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HISTORY OF THE

CHRISTIAN CHURCH

“And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the
moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars:” Revelation 12:1

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Table of Contents
HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH ........................................................................................................................................ i
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................................................. ii
The Studying of History................................................................................................................................................. 1
Introduction to Church History ............................................................................................................................. 1
Apostolic Church Government........................................................................................................................................ 6
The Sabbath & the Apostles ............................................................................................................................................. 9
Saint Ignatius & the Pope's Letter .............................................................................................................................. 12
The Centers of Christianity & the Views of Society ........................................................................................ 14
Centers of Christianity ................................................................................................................................................ 14
Views of Society ............................................................................................................................................................. 15
Sacral view .................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Composite view ......................................................................................................................................................... 16
Patrick & the Church in the Wilderness in Ireland.............................................................................................. 17
His History ....................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Loyalty of Patrick to the Bible ................................................................................................................................. 18
His Doctrines and Beliefs: ......................................................................................................................................... 18
Columba and the Church of Scotland ........................................................................................................................ 20
Columba ............................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Organization ............................................................................................................................................................... 20
Law ................................................................................................................................................................................. 21
The Church of the Wilderness...................................................................................................................................... 22
Ulfildas ................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Edicts ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
The Waldensians & Different Translations ............................................................................................................ 25
Review of Societies....................................................................................................................................................... 25
Sacral Society ............................................................................................................................................................. 25
Composite Society .................................................................................................................................................... 25
Different Periods ........................................................................................................................................................... 25
2nd Century .................................................................................................................................................................. 25
Foundational leadership Period ......................................................................................................................... 26
Justin Martyr & Others................................................................................................................................................ 28
Jerome ............................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Vigilantius ........................................................................................................................................................................ 28
Times.................................................................................................................................................................................. 29
Bible Translations......................................................................................................................................................... 29
The Waldensians ........................................................................................................................................................... 30
Origin ............................................................................................................................................................................. 30
Apostolic Origin......................................................................................................................................................... 31
The Waldensians and the Reformation ............................................................................................................... 34
Reformation and the Waldensians ........................................................................................................................ 34
Rome's Assumption of Spiritual and Temporal Power ..................................................................................... 37
Tithe ................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
John Wycliffe, Tithe, & Church Authority ................................................................................................................ 41
Authority .......................................................................................................................................................................... 43
Derived ......................................................................................................................................................................... 43
Earned ........................................................................................................................................................................... 43
John Wycliffe ................................................................................................................................................................... 43
Huss & Jerome .................................................................................................................................................................... 45

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John Huss.......................................................................................................................................................................... 45
The Inquisition ................................................................................................................................................................... 47
The lead up to the Inquisition.................................................................................................................................. 50
Considerations of heresy ........................................................................................................................................... 52
How about justice? ....................................................................................................................................................... 52
Martin Luther...................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Erasmus & Luther ......................................................................................................................................................... 54
The Diet of Worms ....................................................................................................................................................... 56
Luther's perspective concerning conflict….................................................................................................... 59
The Diet of Spire 1529 ................................................................................................................................................ 61
Toleration .................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Religious Liberty ....................................................................................................................................................... 61
History of the Cannon of Scriptures .......................................................................................................................... 62
Formation of the Canon (Background) ................................................................................................................ 62
Scriptures ......................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Claims of Catholicism .................................................................................................................................................. 66
History of the Bible in Connection with the Reformation ................................................................................ 67
Erasmus ............................................................................................................................................................................ 68
William Tyndale ............................................................................................................................................................ 68
Jesuits................................................................................................................................................................................. 69
King James Version ...................................................................................................................................................... 70
The Sabbath in History ................................................................................................................................................... 73
Fathers 2-4th Century .................................................................................................................................................. 73
5-7th Century ................................................................................................................................................................... 73
Time of the Reformation & Dark Ages ................................................................................................................. 74
Reviews of the Reformers Concerning the Seventh-day Sabbath ................................................................. 76
The Anabaptists ............................................................................................................................................................. 77
Anabaptists & Reformers .......................................................................................................................................... 78
The Church, What Is It? Catholic View and Protestant View........................................................................... 80
Roman Catholic View .................................................................................................................................................. 80
Protestant View ............................................................................................................................................................. 80
Wycliffe ............................................................................................................................................................................. 80
Anglican Church View ................................................................................................................................................. 81
Seventh-day Adventist................................................................................................................................................ 81
France & the French Revolution ................................................................................................................................. 83
Netherlands & Scandinavia....................................................................................................................................... 83
Spanish Armada ........................................................................................................................................................ 84
The reasons they Rome sent the Spanish Armada ..................................................................................... 85
France ................................................................................................................................................................................ 85
French Reformation ................................................................................................................................................ 85
Calvin ................................................................................................................................................................................. 85
Dilemma in France ....................................................................................................................................................... 86
French Revolution ........................................................................................................................................................ 87
The effect on society................................................................................................................................................ 88
Story ............................................................................................................................................................................... 89
Printing Press............................................................................................................................................................. 89
The French Revolution & Its Contrast with the Reformation..................................................................... 90
England ......................................................................................................................................................................... 90
Wesley's........................................................................................................................................................................ 91
Pilgrim Fathers .......................................................................................................................................................... 92

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The American Constitution & the Separation of Church and State .............................................................. 93
3 Quarrels of King John .............................................................................................................................................. 93
Colonies of the New World ....................................................................................................................................... 94
Declaration of Independence ................................................................................................................................... 94
Virginia Colony .............................................................................................................................................................. 94
The Baptists .................................................................................................................................................................... 95
Federal Constitution .................................................................................................................................................... 96
The Baptists in VA & Believers Baptism .................................................................................................................. 98
The Remnant Church & 1798 ....................................................................................................................................... 99
Edward Irving ................................................................................................................................................................ 99
Ezra Ben Ezra AKA Joseph Wolfe ........................................................................................................................... 99
William Miller ................................................................................................................................................................. 99
The 95 Theses ...................................................................................................................................................................... 100

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The Studying of History
The things that happen now, have there roots in the past. It is the big picture that well draw out the
way in which God has lead us in the past.

Ed 173 In the annals of human history the growth of nations, the rise and fall of empires, appear as
dependent on the will and prowess of man. The shaping of events seems, to a great degree, to be
determined by his power, ambition, or caprice. But in the word of God the curtain is drawn aside, and
we behold, behind, above, and through all the play and counterplay of human interests and power
and passions, the agencies of the all-merciful One, silently, patiently working out the counsels of His
own will.

You cannot change the outcome of Gods will. We are to trace the footsteps of God in history.

CT 379 There is a study of history that is not to be condemned. Sacred history was one of the studies
in the schools of the prophets. In the record of His dealings with the nations were traced the
footsteps of Jehovah. So today we are to consider the dealings of God with the nations of the earth.
We are to see in history the fulfillment of prophecy, to study the workings of Providence in the great
reformatory movements, and to understand the progress of events in the marshaling of the nations
for the final conflict of the great controversy.

The priorities of studying history


 great reformatory movements
 the progress of events
 the marshaling of the nations for the final conflict of the great controversy

Jesus healed a man, who could only see trees, then God touched him again and then he saw clearly.
We are the second touch. The first touch is the events; we are the second touch we show it clearly.

Introduction to Church History

The Jew rejected Jesus, so God intervened by creating a new Church. During the 400 years between
the last prophet and the coming of Christ there was no biblical history. But during this time Greece
ruled the world. During this time what happened impacted Gods church, and this is what caused
them to reject Jesus. They believed that they could take from all religions and create a supper
religion. They tried to lay the foundation of a life without God, this created western life style. Every
power in the past enforced their religion upon the Jews, but the Greeks, bought in more festivals
and entertainment.

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One of the Greek kings asked 70 rabbis to come and translate the OT into Greek this was called the
Septuagint. By the time Jesus came the Jews spoke Greek. As a result one of the Jews was asked to
collect the tax; he couldn’t do it by himself so he had other Jews help him and then they become
rather rich and they invested the money in Judea, and as a result made this part of Israel very rich.
The Jews saw this as the blessing of God. So they became to import the Greeks culture, dancing,
drinking, women, parties, etc. The major thing that was bought in was the sports. A head Jew Jason,
built a gym next door to the Sanctuary, and as a result the priest left their duties from the Sanctuary
and they lost their purpose and their destiny. This is why they missed the coming of Jesus.

Timeline of the Christian Church


1. Ephesus – 73 years (34-100) - Love
2. Smyrna – 223 years (100-323) - Persecution
3. Pergamos – 215 years (323-538) - Corruption
4. Thyatira – 1260 years (538-1798) – Papal / death
5. Sardis – 35 years (1798-1833) – Lack of zeal
6. Philadelphia – 11 years (1833-1844) – Brotherly Love
7. Laodicean – 165+ years (1844-second coming) – Lukewarm

What happens when God changes Churches?


There are two times in history when God changed churches
 New Christian church
 Advent movement

In both of these times there were principles that were in place. There a few key points that existed;
every religion has its sacred oracles, whether it is pagan or Christian. Sacred oracles represent
guidance system for the religion; it is what the divine being of the religion communicates through to
the human to know what their will is. It is the respect of these sacred oracles that strengthen a
church. The more respect the more strength the church has. By the time of Christ the Old Testament
had become well established.

When God changes a church it means that the old church is no longer the holder of the sacred
oracles and the new church is the holder of the oracles. This does not change the existing sacred
oracles, it’s just a transfer.

There are several essential elements that must exist so that people know that God has changed
churches;
1. Established under the leadership of divinely inspired men and women, who have the deeps
commitment to God, and were moved by the Holy Spirit. Constantly referred to the Old
Testament
2. Signal manifest witness of the Holy Sprit in miraculous power
3. Involved in deep personal and earnest study of the Word of God, people who rejected this
new movement would have to reject the truth found in their own scriptures
4. There are warnings in confrontation – God does not just turn his back on a church, he sends
warnings
5. Hermeneutics – Biblical interpretation
6. Expansion of the sacred oracles – New Testament and Spirit of Prophecy

A church is not exclusively the church structure – the structure is a part of the church.

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Pentecost
1. The disciples gathered together and received the Holy
Spirit because Christ was issued in as Priest.
2. Speaking in tongues (Acts 2)
3. Better understanding of the scriptures (Acts 2, 3, etc)
4. Reaction of the priests to the disciples (Acts 4 and 5)

Did Jesus go to the Most Holy First?


Dan 9:24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the
transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in
everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.

The anointing starts in the most holy place.

Ex 30:26-31 [26] And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and
the ark of the testimony, [27] And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his
vessels, and the altar of incense, [28] And the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and
the laver and his foot. [29] And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy:
whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy. [30] And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons,
and consecrate them, that [they] may minister unto me in the priest's office. [31] And thou
shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anointing oil unto me
throughout your generations.

Life of Paul
Paul was one of the most important people in the early church. He made a very large impact on the
world stage. His writings and teachings established and organized the early church.

1. He was a persecutor of the church


2. He converted
3. And a wilderness experience
4. Was given a mission

Most of the leaders of Gods church have a wilderness experience before they are given a mission.

The reason why Gods takes His leaders into the wilderness
1. God wants to help them unlearn the false concepts which they have already learnt.
2. Communicate with them
3. To humble them, remove self esteem
4. To prepare them for the great work they are to do
5. To keep them out of the fray (the controversy which is going on)

Paul was ordained by God, he had hands laid on him but it was God that ordained him. It’s not the
man that brings the word the saves souls, but it’s the word the man brings that saves the soul.
There are many ministers that have ordination from man but not from God.

The method for ordination


 Fasting
 Prayer

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 Laying on of hands

The Canon
Paul’s influence on the cannon was of no small impact. The term canon comes from the principle of
a projectile on its target. In Alexandria which was the center for the Greeks, was the location where
they used this term “canon”. It was used to refer to the authors who wrote all the Greek literature.
Soon the Christians used this term to describe the catalogue of books that composed the Christian
faith.

Way was it so important to add books to the inspired Old Testament?


 It would give the new church its own sense of mission as distinct from the Jewish church. It
sets the church apart from others.
 New church members of the new church needed to have a settled confidence that this was
Gods church for this time.
 Create an anchor which the new church could hold on to as its mission statement. The Spirit
of Prophecy is the mission statement for the Seventh-day Adventist church
 Provide counsel and comfort for the new church

The Roman Catholicism claims that she established the canon


 She can claim authority over it
 She claims authority over the whole of the Christian Church
 If her claim is true then she is able to say that if anyone excepts the bible as the truth then
they are above truth

The New Testament


 15 years after the ascension of Christ the Christian church was established, it was based on
the Old Testament and the teachings of the Apostles.
 They appealed to the Old Testament to support their place in history
 Under the influence of the writings of Paul opened the cannon. Because of Paul’s teachings
and writings his writings with considered to be inspired of God.
 1st and 2nd Thessalonians were the first two books excepted into the cannon in 40 AD
 Between 40 Ad and 95 Ad the rest of the NT cannon were written.
 The last two books written were Revelation and John, this was written from Ephesus.
 The epistles of Paul were sent all over the world very quickly.
 The persecution of the church was a very important factor the helped the church to grow
 The sent their writings all over the world (the written preacher)

Satan then used people to write false letters and then signing them Paul, or Peter and so forth.
There were a number of reasons why these false writings where not excepted;
 Background – was persecution, God used this to allow intense environments that would
bring people together. One of the jobs of the minister was to prepare people to be a martyr.
Because of this the writings of the Apostles had a great deal of meaning to the church
members. Because this method failed, Satan used compromise to bring the church down.
 The power of God was so manifest in the lives of the apostles. These man publicly
demonstrated their characters.
 Unity of the message – God did not give the cannon all in one go. Over time, with different
writers there was still unity in the content.
 The focus of the message – The New Testament was for the church for their problems, for
their needs, other writers were written in different styles.

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 Interest – Controversy created a lot of interest in Christianity and the books by the Apostles
 Carefulness – that the books were not changed
 Eyewitness - People had heard and seen the messages by the writers.
 Numbers of people protecting the scriptures
 Constant review – the writings it was easy to see the false books.
 Longevity of loyalty of the scriptures – protected with life
 The New Testament was translated into many different languages rather quickly
 Opposition to scripture – the writings of the Apostles the true generated much opposition
 Used by permanent bodies of people – consistent man controlled and passed down the
scriptures
 The long ministry of the apostle – they were well known

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Apostolic Church Government
What is the greatest force of impact on history? The church

To what is communism a reaction? Ecclesiastical abuse

To what was the French revolution a reaction? Catholicism

What are the two classes of mankind that embrace nearly the whole world, what are they? Those
who want to be saved by their merits and those who want to be saved in sin.

 Protestantism places the Bible above the


authority of the Church
 Catholicism places the authority of the
church above the word

The early church was in unity and they had


humbled themselves they could see that the
power shown in the church were above the
church and it had to be of God. Persecution was
the thing that made this church so strong and
focused.

Some have said that Christ didn't give specific rules about church government. We disagree.

Matt 23:2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat…

These are church leaders that he is talking about. So he is giving instructions concerning church
leadership.

Matt 23:3-6 [3] All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye
after their works: for they say, and do not. [4] For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne,
and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.
[5] But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge
the borders of their garments, [6] And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the
synagogues,

Jesus is placing the background of what is happening. The rulers were lording over God's people, in
1 Tim. instruction is given not to do it.

Matt 23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.

Here are the instructions that are given.

“all ye are brethren” – He is saying treat each other as brethren. The apostolic church understood
this. They knew that in the future some might try to rule other people, and we have seen this today.
It is forbidden by Christ.

Matt 23:9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.

This is forbidden for us to do.

