan]

bit xulal ba ['pithxu'lalba] bja [pja]

bja adan oxo [pjao'denuvo]

bjangam [pjan'vsm] bjuxun [pju'yun]

bo [po-vp'o]

bo amxi [poarn'vi]

bo dd [poda]

river ?I, waterway ~1lJ bira

riverside bira jaka

break off =rn bilambi

bilame lakcabumbi IIf~njt, pharynx n[llIf~

cut throat bilha

to live 11 bimbi tembi

touch t~, stroke jfct~ bisumbi

liyen oho wild glJ1c bigan soil ± boihon

house }5'FF-, family J'o, living place 11"1:: boo

behind a house JJ'i J§i boo, amargi

home ~£i: boo de

bosum [po'zum] bosko ['pu?kho] boxun [po'yun] boxun [po'yun] buda [pu'da]

buda alal ba [pu'daalal'ba] buda Jaeal ako oxo

[bu' dat?a't?hal'xuyo]

buda jok no [pu'datsokno]

budun [pu'dun] bujum [pu'dzum] buka [puk-a]

buka ixan [pu'q-ai'san] buka xoni [pu'qha'xoj1e] buka xoni [pu'qha'xoj1e]

bulaki [po'lejk=i] bulko [pulq-o]

bulun [pu'lumunu'kso)] bulxa xajlin [pul'saye'lin] bum [pum]

buxo ['puyo] butuluxa [put+uluvz]

bo gulim [pogu'rim] move, change ones resi-

dence boo gurimbi

bo julxi [podzul'vi] in the front of a house }j}~tr

boo, julergi

bo naxsn jake [pona'vzn'tsak-a] property bo nahan jaka

bo njoxa [pojiegx] duck ~~% boo niyehe

bo oji ['POO'lIi] roof }jfJ1}l booi oyo

bods UJixd jaks ['p::>dd'u<tiyt?aqhA] domestic animal ~iil bode ujihe jaka

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 59

we (excl.) }}tllJ be ugly II bocihe

color j~E/B;r~ boco count ~"~ bodombi

all all



cloth ;fjJ boso kubun, suje

satirize sneer



kidney '!'if bosho

wrap fs bofun

planeWJ-T- tuibalakii

boiled rice~j_/71ec& buda kitchen buda arara ba fasting ;f'El~ bud a jecere akii oho

buda jeke

Good morning.


jar ±i-=j~ butiin boil ;i¥: bujumbi

male (animal) buka

(seed) bull

tupping ram buka honin

ramL~t,l\~f- buka honin


buleku warm i'.ilil. bulukan

willow burga

give ~f::i bumbi

deliver 3:t bumbi surround /E!.i'm bofulambi

60 Materials of Spoken Manchu


Ca [tsa]

ca molo [t?ha'molo] cal ani [t?hal'aniJ

calcin [t?hal'u;hnJ

caoluxo bsla [t?hao'luy'ptibJ bnilJ [trpheJTllllJ]

ciako [trphi'axu]

cicikti ['trphitrphikhA] CifilJ [trphi'VI1JJ cikan [trphi'khtin] cilako [trphi'lakhAJ cixti ['tGhiYAJ

cjBlJ oxo [trphBlJoYOJ cj BlJlJti ['trphBlJlJAJ

coko ['t?hokho] cokum [t?ho'khum]

cornan [t?ho'mtin] cwan [t?hwan]

cwan taol ba [t?hwantha'olpa] cucim [trphytrphim-trphy'trpym]

cuciyti [1jhy'trphiYA]

cuCilti ba [trphy'trphyltipa] cucim 50 [trphynd2i_o] (imp.) cucim 5iyti [trphynctiyi\.)]

tea cai

teacup cai moro

the year before last lIu::q::: cala


locust jargirna, sebsehe

fried rice j{J;?j(: colaha bele the day before yesterday

7~ cananggi

love (v.) ~, favorite cihalambi

dislike oppose &x~- ci-


bird ~, chick /J\~)L cecike

spit cifenggu

hill at waters edge f¥ cikin swallow ~11J;::Y: cibin

louse ffil::Y: cihe

be satisfied

like (n.)

cihangga ombi

enjoy ,desire

pierce ~~U/:JL


the day after tomorrow )8*


eagle !~Ifr damin ship pier

rise (sun -) tL\,

sweat (v.) 8:\ tucimbi bleed tll tucimbi

exit, way out t1:\ r:J tucire ba go out tlJ tucime jimbi go out tl:\ l~ tucime jimbi

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 61

culko ['t?hulkho] cumaxe [t?hu'maYAJ CUS mo ['t~huzmo] cuxa [t~hu'I{a _t~ho'I{aJ

d, eta] da eta]

daam [ta'am] dabsun [tab'sun] dade [tadx]

dala ['tab]

dal amxi [talam've] dal giljan [ralgi'ljan]

pillow tt]~ cirku

tomorrow Il}j * cimaha cimari bamboo tn" cuse moo soldier ~A cooha, soldier

::l:~, troops ~!V'- coohai


fathom da

root da

jump over dabambi

salt B;_ dabsun

father's elder brother fuv am-


loin waist dala

at ones back o~J8 dara amargi backbone 1'oftl!W~~ ~ 11'ofi'lt dara


dal mejli giljan [talme'linki'Ijan] spine dala meiren gir-


back 1'tw fisa, dara meiren

bend dara gohorombi

by, beside 'Y!nll dalba nearby l;fti5: dalbade bank J}]!: dalan

not good dalikii

little while -,*) L dartai taka

dal malin [talme'Iin]

dale goxulxo [taloko'yulvo J dalba [tal'ba]

dalbada [tal'badx] dalsn [ta'lan]

dali ako l'tajleak-o] dalti [tel't-i]

dam [tam]

damxo ['tamYA]

damxa falirj [tamvofej'lirj]

danalko [ta'nalyo] dasam [ta'zarn]

light (v.) l~( dambi

dambagu dambagu fu-

lenggi indifferent

mend, repair put in or-

der, tidy up dasambi

close door :¥:, screen (v.) j_~,

cover up dasimbi

62 Materials of Spoken Manchu

daxa [Iu'dunl'tavc] daxam [ta'vom]

daxarna ajkam [ta'vamaaj'kvam]

daxul n jam [ ta'vuljiarn, ta'vulx] dojim [ta'im]

d;:JI;:J [ttnla]

d;:JI fulcin I'telfur'icsin] d;:JI sawsxa [talsa'wava] d;:JI;:J owulu fancko [talao'wul uf;:Jntsh'kh;:J]

dolbum [tal'bum] d;:JI;:Jm [t;:J'I;:Jm]

d;:JI;:Jn fsnixa ['t;:JlAilf;:Jnj1iY;:J] d;:JI;:Jn [ta'lon]

dan [ton]

daniici [tanii'tc-e] dsndam [ton'dam]

dorjjin [tan'dsin]

dorjjin aldan [ten'dsinel'dan] dorjjin nimin [tarj'dsinjii'min] dosnam [toz'nam]

daxamo [t;:J'Y;:JffiA]

dijim [ti'dsim]

dijil jake [ti'ctil'teaXA] dijixa jali [ti'ctiYJde]

dilxa ['tilYA]

blow flilj dambi obey Nil dahambi

be continued, be kept on ~U~ dahambi

Daur dahur

fly -is deyembi

face Wi dere

cheek saksaha dere fulcin

meet [Ti!.rm dere sabumbi

wash basin dere ebisere


begin (v.) deribumbi

float l¥ delisernbi

mane delun, funiyehe

table +f4:r dere

high tall den

height den

separate (vt.)

separate distribute

7J, disperse


:5ftJrJ dendembi

lamp rr, oil cup for lamp

n dengjan

light dengjan elden

lamp oil mIll dengjan nimenggi deprive, rob j1!; durimbi

maternal aunt


heme, dehema

make fire bum (v.)

boil (v.) j;it, to be fever-

ish deijimbi wenjembi

fuel deijire jaka

fried boiled meat t't r3~ deijihe yali

mat derhi

dilxi [til'yi] dixa ['tiYA]

dix xamo ['tiy'xaffiA]

doja njoxo [todzajiegz.] dolxi [tol'yi]

dolxi amba wojxo [tol'viam'ba'vejve ]

dolxi otuku [tol'vi'otsk-u] dolxici [tol'vitcse]

dolxido [tol'vi]

dolxo assam [tolvo'asam] dolxun [tol'vun]

dom ['tuome]

domul saxonji [to'mulsa'vandse]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 63

west 18 dergi

forty I"JIJ-+-, fortieth dehi

nearly forty ~/f$



wild duck bigan i niyehe

in !ffih dorgi

wisdom tooth dorgi

amba weihe

underwear H;f( dorgi etuku

into dorgici

inner part !ffihi.!J./!ffih1lil dorgide

diarrhea assambi

otter dorgon

fall 14 dombi

great-granddaughter jalan i omolo

domulo [to'mulo] great-grandson jai jalan

i omolo

dowuli [to'oule+to'oule] night dobori

dowul dulin [to'ooldy'lin] midnight dobori dulin

dowuli tandam [to'oulet+an'nam] night attack 13Z::{~ dobori tantambi

dosam jo [to'zsndzo] (imp.)

doso ['tozo] (imp.) dosul ba [to'zulpa] dou [too]

dou nun [roo'nun]

dowa [towa] doxsam [toy'e;:Jm]

doxo ['tOI:fO]


get into, enter :lft31~ dosime


advance :lft:i.c;- dosimbi entrance A J:] dosire ba younger brother 5B5B deo,

brothers 5L31~ ahun deo younger brother, younger sister deo nun

fox JJ1l~~ dobi

shrug shoulders it, tremble o:}o)- doksin

the blind dogo

64 Materials of Spoken Manchu

dowul kowuloxa [to'wulk=o'wulzvs] conceive 'lfHti deberen hefeliyembi

doxulo [to'vulo] dudum [tu'dum]

dujn Itynl

dujn bja [tyn'bja]

duj dxin [frnin'ltuje'vinfkambif dujn fan amko [fynfan'amk-a]

lame person fall down


, prostrate oneself 121-, lie down dedumbi

four fLLi, forth 1i~ fm duin April 1m Fi duin biya

around i'E ~ fi~ 1m duin ergi quarter, one fourth IllI7}z---

duin ubu de emu

dulam [tu'lam] pour jsl doolambi

dulin [tyj'lin] center 'I:' dulin

dulim ba [tyj'limba] center 'I:'{,'/'+;J;: dulimba

dulin da [tyj'lindx] middle r~, rs] dulinde

dulin donde [tej'lin'tandx] (imp.) divide into halves

dulin alin [dyj 'linej 'lin]

dulin uluxs jali [tyj'linu'luvjele]

dulinam [tyli'nam] dulum [tu'lum]

dulk anja [tul'kvajic] duluxanimja inin [tu'luvanirpjei'nin]

dulun [tu'lun] duluxo [tuluvo] dunda [tun'da] dun Jim [ton'dsim] dUIJIJa [tuIJ'IJaJ duto I'tut-o]

lin dendembi

half an hour =-1-7H'IJ/=i''-"i'-/J' f1J dulin erin

half-cooked meat =I"-~~M;~ du-

lin urehe yali

struggle (v.) durinumbi pass, go by ~:U, go across cross, go over

go through :YE:U / jIlli1 du-


last year *"'I=: duleke aniya the other day i1-t.~ fl~ E=11'" dulembi



fly iHI\l derhuwe

prey dundan

listen iIJT donjimbi watermelon jJf:JR dungga

become deaf dutu

duxa [tu'sa] duxo ['tuyo] duxo ['tuvc]

dbb ['dbt?hA] dCd ['dt?hAJ

dci ['dUphiJ odan [a'dan] ofon [a'van] ofim [ej'vim]


ofil ajinirj [ej'vilaj'dsinirj] dfil jake [ej'vil't?axAJ afixa [e'vryz]

dgdCi [d'gdUpheJ

dgdCi dJdn adili

[( d'gdUphi)dd'Z;_dm£'dileJ djdm [ej'em]

ojim [ajim]

aksam [ox'sim] dId ['dIAJ

dl ani [ol'ajju]

dl dulu niIJIJd [altu'lujiirjna]

al axi [olej'vi]

dId ci amalo [d'ldUphra'mdbJ

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 65

bowels IJfij duha cover tuhe

sharp :32:, end, point, tip :32:JL dubd





from here ereci

fall on debt 7:., lack eden

cookie ,r2,{" / game, play djdm


efimbi ---7

doll 3][Jt!4:43~ efire aji ningge toy 3][A efire jaka

full ebimbi

probably, perhaps nJ fiE eici as if (a king) ejen adali play 3;ii:)L efimbi

spill flow

leak out


overflow eyembi

master, host :tA, monarch,

sovereign :15 emperor

king ejen

remember memorize 4i6

1G ejembi

hurry busy eksembi

this iX ere

this year <'>y'-~ ere aniya like this ji:\:i'f(l~ ere durun

ningge, enteke

this way iXiQ ere ergi

after this, from now on -!';- j§

66 Materials of Spoken Manchu

alam bja [a'lam'bjal albixa [al'bivx]

dlgdn [dl'Ydn(kan)]

dlgdn gam [dl'gdIJgam] alim [ej'lim]

alin [ej'lin]

olki [al'k-i] dltd [dlth'd]

olxi [ol'vi]

d lxinin IJ d [ d l'xinin IJ 1\] alxam [dl'ydm]

alxala inin [dl'YdldiniIJ] dmu [omu]

am adili ['amms'dile]

am adili ako ['dm'rdil'aqho] dm ajikon ['drnrnr'ctikhAll]

am dowuli [amto'oule] om dulin [amty'lin] am sxi [smej'vi]

dm alda buda ['am'rnal'dsbo'da] dm olin [amej'lin]

am fon alin [amfanej'lin] am gilin [omvi'lin]

ereci amala

this month i3:1'- J=J ere biya sable, badger, racoon dog

-T elbihe breath rJ'j'fi& erg en

breathe ergen gaimbi

clean (v.) sweep t,1



season *cj[J,

time ,s( erin somewhat JLf


right now JJi'\~~E

ere te

peaceful 5fL5i:, quiet 5i:1~~f/lijg}


slowly elhe

secretly It) elhe ningge

rest ergembi

off-day [I erg ere inenggi

one - emu

same resemble, like(~'t

emu adali

different /f~fPJ emu adali akii

very little ajigen

A-Z)L emu

one night half

emu dobori dulin

one side, one party -1i emu ergi

morning early 11'-, the

forenoon J::_ iF emu erde breakfast emu erde bud a at the same time fPJ Ii':!" emu erin

a minute

emu fen erin

already E.:~'£ emgeri

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 67

day (24 hours) -'7:; emu in-


dm jasa [omjaza] one-eye emu yasa

dm julo [om'tsulo] one pair -YJ_ emu juru

dm majikan [amme'dsik-an] some AUL majige

dm rnadan [ornma'dan] once emke mudan

dm miIJIJa [ammin'tja] thousand --+ minggan

dm miIJIJa tuman ten millions emu

[ammirj'natsu'man] minggan tumen

dm rnokun [ammo'yun] one's kinsmen emu mukim

dm njam omk» [amnjamam'kba] one by one :&-1'-

dm njam Jiwali [amnjamtci'welr] by two :&ri;LJ1'-

am tal] tuman [dmthaIJthu'mdn] million - EfTJ emu tanggu

dm to [amt-o]

dm tuman tuman [amt+u'mantbu'man] ambado [ambada]

dm soxo [om'sovo] ama ['c)lllA]

C)mC)IJ [C)'mUIIJ] C)mC)ssi [C)'mC)?lJ


span jO]: emu to

hundred millions -il emu tumen tumen

together -,til emu bade

sagebrush eremu suiha

Don't (eat). )51] ume saddle

5e: ume-

arnas xanci [a'mas'q-antcse] C)mC)ssi amxido [a'mosiam'vida] omassi ajixin [a'masiadsi'vin] omassi xomso [C)'md?i:'xomzo]



nowadays i5:71't/J&'.Jli urnesi hanci the last ~}§ umesi amargide very small qR+ umesi ajigen very little qRYI-AUL umesi

amil coko [ej'milts-o'q=o] amka ['C)rnkh1\]

cmko bija ['C)mkhC)bie] emko alin [am'k-aej'lin]


hen emile coko

one - ernke, emu certain 1f -1'-/~ emke bi

an hour -1'-/N11--1'-fLil~ emke erin

amka mo cjao ['C)mkhC)motGhao] single-log bridge mo

68 Materials of Spoken Manchu

one person ~/I'"A, errand boy emke niyalma

amka njamaa [C)m'khC)j1ama] widower emke niyalma

C)mkC) sukaj ixan [C)mk~;u'khaji'yan] bull with one horn 1!lUi'J LI:: emke - ihan

c)IDXc) ['C)mYA-'C)IJYA] c)IDXc) ['C)mYA]

C)niIJIJC) [ej1iIJIJA]

C)niIJ jamji [ejjiinjemdse]

C)niIJ dowuli [ejjiinto'uule] C)niIJ C)m slds [ejjiin'ammal'da]

C)njC) arna ['C)]1A'aID_!\] c)sc) [C)'zC)]

c)sc)xc) [C)'ZiYA]

c)sc)xc) aIC) [C)'ziYA'aIA] (imp.) c)sc)xc) niIJIJC) [C)'ZiYAJ1iIJIJC)]

otim [ej'tsim] atixs [ej'thiYA] C)XC) ['C)yC)-'C)gA]

C)XC) jake [C)yC)'teaxC)] C)xi [ej'yi]

oxin [ej'yin]

axin XC)XC) [ej'vin'xov»]

fa [fa]

fajsn [fa'dzan] fakes [fak'tc>e] fakori [fa'q-olr]

mother-in-law ~!$~ emeke

mother-in-law emhe

today ~';-7C enenggi

this evening enenggi


tonight enenggi dobori

this morning4'"kEfi-_c enenggi emu erde

motherEJ:~j~, mammy


parents :;.eII!: eniye ama these (ones) iZ:@ ese

tenteke arambi

like this iZ:i~~13¢] enteke

win etembi

win bad


gain Hl~ ehe


ehe jaka

turn to rtJjljifJ ergi

husband 1:1': eigen couple/husband and wife 1( eigen hehe

window rei fa

feces fajan

leave out fakcambi


fakul tuxin [fa'ksult+yj'vin] falsom [far'sam]

falxun [fal'yun]

fancixo [fan'tc-isa]

faijkili [fjan'k+ile]

fasi ['faf\.]

fatam [fa'tam] fatan [fa't+an] faxun [fa'B"UD]

faxun [fa'surjam'ba]

faxun ajixin [fa'surjadsi'vin] fC) [fa+fia]

fsnin ['fC)J1iIJ]

fC)fC) ['fC)VA-'fC)WA]

foji Ifejje]

foji [feji] fojim [fajim]

fC)jixC) [(mukho)fC)jiYA]

fejixs muko [feJi(YA)mu'kho] fojxs ['fejYA]

fC)lC) [falx]

folirj [fej'lin]

folin boco [fej'lin'pots-o] fan [fan]

foncim [fC)n'1J;;him] fancixaniij [fC)n'1J;;hiyniIJ]

fancko ['fC)ntshkhC)] fanixa [fdj1iYA]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 69

waistband fakuri

earn farsambi

dark Ill§' farhiin

feel aggrieved fancambi

low f!;l;, short f~ fangkala block, lump, mass :l#UL, cur-

rency Jik:jjG farsi

pick fatambi

slave JzX:!l't fatan liver nf fahiin

bold, fearless fahun amba

timid nIH' fahun ajigen

old iB fe

ancient IB 80 fe ningge

vulva fefe

cave dugout f~, nest

wound 135 n feye

gnaw through

tambi brush =€:~ fi

peel 3JIJ fuyembi

boil (v.) fuyembi

boiled water 3t* fuyehe muke brain H®.:r fehi

floor, ground, bottom ms


scrap, rubbish fulenggi

gray ;;9(13 fulenggi boco

wall fu

be left over ~WF funcembi rest, remnant *u#; funcehe

feye tan-


basin fengseku

fur, wool =€:, hair :Y-::/j:, feather )j3J =€: funiyehe

70 Materials of Spoken Manchu

fanix sok maxalilfojiivsoqmavsn] fur hat ~£tIII~Ff funiyehe sukii mahala

fanixs soko [f;:Jjliyi'sokho] fonixa soko tulxi otuku [fajiivi'soqsotul'vi'optsk-u]

fsnjim [fan'dsim]

f;:Jt;:Jm [f;:J'th;:JmJ foxi [fej'vi]

foxi 3J] fon [fej'viatj'fan]

faxi bali [fej'yi'bajle]

faxi dulin bja [fejyity'limbjaJ

foxi wixo [fej'yi'viYAJ foxida [fej'vida] fsxtam ['f;:Jx'th;:JmJ

fjan saxonji [fjarjsa'vandse]

fjaIJ xaxaji [fjaIJxa'lJa&eJ fjatko [fjatk-o]

fj;:JIJ [fj;:JIJJ

fj;:JIJ silim [fjanci'lim]

fjo [fjoJ fjo [fjo]

fjoko [fjok-o] fjotam [fjo'tvam] fjoxulo [fjo'sulo]

fjoxulo olin [fjo'yuloej'linJ foka [fo'ya]

fur ~&: funiyehe sukii

fur coat .=t.&::7I"~~ 5t. funiyehe sukii tulergi etuku

ask iii], question j)'l!;liJj fonjimbi

towel .=t rp, hempen hood for a mourner :')" II] fungku

go mad lunatic ;lf~l


dig fetembi

underF fejergi, fejile

lower lip fejergi ang-

ga femen

down fejergi baru

last ten days of a month T-

tl] fejergi dulin biya

lower teethF.'f fejergi weihe below TitL fejergide

step on ~OK fehutembi

last daughter ,£/J\ fiyanggu

sargan jui

last son '£/J\ fiyanggil haha jui faitakii


ones nose JW niyaki

sirimbi fart ifr'. fiyoo

winnow fiyoo

nude, bare

fart fiyotombi

short foholon

short period foholon erin

vesica fuka

fokcim [fox't¥himJ foljum [for'tsum] folsum [fol'zum]

foskolam [fos'k-alxrn] foskun [fos'kun]

foskun bja [fos'kun'bja] foskun [fos'kunwa'zava] foskun t;:JI;:J [fo~'khun'th;:JlAJ foskun wassm muko lfos'k-unwa'zpmrnukso J

fucikjan [futcsi'k=en] fulum [fu'lum] fulxajn [ful'ven]

fulxajn biendo [ful'vcn'piendo] fulxajn tojsin [ful'ymth0J.T_inJ fulxajn boco [fu'ven'pots-o]

fulxo [f'ulao] fum [fum] fusko [fusk=o]

fusun [fu'zun] futa [fut-a] futan [fu't-an]

fux]i inin [fuy'dd'iJ1i:IJJ

g ada [kadx] gaJ;:J ['kad2j_AJ gale ['qals]

gal laskam [kalles'k=am]

gal mojin [qalmejin] gal malin ['qalme'lin]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 71

jump iJ!}E fekucembi poke {-¢, fondojombi

turn (vi.), turn round ~~


kick feshelembi

down, downwards "F fusihiin next month T 1'-)'=J fusihtin sink down ~}L fusihun wasimbi less Lj, T fusihim

permeate fusihun

rnuke wasime

cough fucihiyambi

cut tJJ furumbi

red ~I fulgiyan red-bean r.lE fulgiyan red copper ~I fl~ teisun

pink fulgiyan boco

root fulehe

rub fumbi

cooking fireplace j:± j§], fire

place fushu

cut (hair) fusimbi

string futa

vine siren

first day of the month fukjin inenggi


bring gajimbi

hand ¥ gala

make a hand gesture JE ¥ gala lasihimbi

back of hand ~ 'If gala

arm gala, gala meiren

72 Materials of Spoken Manchu

gal sumjun ['qalsun'nun] finger fj~ simhun, galai sim-


gale batks ['qalA'Pdtlzh1\.J limbs gala bethe

gals katal niIJIJd [qalAkhd'thdl.J1.liJIJ1\.J gloves gala hetere ningge

gaxulun [kavu'lun] palm gala falanggiJ.

