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Vibration Control

Topics:
• Introduction to Vibration Control
• Methods of Vibration Control
• Vibration Isolation
• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper
• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper
• Undamped Vibration Absorber
• Forced Damped Vibration Absorber
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Introduction Vibration Control

• There are numerous Sources of Vibration in an Industrial


Environment
• Presence of Vibration leads to
•Excessive wear of bearings,
• Formation of cracks,
•Loosening of fasteners,
•Structural and mechanical failures,
• Frequent and costly maintenance of machines,
• Electronic malfunctions
•Exposure of Humans leads to Pain, Discomfort and
Reduced efficiency.

Hence it is necessary to eliminate or reduce vibration

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Methods of Vibration Control

• Avoid Resonance

• Balancing / Control of Excitation Forces

• Adequate Damping

• Vibration Isolation

• Vibration Absorber

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4
Movie
Vibrations of a structure
• Complex and multiple excitation sources
• A number of natural frequencies/modes
are excited.
• Modes can not be accurately measured.
• In case of real life structures there can be
vagueness in structural parameters
• Some parameters change with time

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• Passive Vibration Control:
dampers, absorbers, stiffeners, structural dynamic
modification.

• Active Vibration Control:


piezoelectric, shape memory alloy, Electro-Rheological
fluids, Magneto-strictive materials

Active Vibration Control can not replace Passive


Vibration Control, it can compliment it in a big way.

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Vibration Isolation
Vibration isolation works in two modes

• To protect the sensitive equipment from


the vibrations communicated from the
ground
• To protect the machine vibratory forces to
be communicated to foundation and to
ground.
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Vibration Control
Topics:
• Introduction to Vibration Control
• Methods of Vibration Control
• Vibration Isolation
• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper
• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper
• Undamped Vibration Absorber
• Forced Damped Vibration Absorber
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Vibration Isolation
Isolating the structures from vibration is
very important
™Accuracy of the machines
™Comfort levels of the passengers
™Transmission of vibrations to other
nearby equipment
™Sound Generated due to the vibration
is to be in limits
™Vibration of the buildings due to the
equipment present in them

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Transmissibility
(a) Force excitation
(1)

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Figure 1 Force Excitation Model
Vibration Isolation
Vibration isolation works in two modes

• To protect the sensitive equipment from


the vibrations communicated from the
ground
• To protect the machine vibratory forces to
be communicated to foundation and to
ground.
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The oscillation magnitude as a function of frequency is :

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(b) Motion excitation

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• Larger r (= f/fn) is
better; should be more
than at least 1.414.
• In post resonance
region smaller damping
is better but mostly the
machine has to cross
resonance so damping is
desired.
•Isolator should be
designed keeping in
view avoidance of
resonance.

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Static Deflection is another
limiting factor δ st = Mg / k

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A Typical Machine Foundation

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Some Typical Anti-vibration Mounts
Antivibration Rubber Mounts Antivibration Pads Antivibration Hangers
For Wooden Floor

Vibro EP Vibro CH-mini


Vibro FM

Antivibration Strip Antivibration Spring Mounts Antivibration Spring Hangers

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Vibro Strip Vibro SM Vibro CH
Shock Isolation
• Response to a velocity step

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Shock Isolation
md&& + Fs (d ) = − mu&&
at t = 0, d = 0, d& = u& m which gives
2 d
d& 2 = u& m2 − ∫ Fs (d )dd
m0

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Vibration Isolation
Vibration Isolation with Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper

Periodic Force F = sin ωt


Transmitted Force

Phase Lag
2ξ r 3
α = tan −1

1 − r 2 + ( 2ξ r )
2

Phase Angle

Transmissibility

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Vibration Isolation
Vibration Isolation with Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

Force Transmitted
To Ground

Transmissibility

Phase Lag
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Vibration Isolation
Vibration Isolation with Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper

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Vibration Control
Topics:
• Introduction to Vibration Control
• Methods of Vibration Control
• Vibration Isolation
• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper
• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper
• Undamped Vibration Absorber
• Forced Damped Vibration Absorber
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Vibration Absorber:Takes over the
Response

(9)