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Matt 23:10-11 [10] Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. [11] But he that
is greatest among you shall be your servant.

Acts 6:1-6 [1] And in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, there arose a
murmuring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because their widows were neglected in the daily
ministration. [2] Then the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, It is not
reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables. [3] Wherefore, brethren, look ye out
among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint
over this business. [4] But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the
word. [5] And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith
and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas
a proselyte of Antioch: [6] Whom they set before the apostles: and when they had prayed, they laid
their hands on them.

This is the way that the order is be. The people are the highest level of the church.

Acts 2:44 And all that believed were together, and had all things common…

And all that believed were together, and had all things common; This does not mean that they put
all their money into one big pile, it was the spirit of community. The Holy Spirit was the leading
force behind this church. The churches were independent of each other; there was no central
church of authority. Not even the Jerusalem council had authority over the churches. They were so
united in bringing forward of the second coming that they were not in competition with each other.

These are specific principles about church government. Church Government in the Apostolic
church. There were Presbyters under the Apostles that were in church of the ministry of the work.
Acts 6 the Apostles were not to do this. They couldn't preach. So they were setup to do this. There
were Deacons, Deaconess, Elders, and Bishops. The highest level of authority under God is the
people. The apostles would not make decisions without consulting the brethren. The bishops,
deacons, Pastor, etc. is to be the one who serves God's people. The highest level is the people.

Today the GC is to serve the Pastor, the Pastor serves the Elders. Then we have the Union President,
and under him is the GC President. Remember 'Sacral Society'

The method of resolving conflict was to have a consultation with the brethren. It was not for the
president of the Jerusalem council to make a decision and hand it down. As the church became
corrupt the desire to rule increased. Who would be the ruler? And in the end the supremacy of the
bishop of Rome became an issue. Rome won and the bishop became the chief priest over all the
believers. Rome lost the view of the priesthood of all believers. Protestantism re-established the
principle of the priesthood of all believers. God wanted to preserve this.

During the final years of the apostolic church progressed and new leaders emerged, there was a
very important principle that was involved. Persecution was present. The people were there not for
gain, but they were dedicated and committed. The early bishops knew this and prepared the people
for martyrdom-to be faithful to Christ under persecution. They knew they were the special targets
of persecution. Persecution eliminated the desire for worldly ambition. The church was pure for
over 100 years. This changed later when Constantine became a Christian, which was more of a
political maneuver, caused corruptions. But the bishops took advantage to exercise temporal
authority and ecclesiastical authority.

Early Church

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AA 29 Christ's sacrifice in behalf of man was full and complete. The condition of the atonement had
been fulfilled.

Many today say the atonement was complete on the cross. She is not saying this here. She says that
the sacrifice was complete. What period of time does the atonement cover? From the beginning of
the life of Christ, (actually from the fall of man to the restoration of all things.) More specifically
from the time He was born, through the time of Him living a sinless life, died on the cross, when he
began His Holy Place and Most Holy Place ministry. The atonement is finished after this process is
finished and God's people are sealed.
When people that the atonement was complete at the cross, they are saying that there is no reason
for SDA's to exist. It supports that the idea that there is no heavenly sanctuary, there is not
atonement going on now. The atonement began in AD 31 and there was no change in 1844. This
does away with our message for 1844. What was the condition of the atonement? Christ's sinless
sacrifice (without the shedding of blood no remission…) Evangelicals support that it was complete
at the cross.

Holy Spirit & Pentecost – When did the Holy Spirit fall on the disciples? After the coronation of
Christ being made King of Kings and Lord of Lords was complete. Jesus went into the HP in AD 31
before His Father. Jesus went into the MHP before 1844, but it was only for the coronation (study
that point). After this was complete He went in the HP to begin the daily ministry. When the
coronation was complete the legal requirements were met, then the Holy Spirit could be poured
out. The disciples were waiting for this event to be accomplished.

Coronation = Crowing as king. When you have a king on earth there is a coronation service first.

Speaking in tongues

Acts 2:7-8 [7] And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all
these which speak Galilaeans? And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were
born? "

Who was speaking in unknown tongues? None of them. The true gift of tongues is when a language
is spoken by someone who may not understand it, someone who knows the language will. It is not
gibberish.

AA 40 The priests and rulers were greatly enraged at this wonderful manifestation, but they dared
not give way to their malice, for fear of exposing themselves to the violence of the people. They had
put the Nazarene to death; but here were His servants, unlettered men of Galilee, telling in all the
languages then spoken, the story of His life and ministry. The priests, determined to account for the
miraculous power of the disciples in some natural way, declared that they were drunken from
partaking largely of the new wine prepared for the feast. Some of the most ignorant of the people
present seized upon this suggestion as the truth, but the more intelligent knew it to be false; and
those who understood the different languages testified to the accuracy with which these languages
were used by the disciples.

First of all the priests were angry at the manifestation of the Spirit, but through history we see this
over and over. The leaders often want to control the working of the Holy Spirit. Not always, but at
the end of time we will see it again. There are some faithful men, but many leaders will oppose the
truth of God. There were some faithful priests during the early rain, so it will be the same with the
latter rain, but you will have those who will oppose it too.

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The Sabbath & the Apostles
How the Sabbath was kept during the time of the Apostles.

Quiz:

Who is the highest earthly authority in the church according to apostolic principles of church
government? The people

What did Christ forbid us to call church leaders? Father, Master, Rabbi

What were the disciples doing while they waited for Pentecost? Confessing sins, praying, making
wrongs right with each other. Recalling the events teachings of Christ over the past 40 days and His
acts during His life. Praising and worshipping in the temple.

Who accused the apostles of being drunk? The Priests, (Pharisee's and Sadducees)

We have many reasons as to believe that they kept the 7th Day Sabbath. One was that they were not
accused of neglecting the Sabbath by their enemies the Jews, especially the leaders. You never see
an accusation against them against breaking the Sabbath. You don't see this anywhere in scriptures.
We saw others like neglecting circumcision. And if they were breaking it, it would have been
brought out.

Another reason: They believed that sin was the transgression of the law, and that the whole law
was the standard that God and Christ would judge by. Jesus taught them to uphold the law and not
one jot or tittle would be removed until all was fulfilled. It was not fulfilled at the cross. The law
lives through all eternity. If you say the atonement was complete at the cross, it does away with his
teachings on this subject about what the law means. The people were taught that the whole law was
valid. In order to keep the whole law you must keep the Sabbath. They understood that the seventh
day Sabbath was still valid.

Jam 2:8-10 [8] If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture, [9] Thou shalt love thy neighbour
as thyself, ye do well: …[10]For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one [point], he
is guilty of all.

Another reason: Christ gave instruction that they were to pray that their flight would not be on the
Sabbath day.

Matt 24:20 But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day:

This was something that they would have to do after;


 Death of Jesus
 Rise of Jesus
 Gone back to heaven
 Start of the new church
 After the fall of the papacy
 Right down to the second coming

Acts 13:14, 27 [14] But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went
into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. [27] For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their

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rulers, because they knew him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath
day, they have fulfilled [them] in condemning [him].

He explained their condemnation of Christ.

Acts 13:42 And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these
words might be preached to them the next Sabbath.

The Gentiles came to them, not the Jews. This was primarily a gentile meeting.

Acts 13:44 And the next Sabbath day came almost the whole city together to hear the word of God.

Who was in this meeting? The gentiles primarily. They held this meeting on the Sabbath. If the
Sabbath would have been changed by Christ, couldn't they have explained it then? Yes, why didn't
they? It was a good opportunity for them to do this. They were not accommodating the Jews
because it was a gentile meeting. They knew the Seventh-day was the Sabbath.

This event took place 14 years after Christ was suppose to have changed the Sabbath, by now this
issued would have been resolved, but they are still meeting with the gentiles. Luke's record of this
event was written nearly 30 years after Christ was resurrected from the grave. This is important,
because Luke could have explained it and made it clear that the Sabbath was changed, but the
record isn't here. If it would have been changed, there would have been plenty of discussion on how
to make the transition from one day to the next.

Acts 15

Not a word of discussion was mentioned about the Sabbath. Those who were expressing concern
for circumcision would have also mentioned the Sabbath if it was an issue, but there was no
concern.

Acts 16:12-15 [12] And from thence to Philippi, which is the chief city of that part of Macedonia, and
a colony: and we were in that city abiding certain days. [13] And on the sabbath we went out of the
city by a river side, where prayer was wont to be made; and we sat down, and spake unto the women
which resorted thither. [14] And a certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of
Thyatira, which worshipped God, heard us: whose heart the Lord opened, that she attended unto the
things which were spoken of Paul. [15] And when she was baptized, and her household, she besought
us, saying, If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and abide there. And
she constrained us.

They still considered the Sabbath an important event. There was only one Sabbath day that was
understood then. They all assembled on the Sabbath. Who was present?

Acts 17:1-4 [1] Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to
Thessalonica, where was a synagogue of the Jews: [2] And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto
them, and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the scriptures, [3] Opening and alleging,
that Christ must needs have suffered, and risen again from the dead; and that this Jesus, whom I
preach unto you, is Christ. [4] And some of them believed, and consorted with Paul and Silas; and of
the devout Greeks a great multitude, and of the chief women not a few.

A great multitude of greeks. In this meeting there were a lot of converted greek people. 3 Sabbaths
in a row he studied with them. He didn't tell them about the change of the Sabbath.

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1 Cor 16:1-2

This passage is used for Sunday observance. He told the Galatians to do this, now he is telling the
Corinthians to do this.

People say because this was on the first day it was a sacred worship and sacred day.
We are talking about a collection that is being made. Is this a public collection? No, it was a personal
collection. It says lay by him in store, meaning on Sunday I am to take my offering and put it aside
so I don't spend it. So when the time comes to have a collection, I will have to give (study…I don't
think it refers to money either, but study!) this is all it says.

He is saying don't spend this money. After the Sabbath, think of God's work first and prepare for
when I come. If it is not a public collection, it is not a public gathering, it is not a worship service, so
it is not a sacred day. In reference to the first day, Paul, the disciples, and Christ never used the
Sabbath or Lord's day in reference to this day. They used a secular reference. (Reference: History of
the Sabbath J.N. Andrews and Allan Walker the Law and the Sabbath).

Acts 20:6-13 [6] And we sailed away from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, and came
unto them to Troas in five days; where we abode seven days. [7] And upon the first day of the week,
when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the
morrow; and continued his speech until midnight. [8] And there were many lights in the upper
chamber, where they were gathered together. [9] And there sat in a window a certain young man
named Eutychus, being fallen into a deep sleep: and as Paul was long preaching, he sunk down with
sleep, and fell down from the third loft, and was taken up dead. [10] And Paul went down, and fell on
him, and embracing him said, Trouble not yourselves; for his life is in him. [11] When he therefore
was come up again, and had broken bread, and eaten, and talked a long while, even till break of day,
so he departed. [12] And they brought the young man alive, and were not a little comforted. [13] ¶
And we went before to ship, and sailed unto Assos, there intending to take in Paul: for so had he
appointed, minding himself to go afoot.

The one who fell from the window and broke his neck.

Acts 20:7 They do not use a sacred reference on this day.

He was going to depart on the first day of the week.

Acts 20:8 And there were many lights in the upper chamber, where they were gathered together.

"many lights" this was a meeting at night. When did this meeting take place? Saturday night. The
first day begins at sunset. This was not Sunday night. Paul expresses his regard for the Sabbath. He
did not travel on the Sabbath, he waited for it to be over before he departed. He waited for Sunday
after the Sabbath.

This is the only reference in the NT where a religious meeting was recorded. They did not meet
every Sunday. He went until day break. They say that breaking bread commemorates the
crucifixion. That happened on Friday. So we should keep that day sacred. This event happened 30
years after and Luke again doesn't make a reference to any change. We will discuss Ignatius and his
epistles to the magnesius. John Paul II used him as a basis to keep Sunday sacred. We know the
background from this.

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Saint Ignatius & the Pope's Letter
The pope issued a document in 1998 for us to keep Sunday holy. He used Saint Ignatius as a basis
for this statement. St. Ignatius was martyred in the early part of the second century. He is credited
with saying see packet on John Paul's comment point 23. This quotation is from a letter that was
written to the Magnesians. Most historians believe that all the letters that are credited as being
written by him were forgeries, especially this letter to the Magenesians. See handout of what Hal
Mayer wrote in response to this letter.

Second paragraph on the first page. 'he was not one of the apostles' this is important because Pope
John Paul continues to say that Sunday observance comes through apostolic times. But he never
quotes one of the apostles. And the basis that he uses is from St. Ignatius who was a church father,
not an apostle. Killen is a famous historian. Calvin even rejected his epistles.

Kitto was a famous historian from Germany. Robinson was a famous Baptist historian. He coves the
last paragraph on page one to the 3 third paragraph on page 2.

Popes Letter Point 1. The first sentence is a corruption of history. Sunday is never referred to as
sacred in the NT.

Last Para pg 2. Mayer – Latin church was not the Christian church. There was another stream of
corrupted Christianity known as the Latin Church. The pope speaks of this as the only church. Even
though the pope uses a lot of scripture in his letter, but if you review the passages they do not
authorize a change. In his letter he often refers to it being a human change. Or a human institution.
Page 3 last paragraph.

PL Point 22 – He misapplies the OT references of the Sabbath and transfers it to Sunday. He does
this with the NT too. He says in the writings of the fathers, not the apostles. He said that the fathers
used the texts that Christ would have used to show the change. But Christ didn't do this. He had 40
days to explain the change, but He never did it. Why not? Also up to the death of John, the apostles
had plenty of time to explain it to the Jews and Gentiles, why didn't they? Nothing was said about it.
Not even one of the disciples. Many instructions were left for the gentiles on what was required of
them, why was this not included. And by saying this comment, they are putting words in Christ's
mouth. That is blasphemy. All through this he uses the fathers and apologist as the authority.

Page 4 Mayer – Pope admits…

Point 63 – "This is why Christians, called as they are to proclaim the liberation won by the blood of
Christ, felt that they had the authority to transfer the meaning of the Sabbath to the day of the
resurrection." Here the pope admits that it was a human institution. It is more than a Jewish
tradition, many Christians do this today too.

Point 54 – "Church's day" Here he shows it too. It was a human institution. He also shows in the
letter that Sunday is a reminder of Creation. This is the opposite of what the Bible says, that the
Sabbath, which is the true reminder. He tries to justify this based upon the emperor Constantine's
Sunday law.

Point 64 – fourth century, which was during the time of Constantine. "Civil Law" this is a key point.
"Only in the fourth century…heroic" He is saying that Constantine was the one who changed it, and
civil law made it possible for them to fulfill supposedly what the apostles and fathers tried to do. He

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even blames Christ.

"It would be wrong…aside" As if Constantine's civil law had a divine mandate. And the councils
didn't cease either. These councils denigrated Sabbath and elevated Sunday. He is establishing the
principle of a civil legislation.

Mayer page 5 – To suggest…tradition.


He is saying because Constantine made this law, they can't set it aside like it is a divine law. This is
how he builds his logic. It began to happen, so Sunday laws came by Constantine, which validated
what already happened. But because something begins to happen and even if laws support it, that
doesn't mean it is the word of God.

Point 27 – "Wise pastoral…languages." He says wise pastors made the change.

In the next chapter we will see that Pope John Paul II in this letter brings up the subject of
legislation to support in our day, that which he is trying to support in this letter. And he distorts
what happened in history.

