Journal of Sound and Vibration (1976) 45(3), 405-416






Department of Mechanics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, U.S.A.

GTE Laboratories, (Received 14 April Waltham, Massachusetts 02154, U.S.A.

1975, and in revisedform 27 September 1975)

By using previously derived equations for a thick plate in an arbitrary state of non-uniform initial stress the vibrational behavior of a thick, simply supported rectangular plate subjected to initial stress is investigated. The initial stress is taken to be a combination of pure bending plus extensional stress in the plane of the plate. The vibrational behavior is correlated to the buckling behavior in order to explain how, in certain cases, higher modes can vibrate at frequencies lower than those of the lower order modes.


Past investigations of the effects that initial stresses have on the vibrations of beams and plates have been mainly concerned with in-plane compressive or tensile stresses. Very little has been done with respect to the formulation and solution of equations for beams and plates in an arbitrary state of initial stress. This is particularly true for the cases of thick beams and plates where rotatory inertia and transverse shear effects are important. The first attempt to derive equations of motion for a thick plate in a state of initial stress was made by Herrmann and Armenakas [ 11. They used a variational procedure to derive the governing equations. Their formulation had certain inconsistencies in that they used two different definitions of generalized stress, the boundary and lateral loading terms were not clearly defined and, based on unclear arguments, certain terms were dropped from the final equations. Brunelle [2] derived the governing equations for a thick beam in an arbitrary state of initial stress. It was found that the equations derived in reference [l] would not reduce down to the equations for the thick beam. In addition, it was found that the terms dropped in reference [l], from the final equations, do contribute to the behavior of the thick beam in a significant way. Sun [3] derived the equations for a thick beam having an initial, in-plane compressive stress by using both the Trefftz and Biot formulations. When the equations in reference [2] are specialized to the case of an initial, in-plane compressive stress, they agree with Sun’ equations, derived s by using the Trefftz formulation. Brunelle and Robertson [4] derived the equations for a thick plate in an arbitrary state of initial stress by two different methods. In the derivations the Trefftz generalized stress was used throughout and no terms were dropped from the final equations. The equations were used to study the static buckling behavior of a simply supported, thick plate under combined initial compressive stress and bending stress acting in the plane of the plate. The purpose of this paper is to extend that work to the consideration of the effects of the initial, in-plane compressive (tensile) plus bending stress on the vibratory behavior of a simply-supported, thick plate. 7 Consultantto Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, New York 12189, U.S.A.
$ Formerly with The Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, U.S.A. 405

. The term -pif. If G* = G the material is isotropic.406 E. (2) @.=P.. this should cause no difficulty.-pB.2) = u. Ic/1and I. The incremental stress-displacement relations are taken to be those of linear elasticity: 5 11 - &A-. r). respectively. j = bij + Oij.2 +V&.3 = where G* accounts for the effect of transverse isotropy. x2. (7) 8.(x1.x3. represent changes in the initial surface traction and body force due to the perturbation. 2.* t). Note that the incremental displacements defined in equations (5)-(7) do not have superior bars. In deriving the thick plate equations the following displacement field was assumed in order to account for transverse shear and in-plane extensional deformation: r&(x. x2. t) = U2(Xlr x2.1v~. (1) 8.. x3.. R. is the inertia force due to the perturbation where the superior double dot denotes the second partial derivative with respect to time.. 4% t) + x3 J/*(x. BRUNELLE AND S. x1.3 K2 G*@2.. t> = x2. = a12 CT 13 623 - G(4. ROBERTSON Though the governing equations for an initially stressed. u2 and w are displacements of the neutral surface. since the initial deformation will appear only in terms of stress resultants. thick plate are rather cumbersome.2)~ (10) (11) (12) Kz G*(4.. However. = u. (3) (4) where. and ti2 are the in-plane displacements and ~2~ the lateral deflection of the neutral surface. x2> th (5) (6) a. initial displacement and the perturbing displacement.1)> 03. &(x1. t) + x3 $.+& J?s=Xs+AXs+IP.. for example. . They should not be confused with the initial displacements of equation (1). and zi.@. K’ is Mindlin’ shear correction s factor [6].(x. which is in static equilibrium and subjected to a time varying incremental deformation. J. The above assumption for the displacement field is analogous to that used in the derivation of the Mindlin plate equations WI. li. and AX. = a.z + %. they are given here in order to show how they simplify down for the problem discussed here. x2. x2.+AP. In accordance with a technique described by Bolotin [5] the following quantities are introduced : zi.l)..A + + a3. + ii.$?are the angular changes of lines initially normal to the neutral surface. + +2. An attempt is made to relate some of the unusual effects the initial stress field has on the vibratory behavior of the plate to its buckling behavior. THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS The problem of interest here is that of a thick plate that is in a state of non-uniform initial stress. The terms Ap.z). u. represent the final displacement. is ui.