galsm [ka'larn] clear [1~J galambi

galexo abko [ka'lava'abk-e] fine weather abka galaka

galma [qal'ma] mosquito galman

gamom [ka'rnam] take (sb) with ;fjj:'i~!?ij:71(; ga-


gam cuci bo ['kamu;;hytJ;;hi(d)'boJ take out ~HI:\ gaimbi, tucimbi

game ['kamx] (imp.) take away gamambi

ganlam [kan'lom] do

gan saxanji [kansa'vandse] adopted daughter 5(:!z.:FF-::{z:JL

gan xaxaJi [karjxa'vadse] adopted son 5(=1'-FF- JL=f

gaoli njamo [kao'li'narnz] Korean solho

gati [qaj'tsi] suddenly '9~F!'~ gaitai

gaxo ['qaBAJ crow g_,;f!'3 gaha

gdcim [kd'u;;himJ freeze {~; gecembi

golbuvo [kalb'uvo] be surprised 'IljV'i'ij~nT gelebumbi

gdld ['kalz] again X, yet, still B..: geli

gdldm [ka'larn] be afraid of, fear ge-


gam [kam] gdndd [kon'dtqe]

gantul oxo [kan't-ulovo] gdIJ dXd [bIJ'dy1\.J

gdskd [kdS'khdJ

gotam [ka't-am]

all kinds of -I;J] gemu neck IF}'''!': gen moggon tumble

worse ehe


wake up, get sober ~1ill getembi

clever n~,8Jl getuken explainl~RJl getuken gisurembi

post-card getuken ja-


gotkun [kdt'xun-kdt'khunJ

gatkun gisolsm [kdt'Xunki'zdldmJ

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 73

gdXd ['kdy 1\.J

gdXd nun ['kdy AnunJ

elder sister gege
sisters eyun non, gege
be ashamed gicuke giciko ['kiu;;hikho] gidam [ki'darn] giljama [ki'ljarna] giljaij [ki'ljaij]

gimu kacan [kixolxunsa'ts=an]

press lli, suppress :f~, gidambi

be generous giljambi

bone B-~ giranggi

capital 1ir'irr5, Peking :ir/?, gemun hecen

unit of weight JT gin

clear, evident light ;;:


say gisurembi

answer (v.) gisure bumbi

speech ij5 gisun

talk ~ij5 gisun gisurembi street r~,q~ij1il, qtIJ:A~i~ giyai

very giyan akii

very large giyan akii amba

better ~H, pretty, beautiful

1~1t giyan akii sain roe deer ~i'2T gio

roe meat ~i'2TN gyo yali railroad station ftti giyamun

sejen tere ba

hawk :t-llil; giyahun mareBJ:~ geo morin

remind ~~iSl* guniname bahambi

golmin [qol'min] long K golmin

golmin fjoxulo [qol'minfjo'yulo] length -K!;§: golmin foholon

golmin inirj jamun da wojlc tenant -KI golmin jamunde

wojlininne weile weile ningge

[q ol'mininiqj a'munde'weil varinirpja]

golmin mjocjan [qol'mimmjc'tcsen] rifle KHt gida, golmin miyoo-

gin [kin]

giIJIJdn [kin 'IJ an]

giselom [ki'zalxrn]

gissl bo [ki'zalpo] (imp.)

gisan [ki'zan]

gisan gisalsrn [ki'zangi'zolxm] gja [kja]

gjako [kjaxa]

gjak amba [kjaxam'baJ gjak sajn [kjaksen]

gjo [kjou]

gjo jali [kjojele] gjomon [kjo'man]

gjoxun [qjo'sun]

go molin [komo'lin]

goinam baxa [koi'narn'pavx]


74 Materials of Spoken Manchu

golmin tats [qol'min't+at-x] (imp.) stretch 11'[+"= golmin tatambi

golmin xado [qol'minxa'do] scythe golmin hadufun

golo ['qolo] distant :~ golo

gol j;;Jj;;J ['qol'jeje] maternal grandfather :'lHfl5U

~6:"rT goro mafa

long way J~iiR golo jugun

bitter ,hot (taste) gosi-


gol joxon [qoltso'von] goskun [qos'q-un]

goskun J;;Jm [qos'kvundzam] go sun [ko'qun]

go sun xamo [ko'zun'gamx]

gOW;;J ['kOWA]

gowu ala [kowu'alz.] (imp.) govvu bi ['kowupi]

guco ['kuteho]

gudum [ku'dum]

guje [kuje]

guJOX;;J [ku'dzovo] gulmaxo [qul'manx] gulun [ku'lun] gunim [ko'nim] gunin [kojjiin]

gunin sindam [qu'nincin'nam]

gusu axa do [ku'zu'avodo] gusu g;;Jg;;J nun [ku'zu'kagxnun] gwa nin [qwanirj]

gwa njams [qwa'pjamx]

gwajbuxo [kvaj'buvo]

suffer nz;~j gosihon,jembi

thirty :=::+, thirtieth =-+


nearly thirty gusin hamime

name;'6 first name

fame:6 gebu


gebu arambi

famous 1'=T:6/tH46 gebu bi friend JJIJ 1i gucu

gnaw nl~- gedumbi

husband of a paternal aunt

!lili)Z gufu

stomach ~ guwejihe hare YG-=J'- giilmahiin country ~I gurun

think, want ;I~t gunimbi

mind, heart ,L., gunin mujilen calm down, feel easy ii!z:'L.'

giinin sindambi

cousin tara ahiin deo

guwa ningge another person JJiJ A gtiwa niyalma

lose be defeated 9~Y&, fail defeat 9&~lt/9::::*U efu-

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 75

gwajdam [kwajdam]


take (time) §;KWHEJ goidambi


leal] [i'tehal]]

iei [i'tc-i]

iei ani [i'tc=i'ajjie] iei sun [i'trphisun] iei ulun [i'tc=iulun] icikan [itrphi'kh;;Jn]

iei ['itrphe]

iCi axi ['itrphie'ye]

iei oxid bijo ['itrphee'yedbje] ici axi ['itrphiej'ye]

ifim [i'vim]

suitable )I[i)j:@: icangga new ;iff ice

New Year §-TTif:- ice aniya raw milk ~¥YlJ ice sun

bride ice urun

fresh jffTllit iceken right ~ ici

to the rightf1:;fJ ici ergi on the right {E:;fJi!1 ici ergi right :;fJ:ltL ice ergi

sew ~~, mend, stitch ~I' ifim-

bi, ufimbi maggot sll!±l yeye

clay ~i~± yeye boihon dye ~ ijumbi

comb f}it ijimbi

three persons EA/=-1'- A ilan


three =-, =- ilan

three =- ilan fali March :=::R ilan biya

one third =- :5J\_z - ilan ubu de emu

three times =- {j-z ilan mudan three thousands =- f ilan


three hundreds =-B ilan tanggli stand up ~* ilimbi

make stand \T~:01~ ilibumbi stop {~: ilimbi

wooden comb *1frE ijifun

ija ['ije]

ijim bjoxun [ijimbjo'vun] ijirn [i'dsim]

ijim [i'dsim]

ila njamo [i'lajiarna]

ilan, [ilan]

ila wali [ila'were] ilan bja [i'lan'bja]

ilan fen cmko [i'lanfan'amk-a]

ilan madan [i'lanrna'dan] ilan miIJIJa [i'lanmin'rja]

ilan tal] [i'lan't-arj] ilim [i'lim]

ilibu [ilr'bo] (imp.) ilixa [i'livo]

ilun [i'luIJ]

76 Materials of Spoken Manchu

ilxa [il'sa]

ilxa gudol [il'sa'kudol] imcin [jim'tc+in]

inci dolbum ['intJphit;:Jl'bumJ indaxo [in'darro]

indaxo nirnaxs [in'davoni'rnava]

indaxo sajm bijo [(in'day)sffilbieJ inin [i}1;:JIJJ

inin bail buda [ijrinba'ilbo'da]

inin bali [i}1;:JIJ'b£jl£J

inin banjim [ijt'inpan'dsim]

llllIJ tun [i'nint-un] inindali [ijiunj'dele] inindali om ;:JId;:J

[i'nirjdaleam'alda ]

inindali jarnji [i'nindajlejarndse]

in jim [in'dsim]

injibum [indsi'bum] injim ojim [in'dsirnejim]

innaxo [in'nasa]

ina ['ino] iIJ [jiIJJ

isa siIJIJ;:Jl;:J [,izA¥iIJIJ;:J'l;:J ] isom [i'Z;:JYA]

iskalo [is'kh;:Jli\]

ismo [iz'mo]

ixan [i'san]

da ixan [tai'san]

ixan dowul banjim bjo

flower "it, smallpox 7C:{t ilha bud "it'FL{;UL ilha

drum tungken

joke 7f37i;~ injecem deribumbi dog ~fiJ indahun

pickerel indahun nima-

ha, geosen

bark 'jfiJ nq saime bimbi

day 7C/ E1, noon EI7C inenggi

lunch inenggi baire bu-


noon cl~ Cf inenggi baru

keep on living i1 EI ::y:, life 1::

it inenggi banjimbi date EI f~J inenggi ton everyday 4fj:JC inenggidari every morning tIf:7c lfL .L

inenggi dari emu erde nightly, every evening /I±]:JCflft

.l; inenggi dari yamji

laugh ~, smile injembi

funny TIJ~ injebumbi

entertainment injem efi-


arrive fU/iUjt isinambi, isin-


right ;':f!:h'1HI7 inu

a kind of cherry :f1iij$T yengge squirrel ;I;L~ uft singgeri, soison

enough, full isimbi

narrow 9i" isheliyen

pine (tree) jakdan

cattle tl:: ihan

ox i~tl:: eje

breed 'F ihan dohome

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 77

[Iisanjto'wolban'dsimbje] ixan fajon [i'sanfadzan] ixan jali [i'vanjele]

ixan molam bija [mo'larnbie] ixan molin ujil njamo [i'samo'Il u' dsirjiamz]

ixan sinda niIJIJa [i'sansin'da'nirjna]


cattle dung Lj::~ ihan fajan beef "I:: 17~ ihan yali

moo i:j::nq murambi

stock farmer t:x: ~ ihan marin ujire niyalma

man who raises cattle/

cowboy ihan sindara



J aam [ja'am]

jaam gam [jaam'gom] jawoxa [ja'w;:JYAJ jawukon [jawu'k-an]

jacin [jt:'tr;;hinJ jadalo [ja'dala]

walk yabumbi

start :±" /5t yabumbi

leave yabumbi

walking 2V1T yafahan black * B yacin

poor 'fi, poverty ]fi'fi, hard LIlx(1 yadahun

jadulum [ja'dulum]

jafen [ja'van] jalbon [jal'ban]

hungry, starve sambi vegetable garden ,*ImT yafan

reinCs) tether


jali [jehJ jamji [jemdn]


flesh ~, meat ~ yali

evening f~_t, twilight j!f i§'


dinner yamji buda

the afternoon yamjishiin

eye yasa

eyebrow J§ =;:., eyelash §r2U~~

yasa faitan eyeball §~~)L faha pupil BU~ hfintahan

squint yasa hari, hiyari

tear (n.) Il~m yasai muke

jamji buda [jemdsrbo'da] jamjiskon [jerndses'kon] jaso [jazx]

jasa faton [jazfa't-an]

jase faxa [jaz'fava]

jase kuntkan [jaz k-unt'ksan] jasa xali [jazxailiJ

jasa muko [jazmu'kso]

78 Materials of Spoken Manchu

ja lial

ja oxi [jae've] jaws [ja'wa] jawado [ja'wodx]

jax sdjdn [javsadzan] jaxs jolum [javtso'lum] jaxo [jaHAJ

jeje [jejeJ

jolum [jo'lum]

jolum takol molin [jolumt=a'kcolmo'lin] jolxo [jolso] jom[jom]

jomjs [jome] jOIJIJa [joIJ'IJaJ

jOIJIJa usun ljon'nau'zun]

which D}Jp

where (direction) i9JpitL ya ergi which, what HEf; ya ba

where iYJij EEl. ya bade

train :k2'f yaha sejen

fire j<3<:

fire j( yaha grandfather i'i:::1T mafa

ride yalumbi

riding horse *J1J ll.J yalumbi, takiirambi, morin

ant yerhuwe

go -:2.: yombi

go -:2.: yombi

sand l'YT yonggan

sandy ground l'Y±1h yonggan


locker ~1il yoose

lock yooselambi

tongue %~ ilenggu

jose [JOZAJ

josolam [jo'zalsrn] julon [jul'orj]


J a [tsa]

ja otuku [tcaot+u'k+u]

easy ja

lined clothes 3t;:tc(, jursu etu-


take jafambi



jafambi second 1ij~= jai -+jdci second floor, first floor =ti2

jai jergi

two days after tomorrow 7C Jfi7'C jai cora

sweet ~tt jancuhun

jaam [tsa'am]

jaamje [tsa'arne] jaws ['tsawe] (imp.) jawum [tsa'wum]

jaj [tsaj]

jaj jilxo [tsajtcil'v»]

jaka ['teakhA]

jak banam ['teaXbd'ndm]

jak woncal ba ['teakhudn't§halba] jake banjixo [teaXdpan'ctiydJ

jake ['teaqhA] jaka ['teaqhA]

jakado [tea'qhddA] jakun [tsa'qsun]

jakun bja [tea'xun'bja] jalin [tce'Iin]

jalma [tsal'ma]

jalo towuxo [tso'lot'owuvo] jasixan [tcasr'san]

jaulun xajlin [tsau'lunye'lin] jdci ['tlpetlphi]

jdci saxonji ['tlpetlphisa'ydncteJ

jdci xaxaji [tlpetlphixa'Ha&e] jojim [tce'dsim]

jojin tapo [tce'dsint-a'pbo]

jalim [tce'lim]

jdCdl dali ako [ted'tehdl'talr'aqho] jdCdl jake [ted'tedl'teaXd]

jdcdl sajn [ted'tehdl'sajn]

jam ta [tsamt+a] (imp.) jdWd ['tedWAJ (imp.)

ji bdjd oxo [tcibije'oso]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 79

thing 1G1N jaka

present (v.) ~~~ benembi market riJj:J& jaka uncara ba fruit Cv.) ~*~ jaka banjim-


eighty )~ + jakiin ju side iZ2)~ jaka

end, edge iZ2)~/ftffil jakade eight A jakiin

August )\)=! jakiin biya reason 3]1_EB, cause l*~ jalin grasshopper iliJ)jIi@l gergen

fill ~¥~% jalu tebumbi

letter 1* jasihan, jasigan jilgan poplar fulha

second %=, jaici

second daughter {jciz:. jaici

sargan jui

second son {jeT jaici sargan jui carry, bear ;~ jajambi

be piled up }i:t~* jajin tafambi

avoid j~, hide oneself jailambi

eat OZ;, eat milk P/0, feed on

grass nz; jembi

flat /fHIlz; amtan aqii food ~r?'J jecere jaka

tasty, delicious Hnz; amtangga, jecere sain

taste (v.) ~ jeme tuwambi eat liZ;, to take medicine flZ; jembi

become pregnant (lit. become two body) 'if2f1 be-

80 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Ji wali [tci'wele] jibcja [tcib'tcsa] jili [tcilr]

jil xatsn [u;;ilxa'th;:m]

ye jursu oho, hefeliymbi two = juwe fali

fur clothes jibca

anger jili

impatient, quick-tempered tic ;2;( jili hatan

get angry !g;1'f£tk jili banjimbi poor, pitiful fJ]-'lt, pity 'It'fI~JI caress 15'G,& jilakan

sound , voice jilgan

always 'ffi",Tj I~-~tt, sometimes

jili banjixo [tcilrban'dsiv»] jilakon [tci'lak-an]

jilxan [<tIl':r:sa] jilxo [ U;;il'yd ]

jilxa ['U;;ilYA] jixa [tcr'sa]

jixa bum [tci'sabum] jixa djim [tci'saejim] jixa salim [u;;i':r:sasdim]

jixs ['U;;iyA]

jobkalom [tsop'k-alxm] jobkelo [tsop'ksalx] (imp.) jobom [tso'born]

floor jergi

money fez jiha

pay Y:l'J/x/ez jiha bumbi

gambling jiha efimbi

value fjl'iTR jiha salimbi

come jimbi

abstain tl:\(, notice be careful /H~"

take pains , tired lf~ jo-


point out t§' jorimbi

lend juweme gaimbi

borrow js juwembi

way :i~JiYe jugun

tourist j:1~!i:H& A jugun dulere niyalma

get lost J2EJiY1'i- jugun, tasarabumbi

on the way, half way =i!:_j~)L

.L jugim dulinde

infantry tbfr jugiin jabure cooha

ice juhe

Siberian millet +71\: juke bele

jolim [tso'lim]

jorn gam ['teomgam] jomjs ['tgome]

joxon [tso'son]

joxon dulul njama

[ dzo'sondu'lunjiamx] joxon tajsalbuxo _


Joxon dolinda [tso'sonte'linda]

joxon jawsl cowa [tso'sonja'waltsbo'wa] Jugo [tsugo]

juk bdld [tsuk'polx]

julo I'tsulo] julun [tso'Iun] julxi [tsul'vi]

julbja jaam [tsul'beja'am]

julxi bali [tsul'gi'bajle] julxi jawuninna

[ tsul'vij a'wunnirpj d ]

julxi wojxa [tsul'vi'wejya.vejva] julxido [tsul'gidx]

julxid jaam ('tsulvidja'am]

jjumu [tcumu]

jusukun [teue'khun]

juskun sun [teue'khunsun] juxo ['tsuao]

Juxu fakcixs ['teuyufak'u;;hiyd] juxun [tsu'sun]

Jwali [tswejle]

Jwan [tswan+-tswan] Jwan Han [tswan il'an] Jwan omu ['tgwanarnu] Jwan mu [tswanmu]

Jwan tuman ['tswantsu'man]

Jwan jakun [tswantsa'qoun] Jwan bja [tswan'bja]

Jwan din l'tswan'tin]

Jwan jo [tswan'tso]

Jwan nadan ['tswanna'dan] Jwan nimjun [tswanjiin'rjun] Jwan tuman tuman l'tswant-u'mentsu'manj

Jwan ujin [tswan'ujin]

JWd [tswa+tso]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 81

couple, pair )(t )L!~/XX juru flood, inundation hiya

south julergi

advance, go forward ~u ill yabumbi

forward tt ~u julergi barn leader, chief ~ El julergi


front teeth ~tr3f julergi weihe

front julergi de

progressive tiJl5t julergi de


wife of a maternal uncle ~

-fiJI E~!lIb nekcu

sour jusuhun

yoghurt jusuhun sun

tale julen

thaw juxe fakcambi

quilt t'iilr jibehun summer ~7C juwari

ten +, tenth *+ juwan thirteen + = juwan ilan eleventh *+- juwan emuci eleven +- juwan emu hundred thousands +7] ju-

wan tumen

eighteen +)\_ juwan jakiin

October juwan biya

fourteen juwan duin

twelve + = juwan juwe seventeen +--t juwan nadan sixteen + /\ juwan ninggun billion +12::, juwan rumen tumen

nineteen +:h juwan uyun tVITO = juwe

82 Materials of Spoken Manchu

jwa modan [tsweme'dan] jwa miIJIJa [tswsmirj'na]

jwa tal) [t~wa'thal)J Jwa bja ['t~wa'bjaJ jwa axi [tswoej'vi] jwa [tswo]

kamkam [kham'kham] kakomgs [kha'khamgA]

kalmuko [khal'mukho] kento ['khenthoJ kaIJka [khaIJkhAJ

kaska ['kha~khAJ kat bo [khat'poJ

kila [khi'laJ

kila njams [k-i'lajiama] kimon njam [k-i'manpam] kitaxo [khi'thaYAJ

kja olin ['khjar'linJ

kowulo [kso'oulz]

kucko [khu't~hXOJ

kuksum [khux'~umJ

kus jojin [khu~t~ajinJ kulxun [k-ul'yun] kuso ['khu~oJ

awul kuso [a'wul'k-uzo]

twice Mijl: juwe mudan

two thousands M T juwe minggan

two persons M1'-AliVJiA juwe


two hundreds juwe tanggti

February =J=J juwe biya

both sides f9i!l/XJ1J juwe ergi the second = % juwe

slice, mince ~~U hencembi one's husband's sister ;t1dl~

ft~jEl non

shadow js+ helmen fist ~:V-; « Chin.)