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The Centers of Christianity & the Views of Society
Give as many reasons as you can why we know that the apostolic churches kept the Seventh-day
Sabbath. 1. They were never accused by the Jewish leaders of neglecting the Sabbath, 2. Jesus taught
them to uphold the law and not one jot would be removed, they taught that the whole law was valid
and you must keep the Sabbath to keep the whole law. 3. Christ told them to pray that their flight
would not be on the Sabbath. 4. The apostles could have explained to the gentiles the change of the
Sabbath. 5. Luke never explained the change. 6. They all assembled and prayed on the Sabbath Acts
16 7. Paul gave his speech Saturday night, we saw lights in the chambers. He didn't travel on the
Sabbath.

Where were the Christians first called Christians? In Antioch

Who is credited with taking the Gospel to India? Thomas

What was the center of Syriac Christianity? Antioch and Adessa

What is the center of Greek Christianity? Ephesus, Corinth, Berea, etc.

What is the center of Celtic Christianity? Galatia

What was the center of Latin Christianity? Rome

What was the center of Gnostic Christianity? Alexandria and Egypt

Centers of Christianity
The center of Syrian Christianity was in Antioch and Adessa. From there it went to Persia, India,
Parthia, and China

The center of Celtic Christianity was Galatia. From there it went to Gaul. Today that is France. And
from there it went to Ireland and the British Isles. The Galatians were related to the people in Gaul.
The culture, climate, and census in Gaul was over populated, so there was a large migration to
Galatia, and the British Isles, including Scotland. The people group began in Gaul. When Christianity
developed in Asia Minor it started with the Galatians among the Celts. And because they had
relatives in Gaul it moved there and from there to Ireland. God used migration to spread
Christianity far and wide. It from Galatia all the way north to the British Isles.

The center of Greek Christianity was centered in Athens, Philippi, Corinth, Ephesus, Berea, and
Thessalonica. From there it began to connect with Latin Christianity and it became corrupt, and
eventually separated itself from Christianity.

The center of Latin Christianity was in Rome.

Paul established the Roman church. But because of many factors, Western Christianity became
corrupt and pagan idolatry, tradition, and systems were brought in this church. In 1054 AD these
two churches split. And we have the Greek and Latin churches today who are separated.

The center of Gnostic Christianity was Alexandria.

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And it was here where the corruption of the manuscripts began to develop. The Gnostics influenced
the Latin church. This is important to remember. A lot of these churches today are different than
back then. But the Greek and Latin churches are still separate, but we still see the same pagan
corruption now, that was back then in the second and third centuries. The Roman church claims to
have apostolic origin. This claim has been disputed by pre-formation protestants, and today this
argument is not as widely disputed. Many don't understand that today. They do not have apostolic
(*PO except with Judas) origin. Rome did not descend from the time of the apostles the beliefs, and
corruption of Rome began after the apostles passed. The mystery of iniquity did already work, but
the apostles didn't give us Roman or Latin Christianity. (the corrupt church of Rome). Just because
it came from the apostolic times, it doesn't mean that it came from the apostles themselves.
Paganism came from their days, and idolatry, we must analyze what is being said.

Rome claims apostolic origins. Rome departed from the faith of Peter and the other apostles. So
how can their origin begin with Peter? How can they be the apostolic church when she has adopted
many things from apostolic times, but has left the most important aspect, which are the apostolic
teachings. Faithful Christians looked upon Rome with shame and sadness and said they have
departed from the faith. They realized they were teaching the apostolic doctrines and practices, but
they were being persecuted for this. So who is the real apostolic church? Those who have the
apostolic teachings and practices. Where does this leave SDA's? They are apostolic, why? Because
they teach what the apostoles were teaching. The Waldenses are apostolic because they taught
exactly what they did. when did they begin? The 2nd Century. Peter Waldo was not the founder. The
Jesuits used the date of 1200's to show their beginnings. Those who have left the teachings of the
apostles are no longer a part of the apostolic church. Rome left the teachings of the apostle Paul.
Those churches that remained faithful sought for unity. Those who went to paganism had to have
councils to bring the error together.

God wants to develop people who have true principles. Meekness, humility of spirit, etc. he wants to
establish them to himself, not for people to be to themselves. Pride must be banished. In order to do
this, persecution had to crush the church. True Christians will always face persecution.

GC 45 If unity could be secured only by the compromise of truth and righteousness, then let there be
difference, and even war.

After persecution didn't work, Satan began to compromise. And then these brothers began to
persecute their brothers. The real schematics were the church of Rome.

Phil 2:3-4 [3] Let nothing be done through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each
esteem other better than themselves. [4] Look not every man on his own things, but every man also
on the things of others.

Vain glory is pride. Strife is conflict. None should try to rise above another or be over each other.

Views of Society
In relation to religious liberty there are two views: 1.) Sacral view 2.) Composite view

Sacral view
A society in which all members worship at the same shrine. They all have the same religion. Ex. In
the pagan system of Roman religion they all worshipped the same gods. The pantheon of gods. And
those who didn't agree would be persecuted. The Babylonian society was the same. They had a

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cultic god that centered itself in the ruler. Everyone worshipped these gods. If not persecution
came. Ex. 3 Hebrew boys. They were seen as a menace to society. They were a disruptive element
that would undermine and subvert the security of society as it stood. This is why they were thrown
in the fire. Then we have the Roman Empire that was the same type of society. You could worship
any god as long as you were not exclusive. You had to be a part of the understanding of the societal
understanding of the gods. You must participate in the pagan roman rites. When Christianity came
and Christ was considered a God. The emperor was happy at first, but because the Christians said
He is the ONLY GOD! This separated Christianity from the rest of society, and the pagans realized
that they were not one of them. And the persecution came because they were a menace to society.
They undermined the stability of society, and the security of society by being separate in worship
principles.

Composite view
(on test) You can worship any god that you please and we can all still leave together as a human
society peacefully. We don't need to worship at the same shrine to live peacefully together. Society
is a composite of a variety of gods, or no god at all. You can worship as you please. Religious liberty
is alive in this society. But it is suppressed in a sacral society. Remember this!

The Roman church by accepting paganism adopted the sacral view of society.

Summary: Sacral view: The same shrine is worshipped by society. Composite view: there is no need
of religion to be the basis of a society. It is not anti-religious like communism.

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Patrick & the Church in the Wilderness in Ireland
Revelation 12 gives us an outline of the church in the wilderness and then it comes down to us. But
the same hand that sustained them will sustain us. Even through the Papal power had dominion
over the entire world, they did not have supreme authority over the church in the wilderness.

(HSM: When studying the history of the church, you must find the books that give you the
perspectives, not just the facts. In most books you will not find an accurate sketch of what happened
to the church in the wilderness. Some on Waldenses, very little on the Hugenots. Etc. But less than
that on the rest, hardly none. Ex Albagensis were destroyed by the papacy, and their writings were
destroyed with them. We have their history for their enemies.)

TT 71 Analytical reading will be practiced. (Indented paragraph)

Let's draw conclusions about his beliefs and practices. (belief system of Patrick)

He acknowledged that he was a sinner. So this shows us that this was written after conversion. He
came down from a line of religious leaders. He felt the reason why he was taken to Ireland was
because he walked away from God, and God used this to convict his heart.. This shows us that he is
writing about his conversion experience. He was contented by great numbers. This means that
there was a multitude against him. He was a believer in the ten commandments. So this means he
kept the Sabbath. His grandfather was a presbyter, like the bishop (*PO this is where the Pope's
came from). What do we see underneath all of that? He was married and had a child who was
Patrick's father. So the Celtic church didn't believe in a celibate priesthood. (*PO In order for his
grandfather who was a bishop to have a son, he had to get married and have a child. That child was
Patrick's Father, who in turn got married and had him.)

His History
His farm was near the ocean, and the freebooters came and enraged the people of Scotland. They
rampaged the village and made the people slaves. He came back to Ireland as a free man converted
the family and left to rise up churches and schools in Ireland. The schools were very effective. The
size of the schools were large especially one. They used the Bible as their textbook. What Bible did
they have? The Itala Bible. It was used by the faithful Christians of this time. This bible came from
the Syrian sources, the eastern sources. These manuscripts were not corrupt.

There were 3 principles involved in doing this work in Ireland.

One: He was an intenerate preacher. (Intenerate means he went from place to place to preach.) He
would go and establish churches from place to place. He saw himself as a servant of Christ. And he
had the commission and instruction to preach the gospel. He got this instruction from the Word of
God. Not the pope. He believed that the Bible was the sole authority in the church.

Two: Publishing – there was no printing press. He had had written manuscripts. He wrote the bible.
He transcribed and copied the scriptures and he left them everywhere were he rose up churches.
These were the illuminated manuscripts. Meaning they were illustrated with designs interwoven. A
fancy S at the beginning of a paragraph. In the borders you see designs. But he founded his churches
on the Bible and the Bible alone.

Three: Educational work - It is essential to true revival. Throughout history every religious revival

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used these three elements. (TEST! REMEMBER THIS). Health was used in some groups as well.

Loyalty of Patrick to the Bible


Difference between those who teach Bible and Bible only; And Bible and tradition. The church in
the wilderness used the bible and the Bible only. It was a feature of the pure churches. Those who
used bible and tradition…this was a feature of the corrupt churches. In the pure church the bible is
superior to tradition. In the corrupt churches, tradition becomes superior to the Bible. In the pure
churches, the church members were free to follow the unction of the Holy Spirit. They were free of
human control. The Holy Spirit never allows man to bind His fellow man. But when the corrupt
churches control the members. You can't preach without a license. You can't do mission work
without an invitation. They are subject to human control in the corrupt church. The greek church,
protestants and the Latin church. Many people today are coming under the control of human.
EGW's prophecy is being fulfilled. Satan is seeking to bind men in bunches, so they can't be free to
move by the Holy Spirit.

So the pure church seeks the Bible for guidance. In the corrupt church, they go to councils, and they
follow creeds to resolve differences. In the pure church there is a belief in the priesthood of all
believes. In the corrupt churches the belief is in the priesthood of the clergy. The concept of church
in the pure church is that the church is centered within the believers. But in the corrupt church, it is
centered in the clergy, and the members obey as they are told.

Many youth left from his institution to do work on the continent of Europe and through the British
Isles.

His Doctrines and Beliefs:


Sabbath – He was a Sabbath keeper
The law of God as binding on God’s people in these days
He believed in the second coming of Christ - He was an Adventist (he was a SDA in principle)

Bible and Bible Only (Pure Church) Bible and Tradition (Corrupt Church)
In the true church/the church in the wilderness Corrupt churches had the Bible and tradition
there was a loyalty to the Bible and the Bible
only – a feature of the pure churches
The Bible is superior to tradition Tradition becomes superior to the Bible
Church members were free to follow the unction Control becomes the issue – subject to human
of the Holy Spirit and free of human control control
Seek the Bible for guidance They go to counsels and follow creeds in order
to resolve differences of opinion or other
matters rather than consulting the Bible
Believe in priesthood of all believers – the Only in the priesthood of the clergy – the church
church is centered in the believers is centered in the clergy and in the
superstructure and the believers merely obey as
they are told

He lived prior to the church in the wilderness. Many changes took place in the world during the
time before. When Rome sent the Monks to Ireland they found that Christian churches and schools
were already present. And they didn't follow the principles of Rome. You didn't see image worship,
and penance, etc. The followers of Patrick were committed to these principles. The Monks had to
return to Rome, Augustine was among them. They were defeated. Eventually Rome chose to

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overcome them by artifice, instead of open persuasion. They could not because Rome was built on
fables and tradition. They could not persuade by the Scriptures. She resorted to cultivating a
warlike behavior among the Danes in Scandinavia. They came to persecute the people. This broke
down the Irish over time. But the greatest challenge to the Irish church was what they did to their
history. They said that a certain man named Palateus was sent to the Irish nation as a missionary
from Rome under Pope Celesty, and he was the founder of the Irish church. They said he was also
known as Patrick. They said that the Irish people had their religious foundation under him. After a
few centuries the Irish accepted this view, and they shifted their loyalty from Patrick to Rome.
Instead of persuading them, they distorted the history. And she then adopted Patrick as one of their
saints. So now we have Saint Patrick's day. And most protestants don't observe this day. Why do we
wear green on St. Patrick's day. The Emerald Isle is the Island of Ireland. The green represents the
origin of the Roman church under this false Patrick in Ireland. So they accepted the idea eventually
that they were apart of the Catholic church. They lost their Christian heritage, their Celtic
foundation. And they became Roman Catholic until the reformation.

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Columba and the Church of Scotland
Homework: Truth Triumphant 10

Columba
He went to Patrick's school. They studied 18 years before going out into the
field. He wanted to convert Scotland to the gospel. They received land off the
west coast of Scotland. They influenced a relative of his to get this land. This
land is called "IONA" it was originally the island of "HY".

The Bible was the chief book of study, and they also studied astronomy. In a
seven-year period he raised 300 churches. In every week to 10 days he
raised a church. The people were ready for something that would give them
an experience. While he traveled he wrote the NT and he left them at the
churches and schools where he traveled. He had to leave it with them for
them to grow. He taught his students how to transcribe. You had preaching, publishing, and raising
schools.

In the seventh century when the monks came to Scotland, they didn't find a roman religion. They
found Christianity that was founded on the Bible and the Bible only. They expected to find pagans,
but they found Christians. The bible was their final authority. They didn't believe in pilgrimages,
and images in order to receive salvation. The Scottish church was observing the Sabbath Day. When
Columba died he said today was the Sabbath and he would rest from his labors. The Scottish church
retained the Sabbath of the Irish church. The Irish church was keeping the SD Sabbath. They were
loyal to the SD Sabbath. Despite the influence of Rome they still were loyal to the Sabbath and the
Ten Commandments.

Organization
This church was established according to apostolic principles. This church didn't have a hierarchy
of religious leaders. With Presbyters and Deacons. They had a brotherhood of pastors and deacons.
They looked to them. They did not try to control each other. They counseled each other so the
church could move forward with no controlling. When Margaret became Queen of Scotland, she was
a Hungarian. Her Catholic moorings were imposed on the Scotland church. How did it happen? They
passed Sunday laws, and they required the Scottish people to follow Catholic rites including Sunday
observance.

105 "Let us venerate the Lord's day…."

We don't realize how much the Sunday legislation had an impact on the free people who followed
the bible in history. The way that Rome established control was by establishing Sunday as the
Sabbath. As the church was pushed further in the wilderness, the religious principles of Rome were
opposed on the churches because of these councils that kept going on. Today even those who claim
the church in the wilderness as their heritage, they refuse to adopt the Sabbath and all of its
principles. The church in the wilderness always remained loyal to the law of God. Sunday laws
always lead to persecution.

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Law
If you are going to have one, what do you do if people break it? You punish them. There must be
some type of penalty for breaking the law. The nature of law is that there is a penalty for breaking
it. Ex. Same with the Law of God. But when man establishes a law we have the same principle. So if
you establish a Sunday law, there must be a penalty for those who break it. What is wrong with a
law concerning religious practices? Is it wrong to have law in the church? No, there must be
ecclesiastical law based on the Bible. But Rome developed ecclesiastical law that was not based
upon the Bible it was based upon tradition. And their law became connected with the civil law. So if
you broke ecclesiastical law you are also breaking civil law. Why? Because Rome worked with a
sacral society, meaning if any member of society didn't follow the religious practices of society, they
were undermining the society and they were outcasts. Even religious law must be established upon
the principles of the Bible. Anyone can't teach what they want in the church. This is what Rome did.
They were in line with their pagan roots. All pre-Christian societies were sacral.