2).z+_L=W1..1 + + $1 MxGl.1>..2 + $1 QJJ + (15) +(N.= ja.$2. $21. (17) .-a. = j 022dxs. = j 033 dx. + w.1 Qxti2J. $2. Q: = j xj 623 dx.vq. respectively.21. M:=j allx:dx3. Nx.1 +Mx... the shear force equation and the x1 and x2 moment equations.1 + Nx. They are called the x1 and x2 extension equations.2@:2 + Qjz) + $2@:3 - aii> + %+2 - z3% (lb*) The shear force equation is ~~ G* A[($. w.2 + Mx.1 + GW 1.2 + + + MxII/.2 + v~1.-extension equation is ‘ W41. The barred stresses are due to the load causing the incremental deformation.2 Nx.2+ Wxul.) + . = j 011dx. lc/l..2+~. Q.(o:. N.l). v2)..)+SJI.. N. the following initial stress resultants and material parameters are defined : N. = j 012 dx3.l + ($2 + w. D = Hz/( 1 - M: = j(rzzx:dxj.2)~ + Wx.VIBRATIONS OF A STRESSED THICK PLATE 407 The equations of motion for a thick plate in an arbitrary state of initial stress are now given.2l. w. These equations are linear.x:dx. Q:= j xs 013dx.*.2 +f. IV. (15*) The (+) and (-) imply that the stresses are evaluated at the top and bottom faces of the plate.$.$l. w.1(/1.2(62 + (732) + +1G7:3 033) + 53+l 5.1). There are five coupled equations of motion.)dx.l + ~2.)dx.1 + ~2.extension equation is %I.~l.+v.2 +Wxu2. The x.1 + N.2 + Mzwv51. 622 x3 dx3.2K2 GJ + .1 + Nxyul.l Qv). Prior to giving the equations of motion.(~:. where h/2 fx= j (n.l+ My $2.~l. + u2..l(dl - 6) + . Ic12. = j My = j 023 dx3.2 + 4 = i’ h+. The x1 . (16) where h/2 f.+~~~)+ -h/2 + %... The terms containing the initial stresses arise from the change in the initial load brought about by the incremental deformation.21 + (N. Q.l(dl + 631) + - 0. where all the integrals are through the thickness of the plate from -h/2 to +h/2. Qx = j on dx.v)/2 (13) (14) 9 = Eh3/12(1 .d.2 + + W42. u2.w= j 012 x3 dx3.2+N.+dX.262 dX.2 + Nwu2. = j cl1 x3dx3.... Similar discussions hold for the remaining equations. “‘ ..1 + + (N.2 + u2.. They are valid for those cases where the initial state of stress is in equilibrium and when the initial and incremental displacement gradients are so small that their products with the incremental stress may be neglected. = ~hG2..l +Mx. M. + ~~2. Gh3/12 = 9(1 . M. = j (X2 + -h/2 + u2.