gourd Ir[, cucumber fiVll hengke

cat kesike

storehouse 1t1~ hetu boo calu, ku

put on, wear, put a ring on


brave ~ 11'):, tight '¥f cira hero 3'fiLlf batur

enemy liSzA kimun niyalma nail ¥tlii Ifl hitahiin

dry season hiya erin

abdomen n±::r- hefeli dove ~i!~::f kuwecihe

swell itJJrP, swelling, rash 1¥

l]<t' huksembi

blade, edge ]JfW huwesi, jeyen plow 2j'!_ kulge

knife ]J, cleaver ~'DJ huwesi hunting knife 3MiJJ abure hu-

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 83

kusun [ksuzun] kusun bajtalim

[ksu'zumbaj't-elrm] kuto ['khuthOJ

kutulum [khu'thulumJ kuxun [khu'yunJ


power j]4. hiisun

make efforts?i§fJ husun

baitalambi spirit % hutu

pull (sheep) ~ kutulembi cotton :rffi:ft kubun

la bja ['la'bjaJ lajdan [laj'dan] lajan [la'dzan] lakcixa [lak'tc-iva] laskam [le~'khamJ

December +=J=J tease ~J¥J!i laidambi mule ~*::r- losa

be broken Il;IT T lakcambi hang up, hook :tE, shake

(vt.) ~/tffi lasihimbi

latam [la't-am] lakam [la'kham]

paste lilti latumbi sharpen (knife) polish J%li/ffi lekembi

ljofkan [ljov'k-an] muddy ~JE/T lifahan

ljofkan bjoxun [ljovk-an bjo'yun] mud 1Ft.± lifahan boihon

ljofkan bo [ljofk-anbo] marshy house 1Ft.m::r- liajix-

inhan boo


ljofkan usun [ljov'k-anu'zun] lodo [Iodo-e'Iodz]

marsh ground ;iJEi-ti!. lifahan usin many, much §;, dense 1i'\'ij~' labdu

lodo oxo ['lodoo'yo]

surplus §;3J~

increase labdu ombi

lodo tasilbuxo [,lodothaj\albuxoJ similar ~./G§; labdu tasarabur-


loxo ['l0I:1O J

sword EU loho

ffiafanlaxa [ma'fanlavx] majin [mcjin]

majixo fjoxulo ajka


bother ~j:1n

pulse M(t~ mayan

reduce f:illfJI ibkambi foholon

84 Materials of Spoken Manchu

majixs goskun [me'dsivakos'kbun]

majmaj alam njam [mai'mealampam]

majmaj bo [majrnebo] majss [meza]

makom uju [ma'kvmu'dzp]

mama ['mama]

manda [man'da]

manjju njamo [mandsu'njamx] man [man]

man jali [manjeli]

man mo xajlin [man'moye'lin] marjkon [man'ksan]

mawulun [mau'lun]

maxali [ma'varr] madan [me'dan]

mala [rna'la]

mole [rnalx] molim [me'lim] malin [rnej'lin] malxan [murl'yan]

marna ['memx]

marna sun [rnamasun] marna ujo [rnama'udzo] manari [ma'nan]

mass [rnazx]

micel xalin [mitsalxaj'lin]

a litter bitter rn;}iil1'f-,B)L~_LT majige gosihon

merchant YiiI A arara niyalma,


shop r~i m puseli wheat +3~ maisei

mountain top IllJiJI uju cokcihiyan, hada

maternal grandmother :5'H:IlI±]:

I~M'2; goro mama

slow )g~R manda

strong 5st expensive :itt mangga

tough meat fJ!t ~ mangga yali

oak mangga moo

mountain ridge LLI [;tj mangkan dustc1oth, dish towel :j-;j~:tJl


headgear mahala

time (eg. three times) itii&1{A


feed 1=1 melembi

buckwheat 'ff3t mere

slip on, throw on :f& neembi

shoulder meiren

fine-toothed bamboo comb

/:iiI:=-f merhe

breast (woman's) ~LJ* huhun


milk ~LJ* meme sun

teat, nipple !if]v-: meme uju fooll~T menen

we (incl.) rIr=JfI'J muse elm tree hailan

micikin [mitc;;hi'khen] micirn [mi'tc-im]

micin [mi'tc-m]

micin sjatj'nan [mitcin can'non] mijibuxo [midsibuvo]

minin, mininn ti [rninirj IJ ti ]

mixa ['miYA -'migA]

mixalam [mi'volim]

mjakirn [mjek-'im]

mjokbu [mjek'pu] (imp.)

mjocjan [rnjo'tcsen] mjocojn tandam [mjo'ts=ent-an'dam]

mjocjan aIJIJti [mjo'tc;;he'aIJyti] mo [mo]

mo [mo]

mo tunkili cicikti [mothUIJkhile'tc;;hitc;;hikh A] mokun [mo'q-on]

molin [mo'lin]

molin aden [mo'lina'dan] molin daxan [mo'lin'tay Ail] molin incam bija

[mo'rlin'ts-ambie] molin jolul cowa [mo'linjo'lultsso'wa]

molin stiJtin [mo'linso'dzan] molin sinda niIJIJa

[rno'li sin'da piIJIJa]

molin sun [mo'rinsun]

molin sun alki [mo'rinsun'alkr]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 85

shallow ¥~ micihiyan

close ones eyes ~j, hide ifr,Jt~

'* nicumbi

pot 'f!i!J, kettle fII!J::r- mucen

soot mucen sanggiyan

break meijebumbi

my :f:ltSJ mmmgge snake tJ(t meihe

carry on the shoulder tr meiherembi

turn off Tz mukiyembi

turn off :*1 13J:J , vanish mTz mukiyebumbi

gun ;fit miyoocan

shooting ~t;:;:;, discharge, spout out :!iH;:t; miyoocan


muzzle ~lt J:] miyoocan angga

hammer moo

timber, wood *t1- moo woodpecker I%*Q; mo tongkire cecike

family ~Jjfi mukiin horse ~ morin

herd of horses ~'ii1 morin adun foal ~!j1;JT morin dahan neigh ~!].~ incambi

cavalry ~i\j-~ morin yalure cooha

cart, coach ~$ morin sejen man who raises horses !fi': ~ )vJl)[~8J morin sindara ningge mare's milk ~!if] morin sun kumiss ~~Uilll morin sun ar-

86 Materials of Spoken Manchu

molin xats [mo'lin'xat-»] molo ['molo]

monirpjo [rnonimja]

monja [mojie]

mOIJ njams [rnorjjiama]

mOIJIJolo [mon'nolo] mOIJIJun [mon'ijun] moslo [rnos'lo] moxo [moyo] muduli [mu'dule] muJuxo [rnu'dzuvo] muko [mu'k+o]

muko kujo [mu'ksuo'ksudzol muko xolo [mu'kso'xolo] mulim [mu'lim]

mulo [rnulo] mUIJIJwa [murj'nwa] muso ['muzo] mutum [mu't-um]

muxali [mu'salr] muxalim [mu'valim] muxuli [mu'yulr]

muxwan [mu'svan] mwan [mwan]

n, [na] nadon [na'don]

nadon bja [na'dan'bja] nan Jwan [nantswan]


saddle-girth ~IJHW morin hata bowl T&Ii moro

our J;I(;fI'] s<.J meningge

monkey 315FT- monio Mongolian ~(7:1 A monggo


Mongol ~trlJ monggo silver f~ menggun toilet )~f1T

mushroom megu

dragon )t muduri carp mill1'8 mujuhu water 7]( muke

water tank 7Jz;I'\W muke huju ditch 7K/t] muke holo

twist (rope) :ti::/rr, twist j'T


girder i;\{: mulu tomb:l;(~ munggan barley :::I;::~ muji

can Eit know how to 4? mutembi

bullet T5!'j'! muhaliyan

heap up muhaliyambi

circle I1W muhe-

round liyen

egg ::ili!: umhan

rough, thick, big fll muwa

land lth na seven {:; nadan

July -l::;Jj nadan biya seventy -l::;+ nadan ju

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 87

najlxun [nd'yun]

najlxun ala [nsl'vii 'ala] najnaj [najnaj]

najtkun [net'k-un]

najtkun obuxo [net'kefio'buvo] nakco [naxq'teho]

slim, slender ~ narhiin

chaff narhiin ara

grandmother MM mama dirty J11± nantuhiin

stain nantuhun obumbi

maternal uncle ~~, husband

of a maternal aunt PJtx:. nakcu

the Great Bear ~~4-l::;dl nadan usiha

at that time under-floor heating system


temporary ne

cash JJII.:i;: ne jiha

at first 5t neneme sweat IT nei

Han race nikan niyalma

thin nekeliyen

painful 1i'll/:ff nimembi

open door 7T, turn on a light AV7T, bloom 7T, open

ones eyes neimbi

opened 7T T neimbi goat w $- niman

kid niman deberen

fish :§ nimaha

hook (for fishing) 1'8 nimaha gohon

small bones of a fish ~] ~~U

nimaha haga

fisherman nimaha

buta ningge

fishing-line f''l1'8~ nimaha weliyere sijin

naskun [nas'k-un] naxan [na'van]

na ajkom [naaj'ksam] na jixa [natci'va] nanam [na'rrrm]

ni [jii]

nikan njama [ni'ksanjiamx] nikili [jii'k-ih]

nim [jiim]

nim [nim]

nixa [jiiva] nima [jii'ma]

nima dowula [jii'mato'wule] nimaxa [ni'mas.s]

nimax goxun [jii'mavko'vun]

nimax xaxo [jlimay'XaISAJ

nimaxo buta niIJIJa [pi'mavapu't-ajiirpja] nimaxa wolixa nirj siJin [jiimavxwelivojiirjci'dsen]

fishing-rod Ifq:fu nimaha we1miyehe ningge welmiyeku fishing f''1:fu nimaha bu wel-


nimin []U'mjUlIJ] snow ~. nimanggi

nimin fakcixa [ni'mjiIJfalzh'tc;;hiya] avalanche nimanggi fak-

88 Materials of Spoken Manchu

nimaxo walixo nin winko [jiimav A welivapirjwirjk-o] nimaxu wijim [ju'mavuwijim]


oil ?DJ nimenggi

insect E'i!:.1L, worm .1=!. umiyaha

nimkun [jiim'kson] sickness 1r-Jg nimeku

nimkun dasam [jum'k-unta'zam] heal, cure l!!:frnhfl:JT nimeku dasambi

nimh] [ju'mjnj] nimjaxo [ni'mjasx]

nimkun sain oxo [jium'k-unsaovo] njumkun tal ba [pum'ksun'tsalba]

njunkun njama (J1UIJ'khunJl3.._TIlA] nin [jiin]

ninnilo (J1iIJ)1ilA] nitan [ni't-an] njakulo [jia'xulo]

njama CJ1amA]

njam bi [njampi]

njamode gida bum [n j a'madki'dabum] njamsa [jiam'sa]

njarnan [jia'rnan] njaxa CJ1aYd]

njaxo olxo CJ1ayd'olyuo] njaxe wa (J1aywa]

njaks [jiek-a]

njonim [jiejiim]

get well i~!2/1rJIT~J- T nimeku sain oho

hospital nimeku tuwara


patient 'IPJA nimeku niyalma sixty /\+ ninju

spring niyengniyeri not well salted ~~ nitan

sit on ones knees Nfn;- niyakiirambi

man A niyalma

someone ~ A niyalma bi,

weke, yaka suppression .!iii£!. gidambi bumbi

people Ail'] niyalmasa heart '1,'!'11i niyaman

rot niyahabi

wither tjlj'i niyaha orho stinking 51: niyahe wa pus fll\: niyaki

chew [liN niyaniombi

njaxo [jiega] njolkun [jicl'k-un]

njolkundo gontul oxo [jiol'ksundaksn't-ulovo] njOIJIJdn (J1oIJ'IJdn]

njorpjun tosin (J1oIJ'IJunth0j{in]

njoxo [jiovo] njulo [jioro]

njul tatom [pjultha'thdm]

njul xoto [njul'xotho] njulxan (J1ul'Ha]

njulxan xwalom (J1ul'Ha'xwaldm]

njumkun [jrum'k-un]

njUIJIJun [norj'nun]

njUIJIJun bja [puq'nun'bja] njunnun fen jiwoli [jiurj'nunfantciwala]

noka [no'ksa] norjxun [nOIJ\711I1] nun [nun] nUIJIJun [nUIJ'IJun] nunxo [ruujvo] nunxo ['nunvo]

Odun nimin [o'dunni'min]

oji [owji]

oji anfan [o'jiarj'fan]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 89

duck Iji1§r niyehe

glide, slip, slide, slippy nJsmooth Jt;'~4 nilukan slip fru nilhiin

green ~~-B niowanggiyan

bronze niowanggiyan

teisun, niohun teisun wolf 3Ec!: niohe

arrow niru

shoot an arrow ~tfN niru ta-


arrowhead fN~ niru hoto

drawing L nirugan

draw (picture) illli nirumbi, nirugan hirwaliyambi

sickness kun

goose wild geese Jr~

niongniyaha six /\ ninggun

June /\)=j ninggun biya

two sixths /\:5J\.z= ninggun ubu de juwe

thorn WU) L nuka


sincere ~i-E/::t~ nomhon

younger sister non

summit Evenki

add nonggimbi


edun ni-


above 1:., top JlJ~ oyo

upper lip 1:.1lJil'J§' oyo angga

90 Materials of Spoken Manchu

oji bali ['oji'bajle] oji bja [oj'i'bja] oji otulxo otuku

[ ojio'tsulvo'ot-uksu]

oji tala [o'ji't-als]

oji WiXCl [oji'vivx]

oji(n) dolin bja [ojinte'limbja+ojite'limbja] ojido [oujidn]

oksum [ox'?umJ okto ['oqtho-'oxthoJ

olim [o'lim] olin [o'lin]

olin Clmu [o'lin'amu] olin xama [o'linyama]

olko ['olkhoJ 010 ['oloJ

olxo [olso]

olxu ala [olsu'alz] olxu dilxs [olvu'dilvs] olxu futa [olvufu't-a]

olxum [ol'vun] olxun [ol'sun] olxo [olvo]

olxun jali [ol'vunjeh] olxun olxo [ol'sun'olsuo]

olxun uluxa jali [ol'vunu'luvjsle]

olxun usun [ol'yunu'zun] om [oum]


up tLt oyo i baru

last month 1:.1'- J=J oyo biya upper garment 1:.::t~ oyo eture etuku

more ~J,1:. oyo

upper teeth 1:.3f oyo weihe first ten days of a month 1:. 10U oyo dulin biya

above 1:.:itL oyode

vomit PlRn±, spit pi oksimbi drug ~1;J, gunpowder Jd1;J ok-


cross i@1 olombi

twenty =+, twentieth %=+ orin

twenty one _ orin emu nearly twenty ~/G§: =+ orin hamime

broom 13 ?fl. eriku

green onion riJ, wild onion

1lfJ;:®: elu grass l!jli: orho

steppe l!jli:!* orho ala

mat (straw) :"fLfr'\~ orho derhi straw rope J¥[~~ orho futa dry (vi.) T olhombi

dry =r. olhon

firewood !i1~J( deijejikii dried meat r~ =f olhon yali hay T olhon, orho

boiled dried meat T!i'),\iJ:] 01- ho urehe yali

dry ground Tit!.!, olhon usin drink, drink milk Pii'il omimbi

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 91

omo ['omo] (imp.) omja [orne]

omulo [o'molo]

omul JUSCl [o'mul'tsuzx]

smoke [1& omimbi

all right, OK iT ombi grandson tiFf· omolo descendant, offspring -rt/J\

enen, omolo juse, omosi granddaughter t/J\ -.f;:. omolo

sargan jui alone ~31 emhun God till enduri

crucian carp onggoson

before \J,jlu, past :liE, former

days }} . .1'tu onggolo

ancestor tEJ.5'f: mafari, onggo-

10 sakdase

forget ;Sic onggombi bridle 5..t~, longto, eite fishing net w M asu raw t eshun

raw stuff tSg eshun ningge hold (something) in ones

mouth ~-;- asumbi clothes ::t~HIl etuku

put on, wear ji{ etumbi

a girl's elder sister's husband t.z§.:A/-.f;:.BS~B.YE.F1s:>t:1~ efu one's sister's husband YE.:1U 1f~

as yMilBs:>t:A efu here J£:fi3. ubade

be broken efujeme


destroy 3'f:l;.F / §!J1:it, spoil §!lit, be broke down t.iQit efujebumbi

omul saxanji [o'molsa'vandn]

omxun [om'yunJ onduli [on'duri] OIJIJuJo [oIJ'IJud21.oJ orpjulo [oIJ'IJulAJ

orpjulo sagdaso [oIJ'IJulosay'dauJ

orpjuxo [OIJ'IJUKl, OIJ'IJumJ onto ['OIJthJ]

oss ['JDZli.]

oskun [os'k=un]

oskunin [os'kvunnin] osum [o'zum]

otuku ['outhukhu] otum [o't-um] ows ['owx]

owa ['OWli.]

owuda [o'wudo]

owuJim mijibuxo

[owudsim midsi'buvo] owuJibuxo [owudsi'buvo]

OWUJixCl [owu'ctiyli.] owulo [o'oulo]

be torn nose

efujembi of oro

92 Materials of Spoken Manchu

owum [o'wum]

oxdum [oy'dum]

paj;,l;,m [p-a'dzalxm]

parjto nimaxs [phaIJ'tho]1i'maYA] pao [phao]

pijsjn [p-i'dsen]

pinso [p-irjze]

pjolan [p-jo'lan]

pjolan boco [p'jo'lan'potseo]

Sabk;, ['sabkba] sacarn [sa'ts-am] sadun [sa'don] sajldom [sel'dam]

sajldo [(';,mbad;,)'sdd;,] (imp.)

sajmja ['sajme] sajn [sen]

sajn ba ['smpa]

sajn gwajidaxo [senkwaj'davo] sajn wanjim [senwon'dsim]

sajwo ['sajwx]

sakon efil do [sa'qsanej'vildx]

saman [sa'man]

sam [sam]

salko ['salq-o]

wash 15\::, wash (launder) 15\:: obombi

bathe swim


entertain, treat j~N} okdombi

crawl Jr~

angler (fish) :'it~ffcl. nimaha cannon j:ffi poo

box (f§FF- pijan

bottle !fIT::Yo.

blue wi

sky blue JdclB lamun

chopsticks sabka

chop with an axe Tv, sacimbi one's old home ~j'i~~ sadun get mixed lmiS- suwaliyambi mix, blend jE.-lmilli5i:<: suwa-


bike n3Z saimbi good II} sain

beneficial !zJ:S1 sain ba

long ago !zJ:7\. sain goidambi greet 1T*L sain fonjimbi student, pupil ¥1: sabi

interesting 1lf5'!iT:JiE. saikan

efire de

beauty ~, nice, sympathetic

, cute saikan tu-


male shaman female

shaman saman

know 9;~iill sambi

don't know /G9;~iiil sarkii

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 93

samje ['samje] sandam [san'dam] sanim [sejiim] san [SaIJ]

sasaxaci [sa'z21Y21'trpheJ sasku ['sa?khu]

saws [saws]

sawaxa [sa'wasa]

know 9;llj~ sambi altar *:Li;

stretch (out)i$ saniyambi

burrow sangga

crowd *;0,::, total -£1* sasa hoe flJ)J~ sacikti

shoes sabu

see ;§ %, find 5i:fJJVtJt7~, glance

at H:~3t sabumbi old ~ sakda

old man :'it A sakda

old woman :'itfEl:P: sakda daughter :P:JL, maid !z'6:fi~ sar-

gan jui

girl frf~ sargan jui

magpie saksaha

age ;17 se

age;17 se ton carriage :t;-=: sejen

thill 2'Hft.,t fara, sejen sa lay Jff1j sektembi

saxde [sav'do]

saxda njama [sav'dajiamz] sagda tajtaj [sax't-ajts] saxan]i [sa'vondse]

saxan]i usa [sa'van'dzpza] saxsaxo [sav'savx]

ss [s;,]

s;, ton ['s21thon] sojan [sa'dzpn]

s21j;,n sa [si'dzansa] soktem [sak't-am] saktam dajsanin [sok't-amtaj'dzpnirj] sdl21 ['SdlA]

sal joxon [soltso'von] salkun [sal'kbun] samkala [sam'k-ala]

scmkol ilxa [sam'k-alil'sa]


dasimbi iron 11~ sele

railway 9'g~j~ sele jugun cool {*,~( seruken

wild leek illH~* sengkule leek blossom ~~*I,t sengkule



SdIJ [s21IJ]

sdIJIJ;,ld [CJ1-i'maYA)sdIJ'IJdlA] S21W21 ['SdWA]

si [<pi]

sika ['<pikhAJ

sika sitixs ['<pikhA<Pi'thiYA]

blood Jill senggi gills 1'8 ft\\S senggele teacher :'itijfp sefu you 1{J; si

urine J1K sike

urinate sike sitembi

94 Materials of Spoken Manchu

silam [ci'lam]

silxa ['Gilyi\.]

sili [' cilr J

silim [ci'lim] silin [ci'lin]

silin [Gi'lIIJ] silixam [cili'von]

sim gisalom [cimki'zalim] sindam [cin'dam]

sinimjo ['GiniIJIJd]

siIJIJdld [GiIJ'IJdb]

sirpjan [GiIJ'IJdnJ sirpjsn [GiIJ'IJdnJ

alin sinnan [a'lincin'rjan] aldc dili jamji SiIJIJdn [aldadile jemjicin'rjan]

SiIJIJdneiCikd [GiIJ'IJdn'tGhi1:!;;hikhi\.]

