This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Translated from the Pali by P. Lal
To Isaac Bashevis Singer & Phil Ribet without whose help in different ways this book could not have seen print Copyright @ 1967 by P. Lal. All rights reserved. Library of Congress catalog card number: 67-13413. Published simultaneously in Canada by Ambassador Books, Ltd., Rexdale, Ontario. Designed by Marshall Lee. Printed in the United States of America. First printing, 1967
The Buddha: His Life and His Teaching
THE DHAMMAPADA 1) Ten Twin Verses 38 2) Clear Thinking 44 3) Mind 48 4) Flowers 52 5) The Fool 58 6) The Wise Man 64 7) The Saint 70 21) Varied Advice 138 8) The Thousands 74 22) The Downward Path 144 9) Evil Conduct 78 23) The Elephant 150 10) Punishment 82 24) Craving 156 11) Old Age 88 25) The Bhikku 164 12) Your Self 92 26) The Brahmin 170 13) The World 96 14) The Enlightened One 100 15) Happiness 106 16) Pleasure 110 17) Anger 114 18) Impurity 120 19) The Disciple of Dhamma 20) The Path 132
The Buddha: His Life and His Teaching The Buddha
One of the many legends that circle around the Buddha's life says that his mother Maya left for her parents' house during the last days of her pregnancy, for this was the custom in India. On the way she asked her sister Prajapati to help her reach the flowering branch of a sal tree she had admired from her couch. As she reached for the branch, the tree bent graciously. Soft breezes blew in the scented forest. Her attendants hastily devised a curtain around her. She was still gazing with love at the beauty of the flowering bough when the Buddha was born, in springtime, on the full-moon day of the month of Vaisakh 563 B.C. His father was Raja Suddhodana. Maya and Prajapati were Suddhodana's wives. Maya was forty-five when the Buddha was born. He was named Siddhartha Gautama.
It was decreed that the nurse for Siddhartha, "the Blessing of the World," should be neither too tall, for in that case the neck of the infant would get strained; nor too short, for that would bend his body; nor too large, for that would constrict his legs; nor too weak, for that would not give his body the firmness it needed. Her breasts should not be too full, for then her hot milk would flush his skin; nor too dark, for then her milk would be cold, and cause hard and soft lumps on his growing body. After much searching, one hundred princesses were chosen.
Raja Suddhodana's Brahmin astrologer predicted that the special marks on Siddhartha's body indicated that he would forsake the world and become a Buddha. "He will see the Four Visions-an old man, a diseased man, a dead man, and a holy man." "Let such sights be forbidden in the palace," ordered Suddhodana. '
Siddhartha was married to his beautiful cousin Yasodhara when he was sixteen. Three palaces-nine stories, seven stories, and five stories high-were built for their pleasure. Forty thousand dancing girls were provided for Siddhartha's delight. Nothing displeasing or offensive to the senses was brought before him.
Disheveled. sire: he suffers. white-haired. He is weak and helpless. Or does it happen to all?" "Sire. weeping. Your parents. wailing. A few days later. As the chariot." Angry and disturbed. His friends and family have left him. this is the law of nature. and children grow old.5 One day in spring Siddhartha ordered his charioteer to take him to the royal pleasure gardens. Toothless. He is more in this world. Siddhartha ordered the charioteer to drive him back to the palace. This skeleton." ." "Tell me the truth. "And this man. tottering. charioteer. "These men. It happens to all. charioteer. Hs parents. As birds leave a withered tree. There is no cure for him. you too will grow old. Siddhartha saw an old bent man passing by. entered the gardens. Fouled by his own filth?" "A sick man. pulled by four resplendent horses. women. the man is dead. Bones and nerves showing under skin?" "An old man. sire. your friends. friends and relatives mourn. . charioteer Did he become this himself. Men. not far from the spot where he had seen the old man. "Who is this. he saw a procession of men carrying a body on a coir cot. ." Still later. he found a sick man abandoned beside a road. He will die soon. groaning in pain. carrying That man on a coir cot. charioteer. ?" "Sire.
") So the boy was named Rahula. Health into disease. I would like to be such a man. He entered the palace." (Rahula in Sanskrit means"obstacle. he saw a monk passing by. a bhikku. The learned praise such a man." Siddhartha listened. struck by his handsome majesty. no possessions. sire." "Good.who is he? "A holy man. A beautiful cousin. runners from his father greeted him with a message from the palace. "Charioteer.6 "So this is life! Youth into old age. When he went again to the pleasure gardens. His wife Yasodhara had given birth to a son. and the message of his father was: "Announce my joy to my son. and said: "To me Rahula has been born. He looks on all with equal eyes. so serene He never looks up . Learned fools miscall it pleasure!" Siddhartha locked himself up for many days in the palace. As he descended from his chariot. exclaimed: Nibbhuta nuna samata Nibbhuta nuna sapita Nibbhuta nuna sanari Yasya yana i disa patio . He has no desires. saw him from an upper window and. this gracious man In yellow garments. He is a happy man. paused." For the first time he returned to his palace with a steady mind. the virginal Kisha Gautami.
" Outside the stables stood the magnificent steed Kantaka. He looked at them and was not pleased. They saw him sleeping. some grinding their teeth. He unclasped a pearl necklace worth a hundred thousand gold coins. Channa brought him to the would-be Buddha. where Channa was waiting for him. Siddhartha went to the inner apartment of the palace where his wife Yasodhara was sleeping on a flower-strewn bed. some spitting. * In the meantime. saddle me a horse. His sleek black flanks glistened in the light of Channa's lamp. I am leaving the palace tonight. thinking. He closed his eyes and fell asleep. Then. her left hand resting lightly on the infant Rahula. hundreds of elegantly dressed dancing and singing women. let us sleep too." "Good Channa. He went quickly to the door.7 Blessed the father Blessed the mother Blessed the wife Of a man so glorious!" Siddhartha listened to the beautiful lines and wondered how he should achieve the state of blessedness (for nibbhuta meant both "fortunate" and "serene in Nirvana". . When told it was for her. old flutes. "Any one there ?" "I. looking intently at mother and son. keeper of the stables. finger bells. Putting aside their kettledrums. Saddling Kantaka. filled the rooms. quickly. Exquisite music and laughter. they slept. surrounded him. some yawning. and sent it to her. Around him he saw wild and violent women. He woke at midnight with a start. "If our lord sleeps. "Horrible! 0 horrible!" he whispered to himself. designed to chase away the loneliness of luxury. instructed by his father. some foaming at the mouth. Inside the palace. some drooling. and shouted. Channa. He stood at the door. he went out to the courtyard. Sire. and taking off their anklets. silent. Kisha Gautami thought he had fallen in love with her. some mumbling. vinas. opened it. The oil-filled lamps were sputtering out. A room full of living corpses." they said to each other.
Live! Death is your neighbor. "with these words: " 'Lean. Mahanama. informed by his guards about the arrival of a handsome and dignified mendicant in saffron (for Siddhartha had cut off his hair with his sword and exchanged his royal robe with a beggar). With Sujata's food in his hands. he left themand his five disciples. He said later. offered him wealth and invited him to stay in the palace. Next he went to Udraka. Picking up his staff and begging bowl. Kandanya. left him. the thirty-two holy signs appeared on his body. Live! . "No food tasted better than the one brought to me by Sujata. He went to the forest of Uruvela near Bodh Gaya with five disciples. Siddhartha declined and proceeded to the Magadhan hill where the wise men lived. "Tell them they must not feel sorry for me. he collapsed. he sat down under the sacred Bo-tree. his ribs showed. Bhaddaj. the great Brahmin teacher. Bimbisara. The king of Magadha. You have only two.8 * They rode to the bank of the river Aroma. who wept even as he obeyed. For he wanted to eat it undisturbed." he said later. "She came to me. his mother. There he joined the ascetics in severe self-mortification for six years. to inform his father." The ascetics knew only asceticism. suffering. ill-favored man. Vappa. His flesh grew dark. A villager's daughter Sujata brought him food. a city famous for its Brahmin sages and philosophers. Death has a thousand hands. and Assaji. after the third watch. There he was assailed by Mara the temptress. But Udraka was learned only in metaphysics. But Alara was learned only in the scriptures. One night. and his people that he had decided to become an ascetic. capital of Magadha. Siddhartha asked Channa. He took food daily equal to the size of a sesamum seed." * Siddhartha walked to Rajagriha. First he studied under Alara. disillusioned.
and dragons. Why do you struggle? Hard is struggle. . 0 temptress. while Mara assailed him incessantly. hard to struggle all the time. Mara? What will I do with goodness. snakes. he exclaimed: "Anekajati samsaram sandha ism an anibhisam gahakarakanga visanta dukhayati punah punam . For look. and steady wisdom. Doubt. will dry up my blood. Faith is my weapon. will dry up everything that flows. Powerless against it is your army. He achieved Nirvana at dawn. I shall sit here. from sunset onwards. swords. howling and hooting and whining till the earth shook. The earth shook like a loving bride abducted from her husband. I who have faith? I struggle in faith. and as the full experience of truth flashed on him. and phlegm dry up. with tranquil mind. evil one. That evening.' " To which the holy Siddhartha replied: "Why do you pick on me.9 Live and do good Live holy. with spears. My faith is my life. clubs. Sloth. and diamond maces. bile. like a burning wind drying up rivers. Some had one eye only. Hunger and Thirst. asses. others many. They had heads of hogs. Hypocrisy – All powerless. wisdom slowly came to Siddhartha. . striking at each other. my faith." He sat under the Bo-tree. horses. Bring Lust and Restlessness. of fish. Around him danced a host of fierce soldiers. Cowardice. Till blood. unmoved. and taste reward. They flew and leapt. How many births have I known Without knowing the builder of this body! . tigers. till the next dawn.