J. are given below..+.*(42 . BRUNELLE AND S. AM. = Apt dxj..-moment equation is 1 . 1 .. First. (20) .3 = 1 A dx. The x. dx.-moment h + 2 1//1.G2) + $. = j AP.. (19*) The boundary conditions.408 where hl2 E. (19) + Yj (cJ3: - 032) $2.3 - a. x3 dx. equation is Y3 + w.2 where -Nz~2-r2G*h(~2+w~2)+m. Fnn = j Is. dx. = 1 I% dxj.(a. dx..(o. - a. = AM.... R.t on the plate s F.. U8*) -Q:$2. &z... x3 dx3. = j & x3 dx... in terms of normal and tangential co-ordinates.+dX.) + w. ROBERTSON 9= -hi2 J’ (X.. the following traction resultants are defined : AFnn = [ AP.(d3 + 633) + 5:3 + cr. A?.) + a. AF... The x.: - a. = 1’ Ap. F.)d.=~~2. AF. j Apt x3 dx.. A j P.2 + (d3 + 033) $2 + 52: + 5.

+ VU& (24) (25) (26) R’ + AF.>.3 C”. a.. = %. .r + AP. + u... Fn3 + AJ’ n3 = N.i.1 + M. Thus. If a rectangular plate were being considered the boundary conditions would be rephrased in x1..a.f + M.~t.. (29) where the quantities on the right sides are prescribed.t Ut. L + N. u..3 + + @. The five boundary traction conditions are 4.. + Q ... *t = *. w= W”3.. + Mm. ~r. + D(u. The rectangular plate and the initial stress field. (28) Alternative displacement boundary conditions are u...t + w.’ II/.3 gn3 ~3. for many particular problems they can be simplified to something manageable as well as interesting. (21) AP. + i4 B3 + + t7.. x2 co-ordinates..). %I.. for instance. I. (30) f Figure 1.. + Q..... . + gnc u3.... +2x30. equation (28) would become These equations are rather cumbersome. + M. SIMPLY SUPPORTED RECTANGULAR PLATE Consider a simply supported thick rectangular plate in a state of initial stress.r + M..r + ~“3 4.. = gnn~t.. + Q... 3.. However.* $. = M. ll..+ N.. + .: tit. (1 . ti..-direction while the subscript t corresponds to the x. + MZ $. = %n.. 4+” = G”.t.. nf. 5Vn3.. For example. Ic/..n + M. $.. $. = c‘ nn ~3. = N. + $. + w.. + AM..v) (A. + QE $. w.n + Nnt w. u. + Kz G* W. on the edge where x2 is constant the unit normal has components (0.n + M”.” + AM. Ll + a”. (27) m”. = M” %” + Mf IC/n.-direction../h....J. + AF. + C”“. $t + GW. 0) and the subscript IZcorresponds to the x. The terms containing’ the initial stresses account for the change in the initial boundary conditions due to the incremental deformation. + v&t>. s respectively. + M..VIBRATIONS OF A STRESSED THICK PLATE 409 where all integrals are from -h/2 to +h/2 and Bn + &I = ~#I.n + 0. The state of initial stress is cl1 = a.. u.. = N”u. (22) (23) where the subscripts n and t denote the normal and tangential directions of the plate’ edge.

on the x1 = constant *2 = 0.22 + $2.410 E..+..+vu.4.1...+N. ~2... + .11 + K’ h($. $2.)=o.: = M. + gtJ(II/u. and...... + W42.r). It is comprised of a tensile (compressive) plus a bending stress: see Figure 1. M: $. u1 = U.1) = 0. are taken to be constants so that the initial stress field is uniform.. a22 + AM. + ~$1.... Ic/1= r. BRUNELLE AND S.) = 0. + N.2 ur =o.sin( Brunelle and Robertson of the simply-supported y)cos(y)erp(ior).cos(y)sin( y)exp(iwr).* $2. w. M: = h3a. J. + ~2. to study the static buckling behavior equation found for that case may [4] have used the above solution thick plate.+~(u. = h2 cr. + Mxu..+.=~..11 + Nxu... w = 0.I..12) - K2 G* 2.. G* + w. + w. (35) conditions Displacements of the following (34) and (35): w= form will satisfy equations (33) and boundary W~~sin(~)sin(~)exp(iwr).~+M.J = $32..fy...11) + g($ 1.. M.. F22 + AF22 = M./6. Mx$2. A. + GNU. ti2 = Y.12) - K2 G* (33) The boundary edges.+v~.J = phii.l) + K’ G* h($z.zJ+ g...2 + Myu2.I(/..l.(~)cos(~jenp(icur). + ~2..+~(~. + vu. The characteristic ... h($2 + w... (31) Lateral loads and body forces are taken to be zero: fx. conditions (24)-(29) are...21 + ti2..)=O.11 Gh3 + Mx4... for the simply supported w = 0. + WC.. + Nxu. u2 = 0.11) + Wu.~J = phii’ .22 + ~‘ 41..m.. M. on the x2 = constant edges../12... plate.2 + u.~.12) = @A. ~~~+~~~. h(lC/.(h.*IC/2..cos~~)sin(~jerp(i..i.) = $i. (32) MXIC/ 1.u~.L + w. R..~. u2 = U..+ v$z..+~Mr~=Mx*~~..2 = W$... From equations (13) the only non-zero initial stress resultants are Nx = ha. ROBERTSON with all other initial stresses assumed to be zero. The equations of motion (15)-( 19) simplify to + vu& + GQ.. ~~.. = 0.2 (34) *I = 0. bN and c.

