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- Efficiency of Helical Springs and Viscodampers in Base Isolation 1992
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You are on page 1of 75

Topics:

• Introduction to Vibration Control

• Methods of Vibration Control

• Vibration Isolation

• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper

• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

• Undamped Vibration Absorber

• Forced Damped Vibration Absorber

1

Introduction Vibration Control

Environment

• Presence of Vibration leads to

•Excessive wear of bearings,

• Formation of cracks,

•Loosening of fasteners,

•Structural and mechanical failures,

• Frequent and costly maintenance of machines,

• Electronic malfunctions

•Exposure of Humans leads to Pain, Discomfort and

Reduced efficiency.

2

Methods of Vibration Control

• Avoid Resonance

• Adequate Damping

• Vibration Isolation

• Vibration Absorber

3

4

Movie

Vibrations of a structure

• Complex and multiple excitation sources

• A number of natural frequencies/modes

are excited.

• Modes can not be accurately measured.

• In case of real life structures there can be

vagueness in structural parameters

• Some parameters change with time

5

• Passive Vibration Control:

dampers, absorbers, stiffeners, structural dynamic

modification.

piezoelectric, shape memory alloy, Electro-Rheological

fluids, Magneto-strictive materials

Vibration Control, it can compliment it in a big way.

6

Vibration Isolation

Vibration isolation works in two modes

the vibrations communicated from the

ground

• To protect the machine vibratory forces to

be communicated to foundation and to

ground.

7

Vibration Control

Topics:

• Introduction to Vibration Control

• Methods of Vibration Control

• Vibration Isolation

• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper

• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

• Undamped Vibration Absorber

• Forced Damped Vibration Absorber

8

Vibration Isolation

Isolating the structures from vibration is

very important

Accuracy of the machines

Comfort levels of the passengers

Transmission of vibrations to other

nearby equipment

Sound Generated due to the vibration

is to be in limits

Vibration of the buildings due to the

equipment present in them

9

Transmissibility

(a) Force excitation

(1)

10

Figure 1 Force Excitation Model

Vibration Isolation

Vibration isolation works in two modes

the vibrations communicated from the

ground

• To protect the machine vibratory forces to

be communicated to foundation and to

ground.

11

The oscillation magnitude as a function of frequency is :

12

(b) Motion excitation

13

• Larger r (= f/fn) is

better; should be more

than at least 1.414.

• In post resonance

region smaller damping

is better but mostly the

machine has to cross

resonance so damping is

desired.

•Isolator should be

designed keeping in

view avoidance of

resonance.

14

Static Deflection is another

limiting factor δ st = Mg / k

15

A Typical Machine Foundation

16

Some Typical Anti-vibration Mounts

Antivibration Rubber Mounts Antivibration Pads Antivibration Hangers

For Wooden Floor

Vibro FM

17

Vibro Strip Vibro SM Vibro CH

Shock Isolation

• Response to a velocity step

18

Shock Isolation

md&& + Fs (d ) = − mu&&

at t = 0, d = 0, d& = u& m which gives

2 d

d& 2 = u& m2 − ∫ Fs (d )dd

m0

19

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation with Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper

Transmitted Force

Phase Lag

2ξ r 3

α = tan −1

1 − r 2 + ( 2ξ r )

2

Phase Angle

Transmissibility

20

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation with Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

Force Transmitted

To Ground

Transmissibility

Phase Lag

21

Vibration Isolation

Vibration Isolation with Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

22

Vibration Control

Topics:

• Introduction to Vibration Control

• Methods of Vibration Control

• Vibration Isolation

• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper

• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

• Undamped Vibration Absorber

• Forced Damped Vibration Absorber

23

Vibration Absorber:Takes over the

Response

(9)

24

F0 (k2 − m2ω 2 )

X1 =

(k1 + k2 − m1ω 2 )(k2 − m2ω 2 ) − k22

F0 k2

X2 =

(k1 + k2 − m1ω 2 )(k2 − m2ω 2 ) − k22

if ω = k2 / m2 X 1 = 0; X 2 = − F0 / k2

25

Undamped Vibration Absorber

The ratio of amplitudes is given by

`

We note that X=0 at ω=p

k1 m1

Design the system such that = =μ

k m

Then amplitude of vibration of absorber becomes

26

Undamped Vibration Absorber

k m

condition 1 = 1 = μ

k m

This means that the absorber system absorbs all the energy of the parent system;

Hence it is called “ Dynamic Absorber “

The frequency of the combined system is

27

Undamped Vibration Absorber

28

Undamped Vibration Absorber

Undamped Vibration Absorber

Practical implementation of dynamic vibration absorber

beam can be changed

30

Vibration Control

Topics:

• Introduction to Vibration Control

• Methods of Vibration Control

• Vibration Isolation

• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper

• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

• Undamped Vibration Absorber

• Damped Vibration Absorber

31

Damped Vibration Absorber

properties

32

Damped Vibration Absorber

The solution of X gives

and at infinity both masses got locked together and become rigid

33

Damped Vibration Absorber

Damping pass through points

P and Q

the optimum Damping value

34

Damped Vibration Absorber

The optimum damping value is given by

tuned absorber is given

35

A Transmission line

damper is a fine example

of a vibration absorber

where the vibrations of

the transmission wire are

absorbed in the damper,

which is tuned to the

natural frequency of the

wire.