sisali [cizeli] sisko ['Giskhi\.J

sisko ['ciskeo] sitam [ci'tvam] sitaxa [Gi'thayd]

sixdan [civ'dan] sjamjan [GaIJ'IJdn] sjarpjan [GaIJ'IJdn] sj ensdIJ [cen'san] so [so]

so [so]

soko [soqbo]

sok boxun [soxpo'yun]

continue ~~~, connect iH~

sirambi gallbladder Il~ silhi soup 1m sile

milk a cow j5'f sirimbi wire !lSt~i sirin, sirge dew il\&7J( silenggi

boil slightly i~~ hethembi

scold simbe gisulembi

set, put )j5U:t!;iJ sindambi your ffJ; I~I~ siningge

rat;c mouse /J\;cr~l sing-

geri forehead

n senggin

until 3.'0

until now .:'f~~'- ertele from dawn to night JAlfL 3.'0r~3 erdeci jamjitala


singgeri cecike,


hemp cloth sisari

yesterday f:llo~, previous . day

sikse mattress (Jij"F sishe late !~i', sitambi

late grow dark ~~ T si-


between zJ§] siden

white f:':l~ sanyan, sanggiyan smoke j:[lJ sanggiyan

doctor [2S=j:/jeJc « Chin.)

take off D£ sumbi

you (pl.) 1fJ\1fJ suwe

skin &:1l;!C, leather&:1j£ sukii bag .&: B sukii bofun

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 95

soko otuku ['soqhouth'khu]

leather garment &:::t<: sukii


get drunk ~ soktombi invite iEZ',[\f solimbi

moustache + tf:J"F/i5,y "F, beard ~iJj, whiskers ttrD!2,"liJ~"F salu your (pl.) 1fJ\ffJ~~ suweningge choose 13b!±JEJZg, pick up sonjimbi

cooking :1!,tf sogi arambi vegetable Jt,~*, side dishes *

SOktOXd [soq't-ovx] solim [so'lim]

solo ['solo]

SOniIJIJd ['swOniIJIJd] sonjim [son'dsim]

soxo alam [sovoa'lam] soxo [sovo-v'suovo]

soxulam [so'vulxm]

sujirn euCi- [su'ctimt!phy't!phym]

sogi pick

rush out ~m ttl E sujume tu-


run ~f.!l, escape 31]; sujumbi grain t~ suihe

axe 5%1'- suhe

loose sula

flea E3E-ili: suran

awl, gimlet smart shout loudly

sujim [su'dsim] SUjXd ['sujva] sugo ['sugo]

sula [so'la]

sulan [su'lan] sulawu [su'lawu] sulo ['sulo] sulum [su'lum]


sun [sun] milk 1;)] sun

sun eUeild ixan [sunt!phy't!phildi'gan] milch cow sun tucire ihan

sunda [sun'da] garlic suwanda

sun]a [sun'dza] five li, fifth ~li sunja

sunja bja [sun'dza'bja] May liJj sunja biya

sUIJIJum [SUIJ'IJum] cry 5~, weep loudly 5~ song-


fifty li + susai air "i:'"'\ sukdun

sinew sube

hammer f@"F suhe thigh jeH;! suksaha

susaj [su'ze] suxdun [suy'dun] suxo ['suyo J

sugo ['sugo] SUXSaxd [suv'sasx]

96 Materials of Spoken Manchu

swajin [swejin]

swai nin [SW2jipdIJ]

swaji nimin [swzjijii'min]

swajin ilxa [swejinil'sa] swajin ixan [swejini'san] swajin xoni [swcjin'yoni]

swatam [sowa't-arn]


Sajo [sajo]

salem [sa'larn]

salambija [sa'lambje] san [san]

san ba sajm ['sanbasem]

satan [sa't-an]

saxulo [sa'yulo+sa'wulo] sdjim [sajim]

sdnckd ['~dntshkhi\]

sdnckd duws ['~dntshkhA'tUWd] sdndam [san'dam]

sdnda [son'da] (imp.) sisaba [sizi'ba]

solo bisila olin ['~olopi'zilde'linJ

solxo ['~olyo ] suasclcm [sua'zalxm] suka [~u'xa]

sukaj [~U'kh2J

yellow filit suwayan

weasel suwayan solo-

hi, suwayan ningge

butter suwayan ni-


day lily ]i!~1t* suwayan ilha

bull suwayan ihan

dzeren sow tambi

suwayan honin

spread, spilt so-

potatoes :J:~ sayo

dawn, break salibumbi

dawn ~~AJI gerembi

ear :!~I:5t~ san

whisper san

be saimbi

sugar satan

cold iffi, get cold i]j'( sahurun hate 'I1iic seyembi

jaw TE.'. sencehe

chin T E.'.sJ~ sencehe dube set, put iiyjji~, undertake

let go )151:, grazing sindambi

bring down


honeybee ~rt~~/~8:; wasp ±rt~ sesempe

leisure erin chick

I'I~ 8'J-i'8J solo bisire


shear sheep f,1j, shave f,1j

whip susiha

horn jyg

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 97

suldum [sul'dum]

circumference FIi]~, surround,

enclose ~/~~fE surdembi

plum sulhe

penis suman

deep ¥)f~ sumin

indigo blue ¥~~1\[5 sumin, boco

sun J-\ I;Ei sun

sunrise 13 in sun tucimbi sunset EI wasimbi finger -¥ilii simhun

finger bethe simhun

finger -¥ilii galai simhun mitten -¥~;:: simhun dendere

akii ningge roof timber t~ T

brush suwase

sulo ['~ulo] suma [su'ma] sumin [su'min]

sumin pjolan boco [su'minp'j o'lan'pots-o] sun [sun]

sun cucim [~untlphy'trphim] sun wasom [sunwa'zpm]

sUIJIJun [sun'rjun]

ba sUIJIJun [Pd~UIJ'IJun] gal SUIJIJun ['qalsun'nun] sUIJIJun dondalku nin [sunrjuntan'dalxunirj]

suwalton [suwal'tan] suwase [suwazi]

taam [t=a'am-etva'umj tabu [tha'bu] (imp.) tacibum [thajt'pum] tacim [th2'tlphim]

tafum [tha'vum] tajwan [t-aj'wan]

takal njarna [tha'XdljlaIDi\]

climb 1:. tafambi show tabumbi teach !J!J[ tacibumbi

learn study ':;;;_;:j tacimbi

climb 1:. tafumbi _,.taam safe ~£ taifin

acquaintance ta-

kara niyalma

use force, make


tool I?~ takiirara jaka servant 1mA takursi

slippers talare sabu

plow grow (animate thing)

~Jt±l'f tarimbi

plant tarire jaka

lightning r,i;_j ~ talkiyan

takulurn [tha'qhulum]

takul jake [tha'xul't~aXd] takul njama [t-a'xul'njamx] talal sawa [tha'ldl'sawi\]

talim [th2'lim]

talil jake [thaj'lil't~aXd] talkin [thdkhin]

98 Materials of Spoken Manchu

talkin golmen [thd'khing;:)l'm;:)n] glimmer rAJ:)\: talkiyan

talnam [t-al'nam] fight fTS¥J tantanumbi, tan-


talxun [t-al'vun] fat IJE/il'I' tarhiin

tam [t''am] tandam [than'd;:)m]

tandem baxa [t=an'dam'bavx] tandem miJibuxo

[t-andam midsi'buvo]

tan [thaIJ]

tal] tuman tumsn [thaIJthu'm;:)n t=u'rnan] task;:) ['thasqhA]

tatam [tha'th;:)m]

tatam gajsu [tha'th;:)mgajz] (imp.) tatam lakcibo [tha'th;:)mlax'u;;hibo] tatam oxulo [tha'th;:)mo''iLllA]

t;:)l;:) ['th;:)l.l\]

tal axi ['th;:)lej'yi] talojnin [th;:)'l;:)iniIJ]

talmon [th;:)l'm;:)n]

talmon cucim [th;:)l'm;:)n1J;;hy'1J;;him] tam [th;:)m]

tijo [t=ie] (imp.) taman [th;:)'m;:)n]

taman dowulo [th'm;:)nto'wulA] t;:)s;:) ['th;:)ZA]

look tuwambi

hit fT, dip up §/H, snore, smelt iron, flash fT, thunder (v.) fT tantambi

hit 1T"I~ tantame bahambi

break tantame


hundred -- -I§" tanggu

ten billions --- B'f=. tanggu tumen tumen

tiger z;u't tasha

pull j~, pull out j;&, shoot ~l'J, breathe in n& tatambi

tighten tatambi, huwai-


take off j~jT tatame gaimbi

cut tatame lakcabumbi

tatame efu-

tear (v.)


he fiE., she ~iI!., that 7JI) tere away, that wayJJlljlI tere ergi his (n.)fiE.EI~, hers ~fuIYJ ter-

eningge light Jlt elden

glitter talman tucimbi

sit ~~, put 'tt plant ~iIt tembi

sit down sit tembi

camel ~;Hlt temen

young camel !)~#~ temen

they 1iE.lIJ, they ~fufn, those things fJll~ tese

t;:)s;:)x;:) [th;:)'z;:)y;:)] tosonin [th;:)'ziniIJ]

tassxa ala [th;:)'ziYA'alA] (imp.)

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 99

so 1.lrl~

theirs {tEir] B~ teseningge

Do like that ara-


t;:)s;:)x;:) niIJIJ;:) [th;:)'ziYAJ1iIJIJ;:)] like that tenteke

tikim [thi'khim] raise :$ tukiyembi

tikim assibo [thi'khirna§i:'bo] (imp.) move (vt.), transfer tu-

kiyeme assabumbi

evaporate, steam teliyembi

just now I~U:;j- teni

colostrum, foremilk teni

tilim [thi'lim] tini [t=i'ne]

tini marna [thini'm;:)mA]

tiwalim [thi'welim] tokun [tho'xun]

toko inin [tho'xoj'iJ1YIJ]

toksan [thox'?an] tolum [thou'lum]

tolxim [(thol'yin)th;)l'yim] tolxin [thol'yinJ

tom [thuom]

ton [thUon]

ton do ['thondo]

tondokun [t=on'dokeun] tOIJ [tllOIJ]

torjgajn [thoIJ'gmJ tonkun [thoIJ'khun] tOIJIJun [thOIJ'IJUN] tosin [tl10j';(In] towuda [tho'wud;:)] toxso ['thoxso] toxulo [tho'yulo]


hug 1[;] tibeliyembi

fifteen tofohon

a half month -I- 1i'J\. tofohon inenggi

calf tuksan



dream a dream dream :'P tolgin abuse ~ toombi

figure ,number %~,

amount, quantity ton

straight truthful IE, verti-

cal tondo


straight tondokon

thread i'~, line ~ tong go


knee tobgiya drum 52 tungken

breast tunggen cejen

copper teisun



village i';_J tokso wheel :1'B-T tohoro

100 Materials of Spoken Manchu

yoke horse


toxum [tho'yumJ tudam [tsu'dam]

return :l2E, compensate

toodambi steep I~

pillar i':l:"'j"- tura

cloudy m tulhun lurgin

tuko ['thukhoJ tula [thu'laJ tulxin [t=ul'vin] tuli ['thujleJ

tuli ['thujle] tulxa [thul'ya] tulxi [thul'yi]

tulxida [thul'yidA]

tulxi gulun [t=ul'viku'lun] tulxi gulun njama

[ thul'yiku'lunj13.IIli\]

tulxici [thul'yi nphe J

tulxun abks [t=ul'vun'abkva]



winter ~7': tuweri

lean turga

outside 5~ tulergi

outside 51, TIIi tulergide abroad 5~ j;m tulergi gurun foreigner 5HliiA tulergi gurun niyalma

out of 1151, tulergici

cloudy weather Ilfl7': tulgun abka

ten thousands --71 tumen thick, dense Ux., strong 1:{C tu-


forest, wood ¥l,"'j"- tun, bujan

pound tongkimbi

drop (v.) j1jJ: tuhenembi be fallen f'1'iilt tuhenembi snow (v) T tuhembi cloud -i:;-Jl~ tugi

tumsn [t=u'man] tumin [thyj'minJ

tun [t-on]

tunkum [thuIJ'khumJ tunnam [thuIJ'namJ

tunnaxo [thuIJ'naY1\J tlLXUXd [CJ1i'miIJ)thu'IHlli1\J tujxa ['thujyi\ -'thwiy 1\J

Uea [u'tssa] uculom [u'ts-ularn] uculi [u'ts-uli] ucun [u'ts-un] udali [u'telr]

udam [uu'dam]

uda alin ['oodarlin]

crotch, coxa uca

sing ucun uculumbi

chancelJLi~ ucuri

song ~ ucun

how many JVi'- udu fali buy !k udambi

What time? )U~ udu erin

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 101

udun [u'dun] ufko [vuvqso]

ufku nimkun [ufk'{ujnim'ksun] uxsalam [uv'salom]

ujon [ujen]

ujon buda [ujembu'da] ujan man [uj'en man] ujin [ujin]

ujin bja [ujin'bja] ujin [ujinj+-jujyn] ujan [u'dsen+vu'dsen] ujim [u'dsirn]

UJiXd ama [u'dsiva'arna] UJiXd onja [U'ctiyd'dJlll.]

UJiXd saxanji [u'dsivsa'vandse]

UJiXd xaxaji [U'ctiydxa'yacteJ ujo [udzo]

u]o fusul kuso [udzofu'zul'kbuzo] ujulko [u'dzulyo]

ukaboxo [uk-abovo]

ula [u'la.vu'la]

ulbum [ul'bum]

ulgjan [ul'gen]

uli [vuli]

uljixa [ul'ctiy1\] ulum [u'lum]

uloxa [uu'loua]

ulu ak jali [ulu'akjeh] ulun gajxe [ulun kajYll.J ulunsan [u'lunsaij]

ulxa [UI'I,-a]

wind }/l edun lungs jJ~j ufuhu

tuberculosis ufuhu nimeku

untie uksalambi

weak ~~, soft tv)(, gentle, ten-

der illl_;¥iJ uyan

gruel, porridge 51~ uyan bud a strength 53'£U55\~~ uyan, rnangga nine 7L uyun

September uyun biya

ninety 7V+ uyun ju

heavy §:, weight ~iTI- ujen bring (somebody) up, rear

(v.) , breed ujimbi

foster father )~x: ujihe ama foster mother :f!fH.!: ujihe eniye

stepdaughter :f!fj;( ujihe sar-

gan jui

stepson rr:-=r- ujihe haha jui

head ~, first uju

razor 5(jUn uju fusire huwesi unfortunate /1'$

hide oneself ukambi

hip Jltln ura

feed Pjj'l ulebumbi

pig ulgiyan

a kind of berry w T::_J- uli

fall down ulejembi

be boiled urembi

ripe urembi

raw meat :'E I~ ure akii yali marry f5~~ urun gaimbi navel BiJrr, ulenggu livestock t.:l:1fl ulha

102 Materials of Spoken Manchu

ulxamo [ul'xamx] ulxan [ul'san] ulxim [ul'yim] ulxun [ul'vun]

pheasant lliJx"'0 ulhuma trap ~~i~~ ulgan

understand ulhimbi

glad, pleased l~iJ~, be pleased ;;~j\~ urgun

something happy wed-

ding ~rHL urgun baita thread a needle m ulme ta-


needle Hulme semken sewing !i'I-~x ulme tonggo cow IiJA: uniyen

female (animal)8]:/lillt uniyen

seed use

star ~~ usiha

field [I, cultivated land FEllfu usin

chipmunk ~~l usin singgeri farmer's family:{\(~~ usin tar-

ire boo

farmer ::{_Ii_ ~ usin tarire niyalma

crop usinde tarihe

ningge jaka

that is! tV[;Ji!:/nJ/GJJ!: uthai namely, that is EUlliWU:& uthai


tum (vt.) turn inside out

mJJ ubaliyambi

go over ridge mJH1 ubaliyame dulembi

ulxun bajti [ul'vun'pajt-e]

umo ['umo]

umo tOIJ [umot-orj] unjaxon [ujia'van] unjs [ujie]

USd ['vLIZA]

uska [u2'Xa]

usun [u'zun]

usun simjala [u'zuncin'nal«] usun talil bo [u'zunt=e'lelbo]

dun talil njam [uzuntse'liljiam] usundo talixa nin jake [u'2j_undAthdiydj1iIJ't2aXA]

utka [uth'xa-uth'kha]

utka dld [uth'xa'dld-uth'ka'dld]

uwalim [u'welrm]

uwalim dulum [u'welrmtu'lum]

uxali [u'yale] uxuma [u'vurns]



aunt flfiiJL uhume

Wa [wa+va]

taste (n.) rl5jd~t, smell ll5jdL wa

wa bi [wabi] wa ga [wa'ka] wa [wa=va]

wa gidam [wagi'dam] wadim [wc'dim]

wajlbuxa [wd'buyo] wajsdIJ [waj'san]

wajsdIJ saxonji [waj'?dIJSa'\'dncte] wajaxa [wa'dzpva]

wajom buxo [wa'dzam'buvo] wako [wak''a]

wakson [wax'son]

walim jo [welintso] (imp.) walim [we'lim]

walxi [wd'yi]

walxim [vd'yrm]

warn ['wam] wanrjkim [wt:IJ'IJkhim] wasom [wa'zam]

wassn Jim [wa'zsntcim]

wasaxa [(?un)wa'2j_dYA] wasbo [wazbo] (imp.) wasks ['wa?khA]

wasko kitaxa ['wa?kh_l\khi'thaYA] waskalam [wa?'khdlAm]

waxun [wa'yun]

wa [Wd]

wa niIJIJd ['wdniIJIJA]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 103

smell (vi.) tfi%JL wa bi

sweet smelling wa

flour ufa

grind gil' ufa gidmbi draw, ladle, drain llli


lose -;& waliyabumbi

nephew ina( < Chin.)



ina srgan jui

finish ;(;'Ufr.;it:5R, end Jc/tti:5R wajimbi

accomplish JcJJY: wajime bumbi

not, no


frog Ihl, tree frog wak-


return @J3i<: waliyame jimbi

throw waliyambi

east ?j~ wargi

bathe in the sun fiillj wal-


kill wambi

smell (vt.) 1'!1'J wangldyambi go down, climb down -F,

rain (v.) T, foggy T/~ wasimbi

come down, scend T31t set (sun -)

go down, dewasime jimbi wasimbi

bring down JfPT wasibumbi paw J!\ -T wasiha

claw J!\tifrEj" wasiha hitahiin

scratch wasihalambi

hoof R}''i-T wahan

who we

whose i'&B~ we ningge

job, work, task IfF weile [welivarei'nin] workday IfF [I weile weilere

104 Materials of Spoken Manchu

wdci ['vejtphe]

wdci boksun [wejtc+ipok'sun] wdcikd ['vdt?hikh/i_]

wojli [vojle]

wajlo wojli inin

wojli wojlim [wejilovelim] wojxa ['VdjYAJ

wojxma [wev'ma]

wolim [wej'lim]

wali [vejle] (imp.) walxo ['walvo] wamburn [wam'bum] woncam [oon'tssam]

woncala jake [wdn't?hal(A)'t?aXAJ wonco [wan'ts-o J

wonco [wdn't2ho ] wanduxo [wan'duvo] wanin [wejjiin]

wantukun [wants'ksun] waxo ['WdYAJ

waxs fdliIJ [wavfej'lin] waxs usa [Wdy'UZO J WdXd ['VdYd J

wikun [wi'k=un]

wincikin [wintc-i'k-in] wingaj [wirj'ga]

wingaj jali [win'vcjele] winko [wink hO ]

wiskin [vis'k-in] wixun [wi'yunJ

door n uce

threshold n:lje uce bokson God :fltl fucihi


labor weile weilembi

tooth )ft!~ weihe

teethridge )fL4R weihe uman remain, stay m werimbi leave 111r werimbi


bury umbumbi

sell uncamhi

goods ['iiI 1f!1 uncara jaka

wide 'Dt area, dimensions 'D~ onco

area, dimensions ~J§t onco

board untehen

firm lifH ~ un-



empty, vacant 3:": untuhun stone :fi =* wehe

lime Fb-z wehe fulenggi gravel :fi:=-f JL wehe use

melt wembi

light 4"1': weihuken tail J% E uncehen

pig ulgiyan

pork ~jl'f p!;J ulgiyan yali pole, bar, stick, stalk, rod

.::F welmiyeku

moist ~iIT:, dump alive if:i weihun


Xacikim [xajtphi'khimJ xacin dulun [xa.i't,;;!1intu'lun] xadola [Xa'ddlA]

xadam [xa'dam]

xadam [xa'ddm]

xadaxan [xadi'gdnJ

xado [xa'do]

xafan [xa'van +xa'wan]

xajlin [Xaj'lin]

xajlin fakcixa [xaj'lin fak'tphiydJ xajlin galxon [xt:'linqal'lfdnJ xajlin notko [Xt:'lin'notqhoJ

xajsa ['xaj2i_A] xala ['xalA]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 105

suggest 7-j] hacihiyambi various :ftfffPl-{§-:frf hacin durun

bit hadala

nail (v.) JJ hadambi mow jitu hadumbi

nail, spike JJ.::F hadambi sickle $)jUJ hadufun

officer bers

, the leading memhafan

tree hailan

wither f~~ hailan fakcambi

branch hailan gargan

bark tlj&: notho

eggplant 1JP.::F hasi

last name fr:t hala

xala mokun [xa'ldmmo'khunJ clan Ef:lj}( hala mukiin

xalam [xa'ldmJ hot 1Jk halambi

xali ['xajlr] bend corrupted ili hari

xali sukaj ixan ['xajI2u'khajiyanJ bull with crooked hom ilim 4 hari - ihan

xalxun [Xal'lfunJ

xalxun ixan sun [Xal'lfUlli'yansun]

xalxun muko [xal'lfUllmu'khoJ xalxun oxo [xal'sunu'vo]

xam [x am]

xamtom [xam'thdm] xanci ['xantphI]

xan joxon [xant20'yon]

xanci jixa [xantphi'tpiYA] xancjakon [xan'tphjakhdnJ

heat 1t~, hot (weather) ~, warm PiH~ halhiin

bake milk 1:i~4-WJ halhim ihan


hot water 1:i~* halhfin muke

heat halhun ombi

amount to ~:ij)E hamimbi defecate ill hamtambi

near :l!I, familiar *$ hand short way jlIj!t/~12: hand


approach t~:l!I hand jimbi vicinity :l!I~, the latest date ~:l!I hancikan

106 Materials of Spoken Manchu

xanda ['xanQI\] xarjkoxa [XalJ'khdYA] xasso ['XassA]

xas dxi [xa8ej'ye]

rice plant :f~::T- handu thirsty ~i:ib kangkambi left .ti hashii

left [T_Jti., to the left 1iti hashii ergi

on the left tEtii!1 hashii ergi scissors Y, tongs 't'IIY ha-


scissor (v.) hasalambi

belt hata

tie up ~ hiiwaitambi

rapid stream hatan eyeme


weave (basket) bind, fas-

ten salty pinch ;;J{ hafirambi son JL::j'"- haha jui

daughter in law urun

boy haha jui juse

male haha

he-goat i~ ILl c'i"-, billy goat :f'I' iLl :'1': haha niman, kiica

man haha

male camel i~Y;t, bull camel

haha tern en stammering r:J f1Z; hele circle ~I

cough (v.) keng

fate tiJili/ili!~, life ttJfiJ hesebun

unlucky j~~/F~t hesebun, akii

lucky :":Sili/ili~!it hesebun sajn

horizontal hetu

xas oxid bijo [Xa8ej'yedbje] xasko ['XaskhA]

xaskolem [xas'khdLun] xate ['XathA]

xatolam [xa'thdLun]

xaton ojil muko [xa't-arjajilmu'k-o]

xatim [xaj'thim]

xatkun [Xath'khun] xawilarn [xaj'wilim] xaxaJi [xa':r:sacte]

xaxaJi ulun [xa':r:sactiu'lun] xaxaji usa ['xa:r:sa'dz;_uza] xaxo [XaYA]

xax nima [XaYJ1i'ma]

xax njamo [xayj1amA] xax taman [xaythd'mdn]

xala [,XdlA]

xalan [xc'lan] xorjkam [XdIJ'khdm] xassxun [xoz'vun]

xasoxun dali ako [xazi'yun'tajlrakso] xesoxun sajn [xazi'vunsajn] xato ['XdthA]

xot boksun [xatpok'sun] xawusom [xawu'zam]

xaxa ['xava]