bs3 = n@/b)‘ . b. ) b 12 = (’ ’ ‘ mnu/b . b23 = 0. (3K)‘ = 6a/zch. v is taken to be O-30. This procedure gives the following characteristic equation for the determination of the buckling loads and the natural frequencies. k/K= (b/a)2Nx/D. b.VIBRATIONS OF A STRESSED THICK PLATE 411 also be used to study the free vibration problem. b. l-v 2 + (a/b)2 k/K 1 b2. =m2+n2 7 (u/b)2 + m’ (a/b)‘ klK . = 12b2N&r2 h2 D (buckling coefficient). = Smn(a/b) (1 + v)/2. = 0. = 0. pa402/hz2 ~~ K = (U/h)2/K2.a2/K.v’ = Dh/b2 G* (transverse isotropy parameter). (a/b)2 n2 + (a/b)2/S . ) S. = 0. b 21 = (’ + --j--‘ ) bm = 0.v)/2] + (na/b)2 + (a/b)2/S . bJ3 = (a/b)2 (m’ + kSm2 + (na/b)2 . 2 bn =O. = NJ9 = 12NJh2D. b. b22 = (nu/b)2 + b.. = 0.SJ2/K}..SR2. bj5 = n(4b)3. kS = .. = Sj?(a/b)2 m2 k/(3K)li2.a2/K. = Smn(a/b) (1 + v)/2.. = (ma/b)2 (k/K) 8/(3KY2.. M = ph3/ 129 = phi D.R21K . 7r2/12 [6] gives Q = n2G*/hD = S(7c/b)2. and where the following non-dimensional parameters have been used : B = QA4l~M Q = K2G*h/9 =12K2G*/hD. = S m2[(u/b)2 k/K + I ] + T bs = 0. b.. S = Eh2/G* b2( 1 . f12 has been non-dimensionalized G* with respect to the first Bernoulli-Euler beam frequency. = SjI(a/b)2 m2 k/(3K)‘ 12.. bs4 = m(alb)2. b. The characteristic equation in non-dimensional form is where b.. bs5 = S{m2[(a/b)2 k/K + (1 . The characteristic equation is found by substituting the assumed displacement field of equations (36) into the equations of motion (33).. b. = m2(u/b)’ (k/K) jY/(LjK)‘ “.. Taking K’ = SJ2/K = pha2c02/x2 D. the determinant of the coefficients must vanish in order for a solution to exist.. b. Since the equations are homogeneous.. b43 m(alb)2. = b.7t2 h. D (non-dimensional frequency). Q2 = k = (b/n)2 S. mna/b 3 m2 .. 12 NJK~ G* h = 12N.