What is wrong with civil law being religious in nature? A religious law enforced by the civil
government (or the state) becomes a restrictive factor upon the religious liberty of the people.
What does it do to the people? If you have a civil law that restricts religion. It restricts the freedom
of the mind to follow the dictates of the conscience. And this also prevents the development of the
mind because it becomes subject to human authority. If you place the Bible in contact with civil
government, man then becomes the interpreter of the Bible for the soul. And by enforcing civil
religious law, it prevents people from following their consciences. It makes them follow church
leaders. And as a result the development of the mind is restricted. During the dark ages, intellectual
development decreased until the reformation. When the Word of God was put forth, intellectual
development increased. Technology advanced. Information increased. It is called the dark ages
because the intellect became darkened. And as the inquisition came along, every new idea was
suppressed.

So what began as passing the Sunday law by Queen Margaret and other leaders lead to suppression
in knowledge and development in growth and society that stagnated society and left them with
superstitions about God. As civil law got stronger against the voice of dissent, people were afraid to
make any statement that was out of step with the priest. This is how Rome controlled the mind.
They were slaves of the Priest. That is why God is careful to develop the individual to exercise what
they believe.

Religion is going to be a deciding factor in society again. The civil power will be able to execute
religious penalties against those who refuse to follow the religious laws of the land. We see that
history will repeat. In a sense we will have to go into the wilderness again. But God will intervene
this time. (*PO in the seals especially the 5th we see the souls crying under the altar, and now
instead of history being repeated in the remnant church God will intervene to deliver His people by
coming the second time. It shows how God will respond to the events that are taking place in the
church. How they are warning against this apostate power the man of sin.)

The Columban church and the Patrician church represent what we must be in these last days. They
trained missionaries, establish evangelism centers, schools, and publishing work to spread the
gospel to the world. (They gave the blue print of what we must do). God is using the same principles
in these last days to re-establish the supremacy of the Bible in opposition to the power of Rome.

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The Church of the Wilderness
Sermon: "Final Events" Point: Before we get to Rev 15 and 16, there will be a final act in world
events that will cause probation to close. Then explain these events and how Rome is positioning
herself to use the arm of the state to enforce her decree's. The first edict that was passed by
Justinian was an economical sanction preventing them to buy or sell. This will come again.

Quiz:

Name the great missionary of Ireland: Patrick

Name the great missionary of Scotland: Columba

List the 3 key elements in the work of every religious revival: Itinerate preacher, Publishing,
Education, and health

What is the name of the Island that was given to Columba? Iona or Hy

Name the king of the Franks, who supported Rome in their ambition for power. Clovis

Name his catholic wife: Clotilda

What is a sacral society? One god, and one society where all worshipped. And if they don't they are
a threat.

What is a composite society? Many gods were you can worship how you want and it will not affect
everyone living together.

Ulfildas
Rome was responsible and successful in driving the true church
in the wilderness. Ulfildas was the great missionary to the Goths.
Ostrogoths and Visigoths. He converted many to true
Christianity. When the 10 tribes who were the 10 tutonic nations
were successful in overthrowing western Rome who was on the
decline in power and strength. They set themselves up in various
regions. Saxons in the British Isles. Alemmanni, which is today
called Germans. Visigoths, Southern Frace, Franks, Northern
Frace. Vandals, North Africa. Ostrogoths were in Rome. They
besieged Rome in the capital of the empire. The emperor moved
to Constantinople. The bishops of Rome were upset about the Ostrogoths, and they stirred up the
people against the Goths, until they were kicked out of Rome. When the Ostrogoths came to Rome
they were surprised to see evidence of Christianity. Churches, and other edifices. They were moral
people. they didn't overthrow their Christianity, but they found out that Rome considered them
Arians (this was used against heretics, even if they didn't believe Aranism.) heretics, they were not
fellow believers. Rome wanted power.

Edicts
Constantine II allowed more tolerance for other viewpoints of doctrines. There was a change that
took place in the political structure as time went on. They were warlike and they would fight among

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each other. One man stood out who gave Rome and the Roman bishops the temporal power and
spiritual power of the empire. Clovis who was the king of the franks. He had a powerful army. Clovis
defeated the Alemanni. Clovis was warring with the Visigoths, they were in Southern France. Clovis
noticed that those who were connected with the bishops of Rome were influential with the common
people. He knew if he would link up with them, he could gain their help to sustain his cause and
developing his power in the empire. So he became a Christian, he converted to Catholicism. And
because the franks were a sacral society meaning all worshipped at the same shrine, so because he
became Catholic, the whole nation became Catholic.

Why did he link up with the Bishops?

His wife was a very zealous Roman Catholic, she influenced him to do this. She shared the
advantages of becoming Catholic. The bishops realized a benefit by linking up with Clovis. After this
happened Clovis' focused changed. He battled with the Visigoths until 507 AD when he was able to
route the Visigoths, and in 508 AD he became the undisputed ruler of France. The emperor was
interested in what was going on there too. He was already committed to Roman Catholicism.
Justinian. When he gained in power he advanced the interest in the Roman church. He was
interested in Gaul (which was France). If Clovis lost the Alemanni would have moved in and the
attention of the world would go to Alemanni, and certain loyalties would change to them. But if he
was successful then the power would be centralized with a Roman Catholic. So the emperor wanted
to see this happen. And if Clovis could defeat them, the Ostogoths would be weak and they could be
overcome. And later the Ostrogoths were routed out brutally. When these two were defeated then
the fulfillment of prophecy was complete.

What happened here had implications for over 1260 years. Once Clovis overcame the Visigoths and
Justinian overcame the Ostrogoths. At this time he issued an edict:

TT 141 "he issued…unite all men….military…personal" they had economic sanctions placed on
them.

If you have to employ force to sustain your position, how will this win the people? It will not. In
heart they would not believe. Justinian used force to convince the people to be catholic. This
process of uniting church and state, has never afterwards ceased to be part of the Catholic agenda
(*PO this connects with Rev 13) in the last days, rome is positioning herself again to use the arm of
the state to enforce her decrees. (Sermon point for Final Events) The pope's letter urges Sunday
legislation. During the sixth century their temporal power was established. The greatest power in
the roman church in terms of its political (or temporal power) is within the confessional. They get
all of its information from here, and they get paid for it.

In 532 AD this edict forced people, languages, and tongues to come under the yoke of the roman
church. If not they did not, they would not be able to get a job or maintain their livelihood.

In 533 AD another Edict supported Rome.

He wrote a letter to the pope, stating that he was the head of all the holy churches. By doing this, he
placed the bishop of Rome in the most powerful position in the empire, right next to the emperor.
And eventually in time, all were under his power. The kings and the nobility of Europe were subject
to him. But this was the foundation for it in 533 AD.

In 534 AD the Vandals were uprooted out of Africa by Justinian. (study: ATJ says Hureli, 2nd Vandals,

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and 3rd Ostrogoths) TT 1st Visigoths, 2nd Vandals, 3rd Ostrogoths.

In 538 AD the way was clear for the bishops of Rome to gain supremacy. In this year the Ostrogoths
were routed from Rome. And this began the 1260-year prophecy.

Once Rome gained this power, the faithful churches knew they were in trouble. They could see how
they would be persecuted if they went against the dogmas of Rome. They fled as a result. The
Waldenses especially were affected. They were in the plains of Milan (today Millano) and they
withdrew to the mountains. This also happened with the Albegenses. There were many groups.
They were accused of being heretics and of other crimes civil and religious. They were proscribed.
No one could do business with them without some penalty. If you were to do any kind of business
with a heretic, you were excommunicated from the church, and you had to do penance to absolve
yourself. All through history when civil and religious power join together to enforce the decrees of
the church, there have always been penalties that are especially economic. This is how Rome has
forced herself on the nations. (talk on national sovereignty. watch again) What does the term
Christendom mean? A Christian kingdom. An earthly kingdom of Christ. It is sacral because all of
society must worship at the same shrine to survive. All nations will drink the wine of her
fornication. A union of church and state. Christendom means all the nations that are united with
Rome.

We are discussing more what is happening with Rome on the civil side. But the churches are also
uniting under the leadership of Rome, and as the ecumenical movement gains force and power,
these two movements, uniting church and state and uniting the churches, these two movements
will create a global set of circumstances, in which all will have to fit the mold, otherwise they will be
excluded and no man can buy and sell. Economic sanctions. The only movement that has spiritual
validity is the 3 angels messages. The only way the people will find out is the everlasting gospel.
Which shows that Babylon is fallen.

This shows us how the image and mark of the beast will be formed globally. Revelation 14:6 - when
God says Babylon is fallen what does He mean?Hour of His judgment – the investigative judgment.
This is our time frame not the 1260. the issue will be the Sabbath at the end of time.

Rev 14:7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is
come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.

She made, they were forced through economic sanctions that she imposed. In Rev 13:15. It links the
spiritual and physical you will have physical sanctions if you don't accept the spiritual apostasy.
Rome and her daughters have fallen, we are to leave them. You can have either the wrath of man or
God.

The church went in the wilderness. Rev 12:13 the woman was persecuted. This is what we are
talking about in this chapter the beginning of this persecution. This is a very important era. Time,
times, and ½ gives the 1260. The sixth century was very significant. By the middle of this century
Rome had the foundation to become the autocrat of the world!

What does Rome say the church in the wilderness was? They don't say. We don't want Christendom
it will destroy the truth. It is designed to be an alliance against the truth. A sacral society will never
yield religious freedom, it will not give you freedom of choice. That is why the founders of our
nation founded it with a separation between the church and state.

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The Waldensians & Different Translations
Quiz:

Who was the founder and leader of the Waldenses? Vigilantius (Other founders and leaders for
extra credit) Helvidius, and Jovinian

Name the Bible that was used by the Waldenses? Itala (based off of the received text)

Who translated the Latin Vulgate (from the western corrupt text)? Jerome

Review of Societies

Sacral Society
A society in which everyone worships at the same shrine. This means the same religion, not
necessarily the same god. There could be many gods. Pagan religions were polytheistic. But it was a
religious system that everyone had to participate in. Is Roman Catholicism mono or polytheistic?
They claim it is mono, but it poly. They pray to Mary and the saints.

Composite Society
A society that views religion as distinct and separate from civil law. And you can do whatever you
want with your religion as long as you don't break civil law. Ex. Human sacrifices, they can't be done
in this society. The victim has rights. It allows religion to be conducted in whatever the way the
individual believes they should according to their conscience. This promotes religious liberty.

Different Periods
First we had the apostolic period. Then there was the foundational leadership period. Then the
great missionary period. This was during the 400's to 500's. Patrick, Columba, etc.

2nd Century
At the time of Christ there was a mass movement of people, a lot near Gulls (France) they moved
north Britain’s and east – Asia Minor. Because of the family connection between these two
locations, when the people in Asia minor accepted Christ the message traveled to Britain via family.
The people in Asia Minor became the Waldensians they spoke Itala ( a mixture of all the different
languages of the time). The bible was being spread throughout all Asia.

Gnostics – thought they knew better then Paul, so they began to correct his writing, this was the
first signs of the apostasy of the church. This is way John wrote John 1:1-4 the way he did.

Gnostics were pagans that came from Alexandra. The teachers when like so;
Justin > Tatian > Clement > Origin > Eurebius (4C) He was the friends of Constatine - These are the
ones that corrupted the scriptures, and this was known as the western text.

Lucian was the man who helped keep the eastern text pure and he was from Edessa.

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Foundational leadership Period

This means the era in which the major church that was driven in the wilderness received their
primary organization and leadership. The first of these great leaders was Helvitius. He lived around
250 to 420 (not the whole time, just during this era). It was in this era that the heathen practices
came in the church. And he protested against the things that were coming in the church. After him
was Jovinian. He also protested the superstitions that Rome enforced upon the churches. What did
they oppose? During this time there was a great Ascetic movement (one who is like a hermit. They
go and meditate and write and follower mystical pursuits). This movement arose out of Egypt.
Thousands of monks spread themselves across Palestine and elsewhere. They were centered in
Egypt where the Gnostics arose. The ascetics were associated with the monastics. The ascetics live
by themselves. The monastics live with others who practice what they do. After the years of the
apostles there arose many of these ascetics or mystics that we should keep up with. One was Justin
Martyr he was one. He is looked upon as being a father of the church. Another one is Tertulian and
Cyprian, Origen and Clement. All considered to be fathers of the church. They are also quoted as
being the basis for Sunday worship. In history and today. When you study their works, they said
different things. One thing one day and another one day. (Study on the Sabbath. J.N. Andrews covers
this good).

King Clovis
One man stands out in particular as in the key elements in giving Rome the temporal power – king
Clovis (King of the Franks) In 538 He was a powerful king and had powerful armies. The Alamani
tried to overcome Clovis – and that ended when he defeated them. He was also at war with the
Visigoths (now today south of France). This time Clovis saw an advantage – the bishops were very
active and very influential. So he began to realize that if he would link up with the Roman bishops,
his power would increase. So he decided to become a Christian. Because the Franks were a Sacral
society –once the king becomes a Catholic, then all the rest of his nation becomes Roman Catholic.
Why was Clovis so interested in linking up with the bishops? His wife was a Roman Catholic. She
influenced him to become a Roman Catholic. Her name was Clotilda. When this happened, his
fortunes changed. His wars with the Visigoths went back and forth until 507 AD and then in 508 AD
he finished them off. The Title given to Clovis by – Counsel – “Councilor.” The Title given to Clovis
by – the church – “Elders Son of the Church.” Meanwhile, the emperor Justinian in Constantinople
was very interested in what was going on in France – he was already a Catholic. If Clovis was
defeated by the Visigoth’s, then the Alamani would then move in on him. And if the Alamani would
move in, then the attention would move from the Franks to the Alamani. But if Clovis was successful
in defeating the Visigoth’s, then the power would be centralized in the hands of a Roman Catholic
(agenda of the Bishops, the Franks and the emperor). However, he knew that if it was possible that
Clovis would win, then the Ostrogoths would become weak because they were basically the same
tribes. Then the Ostrogoths were routed out from Rome

Important Dates
 508 – The defeat of Visigoths by King Clovis
o Justinian was watching – control of the Alamani
o Church was watching – centralizing of power
o Alamani was watching – to expand their region
o Angels of God were watching – This was the essences of Prophecy
 532 – Justinian makes his edict
o This crushed legally truth from being used against Rome. All man are to unite in one
faith.