A voice inside him kept repeating: "Why reveal to the world your hard-won truth? Can the lustful and selfish ever grasp this truth? Inexplicable and profound is the truth now yours. and suffered. and the impure. . though they wanted to leave them. with none to guide them. with a Buddha's serene eyes. the noble and the ignoble. and their children. 0 builder of this body! All desire is extinct." He was now the Buddha.10 How many births have I looked for him. the ridgepole is smashed! You will not build them again. He was moved to pity. He was moved to pity. And because they wallowed in the five lusts. and saw the world clearly. Because they clung to their wealth. Because he saw mankind drowning in the sea of samsara. He saw the pure men. And because they did not know how to leave them. And he was moved to pity. But now I have seen you. It is painful to be born again and again. the seekers of immortality and those contemptuous of it. Because he saw them lost in false doctrine. And because there stirred in his heart the desire to save them. the good listeners and the wicked ones. He was moved to pity. death. their wives. Nirvana is attained! The rafters have crumbled. How can he know it whose mind is full of the world?" But the Buddha rose like a lotus from stagnant water whose petals are unsullied by muddy drops. of birth. and sorrow.
old age. And because they had hatred in their hearts. and death. killing and maiming. old age. for which they would suffer. and would not find the Dhamma. He was moved to pity. Because some plowed and sowed. and clung to riches. Because some were born. . And the fruit they reaped was the bitter one of suffering. Because some were rich. He was moved to pity. Because it was a time of war and pestilence. and death. He was moved to pity. And because they continued to act in ways that brought birth.11 Because he saw them afraid of birth. and bought and sold.
not freedom. this is erroneous. freedom. when this stops. that is reborn. not increase. friends. because they are not helpful to holiness.well. Keep an eye open. Here is Dhamma: if this is. not solitude. energy. So you see. Logic and argument. noisy company. if you are sure of this -'These doctrines conduce to passion. calm. not restlessness. supply of elaborate reasons. this is censured by the intelligent. lord. delight in evil. that also is. not performance of good'. because they do not lead from knowledge to wisdom and Nirvana. "I will teach you Dhamma. not thrift. that stops too. friends? Are there more simsapa leaves in my hand than in the simsapa grove?" "Very few in your hand. there is no profit in them. increase. that is not the Discipline. not energy. sloth. many more in the grove. custom." * "No matter whose the teachings. of material gain. performance of good. that also is not. if this is not. "What do you think. and hearsay. not calm. that is not the Master's Way. Don't let anyone's excellence in the Scriptures mislead you. he took up a fistful of simsapa leaves and turned to his followers.12 His Teaching "You who follow me. you are sure will conduce to serenity. "And why have I not revealed them? "Because. friends. because they do not lead from disgust to cessation and peace." * When the Enlightened One was staying at Kosambi. not greed. should you reject or accept it. if this is reborn. solitude. loss. the things that I know and have not revealed are more than the truths I know and have revealed. Only when you know." . no matter whose. "But if there are teachings." "Exactly. my friend. not sloth. not loss. respect for the leader who guides you.beware of too much trust in them. not noisy company. greed. approval of considered opinion. consider this carefully. and are sure that you know. Weigh rumor. not . rest assured that is not the Dhamma. not bondage. seekers of truth. of material gain. restlessness. this will lead to loss and grief. not serenity. not passion.this is not good. plausibility of ideas. thrift. bondage. in the Simsapa Grove. "That is why I have not revealed them.only when you know.
What are the things I have not taught? "I have not taught that the world is eternal. or both exists and does not exist after death. 'I will not follow the Dhamma until the Buddha tells me whether the world is eternal or not eternal. to . I have not taught that the liberated person exists after death. and well-wishers gather around him and a surgeon is called. death. Dhamma has only one taste. whether the soul and the body are the same or different. "Therefore. Malunkyaputta. whether the world is finite or infinite." * "Consider. "Being religious and following Dhamma has nothing to do with the dogma that the world is eternal. I am concerned with the extinction of these.' "Or he says. a Brahmin. or of medium height?' "Or: 'Was he black. He will die. Malunkyaputta. But the wounded man says. For whether the world is eternal or otherwise. this? Because all this is useless. brown. have I not taught all. birth. I have not taught that the soul and the body are different. His friends. the taste of Nirvana. or yellow-skinned?' "What do you think would happen to such a man. to peace. I have not taught that the world is infinite. old age.that is the Dhamma. "Why. and despair exist. or an untouchable. Malunkyaputta.' He will die. Malunkyaputta. and it has nothing to do with the other dogma that the world is not eternal. short. it does not lead to cessation of passion. that he neither exists nor does not exist after death. 'Before he takes out this arrow. before I get a chance to make everything clear to him. I have not taught that the soul and the body are the same. it has nothing to do with real Dhamma. whether the liberated person exists or does not exist after death. I want to know if the man who shot me was a Kshatriya. sorrow. I have not taught that the world is not eternal. I have not taught that he both exists and does not exist after death. grief. that is the Discipline.' "Or: 'Was he tall. I have not taught that he does not exist after death. whether he neither exists nor does not exist after death. that is the Master's Way. misery. a merchant.13 delight in evil. Malunkyaputta? Let me tell you." * "The ocean has only one taste. the taste of salt. this story of a man wounded by a poisoned arrow. the things that I have taught and the things that I have not taught. 'I won't let this arrow be removed until I know the name and tribe of the man who shot me. "And that is what happens when a man comes to me and says. I have not taught that the world is finite. relatives. consider carefully. pain.
that suffering has an origin. with birth. and the holy life. sorrow. 0 Enlightened One. that there is a way to end suffering." * "Tell me. pleasant or unpleasant. Things seen are on fire. Malunkyaputta? I have taught that suffering exists. grief. lord. The noble Ananda asked the Buddha. is connected with the eye. Malunkyaputta. He did not reply. that. then. no Self ?". "With what are these on fire? "With the fire of desire. What is there left for me now?' " * "All things. "And what have I taught. Whatever sensation. If I had replied there is no Self. supreme wisdom. consider carefully what I have taught and what I have not taught. lamentation. "Why. have I taught this? Because this is useful. Malunkyaputta. "Is there. 0 monks. wouldn't this have confused him even more? He would have gone away saying to himself. Eye vision is on fire. is there a Self?" The Buddha kept silent. with the fire of hate and delusion. and Nirvana. Ananda. "Therefore. I have constantly held that all things are not-Self -would it have been right on my part then to have told Vacchagotta that there is a Self? And if I had replied that there is not a Self. . is on fire. "Why. to Nirvana. the holy life. did you not answer Vacchagotta's questions?" "Supposing. misery. it has to do with real Dhamma. and despair. it leads to the cessation of passion. I had replied that there is a Self. would have meant siding with those ascetics and Brahmins who class themselves as Annihilationists. That is why I have taught all this. are on fire.14 supreme wisdom. Impressions received by the eye are on fire. that suffering can be ended. that would have meant siding with those ascetics and Brahmins who describe themselves as Eternalists. Vacchagotta rose and left. death. old age. it brings peace. 'I believed in a Self. And what are these things which are on fire? "The eye is on fire. That is why I have not taught all this. Ananda.
This must be understood. and this is the noble truth of suffering -birth is painful. . sickness is painful. vulgar.15 "All things are burning. tastes are on fire . things touched are on fire. whatever sensation. not getting what you want is painful. quick pleasure. right watchfulness. "Suffering has an end. sorrow. misery. . and despair are painful. desire mixed with pleasure and lust. and to Nirvana. death. "What. wisdom. you will ask me. . and this is the noble truth of the end of suffering-nothing remains of desire. wisdom and enlightenment. sounds are on fire. and be free of the fire of desire. right intentions. "With what are these on fire? "With the fire of desire. and this is the noble truth of the origin of suffering. The mind is on fire. "Suffering has an origin. monks.desire creates sorrow. . "For there is suffering. right profession. and useless practice of self-torture and mortification. right watchfulness. Take the Middle Path advised by the Buddha. with birth. odors are on fire. ignoble. . old age. dejection. desire for life. The nose is on fire. is connected with the mind is also on fire. and despair." * . Right views. and desire even for non-life. . lamentation. old age is painful. . grief. on the other. Mind-awareness is on fire. right intentions. right concentration. The body is on fire. all is given up. with the fire of hate and delusion. right action. "The ear is on fire. . This is the Middle Path. painful. which leads to insight. Which two? On the one hand. right action. Contact with the unpleasant is painful. is the Middle Path? It is the Eightfold Way. impressions received by the mind are on fire. right speech. enlightenment. "This is the noble truth of suffering. right speech. "And this is the noble truth that leads to Nirvana-it is the Eightfold Way or right views. . . . peace. . and Nirvana. "All things are burning. for it leads to insight and peace. and useless indulgence in passion and luxury. death is painful. ignoble. . lamentation. right effort. . Nirvana is attained. detached. . "Cultivate aversion. ideas are on fire. * "Avoid these two extremes. . renounced. pleasant or unpleasant. 0 monks. and right concentration. low. and abandoned. The tongue is on fire. right profession.
. conceive. a worker? . . or scavenger who picks up two sticks from a pigsty or dog trough?" * A village chief came to the Buddha and asked: "Is the Buddha compassionate to all living creatures. a worker? Is the fire produced by a Brahmin rubbing two sal sticks together any brighter than the fire produced by a trapper. one average. And the same applies to feeling. stable.16 "I do not quarrel with the world. I agree with them that this is not so." he replied. supposing a farmer had three fields. Tell me. and breast feed their children. unstable. which would he sow first?" . "Just as a blue. perception. And yet these Brahmins. can only a Brahmin show love. consciousness. consciousness. . How can a true disciple of Dhamma quarrel with the world? If the learned are agreed that a thing is. and thought structure. big and small ?" "Yes. say that they are better than children from the other castes. And the same applies to feeling. and is not soiled by it. and goodness? Can't a warrior. and one rocky-when the time came to sow seed. eternal.they are agreed that this is not so. and thought structure. Assalayana? Is only a Brahmin capable of having a heart of gold. a truth-finder grows up in the world but overcomes it. changing. "What are the learned agreed upon as 'It is'? The material world is impermanent. red. or white lotus grows in stagnant water. Assalayana. gentleness. perception. I agree with the learned that it is. I agree with them that this is so. and full of suffering . born as all other children are born. Can only a Brahmin go to the river with a string of bath balls and powder and wash himself clean of dirt? Can't a warrior. . unchanging. I agree with the learned that it is not. bamboo weaver. . Brahmin women have periods. it is the world that quarrels with me. "What do you think. "What are the learned agreed upon as 'It is not'? The material world is permanent. a merchant.they are agreed that this is so. a merchant. village chief. give birth. . "Then why does the Buddha teach Dhamma in full to some and not to others ?" "A good question. If the learned are agreed that it is not. monks." * "Look. one fertile. but rises clear and unpolluted out of it.