extensional load for the five plate modes when m = 2. there is no initial bending stress. ROBERTSON I: I 2 3 J/L1 5 Figure 2. The initial in-phase compressive (tensile) stress is contained in the buckling coefficient. If k is positive the stress is tensile. For the problem considered here a/h = 10 and S = 0. The initial in-plane bending stress is contained in /?. From the numerous problems solved.lO. These cases will illustrate the salient features of the way that the thick plate considered here behaves. When p = 0 and/or k = 0. For this case. BRUNELLE AND S. . k. only a few typical cases will be selected for discussion. n = 1. J.412 E. Buckling curve envelopes for various values of 8. A composite 1Thtchness -shear 40 i 20 - \ r Extensmal i Flexural / -3 -2 1 -I 0 h / / 2 : Figure 3. In these cases n = I. Brunelle and Robertson [4] have computed the static buckling loads for /I = 0.05. Frequency uersus non-dimensional a/b = 2 and b = 5. There are so many parameters that can be varied that it would be difficult to present results for all cases. R.

this means that a compressive stress is sought which completely negates the rigidity of one of the flexural modes of the plate so that it will oscillate at zero frequency with a finite amplitude. n = 1 and 4 = 0. in the absence of a lateral force.22782 Mode type Flexural Extensional Thickness-shear i plot of the buckling load envelopes for j? = 0. Figure 4 is a very interesting plot. This says that the lowest mode m = 1. The envelope for a = 5 is new. The change in k affects the extensional frequencies to a much lesser degree and has a very small affect on the thickness shear modes. In general. when m = 2.e. These curves are calculated by determining the roots of the characteristic equation when Q = 0. m = 2. Also. 413 a 7. It can be seen that the frequency curve for m = 1 crosses those for the higher modes. vibrates at a higher frequency than the second mode m = 2. It is a plot of natural frequency versus initial tensile and compressive stress for various m when a/b = 2. 10 is given along with the classical result for a simply supported thin plate with only an in-plane compressive stress acting in Figure 2..45099 31. Physically.33580 166. What these envelopes reveal is the mode shape a plate will have when the compressive load exceeds that of the envelope for a given width to length ratio. Notice how the lowest natural frequency (flexure) is noticeably affected by the variation in k. n = 1 and a/b = 2 are given in Table 1. n = 1. n = 1. for each pair ofm and n). Also.42741 18. a/b = 2. The natural frequencies for this case. For the remainder of the discussion only the flexural mode will be considered. It can be seen that the frequency curve form = 2 goes to zero at the buckling load for this case. 5. the frequency curve for m = 1 is above that for m = 2. frequency curves for modes of lower order than the mode in which buckling occurs will cross above the curve for the buckling a h Figure 4. no in-plane initial stress) the equations of motion separate into a pair of coupled extensional equations and the flexural equation coupled to the two thickness shear equations. Figure 3 shows the behavior of each mode as the in-plane load goes from tensile to compressive when p = 5. If k = 0 (i. from Figure 2 it can be seen that this plate will buckle in the second mode m = 2. n = 1.18787 100. n = 1 and p = 5.VIBRATIONS OF A STRESSED THICK PLATE TABLE 1 Natural frequencies for k = 0. Since k = 0 implies gN = 0 this means that oM = 0 regardless of the value of /?. Frequency versus initial extensional stress for various values of m when n = 1. a/b = 2 and B = 5. It can also be seen that all the higher modes are more affected than the lowest mode by increased compressive stress. There will be five natural frequencies associated with each mode (i. notice how it drops to zero when k reaches the buckling load for this case (see Figure 2). a/b. The interesting thing to note is that prior to buckling. ..e.