XdX nima [XdYJ1i'ma]

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 107

lintel fltFs/fl* hetu bokson count .g-i§l-, consult iB.f hebesembi

wife ~'j- hehe

she-goat ,'[if LiJ $/-HJ


niman, giica

XdX njam dJdn [xayjiama'dzpn] hostess iJ:.±_A hehe niyalma ejen

XdX njamo [XdIJ'njaIDA]

XdX taman [xdythd'mdn] XdX xoni [xdy'xoJ1e] xaxa gaixa [xdy'gajyd]

xo [xo]

xocin [xo'tcsin] xodun [xo'dun]

xodun manda [xo'dun man'da] xolam [xo'lam]

xolal Jilxan [xo'laltcil'van] xolam ilbu [xo'lamil'bu]

xolxun [xol'yun] xoli ['xole]

xoli ['xole] xolxin [xol'yin] xomo ['xomo] xomso ['xomzo]

xomso oxo ['xomzooyo]

xoni ['XOJ1I]

xoni molam [mo'lam]

xoni dowulo ['xonto'wuIA] xoni fonnixa ['xopifdJ1j1iYA] xoni jali [xonijde]

woman iJ:.A, womenfolk ~3iJ:.

hehe niyalma

female camel -HJ¥t hohe temen ewe n~Jf$/-HJ,* hehe honin, buca marry a woman ~~/~~MiIi

hehe gaimbi

glue hii

well fr hiicin

fast 'tiC, quickly tiC hiidun speed :i8&/'r:p:'I~ hiidun, manda call p~, cry (animal) Il~, read

i.~, shout I~ hiilambi

war hoop rY~F hiilara jilgan wake up f1~-Jtr,* xolame ili-


husband 1:* holbon wound 19] koro

false, fake 113Z holo stupid ~~ hiilhi

feces EiUjeG2: hamu fajan little j?, rare ffjjj? komso decrease iji£j? komso ombi sheep ~$ honin

bleat n~ murambi

lamb ~$~ honin deberen wool $ =:: honin i funiyehe mutton $ r:i:] honi yali

108 Materials of Spoken Manchu

xoni sind a niIJIJa shepherd honin

['Xo]1i2in'daJriIJIJaJ sindara ningge

xoni sok tuxin [xonjsoyt-y'vin] sheepskin belt ~r"·&cIiT honin suku telgin

xoni sun [xonisun] xoso ['xo:z;_o]

xosum [xo'zum] xosxun [Xo~-yunJ

xoto ['xothoJ

xot nim [Xot]1imJ xotuli [Xo'thuleJ xotun [xo'thunJ

ewe's milk $}iJ'J honin sun corner J¥JJL, angle fij hose roll ~ hoosambi

son in law ::9::!ti'f/!JilJiT hojihon head -3k; xoto

headache -3k;1f~ hoto nimeku

happy, fortunate huturi

city 1J£1'11 /~~I'lJ, castle ljjQ ho-


garden 8iim hiiwa

price huda

beggar :f-cr giohoto cheapfjtJB: hilda ja

chimney J:rtlii'iVJ:mlZl hiilan thief ~!}_Qiir';j5_ffi%t, pilferer !J-fil-n-


xua xalan [Xuaxd'ldn] xuda [xu'da]

xuda gjoto [xu'da'kjothoJ xuda ja [xu'dat:?aJ

xulan [xu'lanJ

xulxa [xul'I:fa]



xulxam [Xul'yam]

xulxam taam [xol'yamtham] xunciko ['xunUphikhA]

xuntkan [xunt'khan]

xusalim [xu'zelrm]

scout 1Htr'fJ hiilhame tuwambi relatives %€ )~/;~j€ lJ&: huncihin wine cup ¥j1)j¥f huntahan change jy!;, instead 1-~~ huyu-

sembi, hulasambi

get split huwajambi

paper i~ hoosan

xwajixo [Xwa'ctiyd] xwasan [XWa':Z;_dn]

[arngi'lin] [jaba] [kao'lin] [khdIJdzi:] [kbwa'dazx] [ljents=ao"]

certainly -JE

dumb person IhJE E kaoliang i¥.:i~ti: SUSU puddle :1;'[

pocket, bag j:]:r;,~

one's wife's younger sister

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 109


['lydza] ['pientou] [phdIJ]

['sajdsi] [sox'thjaodza] ['thajje] ['thaj'nam:] [Uphin'd:z;_o] [Uphy'ddIJr] [tsi'dza"] [tsinja'] [tso'lun] [tehUaI]]

complex 1.[:i'i\; largin ass, donkey ~F

bean pod



strap &UJ':)L great-grandfather ~tR:X. great-grandmother ~tJII:±j:

red pepper halhiiri

matches j(~~

nephew fs P


skull PJl:!']§f

syphilis tit

110 Materials of Spoken Manchu


abdomen kowula
abort, miscarry aJi bja
above oji da
abstain jobkalam
abuse tom
accomplish wajom buxo
acquaintance takol njama
add nUlJxo
address bana
adopt banjixo xaxaJi takClm
adult amba njamo
advance dose (imp.)
advance, go forward julbjo jaam
adz bon
afraid of (be ... ) galam
after this (that) time amola
after this, from now on Clid ci amala
afternoon jamJiskon
again gClICl
age Scl, Scl ton
aggregate xawsam
aggrieved (feel ... ) fancixo
ahead nansm
air suxdun
alcoholic drink alki
alive wixun
all bolokun
all kinds of gem
all right, OK ornja
alone ornxun
already Clm gilin Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 111

altar always amount to

amount (of quantity) ancestor



angler (of fish) anger

angry (get ... ) animal

female animal ankle

annually, every year answer (v.)


approach approximately


area (of dimensions) arm




shoot an arrow arrowhead

as if (a king) ascend ashamed ashes

ask (of a question) attack in the night August


maternal aunt

sandam jilxa xam ton

onnulo saxdasa fanin


paijto nimaxa Jili

jili banjixs assClI jake unja

batk onda ani dali

gisol bo (imp.) jolxo

xanci JiXCl amba mulo dujn bja wonco

gal malin

duj Clxin innaxa


bali njulo tatam, njul tatam njul xoto

dgClCi (ClJdn) adili taam, tafum giciko

darnxu fCllilJ fonjim

dowuli tan dam jakun bja uxuma


112 Materials of Spoken Manchu

autumn avalanche avoid

awl, gimlet axe


nimin fakcixa jalim



baby back back

at one's back backbone backward


badger, racoon dog bag





bark (of a tree) barley


wash basin bathe

bathe in the sun battle









ajinin, aJiniIJIJ;::J amxida

dal malin

dal arnxi

dal giljan

amxi bali



sok boxun cus mo dalon

barks fulakon indaxo sajm bijo xajlin notko muso


dala owulu fancka owussam



aIJIJ;::J tuli banjim solo

bjarjgom ulxa sakon talda saktom dajsanin ixan jali

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 113




behind believe




bend beneficial bent, crooked

berry (a kind of ... ) better




ten billions bind, fasten bird

young bird birthday



bitter (a little ... ) black

blade, edge bleat



block, lump, mass blood




indigo blue


xuda gjoto dolbom, ajkam amxi





dala goxulxo sajn ba



gjak sajn sixdan sajmjo

Jwan tumon tuman tan rumen rumen xatim



banjixo inin



majixa goskun jaein

kus jojin xoni molarn cuciy;::J







sumin pjolan boco

114 Materials of Spoken Manchu

sky blue board body


boil (of a hot object) boil slightly

boiled (be ... )

bold, fearless bone


booty, game
born (be ... )
break off
breast (woman's ... )
breathe in
bride bridle

bright (of brightness)

pjolan boco wanduxo bdjd

bujum xaldm silixam ulum




awulam bax jaka banjim bija jomjo







xaxaji usa


xajlin galxan kila

bilam miJibuxo

am alds bud a tOIJIJun



algen gam tatdm

dowul banjim ici ulun



Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 115


bring down bring up, rear broken (be ... )

broken down (be ... ) bronze



brothers of one's husband brother and sister

elder brother

elder brother's wife father's elder brother

gaJd (imp.) wasbo (imp.) uJim

owuJim mijibuxa owuJibuxo njorpjun rosin olko


agamxs agel nun agd



one's wife's brother agamxe

younger brother dou

younger brother and younger sister dou nun

brush for writing foji

brush suwase

buckwheat mala

bud ilxa gudol

build bull

bull with crooked horn bull with one horn bullet










buka ixan, swajin ixan xali sukaj ixan

amka sukaj ixan muxali







swaji nimin udam

116 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Calculate calf


calm down, feel easy camel

bull camel female camel male camel young camel

can cannon capital

careful (be ... ) caress


carp (golden ... ) carriage

carry, bear

carry on the shoulder cart








cattle dung






celebrate a new year

tolum toksan xolam

gunin sindam taman

xax taman xax taman xax taman taman dowulo mutum


gimu kacan jobkalo (imp.) Jilakan mujuxo oIJIJuJwa



mixalam molin saJan ne jixs




alin kacko jaamje, jawum dwale

ixan fajsn


amba micin jalin

molin jolul cowa faji

anjaloma, ani alam

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 117


certain (lit. one exists.) chaff



character, letter




cherry (a kind of ... ) chew








chop with an axe chopsticks cigarette

circle circumference

dulin, dolim ba amka bijo

ala, nalxun ala uculi





dal fulcin


njanim solxo coko

aji usa xulan

sancka duwa usun siIJIJala sonjim sacam


damxa muxuli suldum xotun

xala mokun wasko

ijim bjoxun bolxun



giIJ IJ an





clean (a.)
clean (v.) clear, clean clear, evident cleaver

close one's eyes cloth


118 Materials of Spoken Manchu

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 119

corpse corral

correct (be ... )


ja otuku



tulxun abko molin sClJCln amil coko sawulo, saxulo uljixc



tini marna iJim


wasom Jim cucim Jiy;:) cucim jo (imp.) tudam

dowul kowulaxo aJi xaxo




daxamo ajkam ;:)f;:)n

soxo alam fusko salkun tosin

fulxajn tojsin ax SUScl


bicixs njam boja xalan


corrupted cotton cough (v.) cough (n.) count country couple cousin cover

cover up cow

milch cow milk a cow crawl creature


cross, go over crotch, coxa crow


cry (of animal) cry (of man) cucumber cultivated land cure, heal cushion


cut (of hair)

cut (of the rope) cut off (be ... ) cute

xali kuxun x;:)IJ kern fucikjan bodum gulun dxin XdXd

gusu age do, gusu g;:)gd nun duxo



sun cucila ixan silim


banjixa jake

usun da talixonin J aka dulum








nimkun dasom aJi sistko fulum


tatam lakcibo lakcixo

sakon talda

fur clothes lined clothes cloud


cloudy weather coach




collect, gather color

colostrum, foremilk comb


come down come out come out

compensate conceive(animal) concubine connect


continue continued (be ... ) cookie


cooking fireplace cool


red copper corn


dad dark

ama falxun

120 Materials of Spoken Manchu

dark (grow ... ) date


adopted daughter first daughter

last daughter second daughter

daughter-in-law Daur

dawn, break day

day lily

first day of the month first ten days of a month last ten days of a month one day

other day (the ... ) three days ago

daytime dead

deaf death December decrease deep defeat

defeated (be ... ) defecate



deprive, rob descend

descendant, offspring desire


Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 121

sitaxa iniij tun saxonji

gan saxon]i amba saxsnji fj8IJ saxonji JaCi saxanji xaaji ulun daxul njam salam


swajin ilxa fux]i inirj

oji (n) dolin bja fsxi dolin bja am inin duluxonirpjs inirj amba cjaniIJIJa inin, inimja bicixa njams duto


la bja

xomso oxo sumin

gwajbuxo gwajbuxo xamtam




was am

omul juss

cj 8IJIJ a

bit dalan

despise destroy dew diarrhea die different dig dinner dip up dirty

discharge, spout out dish towel







divide into two do

Do like that Do like this doctor




don't (of verb) done (be ... ) door




draw (of picture) drawing


aJixin tam owuJibuxo siliI]

dolxo assam bicim

am adili ako f;)tam

jamJi buda tandem najtkun

mjocjon tandam mawulun

Ci ako



dandaxa dsndam

muko xolo

dulin donda (imp.) ganlom

tasaxa ala (imp.) ;)s;)xa ala (imp.) sjensan


aJi indaxo awil ajinin ama


waCi kucko

foskun, faxi bali muduli




122 Materials of Spoken Manchu

dream (of a dream) drink (of milk) drive







wild duck dugout dump

dust dustcloth dye



om (imp.) bassm tunnam julun


tonkun, imcin olxun

njoxa, bo njoxa njaxs



bulaki mawulun


swajin xoni

eagle ear

ear of grain early

earn earthworm east




edge, border

comon san sujixe am aldo falsorn bate walxi


jam, jawa (imp.) jakada





Jwan jakun jaka

jwan mu

egg eggplant eight

eighteen eighty eleven

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 123

eleventh elm

else, other emperor empty, vacant end

enemy enjoyment

enough, full (be ... ) enter, get into entertain


errand boy


evaporate, steam evening

this evening Evenki everyday everywhere ewe

exact (be ... ) exit, way out expel expensive explain


one-eye eyeball eyebrow eyelash

jwan amu micel xalin gwa niij aJan wantukun wajoxo kimon njam cjal]IJa


dossm jo (imp.) in jim ojlm

dosul ba

amko njama suJim



;miIJ jarn]i nUIJxo

inin dali baba

xax xoni asnam cucila ba basam mal]

gatkun gisolam jasa

am jass jaso faxe jase fatan jasa fatan

face fail

dala gwajbuxo

124 Materials of Spoken Manchu

axdun dom

amalo sitam dudum baxam tunnaxo


fifteen fifth fifty fight fill find

fine-toothed bamboo comb finger


fire (n.)

fire place fire (v.)

make fire firewood firm

first name first


small bones of a fish fish up


fishing net

fishing -line













faith fall

fall behind fall down fall ill

fallen (be ... ) false, fake fame

familiar family

farmer's family famous


stock farmer fart (n.)

fart (v.)






father and son foster father father-in-law fathom







feverish (be ... ) field

dry field sandy field

gows xanci bo,

usun talil bo gowu bi

us un talil njam

ixan malin uJil njams fjo



buda Jdbl ako oxo talxun



ama JUSd ujixo arne amgd


CjaIJIJd gdldm fonixa

JWd bja xomo, fajan ulbum



olxun usun jOIJIJa usun

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 125

tokun sunJa susaj talnam

jalo towuxo sawaxa molxan

gal sUIJIJun wajaxa jaxd


jaxs jolum







nimax xaxa nimaxu wijim nimaxs buta niIJIJa OSd

nirnaxa wolixe niIJ sijin nimaxo wolixa nin wirjko kento






amba muko jilxe

wa ojim ilxa

126 Materials of Spoken Manchu

fly (v.) fly


foggy (be ... ) follow




for oneself force, make forehead foreign country foreigner forenoon



former days forth

fortieth fortunate











tree frog front

fruit (v.) fuel

full (be ... )

dojim duluxo molin daxan wasdm daxomc Jdbl jake marian


boj jalin da takulum sirpjon

tulxi gulun

tulxi gulun njamo dm dldd








julxi bali dujn Jwan din dowa gdcim icikan guco bikun wakson wakson julxi

jake banjixo diJil Jab ofixo

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 127

funny fur

fur coat fur hat further future

inJibum fonixa soko

fsnixa soko tulxi otuku fanix sok maxoli



gain gallbladder gambling game, play garden garlic


gelding, castrated horse generous (be ... )

gentle, tender


get drunk (get ... ) gills




glad, pleased glance at glimmer glitter





dtiXd silxa

jixa ojim dfim

xua xslan sunda

amba waci aktalo molin giljamo


WdnilJ soktoxa sdlJlJdld


saxonji usa bum

ulxun sawsxa

talkin golman talman cucim gala katal nilJlJd xo

gudum, fdjd tandem jomjo

dulum, uwalim dulum bodalam

wason Jim

go across go back

go down, descend

128 Materials of Spoken Manchu


billy goat he-goat she-goat

goblin God gold good

good morning goods


wild goose gourd granddaughter grandfather

maternal grandfather grandmother

maternal grandmother grandson






Great Bear great-granddaughter great -grandson


green onion greet


grow (vi.) grow (vt.) gruel, porridge guest


xax nima

xax nima

xox nima

aji kuto onduli, waciko ajsin


buda jak no wancalo jake njunnjaxa njunnjaxo lz;:)IJk;:)

omul saxanji jeje

gol j;:)j;:) najnaj mama omulo olxo jalma woxa uso folin boco s;:)ndam naska

domul saxan]i domulo njomjan


sajn wanjim wa gidam banJim talim

ujon bud a ajtko

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 129


shoot a gun gunpowder


mjocojn tandarn okto

hail hair

half hammer Han race hand

back of hand

bondo fanixa ;:)m dulin


nikan njamo gale

gal mojin laskam xoturi jadalo gulmaxo baxo jake s;:)jim


gjoxun olxun olxo t;:)l;:)

ujo, xoto xot nim rnaxali

bej sajn muxalim dunjixa njamon xalxun xalxun oxo ujon

bat fatan daniici bicil gulun

hang up, hook
heap up
heat (n.)
heat (v.)
hell 130 Materials of Spoken Manchu

help hemp hen

herd, flock

herd of horses here

here (direction) here and there hero



hide oneself high


his (n.) hit

hit a target hoe

ajsalam sisali

amil coko adan

molin adan owu



kila njamo tslojnin mieim

jalim, ukaboxo dan


talojnin tandem tandem baxo sasku

hold (something) in one's mouth osum home bo da

sadun adi sun sisoba

one's old home honey



hook (for fishing) horizontal





hot (of taste) hot (of weather)

hot water hour

an hour


nima goxun xata



nimkun tal ba xax njam ajan goskun


xalxun muko alin

amks alin

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 131

half an hour house

front of a house how



three hundreds two hundreds hungry





dulin alin bo

bo julxi adolmen tiwslim



jwa tan jadulum awulom awula njama oksaim

oxin, xolxun

husband of a girl's elder sister's OWd

husband of a maternal aunt nakco

husband of a paternal aunt guje

one's sister's husband




jugo banxun jil xatsn lodo oxo danalko ajixin

joxon jawal cowa alam






sakan efil do duxa

ice idle

impatient, quick-tempered increase





inner part



into the inside insufficient interesting intestines, bowels

132 Materials of Spoken Manchu

large intestine small intestine invite


amba duxa aji duxa solim


January jar


job, work, task joke



jump over June

just now

ani bja budun, 31JlJa1a sanckd


inci dalbom nadon bja fokcim daam njumjun bja tini


keep on living kerchief












hunting knife know

know how to Korean


inirj banjim fsnko


antlm foskalam nima dowulo bosko


am mokun aJan

buda alal ba toijgajn

kuso, aji kuso kuso



gaoli njama

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 133


molin sun alki

labor lack lad lamb lamp land

land owner large

very large last

last name late




leader, chief leading members leaf

leak out lean against learn leather

leather garment leave (vi.)

leave (vt.)

leave out

left (be ... over) left over (be ... )

leek blossom wild leek left

on the left

wojli wojlim adan

askan njam xoni dowula dalJJin


bajin njam amba

gjak amba amassi amxido xala

sitam xancjakon inJim


julxi j a wunirpj a xawan






soko otuku jawoxs

wali (imp.) fakes (imp.) lodo oxo fancim samkal ilxa samkola

xassa, xas oxi xas axid

134 Materials of Spoken Manchu

to the left leg





let ( ... go) letter




light (of weight) light (v.) lightning

lightning stroke like






lower lip upper lip listen


very little little while live

liver livestock living place lock

locker locust


xas axi bstka

solo bisils alin jom gam golmin

foskun tala sandam jasixan

dudum xasaxun

aldan, tolman wikun





gale bctkc waxa falil]


xot boksun aJ]fan

foxi anfon oji anfan dunJim xomso

amassi xomso dalti

bim, inin banJim faxun

bode ujixc Jab bo





long (of length) long (of time) look

look down loose

lose (in a battle) lose (of a thing)

lost (get ... ) louse

love (v.)