" * "Take a physician skilled in his science. delicately flavored and colored. or twenty. and are cured.17 “First the fertile. if you like.' "They are grief -stricken. a learned and humane person. in spirit and in letter. . Then I teach it to the lay followers. a hundred. He is called to some important business in a foreign land.' So he goes away to a foreign land and sends a messenger to them with this news : 'Your father is dead. in his absence his sons take some harmful drugs. He returns just in time. they refuse it. 'Our father is dead.' "He tells them.' "The news shocks them. "For the same reason. It won't lose its power to heal. middle. Then the others. . then the average. We didn't know the drugs were so poisonous. take the medicine. and end. then perhaps the rocky one. "The others are happy too that their father is back and ask him to heal their illness. and their grief soon opens their eyes.' "The father is moved by their suffering and selects some fine plants and herbs. but when the medicine is offered.' they whisper among themselves. They are glad to see me back but are unwilling to take the medicine I give them. I teach Dhamma in full. and mixes them in the right proportions and gives the medicine to them. Take it: it is delicately flavored and colored. I leave behind this medicine. because that would not even give him cattle fodder. . sifts. he would give us the right medicine. 'I am an old man. others are still in their senses. 'This is good medicine. Please make us well again. I haven't long to live. These welcome him and kneeling before him say. Why? Because the drugs they have taken have confused their power of judgment. He pounds. They quickly take it and are cured. "So the father thinks to himself: 'What a pity they cannot see straight. . 'How good for us that you have returned in time! We were fools. It will cure you of your suffering." The Buddha said. He has many sonslet us say ten. in beginning. But he has died in a foreign land. Now they see the value of the delicately flavored and colored medicine their father gave them before he left. saying. to the monks and nuns first. and they are not sure if this excellent medicine is really as excellent as claimed. When the news reaches their father that they are cured. I must make preparations to leave this world. Keep it with you. 'If he were living. he returns. or. Let me see what can be done. which send them rolling on the ground in fever and frenzy. and what does he find? Some are beyond cure. . He would cure us.' "The sensible ones see quickly the truth of his words.
the "Frail" Gautami." . "Give my son medicine. She was reborn as Kisha Gautami in the house of poor people in the city of Savatthi. For the first time she knew what it was to be respected." he replied. There is none greater than him in the world of men and the world of gods. because she was delicate and tired easily." she said loudly. They married her off early because her husband's people were well-off." They laughed. "in coming here for medicine." She placed her dead son on her left hip and went from house to house. Go to the monastery where he meditates. But because she came of poor parents. saying. Ask him for medicine. she went and stood on the outside of the crowd that had gathered around the Buddha. and thought he was in love with her. Medicine for the dead? They clapped their hands and made fun of her. "0 holy one. "You did well. "give me medicine for my son !" He looked at her. Then. what do you think? Who is there among you who will condemn the good physician for telling a lie ?" * They called her Kisha Gautami. he died. She had sung the song heard by the young would-be Buddha as he entered the palace. they would even mock her. Listen to me carefully. Then she had died. A wise man saw her and said to himself. Bring my son back to me. When she gave birth to a son. the one who has reached what has to be reached.18 "Tell me. What do you mean? You must be mad. The boy grew up and reached the age when he could play and run about with friends. my friends. Kisha Gautami. "If there is any medicine to be had for a person in such a condition. go to the Tathagatha. it will be found with the Buddha. begin at the beginning. Go back to the city. quietly and suddenly. they stopped neglecting and mocking her. "They respected me because I gave birth to him. "Good woman. she had received the necklace he had sent her. quickly and suddenly. What will they do to me now? What will they do to him? They will throw his body away." So he said to her. her in-laws neglected her. Kisha felt a deep pain inside her. and bring me a fistful of mustard seed from the first house in which no one has ever died." With her son on her left hip.
"The holy one wants me to bring him a fistful of mustard seed as medicine for my son." She placed her child on the cremation ground and went back to the Buddha. my dear son." "Monks. would he be doing what he should do?" "No. "0 my son." "Poor Gautami. only this law is eternal.19 "I will do so. If he did this. It is a universal law . listen to the parable of the raft. when he has crossed over to safety. But death is everywhere. When he crosses over. "did you get the mustard seed?" "Holy one. sticks. He would have had some pity on her. should he keep it back for someone else to use. "Kisha Gautami. A man going on a journey sees ahead of him a vast stretch of water. She took her son to the cremation ground. my little son." she said gratefully. There must be one without a death in it! The Buddha could not have been so cruel. "the dead are everywhere. "The holy one told me not to bring mustard seed from a house in which a death had taken place. market law. "Has anyone died in this house?" she asked." she replied. "They have never stopped dying. house law are passing. holy one." they said. only you died. he builds a raft for himself out of grass." "Or.all must die." they replied." She went to a second house-to a third-and a fourth. he realizes how useful the raft has been to him and wonders if he should not lift it on his shoulders and take it away with him. "So many deaths. Village law. There is no boat within sight. Joyfully she entered the first house and said." "Take back the seed. and no bridge. "enough of this business of the mustard seed! Only give me refuge. . ." he asked. . and branches. To escape from the dangers of this side of the bank." Kisha Gautami said. "I thought when you died. holding him in front of her in her arms. She could not find a single house to bring mustard seed from." she said. Can you give me mustard seed?" They brought out and gave her mustard seed.
' He let one feel the elephant's head. only the going forward. and remember to leave the raft behind. 'the doctrine of the right Dhamma. each thinking it has the full truth. the trunk a plow. they do not know. I give it to Mahakashyapa. The man said to the assembled group: 'This is an elephant. foot. "'I have in my hand. monks: No shrinking back." '*' "The noble Eightfold Way arises by living with what is lovely. He ordered a man to assemble all the blind subjects of the kingdom and bring an elephant in front of them. monks. one by one. not for keeping. "This was done. 'This is an elephant. They are blind. To each who felt. on dry and high ground? This is the way I have taught Dhamma." . "So you see. The ear feeler was convinced it was a winnowing basket. the tail a whip. he said. what they thought an elephant was. birthless.20 and leave it. still another its tusk. Only Mahakashyapa smiled. 'I know what an elephant is!' 'No.' This must be the way you train yourselves. inscrutable. I do!' 'You're wrong!' 'It's like this!' They came to blows. therefore.' "The raja turned to his blind subjects and asked them. and so on until the trunk. another its ear. and let my flesh and blood dry up. tail and tail tuft were covered. The raja was pleased." '*' "He picked up a flower and showed it to the assembled people. It is beyond sacred texts. Cast aside even right states of mind. they do not see the goal. how the sects quarrel over Dhamma. monks. deathless. for crossing.' " '*' "This must be your motto. back. it grows to perfection by constant friendship with what is lovely. "They did not understand. let alone wrong ones. so long as I have a glimmer of energy I will not give up the search for truth. The head feeler thought an elephant was a pot. "And they quarreled. the foot a pillar. for he had made his point.' he said. formless. shouting. it does not need words to explain it. no giving up the struggle. If already risen. The tusk became a plowshare." "Take the case of the raja of Savatthi. and the tuft a floor duster. Always have this thought in your mind: 'Let me be reduced to skin and bone.
Be an island.21 "I am now eighty years old. be a lamp to yourself. Learn to look after yourself." "Well. Whatever consists of component parts will die. sire. "Did your gurus see him?" "No. Ananda. Ananda.' But is not the Dhamma with you." . . "Therefore. . and seek Nirvana in the truth? How is one to be an island? "Let a man. "No. Ananda."Whoever. respected Nagasena. seen the Buddha?" "No." replied the philosopher Nagasena." King Milinda asked: "Have you. hold fast to the truth. so treat his body that. what if I say then that there is no such person as the Buddha ?" "Sire. Ananda. I drag my body along like a worn-out bullock cart. Nagasena. . Only truth can save you. bhikkus. "Hold fast to the truth as a lamp. 'The Teacher is no more. have you seen the Himalayan river Uha?" "No." "Did your father ever see it ?" "Not that I know. How often have I told you that it is in the very nature of life that what we love most must be taken from us? How can it be otherwise? What is born is doomed at the moment of its birth to die. "How is this to be done. The end of my journey has come. and the Sangha? Have I not left these behind? Let them be your Teachers. and right concentration. shall attain what is important to be attained. now or after I die. do not wait for outside help. sire. "One last word. Be an island. Ananda? How is one to be a lamp to oneself and not wait for outside help. There is no other way. he will overcome the sorrow that is produced by the sensations that arise in the body. "It is only when my thoughts are completely concentrated on the inner vision that has no bodily object that my body is at peace. "Some of you will say. we have no one left to lead us. though living in the body. Do not look for any help besides yourself. But he must make the effort himself. with right effort. Work out your Nirvana with diligence. with great hardship. shall be a lamp to himself. right watchfulness. no weeping. . and shall not look outside of himself for refuge -he alone. an island to himself.
" "But there is. he became neither here nor there. sire: I may not have seen him. Nagasena. sire. and immeasurable? Could they pronounce its fullness unaffected though the five great rivers Ganga. But you may know him by the Dhamma. Yamuna. have seen great disciples who have attained Nirvana declare that the Buddha is greater than all. sire. I may not have seen it and my father may not have seen it. Achiravati. But is the Buddha greater than all?" "Yes. respected Nagasena?" "Supposing. for he taught the Dhamma. deep. the flames of a great fire are extinguished." "So." "So could I. where do they go? Here or there? Where?" "Neither here nor there." "But where is the Buddha? Here or there ?" "Neither here nor there. . and left it behind. Nagasena.22 "Then there is no such river as the Uha. Could those who have not seen the great ocean declare it to be powerful. and Mahu. and my gurus may not have seen him. flow into it all the time ?" "Yes. sire. when the Buddha achieved Nirvana. They disappear." "What do you mean." "But you have not seen him." "So. sire. but there is such a person as the Buddha. they could. sire. "Good. Sorabhu. but there is a river called Uha." . holy Nagasena. sire. How do you know he is greater than all ?" "Let me explain.
equally foolish that untruth is in truth – such thinking leads nowhere. "He abused me. discipline is denied? Cast aside meanness. . full of faith. he robbed me" ? Will hate ever touch him if he does not think. learn discipline and speak the truth. Like the wheel that follows the cart-pulling ox. restless. How will hate leave him if a man forever thinks.23 39 Ten Twin Verses We are what we think. he robbed me" ? There is only one eternal law: Hate never destroys hate. like a shadow faithfully tailing a man. Sorrow follows an evil thought. and slothful. he defeated me. they do not argue. he hit me. We are what we think. only love does. Impossible for the wind to bend a mountain! So is Mara helpless before all who are moderate. "He abused me. they are the wise ones. if truth is lacking. How quickly does a small tree break before a big wind! So Mara the temptress breaks all who are lascivious. disciplined. stand on virtue. Some never see the point of disciplining themselves. having become what we thought. And joy follows a pure thought. he defeated me. Foolish to think that truth is in untruth. gluttonous. he hit me. and active. having become what we thought. Others do. Then will the robe fit you. What good is a yellow robe if your mind is not pure? What will the robe do.