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o It covered the whole empire
o Forcing people to come under the yoke of the Roman Church
 If not they would not be able to get a job (civil or military) and this lose their
life.
 Many fled to other parts of the world.
o This set the stage for 1260 years
o This was the first legal law to force on religion
o Reduced the citizen to became Catholics
 533 – Another edict
o Elevated the Papacy to be head over the whole empire
o “Head of all the whole churches” – Statement made by Justinian
o It was not until 538 that this edict could come into force because the Ostrogths were
still in Rome and still were an hindrance to the Papacy
 534 – The defeat of the Vandals (Horn #2) by Justinian’s army
 538 – The defeat of the Ostrogoths (Horn #3)
o The edict from 533 took hold
o This began the 1260 year period of prophecy
o This was giving Rome temporal authority.
o The beginning of Christendom

Justinian
Justinian used force to convince the people to become Roman Catholic
 He made his edict in 532 AD
 Forcing people to come under the yoke of the Roman Church
o If not they would not be able to get a job and this lose
their life
o Many fled to other parts of the world
 533 AD – he made another move that supported Rome
o He wrote to the pope a letter which stated that the
pope was the head of all the holy churches
o By doing so, he placed the Bishop of Rome in the
most powerful position in the empire
 Then the Vandals were crushed in 534 AD
 538 AD – the way was cleared for the bishops of Rome to
gain supremacy
o The Ostrogoths were rooted from Rome
o This began the 1260 year period of prophecy
o This was giving Rome temporal authority.
 The faithful churches could see now they had a very serious problem
o They could see that if they disagreed with Rome, that they would be hunted and
killed
o The Waldenses realized that their days were numbered as a free people
o They were centered around Milan
o The Albigenses also withdrew
o Many were accused of being heretics – both civil and religious
 Those that bought or sold with them were ostracized and had to repent and pay penance
 This is one of the agendas to bring about a global unity/control

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Justin Martyr & Others
Justin Martyr developed enthusiasm for his belief and he gathered students and trained them to be
the same thing that he was. One was Tatian. He also had students. One was Clement. Clement also
had students. One was Origen. Origen is a name to remember (TEST) He had a very important role
in the development of the corrupt manuscripts and the Gnostic versions of scripture and theology.
He established some of the Gnostic errors. Origin had a student named Eusebius (TEST). He was a
contemporary with Constantine. He was a bishop and he became good friends with him. He wrote a
biography of Constantine that was very flattering. Some of the Gnostics were involved in originating
the doctrines that are in the Church of Rome. Origen helped to promote celibacy. He was very
influential in this movement within the church. This is why the clergy starting practicing this. Image
worships, and pilgrimages came, and the development of the corrupted manuscripts. A lot of the
scribes that worked with these mystics, transcribed the bible according to their ideas. Along with
these doctrines there were other innovations coming into the Bible. Gnostic corruptions came in.
And this was done through Origen and Eusebius who brought to the empire what is known as the
Eusesibio Origen texts. And this was a Gnostic version of scripture. The Eusi-bio texts were one
stream of texts that came down to the people. Another line of text that came down to the people
that were kept pure. This was from the apostles that were carefully preserved in the faithful
churches. This is what is called the manuscripts of the eastern churches, known as the received
texts. It was translated into the language of the empire, which was Itala. And it was used by the
scots, irish, galic Christians (ones in Gaul), and the Waldenses. The corrupt bible competed for the
attention of the people away from the pure bible. The corrupt Bible was endorsed by Constantine.
He ordered 50 copies for his palace. (The Sinaticus is one of the corrupt Bibles of Constantine)
Another man who was a mystic and polemic. (one who causes problems) was

Jerome
He felt like everyone's ideas were wrong except for his. He sent anathemas around Europe about
people who didn't agree with him. He established the idea that those who disagree with the
authority of Rome were to be excommunicated and called a heretic. He especially didn't like
Jovinian. This man opposed that the clergy should be celibate. Jovinian made the comment TT 62
that those who were married was fully acceptable as anything else. He was saying that what Jerome
was doing by depriving himself of human needs and comforts were of no greater value in the sight
of God as anyone else. This made Jerome mad.

He also translated the corrupt manuscripts into the Latin Vulgate, which became the bible of choice
for the Roman church. His bible became the bible of choice, almost by force because everyone was
afraid of him. Once the translation came they felt like they had to have it.

He was also upset with Helvitius, because he said that Jerome had the corrupt manuscripts and that
he used corrupt sources for his bible. So he sent letters saying Helvitius was an enemy against
Rome.

Vigilantius
His father had a resting place for people to stay as they traveled for different meetings. In the south
of France in the purinee mountains between france and spain. Vigilantius became acquainted with
the travelers and the events of the days. He eventually came in contact with Supicious Severs (TT
Ch. 6) When the ascetic movement began this man became a fanatic. He felt like he should be one
and he left all to join the movement. While Vigi traveled with a letter to Polinus, he latter took a

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letter from Polinus to Jerome (396 AD). Soon Vigi realized that Jerome could not be trusted. He
spoke strongly against Polinus in front of Vigi. He then went to Jerusalem to meet another mystic,
Ruthinus, and this man explained to Vigi that Jerome was not a Christian. Vigi realized he could not
find Christianity there. He went back to Northern Italy and he connected with the Waldenses. His
experience with the other mystics convinced him that that was not the Christian way. He knew the
Latin Vulgate was the wrong bible. And he was set to fight against what he saw. Jerome sent letters
against Vigi. But he setup himself with the Waldenses, and he organized the Waldenses. They gave
him responsibility that produced much fruit with these people. He is responsible for organizing the
Waldensian church. It took some time for God to alienate him from the sentiments of the day. But he
put him in contact with what Christianity was not, so he could recognize what was true Christianity.
He organized the Waldenses churches, schools, libraries, their missionary labors. And for 1000
years the Waldenses carried on the work that Vigilantius started.

Times
These times created impressions that were not easy to erase. Depending on the point of view they
accepted the people would accept it and go all the way. Those who became Waldenses would go full
force against Rome. And vice versa. This happened until Europe was divided between an
established majority church, and a forbidden and heretical, minority church. In the end God's
church is always the minority.

Bible Translations
Streams of Texts and how they came down:

Apostles (manuscripts that were collected in the early churches and given to us) – It is called the
Texus Receptus and we have the NT as a result. It was then translated into the Itala and the Gothic
languages. The Goths had bibles from the same manuscript origins. These bibles were used by the
Syric, Waldensian, Galics (or Gauls) in southern france, Celts of Scotland and Ireland, and for a while
Greek Catholic churches. These manuscripts were suppressed. And during the 1260-year period
they had to be spread by the Waldensian missionaries and others. At the time of the reformation
they were brought to light by Erasmus. And from his Greek compilation, he pulled the best
manuscripts together that he could find of all sources, and he put them in a single volume of what is
called the Erasmus NT. A greek compilation, and from this, all the reformation bibles were
translated into the common languages. He used texus receptus bibles to pull together his bible. And
from there we have the Luther, Tyndale, and KJV in English.

On the corrupt side we have…

Justin Martyr and then to Tatian, Clement, Origen, who was the one who translated a lot of the
Gnostic text, Eusebius who edited Gnostic text, he was the editor of Origen's Bible. That is why it is
the Eusibio Origen text. This is the bible that Constantine chose for the Roman Empire. Jerome took
this bible and translated into the Latin Vulgate Bible. And it went all the way down to the
reformation period as the corrupt manuscripts. When the reformation bibles came on the scene.
The Catholic Church had a counter bible, which was the Jesuit 1582 Bible.

After reformation times, 350 years later the KJV in English maintained its supremacy among
protestant churches. The catholic bibles went through a lot of revisions after that. Ex. The Duay
Bible, etc. after this we come down to the modern versions that are all translated from the corrupt
manuscripts.

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The Waldensians
There origin is during the second century according to Ellen White. Who founded them? Most
Waldensenians accept that Peter Waldo was the founder. He was a very wealthy merchant in
southern France. His friend suddenly died, and he wondered if he went to heaven or hell. The
prevailing teaching was that he went to one. He wanted to know where. Then he wanted to know
where he would go if he died. And in the end he decided to get some counsel. He asked a priest and
friends. Someone told him about the rich young ruler. So Peter wanted to follow Jesus, so he did
what the rich young ruler was instructed to do. Then he began to preach, he preached to the heart,
and he went around bear footed or in course garments. He had a large gathering. He was preaching
without a license and the bishops excommunicated him. He was persecuted and he fled north to
Bohemia. Here the story changes. Possibly Jesuits try to change the history. Some say when he left
France, some say he went to the mountains of Italy, and other to bohemia, but most of his followers
ended up in the mountains were the Waldenses were. But he was not the founder of the Waldenses.
In Bohemia the united brethren were friends of the Waldenses. And Peter Waldo met some of them,
and he wrote back to Lione and said don't flee to the mountains, go to where the Waldenses are.
Peter Waldo began in 1150-1170, but we know that Vigilantius was the one who established them.
Today even the senior scholars of the Waldenses believe the papal lie that they came later. Why is
this important?

Both the Roman Catholic Church and the Waldenses claim apostolic origin. And naturally the larger
more predominant church could show this fact, but there is another deeper issue. The Roman
Catholic Church teaches that all churches came out from her. So therefore all churches must come
back. So the fact that the Waldenses maintained their independence from Rome, is a testimony
against Rome claiming their apostolic origin. But if they date them as coming up later, this will
convince everyone that they came out of her, and they are of her, and they just need to be brought
back. But as time went on, the Waldenses lost their perspective because they accepted the false
origin or their beginning.

Origin
Here is how we know they existed before Peter Waldo:

None of their literature ever mentions Peter Waldo. Whether confession, poem, or Noble Lesson
(document that declares the 10 commandments to be still binding including the Sabbath), none
mention Peter Waldo.

The petwha (French for the mix and idioms of the common language) the petwha of the Waldenses
predates the Italian, French, and Romaunce. By Peter Waldo the language had already developed.
The Romaunce.

"Lionists" from lion, this term is used to say they were connected to Waldo, because he was from
here. But Vigilantius was also known as a Lionists. This is no basis to say they are from Waldo.
Vigilantius was from there.

Renerius Satchel – He was an inquisitor during persecution. He wrote against the Waldenses, and
he said that they were dated to the time of Pope Sylvester. He lived during the 4th century. He
received the donation of Constantine. This was way before the 12th century.

Waldenses – the name means the people from the valleys. It does not refer to Waldo, it refers to
where they were located. This is the English name. And the Italian and French names all mean

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dwellers of the valleys. Italian Vallenses…

Cloud of Turian – Cloudius, he was the bishop of Turian. And in the end he was opposed to Rome,
their teachings and superstitions. In his confrontation with Rome (they considered him as a
heretic), he was accused of teaching the heresies of Vigilantius, which was five centuries before his
time. So this region that he was in were infected with Waldensian heresy.

Pilch Dorphius – He said they were from the time of Pope Sylvester.

Pope Urban II – Upset with the French in the Alps for their heresies. He issued a bull in 1096 against
the people in these valleys.

Peter Debry, Arnold of Breshia – Preceded Peter Waldo, they were condemned as having
waldensian hersy.

1100 Poem – Noble Lesson – it mentions the people of Waldenses.

Apostolic Origin
What is apostolic origin? It has to do with teachings. Those who are apostolic teach the doctrines of
the Apostles. Are SDA's? Yes, Is Rome? No, they claim power and authority, but they do not teach
the doctrines of the apostles, therefore they are disqualified from having apostolic origins.

The early Christians clearly understood biblical prophecy. They recognized them as the whore of
prophecy, and the great beast. Some Waldenses kept the Seventh day Sabbath. They believed in the
non-immortality of the Soul, and that Pope was the whore of Revelation and Satan’s impersonator.
And they believed in the near end of the world and that Christ would return. (*PO Point for Rev 12,
showing our connections through our doctrines) Didn't fully understand 2300-day prophecy.

Sabbath
Many of them kept the Sabbath. Their records were destroyed by Rome. Books, leaders, and people
were all destroyed in the crusades. So we don't know directly from their own teachers what they
believed and taught, but we know from what their enemies said about them. Note: There were
many Sabbath keeping groups in the early stages of the church in the wilderness. Even the pope in
his letter said people have always kept both, but Mayer says they only kept Sabbath. The readings
pointed it out. Rome's councils had to do something about it. They conspired against them with the
festivals, etc. Many of these people were Waldenses or groups related to them. The book pointed
this out. They were called InSabbati. Historians says that in researching the origin of this word has
to do with them observing the Jewish Sabbath. All historians say this (Jewish Sabbath), but they
were doing what the apostles did. Some were in Bulgaria. The pope was upset with them for this.
There are some there today. Hungary and other places also have Sabbath keepers.

Civil law
The Waldenses fled more into the wilderness as they saw Rome gain in civil power. They knew they
would persecute those who didn't agree. By mixing civil and ecc law, it created an environment of
civil punishment for breaking religious law. And when this happens religious liberty is done away
with. The Waldenses didn't believe in the Romans idea of a sacral society. They believed in a
composite society. They believed in religious liberty.

Missionaries & The schools of the Barbers

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They learned in their schools how to memorize scripture. The schools of the barber were an
important feature. We see a pattern with them. They had an educational system. They were sent out
to preach and go from door to door. We have the principle of itinerate preaching. And they were
taught how to transcribe the scriptures. This is publishing. We see the three great principles of
every religious movement in history. Ex. They would learn the scriptures. Students were setup you
have chapter one this week, and they rotated until the book was complete, they recited it and
rotated. Those who graduated from their schools memorized large portions of the scriptures. They
were also taught simple remedial treatments. They had a health message. At the end of time we will
see this again in the final movement. God intends to use this in every age. We must learn how to
couple them all together. They learned discretion in the schools of the barbers also. They concealed
the words of God. They were taught to go to the south of Italy and buy materials such as silk and
gems and go to another part where the people couldn't buy it, and they would go door to door to
sell it like merchants. The men also learned how to sew. So they could insert literature for the
people. They carried scripture in their clothing. Discretion has to do with timing and knowing when
and when not to say something. Their mouth was closed to religious things, but they listened for
pain, and those who were in pain from Rome. They listened for physical pain. Is all well? And when
they won their way into the peoples hearts, they would open up. We are to have a spiritual agenda.
This laid fruit for the work of Luther. In two weeks after Luther put the thesis on the door all of
Europe of knew. They had a network of people who were communicating all over Europe. This was
developed over the centuries and when the reformation came it spread like wildfire. They would go
out two by two. And they were young. They were required to do 3 missionary years of service. The
young men could not get married, build a farm or be district pastors. They went place to place after
3 years, and 50% never came home. So if they married young, sometimes they would not come
back.

Note: For my school we are going to learn books…

Note: 50% of the missionaries that went out never came home. They knew this
would happen so the said no marriage until you served 3years of mission service.
After that then you can get married. You couldn’t just be a pastor because there
was no churches. They were not allowed to own property until after they came
back after mission service.

1) No marriage
2) No Churches
3) No property

Their method of deployment was two by two, a young with an older, parents trained and placed in
the mind of the child was the skill of “listening” paying attention, listing for pain, how they could
help, so they could reach the needs, which would in turn open up the heart.

Our vision should be “how to listen for pain”

Why Rome changes history?


Peter Waldo was a Frenchman who lived like a heathen. A friend of his died, and he began to
wonder what happened to him? Did he go to heaven or to hell? So he started to think what will
happen to him? He went to a priest, and he told them that he was going to hell. So he sold all that he
had and began to preach in the streets. You are allowed to preach with out the permission of the
church. He began his ministry around 1160 and 1180. He began to expose the sins of the people and

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of the church, this made the priest upset. The church was after him, he fled and went to a place
called Lyons. He had a lot of followers, they sold all that had and moved from town to town
preaching. This made Rome more and more upset. People began to want to move to live at Lyons
(In the former Ceck), but he wrote to them and told to stay in France, which is where the Waldense,
he old them you have friends there called the French Voudois.

One of the reasons that Rome says that Peter was the founder is because there was found the same
language as he used was there. The Waldenses existed much more before the time of Peter Waldo.
Helvidius, and Jovinian were the founders of the Waldenses. There were those (possibly the Jesuits)
that tried to reconstruct his history from that point on. Nevertheless, many of his followers ended
up in the mountains where the Waldenses lived.

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The Waldensians and the Reformation

This chapter shows why the Waldenses were not a part of the reformation and why they were
classified in Sardis as having a name to live where dead.

Sermon: "" describing what happened to the church in the wilderness in conjunction with Thyatira
and Sardis. They had a name to live, but lost it.

Points: Chapters 9 – 10 give a background for Revelation 12 but also for what happened during the
church of Thyatira and the church of Sardis. They had a name to live but where dead. Why? This
shows the decision that the Waldenses had to make.

Quiz:

Who helped the emperor Constantine to choose the Bible for the empire? Eusibeus

List as many reasons as you can why Peter Waldo is not the founder of the Waldenses: The poem
that was written in 1100 Noble Lesson mentions people of the Waldenses, none of their literature
mentioned Peter Waldo, Renerius Satual said they were dated from Pope Sylvester, their name
means people of the valley not Peter Waldo, Pope Urban II issued a bull in 1096 against them for
their heresies, Philth Dorphius said they were from the time of Pope Sylvester too.