Model for the Analysis of Vibration Absorber


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F0 (k2 − m2ω 2 )
X1 =
(k1 + k2 − m1ω 2 )(k2 − m2ω 2 ) − k22
F0 k2
X2 =
(k1 + k2 − m1ω 2 )(k2 − m2ω 2 ) − k22

if ω = k2 / m2 X 1 = 0; X 2 = − F0 / k2

This result is used as the Vibration Absorber Principle

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Undamped Vibration Absorber
The ratio of amplitudes is given by

Let , and mass ratio, then

`
We note that X=0 at ω=p
k1 m1
Design the system such that = =μ
k m
Then amplitude of vibration of absorber becomes

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Undamped Vibration Absorber

It is to be observed that , the vibration of main mass becomes zero at the


k m
condition 1 = 1 = μ
k m

This means that the absorber system absorbs all the energy of the parent system;
Hence it is called “ Dynamic Absorber “
The frequency of the combined system is

And the two natural frequencies are

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Undamped Vibration Absorber

Natural Frequency variation of dynamically absorbed system

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Undamped Vibration Absorber

Frequency response of both the masses 29


Undamped Vibration Absorber
Practical implementation of dynamic vibration absorber

•A beam attached with cantilevers with tunable masses

•Tuned absorber system, because the position of mass on the cantilever


beam can be changed
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Vibration Control
Topics:
• Introduction to Vibration Control
• Methods of Vibration Control
• Vibration Isolation
• Rigidly Coupled Viscous Damper
• Elastically Coupled Viscous Damper
• Undamped Vibration Absorber
• Damped Vibration Absorber
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Damped Vibration Absorber

A forced damped absorber configuration is given below.

The equations of motion are given by

Defining the system


properties

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Damped Vibration Absorber
The solution of X gives

For damping value at 0 the equation reduces to previous undraped case


and at infinity both masses got locked together and become rigid
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Damped Vibration Absorber

Solving the above equation , we get

All Curves with different


Damping pass through points
P and Q

Hence it is possible to find


the optimum Damping value

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Damped Vibration Absorber
The optimum damping value is given by

Which is obtained by differentiating equation with rf

Thus the frequency response of a


tuned absorber is given

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A Transmission line
damper is a fine example
of a vibration absorber
where the vibrations of
the transmission wire are
absorbed in the damper,
which is tuned to the
natural frequency of the
wire.

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Active Vibration Control

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Smart Structures
Sensors Actuators
• Piezoelectric • Piezoelectric
• Magnetostricitive • Electro rheological
• Strain Guages • Magneto-rheological
• Electromagnetic • Magnetostrictive
• Shape Memory Alloy
• Electromagnetic

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Active Vibration Control of a SDOF System
F(t) x(t)
K C + Plant
- H(D)
x(t) F(t)
M fe(t)
Actuator
Sensor

Processor Amplifier

Equation of motion:
MD 2 x + CDx + Kx = F (t ) − f e (t ) = F (t ) − H ( D) x(t )
If, H ( D) = Co D 2 + C1 D + C2

We have, ( M + Co ) D 2 x + (C + C1 ) Dx + ( K + C2 ) x(t ) = F (t )
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MODAL SPACE CONTROL

In a number of the complex flexible structures we are interested in

controlling the first few modes only. Transforming the system into

modal space and controlling its individual modes is modal space

control.

• Independent Modal Space Control (Mierovitch)

• Coupled Modal Control

• Modified Independent Space Control (Baz)

• Efficient Modal Control


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Independent Modal Space Control
• Is based on the assumption that the control force required for

controlling a particular mode is independent of the control force required

in any other mode.

• A particular mode is controlled by LQR applied to the modal

equation and converting the modal forces to physical forces.

• The energy gets transferred to higher or other modes and the

spillover effect is significant sometimes

• For controlling multiple modes, the number of actuators required

is equal to the number of modes to be controlled.

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EFFICIENT MODAL CONTROL STRATEGY

Weighting of the control force according to


displacement in each mode

Feedback in mode i: Feedback in mode j : Feedback in mode k

displacement ( j ) displacement (k )
= 1: :
displacement (i ) displacement (i )
Weighting of the control force according to energy in
each mode and frequency weighting

Feedback in mode i: Feedback in mode j : Feedback in mode k

energy ( j ) frequency (i ) energy (k ) frequency (i )


= 1: × : ×
energy (i ) frequency ( j ) energy (i ) frequency (k )
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-3
x 10
1.5 0.7

0.6
Displacement at tip of beam (m)

0.5
0.5

0.4

Amplitude
0.3

-0.5
0.2

-1 0.1

0
-1.5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time (sec) Sampling rate

Figure 2 Uncontrolled response of beam due to excitation of Figure 3 FFT of the uncontrolled response
first three modes

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Figure 4 Controlled response at tip of beam due to Figure 5 Controlled response at tip of beam due to
feedback force applied according to IMSC feedback force applied according to EMC

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Case Study: Fuzzy logic based
control implementation on a
beam structure

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What is Fuzzy Logic?

