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Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

DIRECTIONS: You are to type up your responses to these questions in complete


sentences. Your work needs to be in 11-12 pt font and with 1 inch page margins. You do
not need to restate the question, simply number your response. Please double space
between questions. Your paper should include your name, subject, date turned in and
teacher’s name. You should title your work “Chapter 1-Applied Review Questions”.

1. Based on the readings, should we trust our intuition, and why?

2. Provide examples of hindsight bias, and why is it known as the “I knew-it all-along
phenomenon”?

3. Describe the research done by Robert Vallone on how people are at predicting human
behavior.

4. What were the results of Ohio State psychologists Phillip Tetlock’s experiment when he
collected expert’s predictions of political, economic, and military situations?

5. How did Magician James Randi disprove aura-seers, and what was his objective in doing
so?

6. Explain the quote “the rat is always right”.

7. Provide four examples of how psychology’s critical thinking proved surprising findings,
and provide four examples of critical thinking debunked popular presumptions

8. Apply the scientific method to self-esteem and depression.

9. What standards are required to make a theory useful?

10.How might the scientific method help us understand the roots of terrorism?

11.Explain and provide an example how a case study could be misleading.

12.How have case studies help study behaviors?

13.Provide examples of how the wording effect can have major effects on a survey.
14.How is random sampling critical in eliminating the false consensus effect?

15.Describe the dangers in generalizing from a few vivid but unrepresentative samples

16.Why is a survey a using smaller representative sample better than a larger


unrepresentative sample?

17.How is sampling voters analogous to sampling 1500 mixed beans?

18.How is naturalistic observation different from case study and survey methods in
studying behavior?

19.Describe in detail the three examples if naturalistic observations done with humans.

20.Can you recall examples of misleading surveys you have experience or read about?
What principles for a good survey did they violate?

21.Provide two ORIGINAL examples of negative correlation and two examples of positive
correlation.

22.Describe the difference between a negative correlation coefficient and a positive


correlation coefficient.

23.Describe the three possible cause-effect relationships regarding low self-esteem and
depression and why is it not prove causation.

24.Provide two other examples of illusory correlation

25.How would watching basketball or monitoring investment adviser performance leads to


misperception of order in random events?

26.Why was it not bizarre that Evelyn Marie Adams won the New Jersey lottery twice, even
if the newspapers reported the odds of her feat as 1 in 7 trillion?

27.Describe how Alan Lucas experimented on infant nutrition and later intelligence.

28.Why were results different when the National Institutes of Health conducted their
massive experiment on hormone replacement hormones and lower rates of heart
disease compared to correlation studies?
29.Describe the independent variable, control condition, dependent variable, double-blind
procedure in the research experiment studying Viagra and intercourse.

30.Explain the three measures of central tendency, and provide an example of which
measure is affected by extreme scores.

31.Explain the differences between the two measures of variation, range and standard
deviation.

32.Why are representative samples better than biased samples?

33.How are scores with low variability from a basketball player more reliable than scores
with a high variability?

34.Provide an example of how more cases are better than fewer cases.

35.How do comparisons of intelligence test scores among hundreds of thousands of first-


born and later-born individuals provide statistical significance but little practical
significance?

36.Find a popular magazine advertisement. How does the advertiser use (or abuse)
statistics to make a point?

37.Provide examples of laboratory research applicable to reality.

38.Provide four examples of how our shared biological heritage unite us as a universal
human family.

39.How are man and women psychologically as well as biologically similar?

40.Provide explanations why psychologists study animals.

41.Describe the guidelines established by the British Psychological Society, and the
American Psychological Association for the humane use of animals.

42.How has animal research benefited animals, and how has experimentation on animals
improved our understanding of animals?
43.List the four ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association
and the British Psychological Society regarding experimentation on people.

44.How is psychology manipulative to people, yet beneficial?