Waldensians continued…

They were terribly persecuted by Rome. They did not agree with the heresies that came in the
church. The Albigenses were also persecuted with others. But the Waldensians were very
inaccessible. They were good at defending themselves. The practiced the bow and arrows to defend
themselves against Rome. They were taught not to kill except for food. The animals, deers, etc. they
didn't do it for pleasure. They would not take human life unnecessarily. Sometimes they would
wound a Roman soldier, and then help them so they could go back to their family. They did what
the Bible said. This hurt them in the end. One time they trusted the soldiers that came in their
valley. In 1655 the soldiers said we will protect you from your enemies. They took them in their
homes, and late at night they rose up from their beds and killed them. The papal church justified
lying to achieve their purposes. The term the ends justifies the means came to play in the Roman
Church. They accepted this philosophy from the pagan church. In the name of god, you could kill as
long as it brought the right result.

They continued to send their young people out anyway. They were fortified with scriptures. In
1655 there was a great massacre of the Waldensians. The papal armies came into 5 of their strong
hold and the Waldensians eventually fled to Geneva.

Reformation and the Waldensians


William Ferrel was a famous Calvanist or Genevian reformer. He had Waldensian blood. When the
reformation came the Waldensians found relief. Many stood up for what the Waldensians did, but
not fully. The Calvins were coming out of great darkness. The Waldensians were way ahead of them.
They believed in the second coming. They had a composite view of society in which people can live
together at any society without having to worship at the same shrine and they can live in peace.
They believed in Bible literalism. (like the second coming, etc) The Wal believed this but the
Calvinists didn't. This caused problems later. If other reformers did not agree, the Calvinist would

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try and force. The Waldensians had a decision to make. They felt like their work was baring fruit
and now Rome could be overthrown. They had to decide if they would join the reformation or stay
separate. Their views were not altogether the same. And for this reason the Calvinists made
some recommendations to the Waldensians. They said if you want to join the reformation (as
if they were a lower class of Christians, THEY WERE THE REFORMATION!) the following must be
done. 1.) Give up your Biblical literalism (take things more spiritually, in the end the French
effectively spiritualized away basic truths from scripture.) 2.) Give up your itinerate
preachers (give up your missionary work, they were offensive about them coming in their
territory, they wanted them to stay home.) 3.) No longer cling to your idea of a separation
between church & state.

(*PO today we see the same thing, if you want to help the world gain peace by preaching our gospel
of ecumenicalism, the 3 angels message is a message of peace. If you want to help us unify, give up
some of your beliefs. 1. No literal second coming, we have the rapture. 2. They asked us not to
proselytize converts from other denominations. 3. support church and state.)

The Waldensians had a council at Chonsulron in their hometown with the reformers here. It was
open for anyone to come and give their input. About 1,000 people came. Here they conversed
several days to decide if they would join the Genevian reformers. The pressure was immense (*PO
this explains why there was not much activity from the Waldensians during the reformation. They
stopped doing missionary activity.) to join, and the ultimately the majority agreed to join the
reformers. William Ferrell was in attendance. The pressure was great because when you have been
persecuted for so long, and when you seem like the minority and a large movement rises, you want
to be a part of it. eventually the agreed to join, but a minority held out and asked for time to study to
make sure they were doing the right thing. Then it was agreed that two waldensian pastors would
be sent to Bohemia (Czech Republic today). To counsel with the United Brethren (Unit descrapam),
and here they would consult with those who they knew to be faithful for centuries to the word of
God. They gave wise counsel.1. They said don't go in for novelties. If it is a novelty you will pass off
and you will be worse off in the end. 2. don't give up your itinerate preachers it is important to your
work. 3. On biblical literalism stay faithful

They went back and they had another meeting, but that was two years later, and events progressed
rapidly and they were engaged too much with the Genevian reformers to be a distinct body of
believers. They were absorbed into the reformation at this point in terms of practice and theology.
When the massacre came in 1655 they fled to Geneva because they were so connected. They were
accepted warmly at first, but after time they realized this was not their home in Geneva. Their
religion was more mystical, and they were not simple. So they wanted to send an expedition to go
back to their valleys and reestablish their homes and be a distinct class of people. A man named
Henri Arnaud led the expedition. There had been an earlier attempt that was made to do the same
thing, but they could not. There were a lot of legal entanglements to prevent them for going where
they wanted to, and living how they wanted to. Other places were still under control of Romanism.
When the reformation broke out in Europe. The northern part of Europe was sacral protestant, and
the southern part was sacral catholic. So they were not to go down and proselytize. They were to
stay up north. It was forbidden to go from Geneva in the north to Italy in the south because it was
under papal control. So the expedition was very difficult. So Henri Arnaud and his 900 warriors
secretly left Geneva to go south. They stopped in one village take a hostage and say if you let us pass
through we will not harm the hostage. And in the next village they would say we have a hostage
from the last village and we will attack you if you don't give us one. They gave one and sent one
back. And they did this all the way down.

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Eventually they reached the Waldensian valleys from the west. By this time the papacy realized that
they were coming back, and they sent armies from the French (north) and Italians (east), and they
closed up on them high in the mountains of Balsiglia. And while they were there the French armies
blocked them in. the Italian armies went beneath to the lower valley while the French were above
them. (Trip: Can go to Balsiglia and see the layout) Some of his warriors died from winter. And the
remainders knew they were in trouble. They knew they would die if they didn't do something. That
night they prayed to God to save them from their enemies. That night a fog settled upon the
mountain. They could no longer see the lights from the other armies. They knew the mountains, and
they began to climb single file and cross one side of the mountain and up another ridge over the
French armies. In the middle of the night one of the soldiers dropped a tin can. And the French
armies knew they were escaping, but they did not do anything because left or right they could fall.
So they came back around and fought both armies and they fought and re-conquered their valleys.

At this point they had a great opportunity to re-establish the distinctive beliefs and practices of the
Waldensians. But they did not because they were afraid that they would not have pastors. Because
most of their pastors were old or had been killed in the massacres and they would have to rise up
more pastors. So instead they invited the genevians to send pastors to them. This was a mistake.
Today they have no distinctive faith. They have merged with the Methodists. They are called
Waldensian Methodist church. All they have left is their history.

They chose to go backward theologically. They decided to digress from what they knew to join with
the Calvanists. They have not moved on. The Methodist, Luthren, and calvanists refused to advance.
God had to raise up new movements every so often to keep the process of truth advancing. The
Lutherans are were Luther left them. The Methodists are were John Wesley left them. Etc. When
light is given you have people who accept and reject. When you accept it, you advance.

WORK ON THIS SERMON…IT COULD SHAKE PROTESTANTISM TO JOIN US. TO LOOK AT THE
HISTORY OF WHERE THEY SHOULD HAVE GONE BY ACCEPTING THE DOCTRINES OF THE
WALDENSIANS AND ADVANCE.

Point: The thing that pulls Protestants to a sacral society is moral decay. Catholics are not as
concerned. They (PROT) are more concerned. This makes protestant vulnerable to sacral thinking.
Why do we have moral decay today? Because many preach we don’t have to keep the law of God
and in place of this we preach legislation of human law. And this oppresses those who do not agree.
And the emphasis is around Sunday observance, and this is why we have Sunday law to bring back
moral uprightness in society. America will become a sacral society. We will develop into a sacral
society from a composite society is because of moral decay.

They chose to continue with the reformation instead of continuing with having a separate
distinction from everyone else. And as a result they lost their spiritual footing, not the historical
footing that came later with the Jesuits. But they first lost their theological footing. Today we cannot
loose our spiritual footing. We cannot go back to Calvanism. The Ecumenicalism movement will
cause us to loose our footing and why we are SDA's. By joining with them we loose the basis as to
why we are SDA's. Joining with them will undermine our pillars.

The Waldensians today are ecumenical in the sense that they are happy to have dialogue with all
faiths and religion. But they don’t want to join Rome. Testimony of Hal Mayer of being in Italy and
asking a moderator (one who starts discussions) he asked him the attitude of the Waldensians
towards Rome and the Pope and the ecumenical movement. Vatican II states the purpose of the
ecumenicalism is to bring them back to the Church of Rome.

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Rome's Assumption of Spiritual and Temporal Power
Rev 13:3 And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed:
and all the world wondered after the beast.

All the world wondered. The woman that was driven in the wilderness did not include the whole
world. She was controlled for a time.

Rome tried to destroy the scriptures because they saw an advantage in keeping the people in
ignorance. They were kept from the common people. it became a capital offense to posses a portion
of the scriptures. One had to be ordained as a priest to understand the scriptures. This concept of
one having to be ordained rose from a fundamental principle. This is the principle of the church.

What is the church?

The advantage in this case was temporal and financial. The object was to keep the people in
superstition to manipulate their minds to obtain money. And they gained power over their bodies
and pocket books. Coercion was used. If you don't obey you will burn in purgatory. You must pay
for your sins.

One assumption that led to temporal power was the idea that the church was limited to the priests
and the organized structure of whom they approved. The priests began to develop the idea that the
church was made up of the structure. The doctrines of the church, the institutions. Etc. they lost the
idea that the apostle taught. That the church was made up of the people. The people constituted the
church, they supplanted this with an earthly hierarchy that placed man at the head instead of God,
and the result was that the whole religion kept the people in submission to human authority.

Matt 23:2-3 [2] Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: [3] All therefore whatsoever
they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.

This applies to the roman priest. A legalistic religion will always lead to inconsistency in the life.
Asking something that is required from other, but they do not do it.

Matt 23:4-5 [4] For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's
shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers. [5] But all their works
they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their
garments,

The great struggle in the church was a struggle for power and visibility and authority.

Matt 23:10, 12 [10] Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. [12] And
whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.

No matter how much were exalted they were debased. The people believed unless they supported
the scriptures they would be debased. This view of the church led to every form of vice and
corruption in the church. People cannot rise any higher than their leaders in principle. The closer
you got to Rome the more vice you saw. If the priests could do it, so can the people.

As people lost sight of the scriptures their eyes were darkened. Once the people accepted images,
purgatory, ect. Then they could buy credit for sins. This indulgence has lead to the fall of Rome.

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People who wanted to be pure went to monasteries or convents, but when it is corrupt, they left
being labeled as heretics.

ED 17 …Every human being…think and to do…

You can plan evaluate and execute. You can reason to cause and effect, you can invent and carry out
that invention. Those who have this are leaders in enterprises. They bare responsibility and
influence character

Rome's assumption to spiritual power lead to the loss of personal individuality and freedom. This
lead to the loss of the freedom of conscience. You could not live according to your convictions, you
must live according to the established principles that were defined by the church. Man was cut
down by the church, and man is the church.

Gallio came up with the idea that the earth revolved around the sun, and this was against the
established order of things in the church. So because he presented this he was persecuted. He was
arraigned before the inquisition. They put so much pressure on him until he said the sun revolves
around the earth.

When coercion gains control, people loose the right to think. Under the inquisition new inventions
were stifled. What does God say about control in God's church?

TM 342 As a people we should study God's plans for conducting His work. Wherever He has given
directions in regard to any point, we should carefully consider how to regard His expressed will. This
work should have special attention. It is not wise to choose one man as president of the General
Conference. The work of the General Conference has extended, and some things have been made
unnecessarily complicated. A want of discernment has been shown. There should be a division of the
field, or some other plan should be devised to change the present order of things.

Rome assumed control of the church, and the pope became the supreme ruler from which all
authority would come.

TM 477 A strange thing has come into our churches. Men who are placed in positions of
responsibility that they may be wise helpers to their fellow workers have come to suppose that they
were set as kings and rulers in the churches, to say to one brother, Do this; to another, Do that; and to
another, Be sure to labor in such and such a way. There have been places where the workers have
been told that if they did not follow the instruction of these men of responsibility, their pay from the
conference would be withheld. It is right for the workers to counsel together as brethren; but that
man who endeavors to lead his fellow workers to seek his individual counsel and advice regarding
the details of their work, and to learn their duty from him, is in a dangerous position and needs to
learn what responsibilities are really comprehended in his office. God has appointed no man to be
conscience for his fellowman. It is not wise to lay so much responsibility upon an officer that he will
feel that he is forced to become a dictator. For years there has been a growing tendency for men
placed in positions of responsibility to lord it over God's heritage, thus removing from church
members their keen sense of the need of divine instruction and an appreciation of the privilege to
counsel with God regarding their duty."

TM 484 God does not confine Himself to one place or person. He looks down from heaven upon the
children of men; He sees their perplexities, and is acquainted with the circumstances of every
experience of life. He understands His own work upon the human heart, and needs not that any man
should direct the workings of His Spirit.

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TM 492 While respecting authority and laboring in accordance with wisely laid plans, every worker
is amenable to the Great Teacher for the proper exercise of his God-given judgment and of his right to
look to the God of heaven for wisdom and guidance. Laborers who are striving to work in harmony
with this instruction are under the leadership and guidance of the Holy Spirit, and need not always,
before they make any advance move, first ask permission of someone else. No precise lines are to be
laid down. Let the Holy Spirit direct the workers. As they keep looking unto Jesus, the Author and
Finisher of their faith, the gifts of grace will increase by wise use.

TM 493 All the works of men are under the Lord's jurisdiction. It will be altogether safe for men to
consider that there is knowledge with the Most High. Those who trust in God and His wisdom, and
not in their own, are walking in safe paths. They will never feel that they are authorized to muzzle
even the ox that treads out the grain; and how offensive it is for men to control the human agent who
is in partnership with God, and whom the Lord Jesus has invited: 'Come unto Me, all ye that labor and
are heavy-laden, and I will give you rest."

No matter what work God has given us we must have balance. God gives a different work to
everyone. Some to tare down and build up. We cannot control other human minds.

TM 494 No man is a proper judge of another man's duty. Man is responsible to God; and as finite,
erring men take into their hands the jurisdiction of their fellowmen, as if the Lord commissioned
them to lift up and cast down, all heaven is filled with indignation. There are strange principles being
established in regard to the control of the minds and works of men, by human judges, as though these
finite men were gods. Organizations, institutions, unless kept by the power of God, will work under
Satan's dictation to bring men under the control of men; and fraud and guile will bear the semblance
of zeal for truth, and for the advancement of the kingdom of God. . . ."

When Rome assumed authority that was not theirs, they place themselves in the place of God. They
oppressed their fellow man. the more centralized her power, the more she tried to rule the world.
They would use one king against another king to bring them into her authority. The whole empire
submitted to her authority.

Through connections with NATO, UN, etc, we are loosing our American sovereignty and un-
constitional treaties. Loss of freedoms is a lost of individuality.

Tithe

1 Cor 9:9 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that
treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen?

Paul is speaking of tithe here. Don't stifle the worker, let him eat, let him have what is his.

1 Cor 9:11 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that
treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen?

We give you spiritual food, so we need to be sustained by physical food. Rome used this to get
money for the structure.

1 Cor 9:12 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that
treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen?

I did not accept tithe from you Corinthians because there was a problem. Paul was with the greeks,
they were thinkers not workers, he came to show the dignity of work. His religion was for the slave

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and the free man. if he lived by the ties of the Corinthians the people should say it was a free mans'
religion. It was for both.

1 Cor 9:14 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that
treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen?

2 Cor 11:8-9 [8] I robbed other churches, taking wages of them, to do you service. [9] And when I
was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no man: for that which was lacking to me the
brethren which came from Macedonia supplied: and in all things I have kept myself from being
burdensome unto you, and so will I keep myself.

Paul said I accepted wages form the Macedonians, the Philippians. While I was ministering to you
Corinth I was receiving tithe from Phillip

Luke 10:7 Laborer is worthy of his hire…

1 Tim 5:17-18 [17] Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they
who labour in the word and doctrine. [18] For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that
treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer [is] worthy of his reward.