His deeds breed happiness. For the evil man. and folly are abandoned. suffering everywhere. suffering in this world and the next. happiness in this world and the next. untruth always untruththis is what matters. hate. Happiness for the good man happiness now. and he suffers." he says.24 Truth is always truth. now. What matters is action rightly performed. happiness later. . suffering now and later. Passion surrenders to the careful mind like rain helpless before a well-thatched hut. happiness everywhere. His deeds breed suffering. For the good man. "I have done wrong. what good is parroting of holy texts if a man will not get up and gather holiness? Words do not matter. after lust. Lazy cowherd counting others' cows. and complete detachment from the fruit of action. with true knowledge and serene mind. Like rain seeping through an ill-thatched hut. More suffering for him in the next birth." he says. happiness now and later. suffering later. having none of his own. Only suffering for the evil man suffering now. passion enters the careless mind.and rejoices. He rejoices more in the next birth.and suffers. this is right desire. and he rejoices. what matters is Dhamma. "I have done good.
He steps forward: this clear thinker and pure worker. Sees. . this dignified and disciplined disciple of Dhamma.25 Clear Thinking Clear thinking leads to Nirvana. Let us praise clear thinking. delights in its purity. "Never sloth. an island safe from floods. the wise man's treasure is his clear thinking. Clear thinking. Suppressing sloth steadily. The wise man appreciates clear thinking. he works. He is the wise man. Sloth is loved by the ignorant and foolish. as one from a high hill sees the level plain. the confused ones have never lived. right action. the race horse swiftly advancing. Clear thinkers do not die. which brings great joy. Clear thinking made Indra chief god. burning all bondage. and selects it as the means to Nirvana. they sleep. never the senses" – This is clear thinking. he perseveres. A bhikku with clear thinking sees confusion clearly. below. the suffering multitudes. a man climbs the tower of serene wisdom. never lust. While others sleep he is awake. confusion canceler. a confused mind is a place of death. slowly. discipline and restraint make an island for the wise man. For it moves like a flame. He meditates. and is not afraid. big and small. he works hard for the incomparable freedom and bliss of Nirvana.
. He sees confusion clearly.26 A bhikku with clear thinking is close to Nirvana. and is not afraid.
who is not serene. A disciplined mind is the road to Nirvana. It is not long before the body.it is subtle. Flapping like a fish thrown on dry ground. invisible. look to it well . a frail jar. Swift. No point calling him wise whose mind is unsteady. it sits in the cave of the heart. He attacks Mara with the weapon of wisdom. lies on the ground. a fickle and restless weapon. . A disciplined mind is the road to Nirvana. He knows the body for what it is. struggling to escape from the snares of Mara the temptress. the wise man steadies his trembling mind. nebulous. treacherous. To control it is good. whose senses are controlled. like a burnt-out faggot. single. The mind is restless. he guards what he conquers jealously. who is unaffected by good and evil. who is wakeful. poor thing. frees himself from the slavery of death. Call him wise whose mind is calm. Look to your mind. wise man. Who conquers it. bereft of breath and feeling. who does not know the Dhamma.27 Mind Like an archer an arrow. it trembles all day. he makes his mind firm like a fortress.
. nor relative can help as helps a mind that is well disciplined.28 No hate can hurt. no foe can harm. mother. Neither father. as hurts and harms a mind ill disciplined.
It is not what others do. that is my concern: It is what I do. the disciple of Dhamma. Knowing flesh is only froth. like the bee. Like floods that come and collect an unsuspecting village. The good man conquers this world. but harming neither color nor scent. the disciple transcends the flowery arrows of lust. the world of Yama and the world of the gods? Like a connoisseur picking a flower. that is my concern. Is there a limit to the variety of garlands skilled hands make from a heap of flowers? Is there a limit to the number of good deeds a man may do once he is born? . Death cannot touch him. the good man chooses Dhamma. like a dream in a desert. the world of Yama and the world of the gods. death claims the restless collector of flowers. His mind is restless after many flowers. Let the wise man live in the flower of his village. or do not do. Lovely flowers full of fragrance Are sweet words with sweet action. gently taking honey. Lovely flowers without fragrance Are sweet words without sweet action. before he can have them death is upon him. and what I do not do. He is the connoisseur picking a flower.29 Flowers Who conquers this world.
And Mara stands helpless before the clear thinker and perfect knower. . their fame is endless. Like the lotus softly fragrant and soul-delighting.30 The wind carries the scent of flowers only where it goes. the good man. but the fragrance of good men spreads everywhere. The disciple of the Enlightened Buddha shines in perfect wisdom Clear above the crowds of ordinary men who do not see the truth. and tagara fragrance. jasmine. and give a little fragrance. rising clear from scraps of rubbish in a wayside pond. Sandalwood and tagara are delicately scented. but the fragrance of virtue rises even to the gods. sandalwood.
yet his holiness is not one-sixteenth that of the wise knower of Dhamma. III deed is sweet.which is bitterness and grief. a serious man learns wisdom from a pandit. go alone! Loneliness is better than friendship of a fool. A fool sits with a blade of holy grass. Well done is deed that gives sweetness. III done is deed that breeds bitterness. very long is life to the fool without Dhamma.31 The Fool Very long is the night to him who is awake. . He himself is not his. with which he daily licks a pot of honey." The words of a fool. whose reward is lamentation and remorse. Does a spoon know the taste of broth? Can a fool learn wisdom from a pandit ? As quickly as a tongue knows the taste of broth. let us say. How can sons be his? How can wealth be his? The fool who knows he is foolish is. The fool who thinks he is wise is hugely foolish. If you find no better or equal on life's road. "These sons are mine. reaps bitter fruit. A fool is his own enemy. Till it bear fruit.so the fool thinks. very long the road to him who is weary. does evil deeds. wise. This wealth is mine. whose reward is unending delight.
look. neither does a fresh evil deed. monk. I know what's right and I know what's wrong. his merit is destroyed." The pride and passion of a fool's words! One road goes to profit.32 Fresh milk does not curdle. like embers under ashes. and slowly destroys the fool. "Look. 0 bhikku. Know this. not the world's fame. disciple of Buddha. and struggle for wisdom. power in monasteries. lordship over bhikkus. What a fool wants is cheap fame. householder. . I am powerful. and puja from everybody. The little knowledge a fool picks up goes against him. his share of brightness gets tarnished. it smolders. another to Nirvana. I do this.
Wind will not move rock. good men are undemanding. a kingdom. Only good can come from him. archers shoot arrows. such a man is wise and virtuous. Good men do not stop working. Most wander lost here.33 The Wise Man If a pandit rebukes or advises. a revealer of hidden treasures. The ill-minded do not care. or money for himself or for others. Good men do not gossip. Good men are constant. Shun the low-minded and ill-doing. or commands. nor praise and blame a wise man. follow him. Wisdom finds delight in the noble Dhamma. follow himhe is a wise man. . The words of the Dhamma flow into him: he is clear and peaceful like a lake. If he instructs. as the right-minded do. To drink Dhamma is to be serene. Choose friends virtuous and excellent. restrains. a man who uses prudence in furthering his own welfare – such a man is holy. Planners make canals. craftsmen fashion woodwork. nor sorrow. A man who does not want a son. the wise man molds himself. very few are they who reach the farther shore. Joy does not affect them.
He gives up home. He is radiant. casting away his pleasures. single. He knows the roots of knowledge.34 But the disciples of Dhamma find Nirvana. Alone. and desires to be homeless. Nirvana is his. the wise man. going beyond the difficult kingdom of death. he cleanses his heart-and rejoices. a hard choice. He gives up darkness and chooses light. He is free from attachment. His senses are well disciplined. .
and lives untouched by the flow of time. hospitable. like a swan flown from its lake. Even the gods envy him. He has no fixed habitation. yet is not proud. He has reached the end of his road. peaceful his deed. like an unmuddy lake. holy is the place where saints dwell. tranquil his mind. aware of the meaning of freedom. who has abandoned desire. knowledge his food. Village or forest. he has left his home. who will not be deceived. peaceful his speech. the saint without passions. self-cleansing. He has found freedompeaceful his thinking. he is free from the wheel of birth and death. he is serious. this charioteer saint who tames the horses of his senses. He is like the earth. like a floor mat. freedom his world. submissive. who knows the essence. No one is higher than him. renounced the world. water or land.35 The Saint No suffering for him who is free from sorrow free from the fetters of life free in everything he does. indifferent to food. . Like a bird invisibly flying in the sky. Like a bird flying invisibly in the sky while others wonder. while others wonder. he lives. he lives without possessions.
36 Holy is the forest. where the saint finds refuge and simple delight. . Holy is the place where the senses are at peace.
37 The Thousands Better than a thousand vacuous speeches is one sane word leading to peace. One man for a hundred years performs the sacrificial fire in a forest. Consider him greater. Month after month for a hundred years. Neither a god. performed for the earning of merit. a man pays homage with a hundred sacrifices. One day of wisdom and clear thinking is better than a hundred years of ignorance and indiscipline. offering. not others. learn restraint. Better than a thousand vacuous verses is one sane line leading to peace. If a man honor the aged and practice faith. nor a gandharva. or gift. One man on the battlefield conquers an army of a thousand men.and he is greater. Consider him greater. four rewards follow: long life. beauty. Another for a moment honors the enlightened man. nor Mara can topple the self-conquered man. A year's sacrifice. One day of virtue and clear thinking is better than a hundred years of vice and indiscipline. is not worth a quarter of homage to virtue. Another conquers himself . Conquer yourself. Better than a hundred vacuous verses is one sane truth leading to peace. joy. Discipline yourself. . Another for a second honors a self-conquered man. and strength.