• Fuzzy Logic is all about relative importance of precision:

As Complexity rises, precise statements lose meaning and


meaningful statements lose precision.
---- Lotfi Zadeh (Father of Fuzzy Logic)

How important is it to be exactly right when a rough


answer will do?

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A 1500 Kg mass
is approaching
your head at 45.01 m/sec.
Look Out!!

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LOOK
OUT!!

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Multiply Power

1 Fuzzy Logic
M Controller

∫ ∫
F p
Sum x
M

F − K
p
M
M
• Simulink Model of Fuzzy logic based Active Vibration
Control of SDOF system. 49
Typical Experimental set-up for structural
vibration control of a continuous system:
Accelerometer
Beam

Actuator

Amplifier Controller

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Voltage amplifier

Cantilever beam

Fuzzy Logic
Controller
Collocated Piezo
sensor/actuator pair.

Charge amplifier

Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up.

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Why fuzzy logic for
active vibration control:
•To take care of vagueness in structure
•Fuzzy control has been used mostly in a
supervisory mode in AVC. Investigate the
effects of applying fuzzy logic in real time
• Less sensitive to changes in structural
parameters
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1.2

1.0

0.8
Membership value.

0.6

0.4

N Z P
0.2

0.0
(-a,0) (-b,0) (b,0) (a,0)

-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03

Velocity.

Figure 2: Fuzzy sets for velocity (modal velocity in case of beam system). 53
Uncontrolled

Controlled

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Uncontrolled

Controlled

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Control off Control on

Control of forced vibration. 57


1.8

Maximum applied force


1.6 Velocity feedback
1.4

1.2 Fuzzy logic


1
Critical Damping
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Critical Damping
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Settling Time, Secs


Performance of Fuzzy Logic controller vs
Velocity Feedback Controller.
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Active Damping Treatment: Vibration control
with active constrained layer

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Elastic constrain layer
Viscoelastic shear layer

Vibrating structure

Vibration control by Passive constrained layer


Piezoelectric layer
ChargeAmplifier
Charge amplifier Feed Back Control
Piezoelectric Layer

Point
Sensor
Vibrating structure
Viscoelastic shear layer

Vibration control by Active constrained layer 60


Vibration Control of Beam with Partially Covered Active Constrained Layer

PZT Actuator

Viscoelastic Layer

Feedback
Algorithm

Host Beam

Data Acquisition System PZT Sensor

Solenoid

Actuation
Amplifier

+ -
Battery
Band Pass Piezo Sensor amplifier
Filter System

Figure : Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

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Vibration Control of Beam with Partially Covered Active Constrained Layer

PZT Sensor

Controller

PZT Actuator
Partially covered Beam

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Vibration Control of Beam with Partially Covered Active Constrained Layer

Figure: The variation of the damping ratio for the variable


coverage of active and passive constrained layers with
different values of the proportional and derivative gains.

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Active Isolation

Development Of a Semi-active
Suspension for An Automotive Vehicle
using Magnetorheological dampers

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The Problem
Vehicle
+
Road Disturbances &
Load Disturbances
+
Art of Compromise between
Two conflicting goals, good
Handling and Comfort Ride

Passive Suspension
(Spring parallel with viscous damper) 65
Performance Analysis of…….contd.
Passive Suspension Ideal skyhook damper

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MR damper based quarter car Semi
active Suspension- modeling, control
and performance analysis

Two Degree of Freedom model of suspension


Work presented and reported in the international conference
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organized by SAE India- Jan 2004
Full Car Magnetorheological
…..contd.
Bump Model

••
Acceleration
Displacement ( z s1 )
( zs1 )

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Some examples of AVC
implementation

• Source: University of Maryland

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Source: www.enme.umd.edu

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Source: www.enme.umd.edu

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Source: www.enme.umd.edu

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Assignment
1

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Assignment
2

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Assignment

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