He is saying the elders should also be paid by tithes.

Heb 7:5 And verily they that are of the sons of Levi, who receive the office of the priesthood, have a
commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law..

If the tithe came to the Levites they were to take it and use it in the service of God.

Summary: Once Rome began to accept tithe she also began to claim the right to control the
conscience it all happened at the same time.

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John Wycliffe, Tithe, & Church Authority
Tithe: continuation…

Rome began to claim that she had authority in all matters religious and secular. And this caused
them to restrict the conscience of the people. The result of this practice led to crime and vice among
the people and priests. When they claimed authority over the temporal matters they persecuted
those who didn't agree with the established teachings. She began by enforcing what was not
required by scripture and ended by forbidding that which was required by the scriptures and this
will happen again.

1 Cor 9:9 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that
treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen?

Paul is talking about support for the ministry. while he works let him eat, let him be sustained by
what he eats. Paul uses Moses instruction to apply it to the tithe.

1 Cor 9:13 Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the
temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar?

Who ministered holy things? The Priests and Levi's. they were supported by tithes, offerings, and
sacrifices.

Heb 7:5 And verily they that are of the sons of Levi, who receive the office of the priesthood, have a
commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brethren, though they
come out of the loins of Abraham:

Paul makes it clear that they were required to take tithe. They were commanded. It was not
optional. When we look back at Corinthians we see that the minister is entitled to the tithe.

1 Cor 9:13-14 [13] Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of
the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? [14] Even so hath the Lord
ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.

The gospel work was to be supported by tithe. Paul was a self-supporting missionary. He was not a
denominational missionary. He left the Jewish church to build up the new church. The Jerusalem
council did not control the workers they just gave advice.

Paul was a self-supporting worker in two ways: His instructions were given by God not the leaders
in Jerusalem. They didn't tell him what to do. He also worked for himself when he wasn’t receiving
money from the believers.

Question: What is a tithe worthy ministry? Can be seen in Bible and SOP.

Ex. Some areas are more grey. Some statements say it can be used for certain aspects in the
publishing ministry. So for LG which is a magazine designed solely to win souls. But tithe should not
be used for Colporteurs, building new churches, only to spread the gospel.

Questions: do you tithe general donations? No, the Levites didn't tithe their collective resources for
the support of the temple. Only their income. No where in the Bible or SOP do you see gospel

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institutions tithing the tithe or donations.

1 Cor 9:15 But I have used none of these things: neither have I written these things, that it should be
so done unto me: for it were better for me to die, than that any man should make my glorying void.

1 Cor 9:12 If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless we have
not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ.

Power of accepting resources to support the gospel. Paul is saying we are not accepting tithe in
Corinth. There was a problem there. They had free men and slaves. The free men didn't do work. If
Paul would have just preached and accepted tithe, the slaves would have said this is a free man's
religion. But he worked with the slaves doing tent making so he could bond with them.

2 Cor 11:8 …I robbed other churches, taking wages [of them], to do you service.

I didn't do this to get selfish means for myself. I was supported by other churches while working for
you. you should be the ones giving money for your own church.

2 Cor 11:9 And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no man: for that which
was lacking to me the brethren which came from Macedonia supplied: and in all [things] I have kept
myself from being burdensome unto you, and [so] will I keep [myself].

I was only responsible to myself. This refers to the people of Philippi. They brought him the tithe
from Philippi. As a self-supporting minister, he didn't use it in Corinth because of the local problem.
But while he was there he received it form the Philippians and he used to support himself along
with his tent making. People use this statement to say we shouldn't receive it because we don't
want to cause division, but this is not what he was saying.

1 Tim 5:17 Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who
labour in the word and doctrine.

Honor the elders, those who are working doctrine and the word.

1 Tim 5:18 For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The
labourer [is] worthy of his reward.

Paul is using the same quotation from Moses that he used in Corinth when he referred to receiving
tithe. So he is saying that the elders who are laboring in word and doctrine can also be paid from
the tithe.

Note: Most elders don't do this today. They were to go out and win souls locally. He was the bible
worker within the local church. Paul was the itenerate preacher who would evangelize abroad. The
Elders evangelized locally to build up the church, and they took care of the affairs of the church.
These men were to be supported by the tithe. He also quotes what Jesus said in Luke 10

Jesus says take no purse, script or shoes, don't take money just preach and you eat what they give
you. You get supported by the people to whom you minister. Those who labor in the gospel are to
be supported in the gospel.

Point: Jesus Himself it seems like accepted tithe

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This is how Paul explains tithe in the NT. Of course it can go to the GC. But what about self-
supporting missionaries? The Waldensians and others refused to send their tithe to Rome because
they were not teaching the gospel or living it. Tithe is an act of confidence not authority. People will
place their tithe were they feel confident, not coerced.

Authority
There are two kinds:

Derived
It is inherent in one's office. Ex. The president has authority to do certain things in that position.
After he is no longer president, he cannot do it anymore. Ex. Elder, he has certain privileges. But
these offices have limitations. The president is suppose to stay in the bounds of the constitution.

Earned
You earn it by your reputation. By the things you do and don't do. You earn authority based upon
your relationship with other people.
Ex. As Dean of the college you have certain responsibilities. It also has limits. If you misuse that
derived authority and say no matter what you say you are going to do what I tell you (Many
Father's do this to their children). If you do that people will not trust you. in any office you should
use earned authority. I help you, you help me. When you use earned authority you help the work of
God to be spread. If you abuse derived authority people will not listen. But if you use earned
authority in a state of emergency people will respond quickly.

Ex. In Sunday churches they use derived authority. No one will preach from my pulpit. Etc. he will
not win their hearts. He has not gained their respect. God wants mutual respect in His church.

Question: The pastor should not teach the members to rely on the pastor to say what is wrong and
what is right. The pastor is to teach the people to study the Word not to depend on him. As a result
they will rely on him. When error comes in, they can't discern and they say it sounds good. But the
Pastor is to educate them.

John Wycliffe
After centuries of darkness God was going to work. He preserved His
truth through the bible through the Waldensians and others. Now the
people needed to have the word of God. So God raised up this man. He
studied the Word of God and began to love it. It was not available to
the people. It was written in a tongue for the educated. You had to be
a learned person in languages to understand and read it. He studied
the word and became to be very influential. The force of his reason
recommended him to his peers. When he began he didn't know he
would oppose Rome. He was asked to be chaplain next to the king. In
this responsibility he became to speak plainly against the pope and
the tribute that the pope receive. He said the bible did not require
them to financially support the pope. He also said that the pope
should not have temporal authority. They belonged to the king only.
He also spoke against the mendican friar. They were monks that traveled around and begged from
the people. mendican means he is a beggar. They pretended to be beggars, but they were living in
luxury. They wore rags and demanded collections from the people. They were also skilled at getting

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young people to go into the monastery. The parents were deprived of their children. They were told
no matter what they did you must come to Christ. So the parents didn't send their children to the
universities. Ignorance prevailed. The monks had authority to forgive sins from the pope. Great
crime and vice came because of indulgences. They made a mistake. They said in their work they
were only following the master. So the people wanted to know what Jesus did. It created a great
desire for the word. The leaders would study it and they found Christ wasn't like that.

He wrote tracts and became in diplomacy and in parliament. He was


appointed to the chapel in Lutterworth. He would preach there and 3
bulls were dispatched to silence him. But nothing happened. The
bishops tried to arraign him. The people rushed in and they let him go.
While the popes had a schism he taught the people. On his death bed
four religions orders came to him. And he said he would live to
preach again. He did and he began to do his work again. He was an
itinerate preacher, all the publishing had to be done by hand. He also
educated at Oxford, and in (here we have all the 3 elements that are
necessary for a great revival.) Lutterworth. Nearly have of the people in England were converted.

His bibles were spread all over Europe. His bible was translated from the Vulgate the corrupted
Western Text. God could use imperfect things, the people were in such great darkness that the
corrupted text even brought great light to them. God can still use the NIV. But this should not be our
bible of choice for doctrines and studies.

The people now had the Bible, but now they can’t read. So he set up school. The pattern;

 Teaching / Preaching
 Publication
 School – The Lollards – These were colporteurs
o The learnt how to copy of the Bible and then take it out and sell it to anyone who
wanted it.
o They were taught how to teach – so they would teach how to read the Bible.

You can give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man how to fish
and he will eat for the rest of his life.

He went to parliament and accused the accusers for heresy. And he left and none tried to prevent
him. He was called to Rome, but while he was given communion he was stricken with palsy and he
died. The Pope never had a chance to take his life. He inaugurated the great movement for the
liberty of conscience. He started the ball rolling. The bible was given to the English people. The
Latin Vulgate was never printed until the early 19th century in its complete form. It was never
printed because when the reformation came in full strength, the later reformers knew they couldn't
use the Vulgate as the basis for inspired and holy writ. That is why it was never taken up and
printed. They knew they had to use the eastern texts. They had no use for it after they had the
Tyndale bible and other bibles that were printed and on the market. England was a protestant
nation and they had no use for that bible. But God used this bible to carry the light and bring the
people out of darkness.

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Huss & Jerome
Quiz:

Name the morning star of the reformation? John Wycliffe


What was his most important accomplishment? Translating the Bible into English (The Latin
Vulgate.)

What errors did he oppose? Finances to the pope, Pope's temporal power, Friars claim to forgive
sins.

There are two definitions of the individual's relationship to the church:

Protestant: makes the relation of the individual to the church dependent on his relationship to
Christ

Catholic: makes the relation of the individual to Christ dependent on the relation to the church.

If we are dependent on the church for salvation, we end up focusing on the rules and decrees of
men. If we depend on Christ we depend on Him to tell us what to believe and how to do our work.

Catholicism places man's responsibility to the church. The church is supreme. In Protestantism,
Christ is supreme. Catholicism places tradition above the bible. Protest places the Bible above
tradition. This is the essential difference between them both.

Today this is the difference between true Adventism and Protestantism and Catholicism. Because
protestants have yielded to tradition. So who is a true protestant? Those who follow the bible and
the bible only as their rule of faith.

What about a prophet? We must discern the prophets. The bible says there will be prophets at the
end of time. We are to test the spirits. To the law and testimony…no light in them. When we test the
prophets, we must also test EGW. We test her with every other prophet.

John Huss
Bohemia (Czech Republic) they had more light then. God blessed them.
They had their own worship in the common language. The bible was read
by the educated. The Waldensians and Albigenses brought light there too.
The missionaries worked there. Their work exposed the works of Rome.

Jerome came (not in the fourth century) he went to England and found
Wycliffe's writings, he brought these writing's to Bohemia. The Queen of
England was a Bohemian. She was converted to Wycliffe's writings and
she circulated his writing in Bohemia.

He went through school. He believed the pope was infallible. He was attached to the kings courts.
He became a professor and director at his alma mater. But while he was there because of the
circulation of the writings, he read them with great interest. He appreciated the reforms and saw
them as valid. Two men came from England and preached against Rome in Prag. They were silenced

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quickly by the bishops. They found a large hall with large walls on the side. They painted Christ and
the pope on the walls. It caused a stir. And it impressed John Huss. He went and studied the writings
of Wycliffe. He studied the bible too. He realized that all needed to be reformed. The bible changed
your mind and heart. This happens today.

The bible has always been at the center of controversy between protestants and Rome. The
Protestants have always said the bible and the bible alone. The Catholics always said tradition over
the bible.

"interdict" = when a city was placed under this. It was because of their rebellion to his authority. It
meant that the dead could not enter into heave. Marriage couldn't be done in the church, therefore
it was not blessed.

Huss and Jerome ended up at the council. Sigismand offered safe conduct. This means he could
travel safely there and he would be protected by him, so he would not be killed. He thought he
would be taken care of. But the bishops and cardinals withdrew it and the was thrown into prison.
Huss was burned by the stake. Later during the trial Jerome came impulsively to the counsel. It was
in Constance which was located in the south of German in the border of Switzerland. He went to
prison and was burned at the stake too after he recanted his recantation.

After this because of the withdrawal of the safe conduct, the Bohemians rose up in indignation.
They were angered at Sigismand. But now John Huss' doctrine attracted even more attention then
before. Because of what happened to Jerome. God even uses things that are unfair to draw attention
to His work. Opposition rose up against Rome and the pope wanted to bring it to an end. So he sent
his armies to bohemia to crush the heresy. A general named Gisca for the Bohemians shortly after
the war began became blind, and he lead them into battle against them. And they were greatly
defeated. The papacy never won a single battle. They lost supplies and military equipment. God
used a blind man to lead His army. No one could claim this victory. It was God who was the victor.
The papacy had to use other means of diplomacy to get them. They negotiated. The papacy yielded
some to the bohemians. They could have free preaching of the Bible. They had both the bread and
wine for the communion. The mother tongue was used in worship. The clergy could not have civil
office. And for crime they had to go to court. Rome has always wanted to put church leaders or
officers into positions of civil authority and they would enforce rule against Rome. They kept the
right to explain these four points. By accepting this, they realized it created compromise. There was
bloodshed among themselves.

Persecution came up again, and they had to wait another century before truth prevailed again.

Eyewitness account of John Huss' trial: Book called Huss the Heretic. Pockius summoned Huss to
come to the trial. It happened in 1414. A papist wrote this. Get it! while in prison his teeth fell out.
His clothes rotted off of his body, and his finger nails grew so long that he couldn't eat properly and
he could not eat the crusty bread because he had not teeth.

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The Inquisition
Quiz:

In what city was John Huss tried and burned? Constance

Who was the emperor at the time? Sigismaud

What did the emperor to do upset the people and cause greater interest in his writings? He
removed safe conduct.

How did the writings of John Wycliffe get to Bohemia? Jerome and the queen of England

It began around the 13th century. This was during the time of Peter Waldo and shortly before John
Wycliffe. Innocent III was the pope. He gave the Dominican fryers special offices that they could
fulfill. He bestowed upon them the ability to forgive sins and he authorized them to extirpate
heresy. The priests were subject to the Dominican fryers. The priests could be arraigned before the
inquisition. The king in Spain at this time was Ferdinan. The inquisition was strongest in Spain,
although it was all around Europe.

It was a logical result of the theology that the church and its leaders and representatives and vice
generants of god on earth. If the priest was god to the people than he could judge in spiritual
matters. So he assumed the authority to judge. The INQ was not an invention of Catholicism. It was
borrowed by the church from the Muslims and other sacral societies. It was used by the Muslims
against the Catholics, and vice versa. It was employed by secular societies as well. The kings and
other nobles used it too. It didn't gain its notoriety until the church used it for spiritual matters. The
need arose from the corruption of the clergy. The clergy was so corrupt, that many people lost
confidence in them and the church they represent. Many wanted to know what true Christianity
was. The Waldensians exposed their corruption. This gave rise to other ideas of what Christianity
was. It posed a threat to the hold that was on the people.

Christendom practical def. Christ's kingdom on earth ruled by men. It was not voluntary. If a person
was born in that area they were a Christian, and if they were a heretic, and then tried if they went
against the church.

When the society is viewed as sacral then the church becomes Christ's protector. A sacral view led
those to believe that Rome was the Holy Roman Empire. This happened once Justinian gave the
bishop of Rome authority over secular matters.

As a basis of the INQ, the scriptures were used for biblical reasoning. The idea was when Adam and
Eve sinned they were brought to trial by God and there were no jury or witnesses only God Himself.
So God held the first INQ. And this was the model for the church to follow. Augustine used this
model to follow by building a concept that those who were separated by the church should be
compelled to come in according to the bible. In the Bible it means to plead and urge, not force. But
Augustine said it meant to use secular force and make them come in.