. One day of insight into beginning and end is better than a hundred years of ignorance about this.38 One day of effort and struggle is better ~ than a hundred years of sloth and weakness. One day of the experience of deathlessness is better than a hundred years of ignorance about this. One day of knowledge of Dhamma is better than a hundred years of ignorance about this.
. and some find Nirvana. One evil is enough-why repeat it? Only grief will follow if the mind thinks evil. the sinners to hell. Some think lightly. A rich and lonely trader avoids lonely dark roads. joy surrounds him. Like dust flung at the wind which the wind flings back. Sad is the good man till good deeds ripen. The good go to heaven. A man in love with life avoids poison. Some think lightly. When evil ripens. Happy is the sinner till evil ripens. and poison cannot harm it. A finger without a wound touches poison." Evils fill a fool as drops fill a waterpot. Where in the world can a man escape the evil results of his evil deeds? – Not in the sky. evil recoils on the fool who harms the innocent. Evil takes over when good is neglected. not in the ocean. When good deeds ripen. "Evil won't touch me.39 Evil Conduct Move towards good. "Virtues won't affect me. Only joy will follow if the mind thinks good." Little drops fill a waterpot. A wise man avoids evil deeds. Evil cannot harm one who is not evil. some are born again. he comes to grief. Little virtues make a wise man. One good is a beginning which needs repetition. Cease from evil.
not in the ocean.40 not in the deep valleys of mighty mountains. Where can a man escape death? – Not in the sky. Not in the deep valleys of mighty mountains. .
lying supine will not help. A man seeks his happiness and strikes with a stick others who seek happiness just like himself. Therefore. disease. He will not find happiness after his death. How will a fool doing evil deeds know this? He learns the hard way. death of relatives. Speak gently. and when he dies. Do as you would want done to you. Another seeks his happiness and does not strike others who seek happiness just like himself. dreadful allegation. do not kill. or lightning falling on his house. Like a cowherd with his staff pushing cattle into new pasture. and rebound on the speaker. All fear punishment. Therefore. The man who punishes those who do not deserve punishment. Sitting naked and still will not help. He will find happiness after his death. burning in the fire of his deeds. ash rubbed on body. matted hair. falling from royal favor. loss of precious wealth.41 Punishment All fear punishment. do not kill. or offends the inoffensive. . all fear death. fasting. insanity. and they will respond. he goes to hell. or cause to kill. and dust will not help. all love life. Nirvana: When the agitated mind is as still as a broken gong. old age with death pushes the world's creatures into new lives. He suffers one of ten punishments: grief. Angry words hurt. or cause to kill. infirmity. Do as you would want done. injury. punishes and offends himself.
craftsmen fashion woodwork. . the ascetic. energetic when spurred. the wise man molds himself. firm. energy and practice of the Dhamma will set you free. Be like the good horse. meditation. chaste. swift. the bhikku. Who is there in the world so chastened by conscience that he never needs prodding? For a good horse the whip is useless. Planners make canals. What matters if he dresses well? If his mind is serene.42 if the mind is not purified within. Devotion. archers shoot arrows. knowledge. if he practices nonviolence. faith. he is the Brahmin.
" is the only wisdom. corrupt. "Only virtue is stainless. Like glittering royal chariots slowly rusting.43 Old Age The world is burning: why is there laughter. this body. Let him who will rejoice in this. the young men without discipline or struggle. death. wounded. for the darkness surrounds you. Look at it-this painted shadow. It is painful to be born again and again. and deceit. 0 builder of this body! All desire is extinct. diseased. Nirvana is attained! The rafters have crumbled. the body moves into old age. How many births have I known without knowing the builder of this body! How many births have I looked for him. pride. They lie like rejected bows. And its bones are cast away like seeds of watermelon in autumn. But now I have seen you. Around these bones is built the fort. held together by thoughts that come and go. Living in it are old age. dreaming of the past. diseases nest in it. like old cranes starving in a lake without fish. crumbling. This body decays: it is frail. . mortared with flesh and plastered with blood. rejoice. it lives only to die. these young men without discipline or struggle in their youth. They pine away. why the sounds of joy? Seek enlightenment. the ridgepole is smashed! You will not build them again. it breaks into pieces. A man who learns little grows old like an ox: his body grows but his mind remains stagnant. 0 fool.
This refuge is hard to achieve. Easy to do an evil deed easy to harm oneself. however noble. you reap the bitter fruit. Look after your self. dead after fruit-bearing. You leave it undone. then teach others-is the way of the pandit. test it and see. His enemy could not be more delighted.44 Your Self Value your self. evil crushes the evildoer. very difficult indeed. you can only save yourself. Like the khattaka tree. look after your self. Learn what is right. there is no other refuge. than the Dhamma of another. You cannot save another. You do the evil deed. You are your own refuge. Diamond breaks diamond. Better is your own Dhamma. This lord is difficult to conquer. your self is purified. Be watchful throughout your life. . evil overpowers the evildoer. and the virtuous. there is no other lord. One's self is the lord of oneself. however weak. Difficult to do a good deed. As the creeper strangles the sal tree. or cut down for the sake of its fruit. the noble. and be firm in your goal. the foolish man sows his own destruction by mocking the wise.
The follower of Dhamma is happy now and forever. Say: "The world is a bubble. Wake up! There is no time to lose. the scoffer of the other world. avoid evil. The follower of Dhamma is happy now and forever. but the wise know better. all creatures that have power fly through the air. forsake false doctrine. not the path of evil. has determined to be wise. No better. Fools are not generous: the world of the gods is not for the stingy. the mocker of Dhamma. The wise conquer Mara the temptress. . Fools are deceived. Blind. the world is a shadow. blind is the world. like birds from a net. only a handful can see. Follow Dhamma. Follow Dhamma. once foolish. deny the world. and escape from the world. Like the moon slipping from behind a cloud and shining on the earth is the man whose good deeds exceed his evil deeds. Only a handful escape. Like the moon slipping from behind a cloud and shining on the earth is the man who. glittering with paint.45 The World Think clearly. Look! The world is a royal chariot." The king of death is helpless in the face of this wisdom. Wise men are generous: they find happiness in the next birth. Swans fly to the world of the sun. the liar. There is no evil that he will not do.
better than lordship over all the worlds. is one step taken on the stream that leads to Nirvana. better than going to the gods. .46 Better than lordship over the world.
The Enlightened One He conquers and is not conquered, none in the world enters what he conquers, he is the Buddha, the enlightened one, infinitely aware, leader of himself, impossible to describe in the languages of men. No desires like nets trap him, no passions like poison affect him. He is the Buddha, the enlightened one, infinitely aware, leader of himself, impossible to describe in the languages of men. Even the gods imitate wise men, the enlightened, the dignified, the meditating, the free. Hard it is to get born human, hard it is to live like a human; hard it is to listen to Dhamma, hard to achieve the state of enlightenment. Avoid evil, do good, cleanse your mind – this is the teaching of the enlightened ones. Be patient-long patience is high penance. Nothing is higher than Nirvana. No monk hurts, no ascetic oppresses another. No malice, no injury, disciplined eating and behaving, high thinking and simple livingthis is the teaching of the enlightened ones. A rain of gold coins will not quench passion. The wise man knows, "Passions are passing and painful." Divine pleasures will not quench passion. Delight lies only in the destruction of desire. Afraid, man runs to a place of safety, to mountains, forests, sacred trees, and shrines.
48 Nothing is safe, not one of these is safe! when he arrives there, his passions accompany him. The only safety is the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the Four Noble Truths - the enlightened one knows this. Suffering, the cause of suffering, the end of suffering, and the noble Eightfold Path that leads to the end of suffering That is your refuge, that only is safe; having reached that safety, all sorrows cease. A noble man is hard to find. The house where he is born prospers. Blessed is the birth of the enlightened one, blessed is the teaching of Dhamma, blessed are they who make the Sangha, blessed are they who live in harmony. The man who respects those worthy of respect (whether the enlightened one or his disciples), those who have conquered and crossed the stream of sorrow, The man who pays respect to those who are free from the world, free from fear – such a man's merit is measureless.
Happiness Let us live happily, hating none though others hate. Let us live without hate among those who hate. Let us live happily, free from disease, among the diseased. Let us live diseaseless among the diseased. Let us live happily, ungrieving among others who grieve. Let us live without grief among those who grieve. Let us live happily, without possessions. Let us feed on happiness like the shining gods. Victory breeds hate; the defeated will grieve. Who goes beyond victory and defeat is happy. No fire like passion, no sickness like hate, no grief like the ego's, and no joy like peace. No disease like greed, no sorrow like desire. He who knows this is fit for Nirvana. No gift like health, no wealth like calm of mind, no faith like trust, no peace like Nirvana. He who drinks from Dhamma the sweetness of solitude and the sweetness of serenity finds freedom from fear and freedom from sin. Living with fools is endless pain. Better to live with an enemy instead. Living with wise men, like living with kinsmen, brings happiness.
Like the moon moving among star clusters, one should move among the wise, the holy, the faithful, the noblethis is the essence of wisdom.
losing himself in the delights of the world. virtuous. When. after a long journey a man returns home. safely . liking brings fear. The man who curbs craving is free from grief and free from fear. To lose what one loves is pain. Only he crosses the stream of life who wishes to know what is known as Unknowable. Desire brings grief. The man who curbs affection is free from grief and free from fear. envies the man who prefers meditation. Only he is free who neither likes nor dislikes. For which reason. control the senses. Dear to the world is the man who is truthful. friends. Give up both pleasant and unpleasant! Missing the pleasant is pain. Craving brings grief. .51 Pleasure Who runs after pleasure and shuns meditation. and discriminating. craving brings fear. The man who curbs desire is free from grief and free from fear. Affection brings grief. Liking brings grief. The man who curbs liking is free from grief and free from fear.kinsmen. and finding the unpleasant is also pain. who is lord of his senses and filled with dedication. and well-wishers rejoice. affection brings fear. desire brings fear. which is devotion to Dhamma. who pursues his own business.