low, short lucky

lunatic (be ... ) lunch


mad (go ... ) maggot magpie




make a hand gesture make efforts

make stand


male (of animal) mammy


man who raises cattle/cowboy man who raises horses

old man

old man

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 135


sajn gwajidaxo tam

aJixin taam sula gwajbuxo wajlbuxa

joxon tajsalbuxo cLxa




xasexun sajn faI]salaxa

inin bail buda ufk:o

faI]salaxa ija saxsaxa saxonji

askan saxanji alam

gallaskom kusun bajtalim ilibu (imp.) xax njamo buka



ixan smda nujna molin sinda nirpja saxda njamo

saxda tajtaj

136 Materials of Spoken Manchu

young man Manchu mane

many, much how many

how many, how much March





master, host





boiled dried meat dried meat

fried boiled meat half-cooked meat raw meat

roe meat

tough meat


meet, receive melt memorize mend, repair mend, stitch merchant middle

middle-aged midnight


bake milk

askan njamo manjju njamo dolan fonixa lodo


aisa lodo ilan bja molin

jak wancal ba ulun gajxa ljofkan




sunja bja


olxun uluxo jali olxun jali

dijixo jali

dulin uluxs jali ulu alz jali

gjo jali

man jali

acoxa, dal sawaxc alina (imp.)





majmaj alom njam dulin dd

askon njam

dowul dulin

sun, marna sun xalxun ixan sun

ewe's milk mare's milk raw milk


hundred millions ten millions mind, heart minute (one ... ) mirror

miserly, stingy mistaken mitten

mix, blend mixed (get ... ) moist

monarch, sovereign money

pay money Mongol Mongolian monkey monster month

month (a half ... ) last month

next month

this month

moo moon

full moon

new moon, crescent moon more


every morning this morning

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 137

xoni sun molin sun ici sun

am tan tumsn dm turnan turnan dm minna turnan gunin

dm fan alin bulko

ajixin asinako

sunnun dandolku nin sajlda (imp.)





jixa bum morpjolo mOI] njamo monjo

dXd jaka bja

toko inin oji bja foskun bja alam bja molam


bja muxuri oxo bja adan oxo oji tdld

am olda

inirj dali dm olda onin am dldd

138 Materials of Spoken Manchu

mosquito mother

foster mother mother-in-law mountain mountain ridge mountain top mouse

moustache mouth move (vi.) move (vt.)

move, change one's residence move, transfer









nail (v.) nail

nail, spike name

namely, that is narrow

nation, people navel




galma ;:mjd

ujixa dnjd

nearly forty nearly thirty nearly twenty

neck need needle

big needle thread a needle neglect, be idle neigh neighborhood nephew




nice, sympathetic niece


at night one night

nightly, every evening nine








blow one's nose not

not good

not well salted notice



alin mankan makam uju silJlJdld




tukim assibo (imp.) bo gulim

tukim assbo


ljofkan bjoxun laJan



xoni jali mjocjan alJlJd minin, minimja

xadom kitaxa xaddxdn

gswu utka dId iskalo

bajlin njama ulunsan xanci

dalba da


Appendix 1: Items in. Questionnaire 139

dix xamo gosun xama olin xama gando bajmjo


amba umo umo takam banxun







sakan talda wajsdlJ saxsnji dowula


am dowuli inindali jamji ujin

Jwan ujin ujin

wake basinam

inin, inin bali anxi


fjdlJ silim


dali ako nitan jobkalom dmds xanci

140 Materials of Spoken Manchu

nude, bare number numeral


obey occupation October off-day officer


lamp oil

oil cup for lamp old (of a thing) old (of man)



one by one one third open

opened oppose




in the outside to the outside overflow overtake


painful (be ... ) pair

one pair

fjoko ton ton

man rna xajlin daxom

aj ganlaninns Jwan bja dlxdld inin xafon


ddIJJin nimin dorjjin



dm rnadan omka, amu

am njam omka ilan fan amka nim (imp.) nixe


dolxun mOniIJIJd






da ixan

nim Julo

am julo

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 141

palm paper parents

parents and children pass, go by












short period permeate person

another person one person lame person three persons

pharynx pheasant pick

pick up pickerel pier pierce


piled up (be ... ) pilferer



gaxulun xwason dil ama

ama dnjd xaxaJi saxanji dulum



njunkun njama waska



gim kdcdn suma njamsa dgdci


fjoxulo dlin foskun wasom njamd

gwa njama omka njamo doxulo

ila njamo bilxa ulxama

fatam, soxulem sonJim

indaxo nimaxs cuan tao 1 ba cokum

ulgjan, wingaj JdJin tapo xulxa



142 Materials of Spoken Manchu

pinch pine tree pink pistol pity place plain plane plant plant play

pleased (be ... ) plow (n.)

plow (v.)


point out point, tip, end poke

pole, bar, rod poor

poor, pitiful poplar

pork post-card pot

potatoes pound

pour poverty power

pray precede

pregnant (become ... ) prepare

present (of time)

xawilam ismo

fulxjsn boca aji mjocjon jilakon

ba na, gada



talil Jab













jaulun xajlin wingaj jali gatukun J asixan micin







julxid jaam ji bdjd oxo bolxam


present (v.) preserve press

pretty, beautiful previous day prey


probably, perhaps property

prostrate oneself public affairs

pull (of sheep) pull out







put a ring on put in

put in order, tidy up


quarter, one fourth quickly



railroad station railway

rain (v.)



Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 143

jak banem asalam gidam gjak sajn siska dunda xuda


bo naxan J aka dudum

alban bajti kutulum



jasa kuntkan amCdm



sdndam, sindam, tam katam




dujn fan amka xodun



kjoman sal joxon waJdm axd


144 Materials of Spoken Manchu


rapid stream rare



raw stuff razor



receive recover


red-bean reduce



rein(s) relatives remain, stay remember remind remnant resemble, like rest





rice plant boiled rice fried rice


rich man ride

riding horse

buka xoni

xatan ojil muko xomso




ujo fusul kuso xolam



nimkun sain oxo fulxajn

fulxajn biendo majixo fjoxulo ajko wdlxo

ba na





goinam baxa foncixanin 21m adili alxam

amal sosulum

tudam, walim jo (imp.) dbCCl




caoluxa bola


bain njama jolum

jolU__1TI takol molin

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 145


right (of direction) on the right

to the right right

right now ripe

rise (sun ... ) river riverside rivulet

roe deer





rot (be ... ) rough round


golmin mjocjon ici, ici dxi

ici axid

iCi oxi






bila Jaka aji bila



bo oji

da, fulxo amba futa njaxo mwan muxuli fum

suJim sujim cuci-


rush out


sad (be ... ) saddle saddle-girth safe sagebrush salt



sand satirize

olbixa akdm dmdIJ molin xats tajwon

21m soxo dabsun xatkun

21m adili jOIJIJa bosum

146 Materials of Spoken Manchu Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 147
satisfied (be ... ) cjaI] oxo seven nadan
saw fjatko seventeen jwan nadan
say gisalom seventy nan jwan
scar bala sever bilam lakcibo
school bit xolal ba sew ifam
scissor (v.) xaskalam sewing umo tOIJ
scissors (n.) xaska shadow kalmuko
scold sim gisslam shake laskom
scoop wadim shallow micikin
scout xulxam taam shaman saman
scrap, rubbish fdliIJ shank aji batko
scratch waskslam shape dulun
screen (v.) dasom sharp duxo
scythe golmin xado sharpen lokam
search for bajm shave suasolam
season dlin she tdld
dry season kja alin sheep xoni
rainy season axalo alin shear sheep suasolam
second jaj, JWd shepherd xoni sinda niIJIJa
secretly olginimje shin aji batka
see sawoxe ship cwan
see off bcnom jaam shoes sawa
seed USd shoot tatdm
seek bajxa shop majmaj bo
seek for bajm short fjoxulo
seemingly gdskd shoulder malin
seize jaws shout xolam
sell wancam shout loudly sulum
send banam show tabu (imp.)
separate dondam shrink ajixin bal ajko
September ujin bja shrug dogsom
servant takul njamo shut dasam
maid servant takul njama Siberian millet juk bela
serve, treat oxdum sickle xado
set (sun ... ) wasoxa sickness nimkun 148 Materials of Spoken Manchu

side dishes side

both sides

one side, one party that side

side, near signature silver similar sincere sinew sing

single-log bridge sister

elder sister

one's husband's sister younger sister

sit, sit down

sit on one's knees six







sleepy (get ... ) slice, mince slim, slender slip

slip on, throw on slippers




soxo Jaka JWd axi am dxi tal dxi dalba

gowu ala (imp.) mOIJIJun

lodo tasilbuxo nOIJxun



amka mo cjao gdXd nun




tijs (imp.) njakulo nUIJIJun

jwan nUIJIJun nin





anxu saxulum kamkam najlxun

gontul oxo molim

talol sawa njolkun njolkun manda

slowly small, little

very small smallpox smart

smell (n.)

sweet smell smell (v.) smile

smoke (n.) smoke (v.) smooth





snow (n.) snow Cv.) snowstorm


sober (get ... ) soft



sole of foot solid

some someone something sometimes somewhat son

adopted son father and son first son

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 149

alxi ajixin

dmdssi ajixin ilxa


wa, wa bi wa ga

wan IJ kim injirn sjamjan omo (imp.) njolkun mixa bosum


tandem nimirj tuxuxa odun nimiij tasag



bjuxun cowa, cuxa bat falan maIJ

am majiksn njam bi

aj bi




gan xaxaJi amd JUSd amba xaxaJi

150 Materials of Spoken Manchu

last son second son son in law

song soot sound soup sour south sow

span sparrow speech speed spill spine spirit spit (n.) spit (v.)

split (get ... ) spoil

spring sprinkle squint squirrel


stallion stammering stand up







fjaIJ xaxaJi Jdci xaxaJi xosxun ucun

micin sjamjon Jilgan





am to

sinnan cicikd gison

xodun manda ojim

dal mejli giljan kuto



xwajixa owujibuxo ninnilo


jasa xali

iso siIJIJdld najtkun obuxo ajilxan




jaam gem jadulum bajbim xulxam tuko

step on stepdaughter stepfather stepmother steppe

stepson stinking

stock farm stomach



store storehouse storm, tempest straight

straw mat straw rope street



stretch (out) string



strong, solid struggle (v.) student


stupid substitute






Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 151


ujixa saxanji amalo ama amola dnjd olxu ala ujixa xaxaJi njaxa wa






kat bo

amba odun

ton do, tondokun olxu dilxa

olxu futa


ujsn rnarj

golmin tate (imp.) sanim












goskun jam satan xacikim

152 Materials of Spoken Manchu


suitable (be ... ) suitable





surprised (be ... ) surround surround, enclose swallow

sweat (n.)

sweat (v.)






table tail take

take (sb) with take away

take (of medicine) take (of time) take off

take out

take pains take, get tale



taste (n.)

bej waxanin asnam


jwali nUIJIJun


gidam, gida bum gslbuvo









owussom, owussum loxo

taste (v.) tasteless

tasty, delicious tea




tear (n.)

tear (v.)


teat, nipple teethridge

temper (of a metal) temporary



tenth testicle tether thank that is that

like that thaw theirs there

there is

there is not these (ones) they (f.)

they (m.)

thick (of soup, paste) thick, big


dalan wincikin jaam, jawum gamam

game (imp.) jdWd (imp.) gwajdam

so, tatem gajsu (imp.) gam euCi bo




gison gisalam ddn


Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 153

jam ta (imp.) jdedl dali ako jdedl sajn




ca molo jaso muko tatarn oxuls lajdon marna u]o wojxma tandem

na ajkam jwan

golmin inin jamun dd wojlo

wojlinirpj» jwan


jalbon banika



tasaxo niIJIJd juxu fakcixa tosonin towuda bimbi


asa tasa tasa tumin mwan xulxa

154 Materials of Spoken Manchu

thigh thill thin thing

those things think


thirsty thirteen thirtieth thirty


like this thorn thousand

ten thousands three thousands two thousands


three threshold throat

throw thunder (n.) thunder (v.) tie up



tighten timber, wood

roof timber time

in time (be ... ) three times time

suxsaxs s;:)J;:)n sa nikili, tulxa Jak;:)



ilan xankoxa Jwan ilan gosun gosun


;:)1 dulu niIJIJ;:), ;:)s;:)x;:) niIJIJ;:) noka

am miIJIJa tuman

ilan miIJIJa jwo miIJIJa tOIJ

ilan, ila wali waci boksun bilxa


axdun tandem xatolam task;:)


tatas xatijo mo suwaltan madan

amcom baxam ilan madan ;:)lin

at that time

at the same time timid

tired (get ... ) to (direction) today


toenail together toilet

tomb tomorrow

the day after tomorrow two days after tomorrow tongs





back tooth front tooth lower tooth upper tooth wisdom tooth


tom (be ... ) tortoise total

touch tourist towel





Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 155


;:)m alin faxun aJixin jobom



b;:) sUIJIJun bat kitaxa ombada moslo mUIJIJwa cumaxa colo

tsaj colo xaska julon

snin dowuli takul jake wsjxa

amba wejxs Julxi wajxo fsxi wajxo oji wojxa

dolxi amba wojxa oji





joxon dulul njama faijko

afil jake

jax s;:)J;:)n



156 Materials of Spoken Manchu

tremble troops trouble trousers trunk truthful tuberculosis tumble


tum (vi.) tum (vt.)

turn inside out tum off

tum on a light tum round turn to

twelve twentieth twenty twenty-one twice twilight

twist (of rope) two

by two two sixths

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 157

doxsom cowa

bajt eieixd fakori

amba pijajn tondo

ufku nimkun gontul oxo buka xoni folsum uwalim uwalim

mjokim, mjokbu (imp.) nim



Jwan JWd olin


olin omu JWd modan jarnji mulim

JWd, ji wali, jo

am njam Jiwali njurpjun fan Jiwali

undertake underwear unfortunate

unit of currency unit of weight unlucky unsuitable


until now


upper garment upside





sdndam dolxi otuku uJulko ajixin


xasaxun dali ako asinako


dlin sinnon

oji bali

oji otulxo otuku oji


sika sitixe


bajtilam, takulum

Value various

vegetable garden vegetable










Jixa salim xacin dulun jafen


tondo omassi, gjak foka xancjakon tokso





Ugly uncle

maternal uncle under

under-floor heating system underlay


bociki ded nakco faxi nax;:)n aji sisko ulxim

olim dald

fakul tuxin

Wade waist waistband

158 Materials of Spoken Manchu

wait wake up walk walking wall want war

war hoop warm wash wasp water

boiled water water tank watermelon waterway


broad way long way

on the way, half way short way

this way

we (excl.) we (incl.) weak

wear, put on weasel weather

fine weather weave (basket) wedding weight





gdtdm, xolam ilbo jaam





xolal jilxan

bulun, xalxun owum



fojixa muko muko ku]o dUIJIJa



amba joxon gol joxon joxon dulin do xan joxon

dl ;:}xi


mesa ujen

otum, katam swai nin abkd

galoxa abko xatim

ulxun bajti ujon



aj, aj jake

Appendix 1: Items in Questionnaire 159

what sort of a man What time?




where (direction) where

which, what whip











wife of a maternal uncle wife of father's elder brother wild bore

wild onion





wine cup








aj dulun njam uda dlin



aj alin, ajtin ja axi jawado




san ba sajm sjamjen


Wd niIJIJd aj tulxun wonco aIJIJdSd

amka njamaa


jjumu amba dnjd alin wirjgaj 010

bulxa xajlin atim



xuntkan aska




fakcixo njaxa


160 Materials of Spoken Manchu


marry a woman womenfolk


wooden comb woodpecker wool

work workday worm







last year New Year this year

year before last yellow


the day before yesterday yet, still


yoke C ... horse) you (pl.)

you (sg.)


your (pI.)

your (sg.)

xax njams xexs gaixo xsx njams tun


mo tunkili cicik;:) fonixa, xoni fcnnixe bajt ganlom

w;:)jl;:) wojli inin nimjaxa

g;:)IJ ;:)x;:)





ani, anja dulk anja ici ani

;:)1 ani

cal ani swajin sisks



juskun sun toxum



askan sonirpjo sinimja

Appendix 2

Basic Conversational Expressions

1. First meeting

001. Hi. (ffJ;~n

si sajn.

002. Nice to meet you. simbo takoma ajso ulgun.

003. Hi. (1~'H.) si sajn.

004. Nice to meet you, too. sim takam bi je xsn ulgun.U

005. My name is Meng Xianxiao. min g;:)w;:) Meng xianxiao g;:)m xolam.

006. What's your name? Cftr;nClfti,;gcy:?) si aj gawu xolam?

007. My name is Shi Junguang. nJt(l~;g:=j':lllJ:;':;::S7't.) min g;:)w;:) Shi Junguang g;:)m xolam.

008. Where is your hometown? sim bo jawad bim?

009. My hometown is Sanjiazi. CJJtBj~~_3;{E=~'f.) mim bo ilan bo da bi jo.

010. I'm a stranger here. CJU~--;J(?i~JZ;)L.) bi fuxujin rnadan owu de jixa.

1) Italic fonts in Manchu data are pingyin transcription of Chinese pronunciation.

162 Materials of Spoken Manchu

011. Where do you live now? sim bo jaws de bi ja?

012. I live in Sanjiazi now. bi dltd ilan bo do bim.

013. What do you do for a living? Cff!.~f~jdt-Z,If'F?) si aj wojl wojlim?

014. I'm a school teacher. C:JJ<::1Jk"i:'·f5E:6ViliOJi:fE"¥:t\E;j'!zcl~).) bi si bit xolal ba bit sowe.


015. Then, what do you do for a living? OJll-z" jf!.~f;!;ii:fl--Z,T1io?) si aj wojl wojlim?

016. I raise horses. CfJi:1J:'Lb.) bi molin uJim.

017. How's your family? Cff!.~'i§Cf;rft-Z,A?) sim bo gem aj njam bi ja?

018. There are my parents, my wife, my son and daughter. (1~' y:'ITj:, ~~T, if *0 L ~f5¥n::9: ) L.)

dnjd arne salgsn JUSd xaxaji saxanji gam bi ja.

019. What makes you come here? (!f!.~31~i2i)L1if11--z,4J::)L?) si owu ds Jim aj bajt bi jo?

020. I came here to see my elder brother and younger sister.

bi owu dd jimo min ago nun bd tan jixo.

021. Have a good time with your brother and sister. Ci:5i'.(~-;ffH6tr

so owu da gom sakama banjjo.

2. Visiting

022. How are you? Cff!.~!.lTii!=b?) si sajn no?

023. I'm fine. OJi:1KH!) bi arnas sajn.

024. Is the husband home? (!f!.~.St:;i-::fE%:D'b?) sin xolxun bo de bi no?

025. He's out. (:±',1: T.)

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 163

cucim jawoxa.

026. When is he coming back? (iU\ aj dlin walin Jim?

027. He'll be back soon. dltd Jiu . walin Jim.

028. May I help you? Cff!.~71c1:rfl--Z\4.¥]:)Lri!=b?) si Jim bajt bi no?

029. I have something to ask to your husband. (1if. ft*LsUL1!j:l:)L J111:i] f~-;.St7(.)

bi. maJig bajt bi. sin xolxun dd fonjim.

030. Come in! (ij'siH:.) doson jo.

031. OK. hold your dog, please. iw!f!.;~- T )L~uJ!)

sajn si indaxo arnda tam boo

032. Please take your coat off! tulxi otuku be suo ba.

033. Have a sit. (ii'if~JL:!)

solim ti ja.

034. You can smoke here. solim darnxu omo.

035. I don't smoke. (:JJt1~:tr:rlj:jj:].) bi darnxu bo omul ako.

036. Have you taken meal? (liz/c&Tii!=b?) buda jsk no?

037. Yes, I have. (110, ilZ;J1T.)

an, jam wajoxa.

038. Where are you coming from? si jawudili Jim bi ja.

039. I came from Sanjiazi via Fuyu. O:lt)A=*i~i'£j1~1i~71:;:(Jj.) bi ilan bo dili Juju dili dSdg jixanirpja,

040. Where are you going? (_tIlJJij)Ll~?) si jawu ds jom?

041. I am going to Qiqihar. (_tJfJrIi€t;y;'i;.) xotun da jom.

042. How many people are in your family? (*9"1'fJLDA?) bo ds udali aIJ njam bi js?

164 Materials of Spoken Manchu

043. How many adults are in your family? (1cT JVi'-7CA?) ;:}m udali amba njama?

044. There are two men.

Jiwali xan njamo.

045. There's a woman. (~·~-/j'-::\1:A.) amko x;:}lJ njams.

046. There are three children. C1'lf::=:-/j'-/Hr<.) ilawali juse.

047. How old is your elder son? (7ct.J<Y )151 JO?) amba juso ud s;:} oxo?

048. He is 8 years old. (8y T .) jak s;:} oxo.

049. Is your husband back? Trli:p)

sin oxin walin jixa no?

050. He is not coming back yet. walin jixs ako.

051. Then, has anybody else come? UJrl-L,,;·j£;i~ T?) tala oci w;:} jixa?

052. Nobody has come. (;jttS;'St3~.)

w;:} je jixs ako.

053. Now, he's back. ;:}It;:} ;:}xin walin jixa.

054. Are you all right? so g;:}m sajn no?

055. Weare all right. .)


;:}m;:}s sajn.

056. What's wrong with you? gwa bait bi no?

057. Nothing. .)

aj mej bajt ako.

058. How are you? (Jil~~j*i6:D.Lb?) sin boj sajn no?

059. I'm the same as usual. (:l:E:!t:z:r+J~ (~)z1'lfn-L,3tft.) xaj sagdo dulun ~ aj mej altal ako

060. Have you ever been to Harbin? (f!Y:}_d:trl~~;Fj~~?) si xaslbin de joxo bixa no?

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 165

061. I've been there three times. (:}_~:i1::=:{)c.) ilan madan joxo.

062. How many households are there? tawu da udal njam bo bi js?

063. There are nearly 10,000 houses. e'ff -- TJ P.) am tuman xam bo bi jo.

064. How large is Sanjiazi? (::=:3§(t"1'lf§J;;:iCTIIT;jX?) ilan bo aisa amba ba bi ja?

065. It's 10,000 square meters. (1'f~TJ.:qzjfi~.m..) am turnan ba bi ja.

066. When was Heilongjiang province established? icjo~:lz:I'i~?)

067. It was established in 1947. Uto1947~~:lz:(j~)

am mirjnan ujin tan dixa nadcn ani da owu de tixanirpjo.

068. Where is the administrative office? (iltji)E!zJTTfE 1-1° i.. ±tl'. 7]" ?)

069. It is in Harbin. xaslbin da bi ja.

070. How many Manchu people are there in the autonomous regions now? CEYU::EiHfl-/j'- t=J mIX alta talam zizhiqi dulgi dd aisa lod man njam bi ja?