as one examines the frequency behavior of the various modes as the compressive load increases. the load necessary to cause buckling in the first mode is greater than the load necessary to cause buckling in the second mode. 10. after which it continues to increase. As it increases. . the first mode will become progressively “stiffer” uis-a& the higher modes as a/b increases. Although the figure does not show it clearly. if the first mode has a higher frequency than the second mode it may be thought to be stiffer since its associated spring constant is larger. the frequency curves will not cross. R.414 E. For a fixed mass. BRUNELLE AND S. Frequency versus initial extensional stress for various values of m when n = 1. The value of k = -3. Modes higher than the buckling mode cannot have their frequency curves brought below that of the buckling mode. one would expect a transition to take place where those modes lower than the buckling mode become “stiffer” than the buckling mode. J. Figure 6 illustrates these effects for /3 = 10. a/b = 2 and /3 = 0. Thus. if the aspect ratio a/b is such that the plate buckles in the first mode (see Figure 2). Another explanation of this behavior can be made with the aid of the buckling curves of Figure 2. This behavior is also observed when /? = 0.1265. Therefore. mode prior to buckling. Figure 5 illustrates the same effects as Figure 4 except for the fact that /? = 0. This has been borne out in the discussion of Figure 4. it crosses above the curves for the higher modes. Thus. Consider the curve for /? = 0 when m = 1. when a/b = 2. for example. This implies that the first mode is “stiffer” than the second mode in the neighborhood of the buckling load for this case. It is interesting that the “stiffness”? of a higher mode can be made less than that of a lower mode by the proper variation of the compressive load. The computer output indicates that buckling indeed occurs when m = 3 for a value of k = -3.1473 when m = 2 is also found which indicates t For a linear vibration problem. the buckling load for that mode decreases until it reaches a minimum. Thus. ROBERTSON Figure 5. the curve form = 2 passes above the curve form = 3 just prior to reaching the buckling load. as the frequency increases the spring constant increases with its square. It is apparent that as the aspect ratio increases from zero. each mode can be represented by an equivalent spring mass. Thus. Examination of Figure 2 indicates that buckling occurs very close to the cusp near a/b = 2 on the fl = 10 curve.

Frequency versus the ratio of initial bending to extensional stress. . oersus initial extensional stress for various values of m when n = 1. Frequency uersus initial extensional stress for various values of m when n = 1.a/b=2andk=-2. a/b = 4 and 20 I -5 I 4 n IO- 3 2 I 0 5 P I IO m=l Figure 8. Frequency j?=5. k Figure 7.VIBRATIONS OF A STRESSED THICK PLATE 415 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -I 0 k I 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 6. a/b = 2 and B = 10. for various values of m when n=l.

MINDLIN 19. BRUNELLE and S. There is a lot of room for the future study of the effects that other initial stress fields would have on this and other geometries. 282-285. . p has a dramatic effect as seen in Figure 2. Figure 8 shows the variation of the natural frequency as /? varies when a/b = 2. G.R. Stability and vibrations of trans- versely isotropic beams under initial stress. E.BRUNELLEAND S. E. D. 2. V. Moreover. Note that the increase in initial bending stress.!I. ROBERTSON 1974 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal 12. has little effect on the flexural modes shown excepting the slight softening of the higher modes. Influence of rotary inertia and 6. passes above the curve for nz= 3 prior to buckling. as well as that for m = I. Interestingly enough. REFERENCES 1.416 E. just prior to buckling.51 shear on flexural motions of isotropic elastic plates.J.ROBERTSON that the curve for m = 2. E.. In this case buckling occurs when m = 5 and all the curves m = I to 4 pass above it just prior to buckling. the frequency prior to buckling undergoes a transition after which the frequency increases as the order of the mode decreases. T. The MacMillan Company. C. HERRMANN and A. 4. in the neighborhood of the buckling load. . BOLOTIN 1963 Non-Conservative Problems of the Theory of Elastic Stability. J. 3. V. the frequency for m = 1 is higher than for m = 2 which is higher than that for m = 3. 31-38. R. n = 1 and k = -2. ARMENAKAS 1962 Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 127. the curve form = 1 is above that for m = 2. Journal of Applied Mechanics 18. 5. J. R. Thus. Of course. CONCLUSION Although the results presented do not cover all the possible cases for this problem they typify its behavior and point out some interesting consequences of an initial stress field. BRUNELLE 1972Journal of Applied Mechanics 39. 4. Vibrations and stability of plates under initial stress. etc. On the equations for a Timoshenko beam under initial stress. SUN 1972 JournaI of Applied Mechanics 39. Initially stressed Mindlin plates. 819-821. 1036-1045. Figure 7 illustrates these same results when p = 5 and n = 1 when ajb = 4. 458. for modes below the buckling mode.

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