52 So. . his good deeds rejoice. waiting like kinsmen to receive a friend. when a man travels from this birth to the next.
and they blame the quiet one. -Three ways to go to the gods. Hold it firm. Who dares blame him? The gods praise him. steady it! Be the true charioteerdon't just finger the reins. But the man who is known by those who know to be spotless. Be liberal. There was never. true even now. and virtuous. there never will be. Atula. How can grief touch you if nothing is your own? Anger gallops like a wild chariot. He is like a gold coin found in the Jambu River. give up pride. find the eternal peace. who is spared? "They blame the garrulous one. Give up worldly desires." -An old truth. Those who are wakeful. be generous to the miser. Atula. who struggle for Nirvana. Saints subdue their bodies.53 Anger Throw away anger. do good to evil. Be gentle with anger. . wise. truthful to the liar. Curb anger. who study day and night. there is not now a man for whom there is all blame. Tell me. Be truthful. saints injure nobody. They find the eternal peace in which is no grieving. meditative. Brahma praises him. or all praise.
Use the purified body to follow Dhamma. Use the purified tongue to speak truth. Use the purified mind to practice virtue. Learn to discipline it.54 Beware of the restless body. Beware of the restless mind. . speech. and mind are well disciplined. Learn to discipline it. They are well disciplined indeed whose body. Learn to discipline it. Beware of the restless tongue.
As a smith removes flaws in silver. be like an island. goodness unrepeated declines. O unprepared for the journey. Life is over. be wise. a wise man removes flaws in himself. Cleansed of weakness. As a house unrepaired decays. Cleansed of weakness. you will find heaven. Neglect of one's appearance decays it. one by one. . carefully. be like an island. impure are all evil deeds now and forever. there is no rest on this road! Be a lamp to your self. Struggle hard. slowly. the mind stagnates. the land which few find. Impure is the woman immodest. you will find freedom from birth and old age. and rust devours iron. unprepared for the journey Be a lamp to your self. Iron breeds rust. Struggle hard.55 Impurity Here you are. impure the calculating giver. be wise. a withered leaf. and all becomes pure. waiting for the messenger of death. But nothing is more impure. so ill deeds devour their doer. 0 bhikkus. and you stand in Death's presence. Cast aside ignorance. neglected. than ignorance. You stand at the threshold.
commits adultery. because he has rooted out envy. covets others' wealth. Some give out of faith. and the gentle person. Listen. the disinterested. . And surrenders himself to strong liquors. 0 man! Indiscipline begets evil. or.56 Life is easy for the shameless crow-strutter. the mischief-maker. Who forgets the giving of others has peace of mind day and night. No fire like passion. Who takes life. like cheating at dice. How will he destroy his own passions. worldlyonly the Buddhas are free of the world. Hard is life for the humble man. the insolent and the evil-minded. no torrent like craving. hard for the pure. How hard to see one's own!We hide them. digs his own grave. the minder of other people's business. Forget the giving of others. no snare like delusion. the clear-thinking. tells a lie. others out of good will. How easy to see the faults of otherswe winnow them like chaff. there is no refuge anywhere! All is of the world. day and night. Avarice and ill deed bring long misery. envy will oppress you. even in this world. who is forever finding something to condemn? There is no path in the sky. who rouses them by watching others' faults. no jailer like hate.
57 There is no path in the sky. . there is no refuge anywhere! Nothing in the changing world is unchangingonly the Buddhas are free from change.
fearless. The man who is envious. nonviolent. not righteous. though his learning be little. avaricious. He is Dhamma's guardian. who uses it. and serene. righteous. How can a monk be restless and deceitful? . Only he is an elder who is truthful and virtuous. by good looks and loud talk cannot change overnight. who sees clearly before acting. but because he acts well. innocent. and wise. evil. and wise. guiltless. who uses it. Nonviolence is Dhamma. many put on ripeness and are not therefore wise. Only he is wise . A liar with a shaven head does not make a monk. Because he has gray hair he is not an elder.58 The Disciple of Dhamma Force is not Dhamma. but because he is loving. he is wise and just. Because he talks much he does not know Dhamma. Because he talks much a man is no pandit. Only he who roots out these three great evils can be said to be handsome. disciplined.
he is the true monk. It is not by hurting creatures that a man becomes excellent. who takes refuge in knowledge. The man who is chaste. beyond good and evil. Not by discipline or vows. Will I find Nirvana. not by great learning. And ends by choosing good is the wise man. Work hard. He who begs for alms is not the true bhikku. Only by nonviolence is excellence achieved. He has weighed what is thought of as worthy to be weighed. 0 bhikku! O bhikku. The man who thinks clearly. subduer of his passions. only he who follows every word of Dhamma. is the true bhikku. examines good and evil. A fool will not be wise by holding his tongue.59 But the man in whom evil. do not rest till all evils die out. not by serene meditation. not by sleeping alone. . has died out. small or big.
Mara the temptress is helpless before it.60 The Path Of paths. these the three roads leading to it. Wake up! It is time to wake up! You are young. These are the two roads. best among men he who follows Dhamma. Whatever consists of component parts is not the real self. This is the way y to wisdom. End your suffering. control your mind. let not the body do evil. Follow it. Follow it. This knowledge destroys grief and leads to liberation. the Four Truths are the best truths. lack of meditation is folly. the best virtue is detachment. This knowledge destroys grief and leads to liberation. The Buddhas only set examples. It is wisdom to know this. This is my path. Whatever consists of component parts must perish. the best is the Eightfold. preached after the arrows fell away from me. Meditation brings wisdom. Work out your Nirvana with diligence. This knowledge destroys grief and leads to liberation. strong-why do you waver. Whatever consists of component parts is full of grief. This is the path. why are you lazy and irresolute? This is not the way to wisdom. Be strict with speech. Those who follow Dhamma and practice meditation are freed from the traps of Mara the temptress. It is wisdom to know this. It leads to insight. It liberates. . It is wisdom to know this.
0 bhikkus. Therefore. Take the ego like an autumn lilyand snap it with your fingers! Proceed then on the path to Nirvana with one who has reached as your guide." -The words of a fool. and discover the road to liberation. He fails to see his final destination. Not one tree-cut down the whole forest! There is danger in the forest. Destroy the smallest desire for women! It sticks one's mind to the world. the one that leads to wisdom. this for summer. this for the monsoon. . death descends on the drowsy mind greedy for children and cattle. Nothing saves! Not father. not kinsmen. Choose the right one. not sons. village. one backwards. Like floods that come and sweep away a sleeping. They cannot save a man from death. "This I choose for my winter home. Cut down the forest of desires. as a sucking calf sticks to its mother.61 one leading forward. Like the wise and virtuous man. think deeply. stay on the path that leads to liberation.
To-be-done observed. He kills his father and his mother. The disciples of Gautama are always awake. It is painful to renounce the world. day and night thinking of the Enlightened One. The disciples of Gautama are always awake. he kills ambition and pride. To-be-done discarded. It is painful to be a householder. he slaughters all the evils of the bodyand the saint unaffected proceeds as he is.62 Varied Advice Small pleasures given up for a larger joythis is the way of the wise. he slaughters all the subjects of a kingdomand the saint unaffected proceeds as he is. day and night thinking of the Sangha. he kills two Kshatriya kings. The disciples of Gautama are always awake. . The disciples of Gautama are always awake. not-to-be-done discarded. He kills his lust and ignorance. The disciples of Gautama are always awake. Happiness for oneself by hurting othersthe way of the fool to get trapped in hate. The disciples of Gautama are always awake. day and night thinking of the Dhamma. day and night thinking of disciplining the body. day and night delighting in compassion and love. It is painful to enjoy the world. not-to-be-done donethe way of the wicked to increase his grief. day and night delighting in pure meditation. the far-seeing man. proper control practiced on the demands of the bodythe way of the thoughtful to end all impurity.
even in a forest continue the quest. . The man of faith is revered wherever he goes: he has virtue and fame. fade away. even from a distance. suffer no more. wander no more . O wanderer.63 It is painful to be unloved. It is painful to be forever wandering. he prospers. like the Himalaya mountains. Good men shine. sleep alone. be active alone. Sit alone. in loneliness continue the conquest of the self. like arrows shot in the night. but the wicked.
As a soft blade of kusa grass. doing a thing. much restlessness. for future suffering. Do not lust for another's wife. Better an evil deed not done. it must be done well! A careless sadhu will find himself no cleaner than before. much fleeting and frightened pleasure in the arms of the frightened. Better for a boorish monk to swallow a red-hot steel ball than in seeming goodness to live on people's almsgiving. vows carefully kept. done. after death. the downward path. they are united. wrongly handled. the evil deeds of such evildoers. than done." They are men of falseness. it brings no suffering. . says. "I did not do it. moral blame. Much demerit follows. drag them down. wrongly practiced. reluctant practice of continence.64 The Downward Path The speaker of that which is not real goes down. Many men dressed in saffron are ill-mannered and indisciplined. they become partners. cuts the finger. Four effects result from a fool's hankering for another man's wifemuch impurity. do not bring rewards with them. much punishment. asceticism leads to the downward path. also he who. If a thing must be done. Better a good deed done now. Acts carefully performed. after death.
and walk the downward path.65 A border post is well guarded. Each wasted second makes a downward path. and see no evil where there is evilsuch men follow false doctrines. and walk straight. Those who see evil where there is evil. . and do not fear when they ought to fearsuch men follow false doctrines. and walk the downward path. Not a second must be wasted. Those who are ashamed of deeds that they should not be ashamed of. and no evil where there is nonesuch men follow the true doctrine. Guard your self well. inside and out. and not ashamed of deeds they should be ashamed ofsuch men follow false doctrines. Those who fear when they should not fear. Those who see evil where there is none. and walk the downward path.
he pines for the elephant grove. now I must rule it. The glutton and the sluggard. find birth again and again. Consider the elephant Dhanapalaka. let nothing hold you backfind delight and instruction in his company. he does not eat. Most excellent. most of them ill-natured. lapped in foolish sleep. like the mahout with his hook ruling the rutting elephant.66 The Elephant I shall suffer hard words as the elephant suffers arrows in battle. doing what it pleased. excellent are elephants of war. and wise. Be on your guard. Check your mind. Sindhu horses of good breeding. For no animals take one to Nirvana. temples glistening with rutting juice. Tamed mules are excellent. like hogs wallowing in filth. only the tamed self sees that untrodden land. restless. People are people. . the king rides only a tamed elephant. is the self-tamer. pure. If you have a friend sober. Only the tamed elephant goes into battle. excellent. however. he suffers hard words patiently. There was a time when my mind wandered freely. Pull yourself out as an elephant from mud. he who tames himself is best among men.