071. There are about 10,000 people. (7crj1'f7J A.) alki am tumun njam bi ja,

072. Meals are ready to be served. .)

buda sajnixo.

073. Bring them around. (¥:j'IJi2\:)L31::!) dci ga]a,

074. Please eat. (~~nz;t&II~!) buda JdWU ba.

075. Thank you. Jjil!J'jt/f'i'§:~ T.)

banika. td bi jiu jam oxo.

076. Water is boiled. (7JG+T.) muko fajixs.

077. Have some tea. (ij~Ili);l5J~II~!) ca muko om ba.

166 Materials of Spoken Manchu

07S. Would you give me another cup of tea? (il1fflH~il\t--Jq:1i~?) si minds dm mol ca muko boo

079. I'm leaving first. c:JJt5bt T.)

bi nonem jaam oxo.

OSo. When are you coming again? (ft{, aj alin gol jim js?

OSl. I'll come here again tomorrow. cumaxo gdl jim.

OS2. You gave me a lot of favors. gowi sim rnafanlaxa.

OS3. Thank you.



OS4. See you again. OEf. J~!)

si atin hoi jim ja? (Literally 'When do you come again?')

3. Hunting

OS5. Let's go hunting. OJtifJjT;Y!!i~fil:l!) mass awulnam ba.

OS6. Let's go. (5tfil:l!) jawu ba.

OS7. Let's go on a horse. (:fltft'J!JfJ~-:E:IlE.)

maso molin jolum jo ba.

OSS. Prepare for the horse. molin bolga ba.

OS9. I can't go today. (-6(;:: 1:;/1' T T.) onin jom mutul ako oxo.

090. Why can't you go? (7'1ft{,~/I'TT?) aj tulxun jom mutul ako oxo?

091. Because I don't have a horse. (l2'i)~~5t1=r~.) molin ako jalin da,

092. Why don't we ride on my horse? OJtffJ!figJtltl~~fiE!) mass min bo molin be jolum jom ba.

093. Are you ready? (ffl1§-~} Tn'b?) balgom sajn oxo no?

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 167

094. Which place is good to hunt? (1nlii-idt{"±Il!.-}JH?) awulnam jawu da joi sajn?

095. Where do we have to go to hunt? (J'ljf-j-{"±Il!.jj~tnlii~f?) . jawu da jom awulnam sajn?

096. I know. (:lH~i@:.) bi sam jo.

097. Follow me. (1m:r:lUl'2Ili::!) mim daxom jo ba.

09S. Are there boars? OJiS)L1=rillJ3jifn~?) towu da alin wirjgja bi no?

099. There are plenty of them. (1=J1R§i;.) lod bi je,

100. Are there tigers? (1=r~ultn~?) taska bi no?

101. There are no tigers, these days. (4lJE:l~2js:g!Ul1'].) alam uculi ako.

102. Then, what kind of wild animals live here? (3Jfl1'fi;1']f-i-{,ffiJ~2!-?) tasaxa oci gam aj jak bi ja?

103. Boars, roe deers, wolves, sables and others live here. (1']

3PI'T-, ~§:T~illY2!·.)

bj8IJIJdn wirjgja gjo njugo aljixo bj8IJIJdn Saksa bi jo.

104. Let's go quickly. OiutfiB!) xodun jawu ba.

105. Would you wait a little longer? (¥j~-~)L.) dalti ali ja.

106. That's a roe deer. (3}!l[O!:'Jl['T-.) tal gjo ino.

107. I'm starting here. (tltJ)j:iULf-f.) bi owu dili jaam.

108. Would you wait down the riverbank? C1fJq±3Jf,1'-;iiJjil~~.) si cdxi bila jaka da mim ali ja.

109. I see. (9;lli@:T.) saxa.

110. Oh, It got a hit. (ililJ, n= r: tandam baxo.

168 Materials of Spoken Manchu

111. What have you got there? (tTfUf-r-i, T?) aj jake tandem baxa?

112. It's a roe deer. .)


113. Here are roe deer's footprints. (J3:JL1"r:j[iJ.YElj/Ej2E.) ;:)wu de gio jawul joxon bi ja.

114. There are two footprints of yesterday. (1~rA1o::kffi'lFIYHJTj"i'-Dl:[lGjJ.) sisko jawuxanirpjo Jiwali joxon bi ja.

115. Where did the roe deer go? nJd?)

gjo jawu da joxo m?

116. It may go farther. (iJJ8'bEiRT.) ;:)g;:)ci jawuxanin gol oxo.

117. There are wolves on top of the mountain. OJrl"i'-LLIJIlLtfiJ[O telom alin nUIJIJun do njoxo bi ja.

118. Let's tied up the horse and walk. 2711'"*111:;.)

molin ba xait ja. mass jawukon jaam jo ba.

119. I'm going alone. C;J'x---l'" A~:.) bi omgun jom.

120. Go carefully. U±:~:,r!;\)L~!)

jobkalamo jaws.

121. There's a pheasant. ulgam bi ja.

122. I'll shot. (:fHTfll:;!) bi tand ba.

123. Let's go and check it. ("*'ff;---:\B-!) jom omdc tana.

124. Did you hit the target? T15I:fT?)

tandam baxa no?

125. It is shot straight. (H't'T.) tandem baxo.

126. Which part did you hit? T?)

ja am gada ba tandabuxo?

127. I shot it at the head. (tTcP)k; T.) xotu ba tandabuxo.

128. Next time I'll shot. CFiYc;J'x31:;:jJ.) amala bi Jim tandem.

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 169

129. It's getting dark. Let's catch a catnap in the forest. C::k¥.Ii(

abka sitaxo. meso jiu ;:)l;:) alin dolxi da bisil ba.

4. Taking a rest

130. I'm kind of tired. (ftfLSZJL~T.) bi majigo jobuxo.

131. Where should we take a rest? (ftfi'l(£f-r-~±lJ1.jJf*,~,1lft?) mass jawu de bim na?

132. Let's take a rest here. (i±J3:JLf*.~,nl:;!) owu de bisol.

133. Why don't you tent here? (Y:111kJiif!)

134. Take the saddle off! UEIb!('~Y~T31:;:!) molin ;:)m;:)IJ ba gam wasobu.

135. Where's water? (1I)]i>lR1"l7JC?) jawu d;:) muko bi j;:)?

136. It's over there. OllljtLfL) c;:)xi da bi ja.

137. Let's water the horses. (l'j,IbIlI:;!) molin malo ba.

138. Tie up the horse! C1EIbJi J:)) molin ba xajt ja.

139. Look at the horse. ('ff;-~Ib!)

140. Cut the grass and bring it here! (IiJ,J¥:*!) olxo gaJ;:).

141. Let's make a fire and wood smoke. jaxa da. saIJIJ;:)n majiga cuCi ba.

142. Light the lantern! (,r!;\):Jnl:;!) dorjjin dawu ba.

143. I'm sleepy. (lltl'BT.) bi sawul oxo.

144. I'm going to bed now. (;f:lt~B~:9:tT.) bi arnxam oxo.

170 Materials of Spoken Manchu

145. You go to bed first. (f~-;YcU@IIB!) si nansma amxs ba.

146. That's fine. (1TIiVj!) om ja.

147. You can sleep here. (f;J;~Ei3:JUJ@IIB!) si owu da amxa ba.

5. Rising in the morning and Departure

148. Day breaks. T.)

apks salsxa.

149. Get up, please! (j~31~!) il ja.

150. Did you get up already? (B{eI:i~31;:Tn[m Clm nixin ilixa?

151. Did you sleep well last night? sikss jarnji si amxanin sajn no?

152. Yes, I slept well last night. II@Yrr.)

sajn amxo.

153. Is water in the wash bowl? (:td;:£1'f7J<.r10?) fen dolxi da muko bi no?

154. Bring me soap and a towel! CleHE.cg'f-IIJi~3j~!) fanko iss ba gaja.

155. Let's wash our face. mass dol owu ba.

156. Brush your teeth! UiJrJ:5.fIlB!) WCljXCl ba suasal ba.

157. Did the horse graze? (fbLlZ:J¥I]'IlLb?) molin olgu jok no?

158. Yes, I fed it a lot. liz: T iL'L:f;:.)

sajn lodu jake.

159. Drag the horse here! (,:i~~31~C1E}:1"1'j,,J131~)!) molin ba kutulum ga]a.

160. Let's drive the horse! (ij"iMtIlB!) molin kutulum jawu,

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 171

161. Let's go quickly. (tJutnB!) xodun jawu ba.

162. where does this way go to? (i3:i1ilJL;lio1±!!!Ji»)L':t;Sj?) Cll joxon jawu da jolnimjo?

163. This is a way to Sanjiazi. (i3:~3'U-=~CT':t;8jiill:)L.) sl shi ilan bo jol Jogun.

164. Is there any way over there? (;;Jf;j2z1'fj~)Lp~?) CClxi da Jogun bi no?

165. It's a muddy path. (;;Jf;711:~Jt.±tg.) tClWU da shi ljofkan ba.

166. It's tough to go through. (/Fg:}:iE.) jawulo ClXCl.

167. Is this an easy way? (iZ:j~Y}:iE!lfb?) Cll Jogun jawu da sajn no?

168. This is a short-cut. (i3:~J!iiiO al shi xanci Jogun.

169. What is that mountain called? (;;Jll~LlJP4ft~?) talam alin aj xolam?

170. It is called Mt. Changbai. (Jjf;~~a ih.) tal shi golmin sjamjan alin.

6. Weather

171. What's the weather like? (x~;'~~f!f?) abko adolma?

172. It's a nice day. (x~ifH}.) abka gjak sajn.

173. How is the weather outside? (5'rTIll;'~-L,f.f?) tulxi da adalma?

174. It's cloudy. (1'f'i2.) tujga bi.

175. The clouds are gone. ('i2~";[T.) tujgo akoxa.

176. The sky's getting clear. (x8j'j'T.) abka galax»,

EljlXl.?) 199.
200. 172 Materials of Spoken Manchu

177. It was raining during the night. axa am dowuli axoxa.

178. The rain stopped. Ui:rf'l'; T.) age galoxe.

179. Let's go right away! Wc}#ULJEOB!) xodun jawu ba.

180. It snowed. (T~jjn.)

nimin tuxuxa.

181. It's freezing. abko gjak saulo.

182. It's cold. .)

bi gdcim.

183. Which way is the wind today? dniIJ ja oxi odun?

184. It's the north wind. (~;ltJ;<\.) arnxi odun.

7. Meal

185. Have you eaten? (nZ;jjJiiTn~?) buda jok no?

186. Not yet. (:kE;ij;tn2';.) jak ako.

187. I'm very hungry. (:f!(;t:tJH.)

bi sajn jadulxo.

188. Let's prepare a meal. buda ala ba.

189. Let's make a fire here. Ca:JX)L~t;kilB.) owu da jag dawu ba.

190. We cook rice in the pot. micim takulum bud a alom.

191. What do you eat at meals? (&~nz;]-I'i,tii?) inindali aj buda jom?

192. We eat rice. (rlz;:;,¥:tii.) bala buda jam.

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 173

193. We eat bread. (n2';OOE.)

194. Have a seat, please. (i'I~TnB!) ti ja.

Ok, let's have a seat together. Ulf, :JJtfI'J-~ii&QB!) sajn mass ombada al ba.

What kind of liquor do you have? (t-~1-I-~~ml?) aj alki bi ja?

I have white liquor. (1·'fI3~ml.) sjannan alki bi ja.

How much do you have? (1fgs;y?) ajso lodo bi js?

I have two bottles. (1f[tJjjfIl.) jo pin bi jo.

You didn't drink more? (::4P/0-AULIlB.) majigo om ba.

201. I am drunk. (~!(IDi'n.) bi soktoxo.

202. I won't drink more. (/fP/0 T.) omul akoxa.

203. I'm full. (nZ;§; T.) joknin lodo oxo.

8. Division of the games

204. The hunters came back. awul njam walin jixa.

205. What did they get? (i'ir;~g3?V1t~ T?) gam aj jak baxa?

206. They got roe deers and wolves. CjPIf;fLl~f!:.) gjo njuxu baxa,

207. Did you devide meat? (It~ 'r~Il:5t T ruV) jali gam dandaxo no?

208. I haven't divided it. (:kE;ij;t5}.) donde ak bi jo.


174 Materials of Spoken Manchu

209. What do you want? (~A'JLft-:&?) aj jak bajm jo?

210. Give me some pork meat. (~g,:JJ(;AUL1iH;tj!) minda majigo wingjo jali bo.

211. What part of meat do you want? (~n!JI>i'-i'iIl(fr:fl~?)

jam gadanin bajm?

212. What is there? julxi batka ba mind bo.

213. Is there meat left? IJ~W~?)

foncixa jali hoi bi no?

214. There is nothing left. (:&fJ.) ako.

215. I would like my meat well-done. (ij!Ji!~r.fJtJEr;tj!l}!H±ilt~'t- T JL!) sim solim jali be minds SakClIJIJCl majigo dijim bo.

9. Shopping

216. Welcome. ()(J;::@7til{ll.)

so owu da Jim bi gam cjaIJIJCl.

217. What do you want? (Jis~~;~1t-:&?) si aj jak udam?

218. I want to buy a hat and a suit of coat. (ft:F39~111\1l-=r-3fn5l1<~.) min gunin da maxoli tulxi otuku bo udam.

219. Show me that black fur hat, please. (ij1fi!~'fJ(;:O®-:O®-fJll"i'-!\\~B*=t fi~lij\1l-=r-.)

sim selima tolem jacin boco fonnixa bisil maxali minda tam bo.

220. Here you are. (~g,fis~.) sind bo.

221. Try on it. (j:i\LbJ\1i\H~.) simdo katom tao

222. It's somewhat small. (fJ,<;':\JL/J'.) majigo ajixin.

223. Do you have anything bigger? (l)tfJjc-,<;,:\JUI~nI!J?) majiga ambanin ak no?

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 175

224. How about this one? (iZ\:"i'-:&-:&:f¥?) al amka adalma?

225. OK, it fits well. (fri', IRIS-:©:.) sajn om ja,

226. By the way, what kind of coat do you have? (fJl'{" W~1ill 1l~1-j--:&*"f-B~?)

tasa oci tulxi otuku gam aj dulunin bi ja?

227. Try on this red coat. (J$ii\iJ\iZ\:Itj=£I13e~5r~.) al am fulgajnirj be si omda otum tao

228. I don't like the red color. ('fJ(;/f%;9ciZ\:"i'-Wj13.) bi ssag bolinirjno ciako.

229. Please show me that blue coat. (:JtfJll{tj=r!R13B~5r~~*:O®-:O®-.) tal smka njowunirj ba si gajam bi amdo talnirjrja.

230. Here you are. (Mtf$.) sind boo

231. How do you like this coat? C:&-:&;f¥?) adCllmCl?

232. OK, it fits perfectly. (xt'ft1RlS-:©:.) minda gjak sajn.

233. I am satisfied. Ot1R%Xj;:) bi gjak ejaIJIJCl.

234. How much is it? (§;j.>'f~?) ajso 10 jixa?

235. It's 4,500. ([i]-=fJis5G.) dujn miIJIJCl sunja tan.

236. It's somewhat expensive. eiL#:JLt':j:.) majigo xuda matj.

237. Do you have anything cheaper? U3:1l~D"E::§:}2,)LB~P.I!J?) majigo xuda janin ak no?

238. Then, how do you like this yellow coat? (fJl'-:&iZ\:ftl:~¥f'E.(l~jr~ :&-:&1~?)

tasa oci CllClm jilga sojin tulxi otuku adalama.

239. This is still cheaper than that. (iZ\:f'I:l;tfJlll+~~:§:,#:)L.) al am jilga tal am jilga dili majigs xuda ja.

240. OK, that's good. (1IJ~l, jJiHl19.) sakan bi ja.

176 Materials of Spoken Manchu

241. I decide to but this black fur hat and this yellow coat.

OR:~ i3:JiJf JW\E:.'fi1'.:t: Ei~ Ijifl 'f fll i3:f4 jli':;- E F(l 5Jj,;r,n

bi alom jacin bonimjo fannigo bisilniij maxoli xa tal amko sojn boconin tulxi otukuwo bi bajm.

242. How much are all of these? (-;t~§;0'tJt?)

ombade ajsa jixa?

243. The hat is 612 yuan and the coat is 3,700 yuan. (lj!§TA 6--+=5(;, Jr~=T-1::;6jt.)

maxoli nirpjun tan jon]o farsi, tulxi otuku ilan miIJIJa nadan tal] farsi.

244. In sum, they are 4,312 yuan. (--~ITIIT=Er-j-=5(;.) am bad bodum dujn mimjna ilan tan jon]o falsi.

245. OK, here it is. ~ftf~;~.)

jixa sind boo

246. Thank you. .)


247. See you again. so amalo gdl jo.

10. Apology

248. I made a mistake to step on your foot. (:j3t:iE.3'iJT.) bi Jim sitaxo.

249. I'm sorry. (x~/G~.) sinda acam mutulku.

250. Do you feel much pain? @:A:fR:, :iI:;;;tflz:t&.nl'm

min jixanin sitaxo jalin de so xaj buda JdXd aku ba.

251. That's OK. U5:9'-:*.) bait ako.

11. Medical treatment

252. Hellot Good Morning), Doctor! (jcx, ffE~}.) xiansheng si sajn?

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 177

253. What's wrong with you? jawu da dati ako?

254. I'm not feeling well. boj majigo dali ako.

255. Where's the pain? (n)JI;)L1~?) jawu da nim?

256. I have a headache. C:Y,d~J.) xot nim.

257. I think I've got a cold.


258. I sweat a lot. (Wl"r.) ni cucim.

259. My stomach hurts. (BY=H:jL) kowulo nim.

260. I have diarrhea. (tfLllt'f.) ujsn sosum.

261. How long has it been hurting? ())dtAB~·{1*7H6B'J?) ja alin dili ajkarnnina?

262. It's been three days. C* T.) ilan inin oxo.

263. Please remove your clothes. (i.~HEJr:'&JljrF:JJ,z.) solim si tulxi otuku ba suo.

264. Please raise your underwear. (1'C1"J:t<:IEJ15fBiz.) dolxi otuku ba gel suo.

265. Please hands up. njlHE¥~~:¥!) gala ba tikirn jil boo

266. Please put your hands out. UE¥f$ W31z!) gala ba sanim gaja.

267. Does it hurt here? (i:Z:)L'im~?) owu da nim no?

268. It doesn't hurt. (/G1KJ.) nimilko.

269. How's your urine? (/J'0!;cAf"f?) sib adalma+sitim adalmo.

270. Is it a lot or little? (§;j~b~0'?) lodo gdl xomso?

178 Materials of Spoken Manchu

271. How's your appetite? (~j 0 ;&-i-tf?) JdcdlniIJ adalma?

272. I have no appetite. C;Y:fl" ~ D.) Jdcdl ci ako.

273. Put your clothes on. ('!if" _t;tZHIiIlE\!) otuku ba out ba.

274. I need to get your pulse. (rill:fi£rill:1S'lliJcIJW.) gals mojn ba amda tanin.

275. What is the problem on me? (f-t-~'1[i:]?) aj nimkun?

276. You've just a cold. (ffi.~~'.) sawulubuxo.

277. Don't worry! 03:fHr~, PJ1J:.!,CAiS.) am gunin jobula,

278. Get this medicine three times a day. (:i3:1-~~--::kllZ;-={j;:.) dId okto am inin ilan madan jam.

279. Yes, I will. (flJ:] EI T.) saxe.

280. Bye. (ft} ~!) amal tsaj jo.

12. Season

281. The wind is very cold. (JX\.1!'!iJi'\.) odun gjak saxulo.

282. It was so warm a few days ago. (JLkrltr:i2E1!'!PZHPIIJll.) om inin omjulo gjak sajn bi jo.

283. How fast the time flies! (WtrEiJ:i1I·iSl~~'ftl:nliril.) inin banjixanin gjak xodun.

284. The day has become shorter. (:ffk:ifl:EI::k~~£[T.) dltd inin sun de inin fjoxulo oxo.

285. Will it be as cold in this winter as the last winter? (:i3:1'-

al an tuli dulk an tuldili tosag bikun no?

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 179

286. Will it be snow much, too? (~TA~Pl!,?) amba nimin tuxum mutuxa no?

287. All of you should prepare well for the winter. Clh,1fJPJi~1~!z frJ:i1 z- fJS if£ ~ I!p~ .)

so sakoma bdlgd tuli olin dili dulum.

288. You should look here and there around the house. (-ill0Z~ jE%l:lifr}frJ'1¥'1¥.)

si bo dolxi ba sakma tao

289. You should wear warm clothes. (~3fSg:tD'sUL.) xalxunnjo oto.

290. It is easy to catch a cold. (~~~~.) jokulmo saulbum.

291. Take good care of yourself! (~$3:~~fK.) jokulma boj sajn.

13. Happy event

292. Do you have any good news? (fl"1-j--i-i\1iJ~BS~)LPl?l?) si aj ulgun bait bi no?

293. Yes, my younger brother will coming back today. (I!~, 4'-::k 5f:l ~"JI~31;:.)

UIJ ojnin min do walin jixa.

294. Oh, you seems so delighted for that. (m~f;J;'1¥~*:i3:-i-!~~ lIii~.)

tasag si tame dSdg ulgun.

295. All of your family must be happy. (%m.A --JE1§il1!'!i\1iJ)'O bo njama am adili gam ulgunJim ba.

296. Yes, all of us are waiting for him. (1\'2:\, A%1'fr>:!i¥~5f:l5f:lIlK) UIJ, sasa gdCjd gam do ba alim bi ja.

297. When my younger brother went, all of us were sorry. (5f:l 5(5 7J;': [lS Ilt {I]c 7;_:: % 1'ff51!'!j)] {i liB.)

do jawula alin da sasa gdCjd gam gunin jobuxo.

298. My parents was very sorry for it. (~~:lJ!Jjf::fr'H!?Jq!'!%::ff~11B.) dnjd arna im jawula bs ci ako.

299. We are very glad to meet him again. (ft}{j;:~ITil1[[i~K) gal amda sawuxa gjak ulgun.

180 Materials of Spoken Manchu

300. A banquet will be held in your house. (%~lihMt,\I\f,JT.)

301. 'Have a good time in talking with your younger brother!' (fD$$$i3t~i'5.)

do maIJIJd lod sakon majiga gison gisela ba.