36

Active Vibration Control

37

Smart Structures

Sensors Actuators

• Piezoelectric • Piezoelectric

• Magnetostricitive • Electro rheological

• Strain Guages • Magneto-rheological

• Electromagnetic • Magnetostrictive

• Shape Memory Alloy

• Electromagnetic

38

Active Vibration Control of a SDOF System

F(t) x(t)

K C + Plant

- H(D)

x(t) F(t)

M fe(t)

Actuator

Sensor

Processor Amplifier

Equation of motion:

MD 2 x + CDx + Kx = F (t ) − f e (t ) = F (t ) − H ( D) x(t )

If, H ( D) = Co D 2 + C1 D + C2

We have, ( M + Co ) D 2 x + (C + C1 ) Dx + ( K + C2 ) x(t ) = F (t )

39

MODAL SPACE CONTROL

controlling the first few modes only. Transforming the system into

control.

40

Independent Modal Space Control

• Is based on the assumption that the control force required for

41

EFFICIENT MODAL CONTROL STRATEGY

displacement in each mode

displacement ( j ) displacement (k )

= 1: :

displacement (i ) displacement (i )

Weighting of the control force according to energy in

each mode and frequency weighting

= 1: × : ×

energy (i ) frequency ( j ) energy (i ) frequency (k )

42

-3

x 10

1.5 0.7

0.6

Displacement at tip of beam (m)

0.5

0.5

0.4

Amplitude

0.3

-0.5

0.2

-1 0.1

0

-1.5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

Time (sec) Sampling rate

Figure 2 Uncontrolled response of beam due to excitation of Figure 3 FFT of the uncontrolled response

first three modes

43

Figure 4 Controlled response at tip of beam due to Figure 5 Controlled response at tip of beam due to

feedback force applied according to IMSC feedback force applied according to EMC

44

Case Study: Fuzzy logic based

control implementation on a

beam structure

45

What is Fuzzy Logic?

meaningful statements lose precision.

---- Lotfi Zadeh (Father of Fuzzy Logic)

answer will do?

46

A 1500 Kg mass

is approaching

your head at 45.01 m/sec.

Look Out!!

47

LOOK

OUT!!

48

Multiply Power

1 Fuzzy Logic

M Controller

∫ ∫

F p

Sum x

M

F − K

p

M

M

• Simulink Model of Fuzzy logic based Active Vibration

Control of SDOF system. 49

Typical Experimental set-up for structural

vibration control of a continuous system:

Accelerometer

Beam

Actuator

Amplifier Controller

50

Voltage amplifier

Cantilever beam

Fuzzy Logic

Controller

Collocated Piezo

sensor/actuator pair.

Charge amplifier

51

Why fuzzy logic for

active vibration control:

•To take care of vagueness in structure

•Fuzzy control has been used mostly in a

supervisory mode in AVC. Investigate the

effects of applying fuzzy logic in real time

• Less sensitive to changes in structural

parameters

52

1.2

1.0

0.8

Membership value.

0.6

0.4

N Z P

0.2

0.0

(-a,0) (-b,0) (b,0) (a,0)

Velocity.

Figure 2: Fuzzy sets for velocity (modal velocity in case of beam system). 53

Uncontrolled

Controlled

54

55

Uncontrolled

Controlled

56

Control off Control on

1.8

1.6 Velocity feedback

1.4

1

Critical Damping

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Critical Damping

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Performance of Fuzzy Logic controller vs

Velocity Feedback Controller.

58

Active Damping Treatment: Vibration control

with active constrained layer

59

Elastic constrain layer

Viscoelastic shear layer

Vibrating structure

Piezoelectric layer

ChargeAmplifier

Charge amplifier Feed Back Control

Piezoelectric Layer

Point

Sensor

Vibrating structure

Viscoelastic shear layer

Vibration Control of Beam with Partially Covered Active Constrained Layer

PZT Actuator

Viscoelastic Layer

Feedback

Algorithm

Host Beam

Solenoid

Actuation

Amplifier

+ -

Battery

Band Pass Piezo Sensor amplifier

Filter System

61

Vibration Control of Beam with Partially Covered Active Constrained Layer

PZT Sensor

Controller

PZT Actuator

Partially covered Beam

62

Vibration Control of Beam with Partially Covered Active Constrained Layer

coverage of active and passive constrained layers with

different values of the proportional and derivative gains.

63

Active Isolation

Development Of a Semi-active

Suspension for An Automotive Vehicle

using Magnetorheological dampers

64

The Problem

Vehicle

+

Road Disturbances &

Load Disturbances

+

Art of Compromise between

Two conflicting goals, good

Handling and Comfort Ride

Passive Suspension

(Spring parallel with viscous damper) 65

Performance Analysis of…….contd.

Passive Suspension Ideal skyhook damper

66

MR damper based quarter car Semi

active Suspension- modeling, control

and performance analysis

Work presented and reported in the international conference

67

organized by SAE India- Jan 2004

Full Car Magnetorheological

…..contd.

Bump Model

••

Acceleration

Displacement ( z s1 )

( zs1 )

68

Some examples of AVC

implementation

69

Source: www.enme.umd.edu

70

Source: www.enme.umd.edu

71

Source: www.enme.umd.edu

72

Assignment

1

73

Assignment

2

74

Assignment

75

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