Stay away from sin. Virtue's a friend when one dies. Friendship is good when mutual. Friends give pleasure when needed. and wise. pure. to be a father is happy. Walk alone like an elephant roaming free in the forest. Happy is virtue that lasts. it is happy to be a saint. Better aloneness than the friendship of a fool. Giving up sorrow gives virtue. happy is well-rooted faith. or an elephant roaming free in the forest. It is happy to be a recluse. Be undemanding. happy it is to be wise. . walk alone-like a king who has renounced a conquered kingdom. happy to avoid sin. To be a mother is happy.67 If you do not have a friend sober.
This is my advice: "Root out craving! Root it out. Do not let death destroy you as river waters destroy reeds. looking for fruit. his sorrows increase like wild grass. like poison. When this terrible craving. like wild grass is rooted out. . Thirty-six streams of sense flow in a man looking for pleasure. sorrows slip off like drops on a lotus leaf. They seek passion. The streams are everywhere! They flow everywhere! Passion is everywhere! Everywhere is the creeper! Cut its roots with the help of wisdom. fierce to subdue. the normal way. suffering recovers and grows if craving is not conquered. their waves will sweep him away. He bounds like a monkey. is subdued. takes hold of a man. from one birth to another. Pleasures and affections are the lot of creatures. Craving and fulfilling." Like a tree recovering and growing if its roots are not destroyed. Birth and old age are the usual fruits. it strangles the fool.68 Craving Craving is like a creeper. When craving.
Give up what is before. and cross the stream. he runs to the forest of new desires. men flee like hunted hares. -All in vain. fetters of consuming passion. he runs to the forest of new desires. Like the spider woven in its own web is the man gripped by his craving. wives. Wise men renounce craving and leave the world. Then will your mind be free. there are wood fetters and fiber fetters. fetters of wealth. but wiser to say." is wisdom. Crazed with craving." It is wisdom to say. then will you cross birth and old age. Look at him!Having conquered the forest of desire. Craving grows in a man restless. men flee like hunted hares. pleasure-seeking: he strengthens his own fetters. what is behind. for he runs into bondage. Give up what is now. discard desire. "Such fetters degrade. "Iron chains are strong. are hard to break. freed from the forest of desire. . "No fetters like those of desire. having discarded sorrow. they suffer again and again. O bhikku. freedom comes only from the conquest of craving. They are bound in chains." Break them! Renounce the world. passionate. wise men do not grieve. forsake the pleasures of the senses. sons.69 Crazed with craving.
Honor the man without folly and earn high reward." No gift is greater than the Dhamma. desireless man escapes the thorns of life-this body is his last. I am free from craving. The fearless. I know all. no conquest than being without craving. Weeds are the poison of fields and passion the poison of man. discriminates. He is the great saint. Who craves wealth destroys himself as well as others. I have no teacher. I am in all things sinless. no rasa sweeter than the Dhamma. Honor the man without hate and earn high reward. Weeds are the poison of fields and folly the poison of man. sinless. I have renounced all. Honor the man without desire and earn high reward. not the seekers of Nirvana. . Honor the man without passion and earn high reward. Weeds are the poison of fields and hate is the poison of man. "I have conquered myself. no bliss is greater than the Dhamma. Wealth hurts the foolish. who knows what comes before what He is the mahapurush-this body is his last. I have taught myself.70 Who meditates quietly. Weeds are the poison of fields and desire the poison of man. who quickly catches subtleties of words and meanings who is desireless. and thinks of that which does not please the senses. cuts the fetters of death.
control of the ear is good. Control of the body is good. meditates on Dhamma. control in everything is good. control of the tongue is good. His life is pure and industrious. The self-controlled bhikku is the free bhikku. That bhikku is tranquil who has faith in the Dhamma. What he receives. The envious bhikku is never serene. . happy with himself. He is the bhikku whose hands and feet are controlled. who is alone.71 The Bhikku Control of the eye is good. The bhikku who follows Dhamma. in speech that is humble. he finds the holiest peace. speaks wisely of the Dhamma. How sweet the words of the bhikku who. does not stray from the true path. he does not envy others. He is the bhikku who owns nothing as his. it will travel swifter. delights in Dhamma. controlled speech is good. Always gentle and equanimous. control of the nose is good. serene. he takes humbly. bhikku! Emptied. neither name nor form. Make the boat light. Even the gods praise the bhikku who takes humbly what little is given. controlling his tongue. He does not grieve over that which is not.
if he has knowledge of the Dhamma. Shed passion and hate. and you will have crossed the stream of life. he is delighted. Cut off the five: egotism. doubt. lust. and choosing pure. . the road to Nirvana will be easier.72 Cast away passion and hate. who has single-mindedly refused the world's seductions. That bhikku is calm whose body is calm. Let him perform his duties well. and hatred. noble. lead to Nirvana. be like the vassika plant that sheds its withered flowers. "I suffer!" How can one without wisdom meditate? How can one without meditation be wise? Both together. whose mind and speech are calm. you cry out. and industrious friends. swallowing the flaming iron ball. Let his life be a life of friendship. practicing equanimity. When he realizes the birth and death of the body. Destroy these five fetters. he experiences the delight of wisdom. Let the wise bhikku begin thus: controlling the senses. When a tranquil bhikku enters an empty house. bhikku! There is no time to waste. Then will his happiness end his suffering. he is delighted. Think. O bhikku. meditation and wisdom. Forget the pleasures of the senses lest. discriminate. false holiness. following discipline as laid down in the Dhamma.
He alone finds the state of serenity where the world's flow ceases. O bhikku.73 Rouse yourself by your self. he shines on this world like a moon escaped from cloud. You are your own refuge. there is no other refuge. . The young bhikku who ceaselessly follows the words of the Buddha. Happy and peaceful is the bhikku who has faith in the Dhamma. O bhikku. Only such vigilance. tame yourself. will bring you happiness. perfect yourself by your self. Like the merchant taming a fine horse.
the Brahmin does not return in kind. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin for whom is neither this nor the other shore. who has firmly controlled these three. and saintly. all fetters fall away. speech. more cursed a Brahmin angry with a sinner. When the Brahmin achieves full discipline and insight. suffering will cease. whose work is over. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin whose passions are stilled. If attacked. who is taintless. . As a Brahmin worships before the ritual fire. All that consists of component parts will perish. the moon delights the night. cast aside desire. Strive to know the imperishable. Where nonviolence is practiced. he is an ascetic whose mind is equable. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who is nonviolent in body. meditative.74 The Brahmin Cross the stream. Cursed is he who kills a Brahmin. who is free from the fetters of fear. so should a man worship before one who has understood fully the Dhamma of the Buddha. Highly regarded is the Brahmin who refrains from the pleasures of the senses. the Brahmin in meditation. He is a Brahmin who has cast aside evil. The sun shines in the day. strive hard. the soldier shines in his armor. Brahmin. and mind. but the radiance of the Buddha shines ceaselessly day and night. he is a saint who has no impurity.
prison. who has broken free. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who has cut the link. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who even in this world is free. who wears cast-off garments. the rope. whose strength is patience. who is pure and restrained. solitary and serious. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who. A Brahmin makes his own holiness. Not matted hair. not caste. the thong. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who does not cling to pleasures. whose burden is ended. whose army is fortitude. whose sufferings are over. separated from the world.75 Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who practices truth and Dhamma. like a drop of water on a lotus leaf. beyond attachment. who notes religious duties and follows moral rules. who is fully awake. make a Brahmin. like a seed of mustard on the tip of an awl. for whom there is no rebirth. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who is unshakable. Fool. Who is a Brahmin? Not always he whose mother is a Brahmin. not noble birth. what will matted hair do? What will garment of goatskin do? What use polishing the outside if the inside is foul? Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who is lean and veined. endures mockery. insult. not he who is known to possessions. . though innocent. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who is never angry. but he who is detached. fetter-free.
joylessly tranquil. pride. Who is a Brahmin ? He is a Brahmin who stays away from the well-housed and the houseless who does not live in houses. no taint. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who is pure. hate. who has no sorrow. detached among the attached. who has reached the final goal. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who does not use the rod to punish creatures moving or unmoving. like the moon. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who does not take what is not given. whose doubts have been dissipated. peaceful among those with uplifted sticks. serene. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who has no desires. good or bad. who is separated from the world. long or short. Who is the Brahmin? He is the Brahmin whose passion. who neither kills nor conspires to kill. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who has gone beyond good and evil. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who covets neither this world nor the next.76 Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin whose knowledge is deep and wisdom profound who knows right from wrong. who has no desires. soft. big or small. and hypocrisy fall away like a mustard seed from the tip of an awl. and has realized truth. clear. no passion. inoffensive. and has few wants. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin whose speech is truthful. . Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who is gentle among the aggressive.
pure. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who knows his previous births. is a saint with perfect wisdom. the conquering hero of the three worlds. lives nobly. conqueror of death. for he is unattached. thinks clearly. behind. spirits. who has exhausted his sins and become a saint.77 Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who has crossed the mire of birth and delusion (so difficult to cross) and reached the other shore. the awakened one. noble. knowing that things perish and are reborn. . and has done all that needed to be done. who is calm. or men. who is calm and unruffled. and has risen above both. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who gives up sensual pleasures. without doubt. who wanders homeless. wise. without greed. who has renounced all craving for existence. feels purely. knows heaven and hell. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who. for whom is neither before. and has renounced all desire for existence. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who has renounced the pleasurable as well as the unpleasurable. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin whose passions are all conquered. meditative. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who has cast off attachment to things of the world and to things divine. nor between. wanders homeless. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin who is brave as a bull. Who is a Brahmin? He is a Brahmin whose ways are known neither to gods. Who is a Brahmin? I call him Brahmin who has nothing. free from rebirth.