14. Farewell

302. is it still early for the train's leaving? Cr%7f~1::[I~-r[1]kEl[lIlB7) sdjdn ils alin dili xaj wan de ba?

303. Yes it is. 40 minutes is left. (1I!~l, iE~l40)-H't'.) xaj dixa fimdz;]1U bi ja,

304. I am so sorry that you must go. (ffJ;~JET, 1"~%/f{~}.)

bi jaam oxo. smo ajkala (literally 'I should go, but don't be sorry.')

305. I am sorry, too. (:fJttEA!,!_%/f{~.) si jaarno bi je ciako.

306. Thank you for your hospitality so far. (iZ:@:ri~-r[1]$i~Jfg~fl~jB 1~j' .)

307. I am sorry for having not been able to take care of you better. (lY:i'JE::!zHH1~U~-fg~, l'Uiio/f:!zf~JfL)

308. Be sure to get in touch with me again. (---JE~fD:JJt!rk~.) dm gdlin mimbo jasigan boo

309. Of course. (3y!n

310. I will miss you a lot. (:JI<.01R~31;Jq'I~.) bi simbo gunim ja.

311. I will also miss you a lot. (ft\:tl.01R~3:i3;iZ:-l'-JthJJfl~.) bi al banaba gjak gunim ja.

312. See you again! (:p}_IJ2.!)

313. See you again! (jIj:%!)

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 181

15. Needlework

314. Who has made this clothes? (iZ:fH;::JjR_-ti£f;ttB~7) dldm jilga otuku wa wa aloxanimja?

315. My grandmother have made it. ('fJtW]-W]j;ttB~.) min najna alaxanirpjo.

316. Her skill is very good! ('f-Z::d!:l;H.) gal wajlo gjak sajn.

317. My grandmother sews very well. (}:ltWJ-W]!'l~;\o_lUi!i)Ll;tt1~1R:!z1:.) min najn niIJIJd gal wsjla walim gjak sajn.

318. Then you have learned needle work from her, haven't you? (jJr,1fJ;ElH{Y;W3W.l:'¥:)Jit,i47h6\?i!i T w-'?i7)

si sin najnaj maIJIJd gal wojla welim tacixa no?

319. I learned from my grandmother little by little whenever I have time. (ffS::)Li'i~B'Ji~;jfjt,,!i:-l'uL.)

sol bisila olin da majigs tacixa.

320. But my skill is not so good. (PT ~j;tt1~/f:!zf.) alaxonin dajli ako.

321. What kind of needlework are you making nowadays? (:I!& iE[fltz 1t {, 'fl- [;x;i!i ) L O'-'I 7)

alarn ucul si xaj gal wdjld walixa no?

322. I am sewing a small bag. (IE{£l~X---l'-/J\'ft-T.) dltd am jilgo otuku Wd alam bi ja.

16. Taste for tea

323. Would you like to drink something? C1110,SULli-,z,"-'?i7) majigo aj jaka om no.

324. OK! C:!zf.) sajn.

325. What would you like to drink? Cf~-;~PizLsULfl-,z, 7) si aj jaks om?

182 Materials of Spoken Manchu

326. I want to have a tea. C:f:!t~I1§b5J~.) bi ca muko om.

327. How do you like it? C~1ti,jT:B!m aj dulunirj bajm?

328. Would you like to have a strong tea? (~i~;:]~OIb?) si tumin ca bajm no?

329. I would like to make it thin. C~lxJ!ULLi<:J.) majiga nitanin bajm.

330. Would you like to have it with milk? C~IJnLHij]OIb?) ixan sun sindam no?

331. Please mix a little bit of cow milk for me. (ijlHfilR;jJII-,B)L [tow].)

sim solim minds majigs ixan sun ajkom boo

332. How about putting some sugar? (Jl)i:fh~OIb?) satan sindam no?

333. No sugar please! (/Gn)i:'liJf.) satan sindal ako.

334. Here you are! (itT fit.) sind boo

335. Thank you! (i~ji~t.) banika.

17. Hobby

336. What do you do when you are at leisure? Cfl"i:flsrlifl)tii\y:iti,?) sul bisilo dlin da si aj ganlam?

337. I go to mountain. ('&LLI.) alin pajalsm.

338. what do you like to do? (IfJ;i:\y:1ri,,?)

si aj ganlam?

339. I like singing. bi ucun cialom.

340. What songs do you like? (~;0,fti,i~~?) si aj ucun cialom?

Appendix 2: Basic Conversational Expressions 183

341. 'Gaoshan shuiliu' is my favorite song. don alin muko ojil CjaIJIJd.

342. I like the song, too. (:J:itill~xJUJB§jjjx.)

bi je tolam ucun be cialom.

343. Its melody is very exciting.

344. How about sing the song together? ambada ucum sajn no?

Appendix 3

Sentences for Grammatical Analysis

1. Nominals and case markers

1.1 Personal pronouns

(1) First person: plural (exclusive/inclusive)

1. We will go to the river, so, you, go to the mountain! nJtfI'J JAiiiJ J:.Ji ~ .i~-;1i'JJt UJ ~ifn~.)

mdsd1) bila dili dulum jom, so alin joxon dili jawu ba.

2. Let us go to the forest! (ll§fl'J-~~~!*nE.) mass ambado olxo al da jo ba.

(2) Personal pronouns: singular

3. He went with me. (fI£TIJJx-~I§lJfT.) tala mim maIJIJd arnbada fakjixa.

4. I gave him this book. (tlt~if TfilliZ:*1°~.) bi dId am bitka ba inda buxo.

5. He gave me that book. (1lli~E'iTtltiZ:1j;:~.) tala dId bitki ba minds buxo.

6. I like you. C:fU\j:x)d8-;.) bi simbs cjaIJIJd.

7. He likes you greatly. (1~;'!E%x)::1m.)

1) As is clear from (10), (12) etc. below, Mr. Meng knows the difference of Exclusive form (bo) between inclusive form (mese).

186 Materials of Spoken Manchu

bi t;:ll;:l ba gjak cjaIJIJ;:l.

8. He went together with you. C'fu!'TD 18,----!J'iliP!~3f T.) t;:ll;:l sim maIJIJ;:l ambada fakjixo.

(3) Personal pronouns: plural

9. They went together with us. (fllift'HoOfJtflJ--mli§;3f T.) tasa mam maIJIJ;:l ambads fakjixa,

10. We gave them this book. (:fJtft']f;'i'Tfu!'flJi3:*c~.) bo ;:ll;:lm bitki b;:l c;:lnd;:l buxo.

11. They gave us this book. CffufmfciTltfi'Ji3:*+5.) t;:lS;:l alom bitki b;:l monde buxo.

12. We welcome you. CJJtfIT;:j~:@{;'J;ft'J.) bo sumba cjaIJIJ;:l.

13. You are keeping better company with him. ({8,ft'HoflliflJ~'IHd::flJ] 5e'::i1I T.)

so bm maIJIJ;:l banjixonin omessi xanci oxo.

14. They went together with you. T.)

t;:lS;:l sum maIJIJ;:l ambada fakjixa,

(4) Declension of the Personal pronouns

15. my book OJtfl':J+5.)

bitka minimjo +rninin bitko.

16. Dont beat me! (;J;UHlt.) mimba am tandole.

17. Send me a letter! (~i5-ftc&rii§.) minds jasixan boo

18. He received a great help from me. Cflli:f{'}fiJTft1K7cEl':J11HI)J.) t;:ll;:l min ajs;:ll;:lniIJIJ;:l in gjak lod baxa.

19. Let me see! (It(iUJt)~~) minds amda tabu.

20. Let us go with me! (lEliift-mlJEfI\':..) min man ambada jawu ba.

21. Send me a postcard! (tftJJti"'F1JJfi§ft.) rninda gatkun jasixan boo

22. your (sg.) book (i8,S'JcB)

Appendix 3: Sentences for Grammatical Analysis 187

sinin bitka.

23. I will not beat you (sg.). (:fJC:/F~nf~'.) bi simba tandam mutulko.

24. I can send you (sg.) a letter. nJt~ifti8,'{i,j'{i§.) bi sinda jasixan bum mutum jo.

25. I received a great help from you (sg.). (ltf~fiJ bi sin ajs;:lI;:lY;:lniIJIJ;:l amassi lod baxa,

26. Let you (sg.) see! ({;J; (iJ::{;,n~1§) simbo tabu.

27. I will go with you (sg.). C:fJt~Tn{~;-ml'i;;.) bi sim maIJIJ;:l ambado jom mutum ja,

28. I will send you (sg.) a postcard. c:f:it~tft18,'{i,fD)Hi§ ft.) bi sinda gatkun jasixan bum mutum ja,

29. his/her book (1IilJftM0.:j~) tolinin bitka.

30. Dont beat him/her! (iJiJnllli/~fu) tala ba am tandala.

31. Send him/her a letter! (~f'JlJftfu'£'fii§.) inda jasixan boo

32. I received a great help from him/her. (It:f~fiJT 1lli1K7cljJ'i!t~E;lJ.) bi in ajs;:ll;:lniIJIJ;:l lod baxe.

33. Let him/her see! (flli/frfu (iJ::illi/frfu)~~) tolam da tabu.

34. I will go with him/her. (:fJC:~fnflli/~fu-ml'i;;.) bi im maIJIJ;:l ambada jom mutum ja,

35. Send him/her a postcard! (r61lli/~fu'{i,)=l1)§ii§)t.) inda gotkun jasixan boo

36. our book (:fJtflJijJcl~.) rnonirj bitka.

37. Dont beat us! (iJiJ:fJ:JJtft'J.) mamba am tandala,

38. Send us a letter! (tEi:fJtilJ%}ff'f.) ruanda jasixan boo

39. He received a great help from us. (1lli:f~·fiJT:J:itft'JqRjcB':J'fjif.B}).) tala masa ajs;:lldYdniIJIJ;:l gjak lod baxa.

188 Materials of Spoken Manchu

40. Let us see! (tJtft'J(iYjy:fI'J)~~) men de tabu.

41. Let us go with us! OJtfi'J-m;JEIIB.) bo ambada jawu ba.

42. Send us a letter! (~~tJtfi'H~:rrYHfrh.) mends gotkun jasixan boo

43. your (pl.) book (f~~fi'JfI(Fr:;) sonin bitka.

44. We will not beat you (pl.). (tJtfi'J/f'S<HftJ;fi'J.) bo sumba tandem mutulko.

45. We will send you (pl.) this letter. OJt{I']S<~i~ffJ'fl']i§Hi'f.) bo sunda jasixan burn muturn ja,

46. We received a great help from you (pl.). OJtfi'H~'3'H 1h~fi']1G!.:;k:


bo sun ajsdldYdniIJIJd gjak lod baxa,

47. Let you (pl.) see! sundo tabu.

48. We will go with you (pl.). OJtfi'JS<fllfij'fi'J-·i)i\:!.,;.) bo sun m31JIJd ambada jom mutum ja.

49. We will send you (pl.) a postcard. OJt{fJS<iflf~'fi'Hlfrl}Hfrh.) bo sundo gotkun jasixan bum mutum ja,

50. their book. (fti!,fi'JEiH5.) tasonin bided.

51. Dont beat them! OiUHfilifi'J.) tdSd bs om tandalo.

52. Send them a letter! .)

cdndd jasixan boo

53. We received a great help from them. OJtfi'H'HHffuffJ1G!.7CI'I<]¥\qWJ.) bo Cdn masado ajsdldYdniIJIJd gjak lod baxa

54. Let them see! tdSd ba tabu.

55. We will go with them. OJtfl'}:€:'i'f[Jfti!,fl']~-ili\~.) bo cdm m31JIJd ombade jom mutum js.

56. Send them a postcard! .)

cdndd gotkun jasixan boo

Appendix 3: Sentences for Grammatical Analysis 189

(5) Genitive of the Personal pronouns

57. My mother is a teacher. (tJtyl~:PI?!fi!::'/S-ij~L) min dnjd shi bitk saws.

58. Our mother is a teacher. OJtffJli<J:PI?!yI?!fi!::'!tyrp.) man annirpjo bitk saws.

59. Your (sg.) mother is a teacher. Ci0-;:PI?!yI?!;Yo:'!tYffi.) sin annin shi bitk sawa.

60. Your (pl.) mother is a teacher. (f0~ffJ Ij<JYMI?!7Yo:'!tyrp.) SUWd snnirpja bitk sews.

61. His mother is a teacher. Cim:PI?!:PI?!:i~*YPJL) tala annin shi bitk saws.

62. Her mother is a teacher. (:PMI?!:PI?!7Yo::EYffi.) tala anniij shi bitk sawa.

63. Their mother is a teacher. CimffJB<J:PM!b;Yo:'/S-Yffi.} tass dnniIJIJd bitk sowa.

1.2 Singular and plural

(1) Distinction forms

64. Manchu man (ii\j;';iIIA) amka man njamo.

65. Manchu people (ir~iiJIIA)

66. a man and a woman (-1'-95A;¥iJ-1'":ftA) arnka xax njams arnka XdX njam m31JIJd.

67. men and women (91Afi'J;¥nfrAffJ) xax njarna XdX njarna.

68. student and teacher ("F1£fn:'/S-YiTi) sajwa SdWU maIJIJa.

69. students and teachers (~i:~Efmrl:'/S-YFJj11J) sajwoman sowuman.

70. a cow and a horse CLj=f[JliJ) ixan molin maIJIJa.

71. cows and horses (t1=liffDliJiff) ixan adan molin adan m31JIJa.

190 Materials of Spoken Manchu

72. a flower and a bird (1t)Lfll~JL) ilxa ciCikd maIJIJa.

73. flowers and birds (-JflJt)Lfn--lif~)L) am jul ilxa am adan cicikd maIJIJa.

(2) Numerals and plurality markers

74. two horses (jJ-JJIiIi=b)

jiwali molino

75. several countries gjak lod gulun.

76. My grandfather is hundred years old. c:rJt:v'V--If 37 T.) min jeje am tan sa oXO.

1.3 Case and case markers

1.3.1 Nominative

77. I am a honest man. GJ(;:!i±-"i'-IE:EUI~A.) bi shi emko tondoku njama.

78. A horse runs. (lljfrfu.)

malin sujirn.

79. Two persons came. (t~ jo njam jixo.

1.3.2 Genitive

(1) General usages

80. The mother of my friend's came.


gucu oninirj jixa.

81. The teacher's house is at the center of the village. (:1SVilj8~?i\:f:E :r-JrlE'f':::R:.)

sawunin bo toksu del dolin bi ja.

(2) Case markers of the subject of embedded sentence

82. This is a dress that my mother made. (i3::!i±~Jtgi?T!i'bfli~FI0;t~fJlt) ell shi min annimja aloxa otuku.

83. This is a book that I bought. (i3::!i±::fJt?J;FIJ4n

Appendix 3: Sentences for Grammatical Analysis 191

ell shi bi udaxonin bitka,

(3) Expressions in genitive case

84. horse's head C'~:y,;) molin xoto.

85. pork meat (Jf!fr*J)

wingja jali, ulgjan jali.

86. dentist (5fJ,4f21:±:.) wojxa tal xiansheng.

87. World champion (W:!?¥-JiJ)'j=:)

89. college of education CVRj;ii'i::k::"l-=)

90. Heilongjiang Province 01!\:ita:-Ji')

91. breakfast (Jf'-ttD aldo buda.

92. the price of a book (~::;lil) bitka xuda.

93. timetable of train (37U:-'I=:D'HijJ~) jaxa seljeln slin.

94. eye-glasses (BliUiJf;)

95. Beijing city CII:;;iniJ) gimu kocsn.

96. your birthday! (fh'[lJ~t 13) sin banjixa inin.

1.3.3 Accusative

(1) 97.

General usages

I bought rice in the market. (~:fnjJ:l:tiJ?k7f~ T.) bi bell wancal ba del bellel udaxa.

98. My mother is waiting for us. (!i'b!ilj~~frJ.)

192 Materials of Spoken Manchu

onin mambo alim bi js.

(2) Indefinite object

99. My elder brother found money on the way. Ox {ffj'fJ:(:H"'lJ::.titfU txT.)

min ago joxon de jixa sonjim baxa,

100. Children are reading a book at home. Uii'fii'liE:tE~(i~·15.) JUSd gam bo ds bitki bs tam bi ja.

1.3.4 Instrumental

(1) General usages

101. We eat with chopsticks. bo sap dili bud a jam. 102 Mv father has made a table out of wood. ('@gffl*~lltzT J'fl'f.)

• J

arne rna dili dolan alaxa.

103. We came on horseback. bo malin jolum jixanirpjs.

104. It snows heavily in Beijing in winter. (:It*Z:~1\j"1tt;J<.) zimu xocon ds tuli alin de nimin gjak amba.


105. Mongolia is famous for its desert. 78".:g Ell.)

(2) Comitative

106. I went to the forest with my mother. c:f1:;li;K9~9~-jti;~HI'T lli T.) bi ani maIJIJa ambado tun dd joxo

107. I read a book with my friend. T.)

bi gucu maIJIJa ambado bitk taxa.

1.3.5 Dative

108. My father bought me a pair of shoes. Cg'ES~'I:J1:;J~ TEil"{1.) amo minds sok saws udaxa,

109. I tell them a tale. bi cdndd dm inin juk jarjnanbuxo.

Appendix 3: Sentences for Grammatical Analysis 193

1.3.6 Locative (1) Space

110. I am the tallest in our village. (~1nJtffJ;j:H~lli1'-T~ii'!J.) bi man tokso da min bdjd dmds dan.

111. He is living in Beijing. Cfill1:E~l*:':l~f,1i.) tala gim kacon dd banjirn.

112. The child is at school now. CJ?F]')~:tE1:E:¥tj[.) JUSd alta gam bitk xolal ba dd bim.

(2) Time

113. When I came, he was sleeping. O:X31~8JB1{I3d'ti::fr§~:9:t.) bi jisils alin da tdld arnxarn bi jo.

114. Thank you for your helping me when I was in Qiqihar.

banika. bi cicikal da bixa dd si mindo ajsolam.

1.3.7 Directional (1) General usage

115. This car is coming to our Village. C:i3:~'f\ij$1~~ffJH'J':.) dldm sdJdn mun toksu dd jomb jo,

116. You are going to the river for fishing? C1*fU~Illi~jj'E§if/'HU ;'Ii] .1Ri~iJE § 7)

si bila da nimaxa ganom.

(2) Indefinitive direction

117. A dog ran away outwards. .)

indaxo tulwali sujixa,

118. I don't know where my wife went away. C/j'9;pi~~TfUI!iJiUL i~ T.)

xcxa jawu da yom bi ye salkuxo.

(3) Path: Passing point when the action is done

119. I returned on this road. T.)

bi dldm joxon ba jams walin jixa.

120. I went to the river along snowy road and returned. (:r'JtrJ*HffjniiJ~Bl+gtr--][jtfU T1Ijil@J*T.)

194 Materials of Spoken Manchu

bi jolo nimh] soktal joxon dili bila jaka do innama utka walin jixa,

121. I came across the deep river on which the water was

near my belly. j-.)

bi xatalka sumin muko dili olim dulum jixa

1.3.8 Elative

122. Horses returned from the forest. 1'.)

molin aden xajlin aden dili walin jixe

123. He fell from the horse. 31::1'.)

t<'ll<'l molin dili tunnam wassxo

124. It takes three hours from the lake to the forest. (Jh\IJ7JO'U .)

1.3.9 Ablative

(1) Direction (starting point, source of the action)

125. I came from Sanjiazi. (lVA:=:Jj'C=YC:3t~.) bi ilan bo dili jixo.

126. Mr. Meng returned from Harbin. (~5\:;~t_)Y\JIf,'jFi~IEiI3j~ 1'.) Meng xiansheng cicikal dili walin jixa.

(2) Cause

127. His father died of an illness. (ftlrBcgI29Hi!JidI±T.) tali amonin nimkun baxama bicixo

128. I wept for joy. 1'.)

bi ulgun jixonirpja g<'lm sunguxo

(3) Comparison

129. Many people came today. (s.'-7'C3j(:T{ll§;A.) anin sajn lod njam jixa.

130. More people came yesterday than today. (R'F7'Ctt";-7(31~1·I~A5E§;.) sisko onin dili njam jixanin hoi lodo.

131. The most people will come tomorrow. (11fJ5!dl~l·i~AnJjjEf~±Nt§;.) cumaxa jisil njams dXdci hai lodo.

Appendix 3: Sentences for Grammatical Analysis 195

132. This mountain is higher than that mountain. (iis:'l'-llJ tUJ~1'-

alarn alin tolam alin dili geng dan.

133. The elder brother is three years older than the younger brother. ({jHHt5(Hj~ :7c-=:5.)

agd do dili ilan Sd amba.

134. Make greater efforts! CP}3})]~~.) zai maJig kusun bajtil ja,

1.4 Personal possessive and reflexive expressions

(1) Personal possessive markers

135. My horse is at home. (:fJi:(j~ib:(£i§C)

min molin bo da bi jo.

136. Your horse runs fast. sini molin sujinin sajn xodun.

137. I make a better record than his elder brother. ('l'JUtitl!.{jfi'jJ Cji: 5] i.f}.)

bi in age dili tacixanin sajn.

138. This child's eyes are similar to his mother's ones. (iis:1'-J3FJ'-

dId aji JUSd jaso banjixanimja dniIJlJd dm adili.

139. Our village is very beautiful. (JJt1fJi'j.::r-q[~i~*.)

masa tokso sajkan.

140. Where is your school? sin tala bit xolal ba jawu da bi jo?

141. He likes his children very much. (1!M&'2iftl!.8~~Tii'J.) tdld tal JUSd b<'l gjak Cialdm.

(2) Reflexive pronoun

142. I went there for the sake of myself. nu] T Of}; § C. :t: T ][51'ilil7J.)

bi min beji jalin da tal ba da joxo.

143. You (sg.) went there for the sake of yourself. (iiF:A Ti/J; § C. -1.: TJJll1'-i[g7J.)

si sin boji jalin da talsm gads joxo.

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