1878. S. Vol. Reprinted as a New Directions Paperbook. 1955). It has been reproduced. also available as The Wisdom of India. 1957. and in Lewis Browne's The World's Great Scriptures (1945). Bombay. The Buddhist Society. Beal: The Dhammapada from the Buddhist Canon. in Clarence H. . 1936. published in the Sacred Books of the East Series. A workmanlike translation with an introductory essay. Max Muller: The Dhammapada.A. the editor does not mention the translator’s name. Though it is stated on the cover to be ‘translated by Irving Babbitt’. London. An Indian edition. S. Oxford University Press. A translation of the Chinese. Theosophy Company. the original publishers. Contains long extracts from the Dhammapada. Oxford University Press. 1950. Oxford University Press.E Frost. in Lin Yutang's anthology The Wisdom of India and China (Modern Library Giant. James Gray: The Dhammapada.A’. A faithful and readable version containing useful introductory essays. London. Useful for comparative studies. London. Jr. Philadelphia. text of the Dhammapada. The New Home Library. Irving Babbitt: The Dhammapada.: The Sacred Writings of the World’s Great Religions.. Fluent and faithful. not the Pali. 1965.S. 1955). There is an excellent essay on ‘The Buddha and the Occident’ added as an epilogue. X. published by Jaico.: The Dhammapada. TRANSLATIONS OF THE DHAMMAPADA J. Trubner’s Oriental Series. Indian reprint. 1881. Burtt's The Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha (Mentor Books. Hamilton s anthology Buddhism: A Religion of Infinite Compassion (The Liberal Arts Press New York. "with slight changes. S. it is actually a revision of Max Muller’s version of 1870. 1952). in U. 1881. This readable ‘new version ‘ is strongly recommended by Christmas Humphreys.78 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY I. A. Bombay." in E. New York. Radhakrishnan: The Dhammapada. London. The well-known translation by a careful German scholar. 1966 . Anonymous: The Dhammapada. reprinted with ‘the permission of the Cunningham Press. 1945. 1947. London.
W. but uneven. A helpful. 1956. now the president of India. L. C. 1952 . translation by two members of the Royal Asiatic Society of Ceylon. This somewhat heavy translation by a professor of Sanskrit contains an introduction in which Dr. London. Saunders: The Buddha's "Way of Virtue. one by Fausboll. D. who in 1893 did the German verse rendering. There are in addition two well-known translations. who did the Latin version in 1855. Kunhan Raja: Dhammapada.79 the Pali text. Raja tries to ‘prove’ the ‘Hindu’ quality of Buddhism. and the other by Neumann." John Murray. Wagiswara and K. London.. F. and notes by a scholar of Sanskrit philosophy. . A verse translation recommended by Irving Babbitt.. Woodward: The Dhammapada. J. C. 1921. Madras. Theosophical Publishing House.
A popular. Horner: The Living Thoughts of the Buddha. New York. V. P. revised by Mrs. London. E. W. Allen & Unwin. F. New York. Coomaraswamy. An extremely useful anthology of scholarly essays tracing the nature and development of Buddhism. 1959). Allen: The Buddha's Philosophy. Burlingame: Buddhist Parables. Collins. 1954). 1948. 1959. London. L.500 th anniversary of the Buddha's attainment of Nirvana. New York. Raghavendra Basak: Buddha and Buddhism. B. 1916. Harper Torchbook edition. Another useful book by Coomaraswamy is Hinduism and Buddhism (Philosophical Library. Calcutta. Sir Edwin Arnold: The Light of Asia or The Great Renunciation. Publications Division. Mentor Books. Yale University Press. Other helpful books by this renowned Buddhist scholar are Buddhist Texts Through the Ages (Philosophical Library.80 II. 1922. Ananda Coomaraswamy: Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism. Adams Beck: The Life of the Buddha. New Haven. Bapat. Cassell. Penguin Books. Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1955. undated). with a lucid commentary.: 2500 Years of Buddhism. Burtt: The Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha. Government of India. London. An excellent small anthology. London. The New American Library. A. Edward Conze: Buddhist Scriptures. many of them obscure and previously untranslated.1964· Ananda Coomaraswamy and 1." Victorian in style and outlook. Sambodhi Publications. London. and Buddhism: Its Essence and Development (Harper. 1959. 1961. . E. this was published to mark the 2. ed. Harper. 1956. account (in blank verse) of "The Life and Teaching of Gautama. 1891. BOOKS ON BUDDHISM G. An excellently organized selection from Buddhist texts. Prince of India and Founder of Buddhism (As Told in Verse by an Indian Buddhist). 1959. and occasionally moving.
Penguin Books. 1958. 1961). Henri de Lubac. Probsthain. The Philosophical Library.J. Sir Charles Eliot: Hinduism and Buddhism. Nolan Pliny Jacobson: Buddhism: The Religion of Analysis. An anthology of Buddhist texts. S.: Aspects of Buddhism. Routledge & Kegan Paul." presented lucidly by a devoted English Buddhist. G. Oxford University Press. 1903. Introduction by Dr. Mrs. B. Richard A. London. Rhys Davids: Buddhist India. John Lane. Ludowyck: The Footprints of the Buddha. and present-day teaching of the various schools of Buddhism. 1953. 1957. New York. 1963. London. W. London. preface by Miss I. F. A. London. ed. Garratt. "The history. linked by a running commentary by a Bengali scholar. Washington Sq. Hackmann: Buddhism as a Religion. London. S. Keith: Buddhist Philosophy in India and Ceylon. development. contains passages from the Dhammapada translated by Madame David-Nee!. 1951. E.. . Putnam's. London. Oxford University Press. 1937. especially valuable for its critical examination of Buddhist philosophical ideas. Allen & Unwin. Luzanne: Heritage of Buddha: The Story of Siddhartha Gautama. S. H. 1939. Horner. New York. 3 volumes. Gangulee: The Buddha and His Message. 1953. Allen & Unwin. An indispensable anthology by Mr. 1966.81 Alexandra David-Nee!: Buddhism: Its Doctrines and Methods. contains excellent bibliographical references to out-of-the-way texts. Popular Book Depot. T. New York. B. H. A popular introduction. Christmas Humphreys: Buddhism. 1910. A comprehensive study by an acknowledged scholar. Press. New York. Radhakrishnan. F. London. Bombay. London. A painstaking account of Buddhist doctrine. 1921. T. N. C. Gard: Buddhism. Holt & Co. C. 1923. A. 1912. Rhys Davids: Buddhism. Contains a lucid essay on Buddhism by de la Vallee Poussin.: The Legacy of India. Humphreys is The Wisdom of Buddhism (Random House. London. Sheed & Ward.
1952. Knopf. Asia Publishing House. 1951. London. 1882. Government of Andhra Pradesh.. 1959. These two volumes were sponsored by the Ministry of Education. Allen & Unwin. Anil de Silva-Vigier: The Life of the Buddha Retold from Ancient Sources.: History of Philosophy Eastern and Western. Government of India. Arrow Books. F. 1953. His Order..82 Kenneth W. Skeffington & Son. New York. London. London. Radhakrishnan. H. Bhikku Subhadra: The Message of Buddhism. His Teachings. 1927. Williams and Norgate. London. 1959. Contains a lucid essay on the life of the Buddha as revealed in legends. Smith: The Buddhist Way of Life. J. 19°1. Naravane: The Lotus and the Elephant. Bombay. 1955. S. First published.. Noss: Man's Religions. ed. Hermann Oldenberg: Buddha: His Life. 1956. The first contains three essays on Buddhism by Indian scholars. 1956 . A sumptuously produced volume of photographs illustrating the Buddha's life. A thorough and deservedly famous study by a German scholar. India. Popular eclectic account of the Buddha's life and teachings. Macmillan. ed. Discusses Buddhism clearly and in detail. Society for the Resuscitation of Indian Literature. T. F. readable account of the Buddha's life and his basic teachings. N. Phaidon Press. Manmatha Nath Shastri: Buddha: His Life. E. Calcutta. Grove Press. Tomlin: Great Philosophers of the East. New York. New York. Hutchinson's University Library. but with a slight Christian bias. E. V. London. S. His Doctrine. . Walpola Rahula: What the Buddha Taught. His Order. New York. lavish prose. Helpful. 1922. 1955. London. V. Thomas: The Life of Buddha as Legend and History. 1966. 1962. The Ronald Press. 1961. John B. full of useful references to legend and history. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. Allen & Unwin. W. Morgan. the introductory essay is in rich. Murti: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Ramesan: Glimpses of Buddhism.: The Path of the Buddha. R.
NOTE: The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon. H. Important among them are: Mahathera Narada: Buddhism in a Nutshell Thera Nyanaponika: Manual of Buddhism Mahathera Nyanatiloka: The Word of the Buddha Bhikku Dhammapala: Basic Buddhism . Ward: Buddhism. Max Weber: The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism. L. have published many books explaining the tenets and nature of Buddhism. 1925. Colombo. London. Vol. Henry Clarke Warren: The Life of the Buddha. The Free Press of Glencoe.83 C. 1962. "World's Classics. I (Hinayana). London. F. 1947. 1922. S. Woodward: Some Sayings of the Buddha." Oxford University Press. 1952. II (Mahayana). The Epworth Press. Harvard University Press. Vol.
but this newly rendered version translated from the Pali by the young Sanskrit scholar. much of it in actual practice today. dhamma. The Dhammapada thus offers an invaluable insight into the nature of the Buddhist mind and its response to life. is fresh and modern. he lets the Buddha speak lucidly and persuasively for himself. He intends this version of the work to be a transcreation rather than merely another translation. Cover design by Marshall Lee THE NOONDAY PRESS 19 Union Square West New York 10003 . Professor Lal also contributes an introduction in two parts.84 N 348-Religion THE. with the teaching. There are a number of English translations of this famous work. As the Buddhist "way of truth" (pada." Instead of the conveniently available platitudes about the Buddha. and similarly. Professor Lal of Calcutta University. DHAMMAPADA Translated from the Pali by P. "The Buddha: His Life and His Teaching. Professor Lal has added a bibliography of English translations and of books on Buddhism. the teaching). meaning path or way. Lal The Dhammapada consists of twenty-six poems or chapters. These verses are an almost complete presentation of Buddhist ethics. using and retranslating the legends themselves. attributed to the Buddha himself. with a total of 423 verses. he presents his life briefly in connected narrative form.
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