It was built on the principle of suspicion. It was to address or deal with thought crime. The sanctity
of one's mind was open for investigation. If you have idea's different from the established order in
Rome, you were considered a heretic. It was assumed by the INQ that everyone had some tendency

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towards heresy that would lead him astray. Therefore not every thought that was thought would be
orthodox. So it was left up to them to decide. All people have some form of heresy, all are guilty.
Unless you are repentant and do what you need to to come back to Rome, you would have to come
before the INQ. They also assumed that everyone has questioned the church or god. So all were
assumed guilty and they needed to find out to what extent. He was assumed guilty until proven
innocent. They were not told what the accusation was. Because there could be more to go with. By
investigation they would probe to see what you were guilty of. And they would want to bring out
others who could be guilty of such crimes whether in thought or deed. The person could not know
who his accuser was. He could have a lawyer, but any defense of one assumed guilty was
considered sympathy with the guilty and also punishable, so they could not help them. (P.Berry:
Our constitution was built to avoid these very things.) all those who voluntarily betrayed their
fellows were forgiven their sins and their livelihood was sustained at the expense of kings and
nobles. They were given 1/3 of the confiscated good. The 2/3 went to the judge and the 3/3 went to
the church.

What constituted a crime?

Doing business with a heretic. If you stepped into a heretics home not knowingly you could be
arraigned and excommunicated and you would have to do penance to come back.

Reading the Bible or knowing too much scripture was heresy or it raised suspicion. Reading the
bible was a capital crime for a time. Questioning the authority of the clergy, pope, or justice of the
inquisitor. Questioning the teachings of the church. Teaching anything outside of the defined order
of things. Ex.Gallio (earth went around the Sun, not Sun around the earth. He went before it) not
attending church enough, not doing penance as instructed by a priest. A ruler like a noble or king
who didn't get rid of heresy was guilty. Failure to swear to betray heresy. Possession of charms.
Being guilty of sorcery and magic. Eating food sold by heretic, even if done unknowingly. Giving
alms to a heretical beggar, they were all considered heresy.

Justice?

After a long series of investigations probing all areas of life. They were not asked what they
believed. They were only asked about what they believed was wrong. They were never given
opportunity to prove their loyalty. Even if they were supportive up until this time. Even if they were
an orthodox catholic one word of heresy was proof enough. Justice required that two witnesses to
the act would convict this person. And if two were not available than a single act would be
acceptable. Or two single witnesses to two single acts. If a witness retracts their testimony, it was
accepted if it was in favor of the INQ. And it was rejected if in favor of the heretic. The character of
the witness didn't count. Even if he were a criminal or liar his testimony would be enough.

Wives, servants, and children could not give favorable testimony for the accused. But they could
give a perverse testimony that was against them

The only way out for the accused was to prove that the accuser against him had malice or an agenda
to denounce them. But this was impossible because the accused was not allowed to know who
accused him. So they had to guess, and if they guessed wrong it went against them because they
were under oath, and they were considered to give a false testimony. Ex. Man accused by his wife,
he guessed it was her and got off.

Every thing in society was under their eye. Every book published must be approved and reviewed

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by them in advance by the INQ. All trade and commerce were subject to search and seizure.
Education and the development of literature was stifled. Parents could denounce their children and
vice versa. Husbands their wives and vice versa. Families were afraid of each other. Society was
fearful. They believed that someone who they were having business with would lead to destruction
of property or their life.

Spain went backward and lagged behind every nation because of it. It was everywhere but they
were the worse.

(Find book: Censorship of the Inquisition: Written by Henry Charles Lee)

Destroyed thought. Spain was stagnant. New inventions were excluded. It stunted literature.
Prevented progress of arts and sciences. Burdens on trade and commerce. Because of this they
were not ready for the reformation. And Spain is still predominately catholic. The inquisition was
enforced until the middle of the last century.

It lead to the destruction of everything in society. Became professional liars. Deny what you believe
and say you believe something you don't. Destroyed moral obligations. If a wife got upset with her
husband, she could denounce him, and the marriage relation was in subject to the INQ. Note: the
INQ never shed blood, it was forbidden for them to shed blood. So when it came time to punish the
would had them over to the state and they would carry out the punishment to keep the blood off of
the hands of the church. The secular arm was subject to the authority of the church. It was not
permitted to torture them more than once. Why did it go on day after day? They could take a recess
and come back and have a continuance, but it is considered once.

If the accused were unrepentant, they would be turned over to the state, meaning the protection of
the church would be withdrawn, like they protected them. Then the vengeance of the state would
be given.

When the reformation came there was a distinct change in society. There was a reduction in
persecution of heresy. Luther believed that certain people should be persecuted. Ex. The
Antibaptist. And Calvin participated in making sure made sure they were persecuted in the Swiss
canton. Changing religion didn't mean changing behavior. As time went on God in His providence
saw that a new principle would arise. And satan also was working on a new principle. Satan wanted
to more greatly oppress them.

In due time at the end of the 18th century we see (*PO this is why we see Revelation 11 come in to
play right before the advent movement. STUDY!) the French Revolution (or Reformation make
sure). It was a direct result of the abuses of the church, especially through the INQ. And there were
other reasons too. Humans became so fed up with the church that there was a revolt. Satan created
a reaction, he creates a series of abuses and then uses the reaction to his advantage. Hundreds of
thousands died in the French Revolution of 1798.

Another form of government arose around the same time. Shortly before the French revolution of
1798 around 1776 the American colonies rebelled against English rule, and the process in which
they went through to establish a constitution, lead to a constitutional republic or government that
was a response to the INQ.

Ex. Under the inquisition the victim was assumed guilty. Under the constitution of the USA the
accused is innocent until he is proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Then you have a due

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process. You are not assumed guilty, you are assumed innocent. And the due process can eventually
convict of a crime, but it cannot be assumed that he is guilty. Under the INQ. The onus was on the
victim to prove his innocence. Under the USACON the prosecutor must prove guilt. INQ: the accused
could not know their accuser. Under the USACON (Note: America is not the only one that has a
constitution of this type.) the accused is allowed to face their accuser. INQ: The crimes that you are
being tried for are hid from you. Under the USACON: If you are accused you can know what the
accusation are so you can refute them. INQ. They could have a lawyer, but none would represent.
CON: you are allowed a lawyer or counsel and they do not come under suspicion for representing
you. INQ: Profit in denouncing someone. CON: There is no gain. You can sue, but it is different from
criminal court. CON: Freedom of press, assembly (you can assemble wherever you want as a group
of people meeting together), speech. All of these were forbidden under the INQ. These three
elements are important to a stable government relatively free from corruption.

It had its beginning around the beginning of the


13th Century – about the time of Peter Waldo and
John Wycliffe. The pope at the time was Pope
Innocent III. He gave the friars special offices and
privileges that they could fulfill. He bestowed upon
them not only the ability to forgive sins, but also
authorized their office to extrapate heresy. Even
the priests were subject to the Dominican friars –
meaning that the priests could also be arraigned
before the inquisition.

The king in Spain at that time was King Fernand –


this was the place where the inquisition was the
strongest.

The inquisition was a logical result of the theology of the church and leaders, it is meant to be the
representative of vicegerents of God on earth. If the priest was the God of the people, then he could
judge in spiritual matters.

Adam and Eve when they sinned God inquired of them – this was the bases of the Inquisition

The inquisition was borrowed from other Muslim religions and other religions in sacral societies. It
was freely employed by secular societies as well, but it never gained its notoriety until such a time
that the church assumed the responsibility to use it in spiritual matters. It arose from the very
corruption of the clergy – they were so corrupt that many people lost confidence in the clergy and
the church they represented. Many wondered what true Christianity was. Plus, there were heretics
around (Waldensians) which opposed the church. This became a threat to the superstitious hold
that they had on the people.

The lead up to the Inquisition

Corruption in the clergy



Loss of confidence in the clergy and the church

Increase in other ideas about religion

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Threatened the church leaders

Lead to the need for tightening the noose of control in the inquisition

The inquisition may have started in some ways with good motives – it was for the salvation of the
soul or the preservation of the church or the maintenance of the sacral society. But just because the
person is sincere and has good motives, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it is right. When the society
becomes sacral, the church becomes the protector of the kingdom.

Once Justinian handed the authority over to the bishops of Rome, then it became the Holy
Roman Empire.

The basis of the inquisition, there was much scripture used to support it:
1. Sinning of Adam – the first inquisition

Augustine built a concept around the idea that those who were separated form the church needed
to be brought/compelled to come in. In the Biblical sense, compel means to urge or pleas with, but
not to force them. Augustine interpreted this as using secular/physical force to enforce the decree
of Christ. Many were lead to believe that the inquisition was legitimate.

The inquisition was built on suspicion and gave itself much power. It was to address thought
crime. The sanctity of one owns mind was open. If you were inconsistent with what Rome thought,
then you were considered to be a heretic. It was assumed by the inquisition that everyone had some
tendency towards heresy that would lead him astray. Therefore, not every thought that is thought is
going to be orthodox. And it only remained with the inquisition to the extent of the heresy in your
mind – everybody was thought to have some form of heresy, therefore all are guilty. Unless you
were repentant, sooner or later you would be arraigned before the inquisition.

He who is denounced before the inquisition, he was assumed guilty. However, he was not to
know the accusation that was placed against him. By discovery, the inquisitors would probe to
find out what you might be guilty of. In addition to that, they would want to bring out others that
would be guilty of such crimes. The person that was brought before the inquisition was not allowed
to know who the accuser was. He was permitted a lawyer, but any defense of the assumed guilty
would also mean that you would be considered a heretic as well by showing sympathy.

All those that voluntarily betrayed their fellows were forgiven their sins and were given 1/3 of
all confiscated goods. 1/3 went to the judge and 1/3 to the church. So there were many incentives
to denounce others in the inquisition. They would also get lifetime social security.

 He was assumed guilty


 He was not to know the accusation
 He was permitted a lawyer
 Voluntarily betrayed
 Forgiven their sins
 Lifetime social security

Reading the Bible or knowing too much scripture was considered heresy or raised suspicion of
heresy – it was a capital crime for some time.

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Considerations of heresy
 Questioning the inquisitor, pope or the teachings of the church
 Teaching outside the defined order of things
 Not attending church often enough
 Not going penance as ordered by a priest
 Failure to swear to betray heresy
 Possession of charms and witchcraft or magic
 Eating food sold by a heretic even if done unknowingly (doing business)
 Giving alms to a heretical beggar

How about justice?


After a long series of interrogations, probing every area of life, the subject of the inquisition must
have been totally humiliated. Rarely were questions were given to the accused of what he believed.
The issue at stake was what he did or believed was wrong. So the accused was never given
opportunity to prove his loyalty.

The inquisition never shed blood – it was forbidden. Instead of the inquisition punishing, the person
was handed over to the state to be punished. This resulted in a false veneer of sanctity. The secular
arm was subject to the authority of the church.

The inquisition was not permitted to torture the victim more than once. However
they would just call a recess and then continue again. There by torturing only
once.

If the accused was unrepentant he would be turned over to the secular powers for punishment –
the protection of the church would be withdrawn, as if the church was some loving mother who
protected her children. It made the state look like an adversary to the people.

When the Reformation came, there was a distinct change of society – a reduction of persecution of
heresy. Luther believed that the Anabaptists should be persecuted. Calvin made sure that the
Anabaptists were persecuted. Changing religion didn’t necessarily mean a change of behavior but it
was modified greatly in the Reformation.

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Martin Luther
Sermon: "Pale Horse & Souls that are Crying" (4th & 5th Seal) Remember our people don't know this,
and they need to be taught the history. So present Luther's story along with the corrupt
manuscripts of the Latin Vulgate that were used by Wycliffe and Luther, and then the ideas of the
reformation under Erasmus and Luther.

He believed that works would save him. And he was taught this
from the church. The church is works oriented and the same is
today. As he was in the convent he found the Latin Vulgate
Bible chained to the wall. God used the corrupt texts to bring
light. The Holy Spirit impressed truth on His mind. But this does
not mean we should use it today. He studied this Bible and
became more impressed with his own condition. He knew he
was sinful. All through history, the bible has always revealed sin
and our savior. If you don't know about sin, you will not
understand the Savior. God had to allow him to experience this
guilt. He allows this to happen to us too. He increased his efforts to rid himself of sin.

One day he was sharing his sins with Staupitz, and this man told him to look away from himself and
look to the sin pardoning savior. He planted a seed that was not ready to germinate. It came to the
front later and made an impression on Luther and the whole empire.

Our words can change the lives of people. Them and their families. If we are under the HS He can
direct our words.

He went to Wittenberg and studied the original tongues. Greek and Hebrew. He studied the bible in
the original tongue and not just the Latin vulgate the university had copies of the manuscripts. He
became a good lecturer and he expounded the scriptures. He drew many. He was urged to preach
and eventually he did. Even though he could expound the scriptures he felt unworthy. We must all
feel this way. The fact that he felt unworthy gave him more power to work with the students. He
could speak to the heart.

He went to visit Rome hoping to gain freedom from guilt. The further south he went the more
luxurious were the monasteries. This concerned him his monastery was poor. And the corruption
was horrible. And while here he heard about Pilate's staircase. Was this Pilate's staircase? No, Pilate
was in Jerusalem. He was the proconsul of Judea. The superstitions were enormous. Their
mythology is immense. While he was climbing a passage of scripture illuminated his mind. He
realized all of these works were useless and pointless. When he left Rome he turned away from it in
heart. God allowed him to go through this experience so he could alienate us from Rome. God will
allow us to go through some experiences to realize what fools we have been. Then we can place our
affections on Him.

When he went back to Wittenberg he preached with a new agenda. He


taught we should accept what can be supported from scripture not the
teachings of men. If Bible is the foundation of what you believe it strikes at
the foundation of popery. At first many were happy, but some switched
because they realized that the further he went with his teachings, they knew
it would strike against Rome and their supremacy. The reason why the

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daughters of Babylon have fallen today is because they have accepted the traditions of men.
One example is Sunday Sacredness! SDA's are one group that have stayed faithful to the creation
Sabbath.

The worse abuse came, a new decree was that you could buy forgiveness for past, present, and
future sins. Tetzel came there to sell indulgences. He said they could buy forgiveness fro the souls
in purgatory.

Luther would not absolve the people's sin. He was still a priest, he wanted to reform the church, but
later he had to separate from the church. He went against Tetzel and nailed the 95 thesis to the
door of the Wittenberg chapel. It spread from there and went everywhere. The people read them
with happiness, but the bishops didn't like it.

GC 130 The Reformer had bitter accusers to meet. Some charged him with acting hastily and from
impulse. Others accused him of presumption, declaring that he was not directed of God, but was
acting from pride and forwardness. "Who does not know," he responded, "that a man rarely puts
forth any new idea without having some appearance of pride, and without being accused of exciting
quarrels? . . . Why were Christ and all the martyrs put to death? Because they seemed to be proud
contemners of the wisdom of the time, and because they advanced novelties without having first
humbly taken counsel of the oracles of the ancient opinions. Again he declared: "Whatever I do will
be done, not by the prudence of men, but by the counsel of God.

This is what happens when you preach the truth. He was dealing with a hierarchy that was
established on wrong premises. Hierarchical system of church governance is a wrong principle.
You cannot have a pure church built upon wrong principles. Luther realized this, but Erasmus did
not. If you have correct form of church governance, then you have a likely possibility of having a
pure church. But you can have a good organization and wrong people. It could go both ways.

The message we have to preach is going to meet bitter opposition. If you preach the truth they will
say you are proud. They confuse pride with conviction. One can be humble and express conviction
in a convincing way. Satan is strategic. He brings in error subtly. Then someone recognizes it and
says it is error. Then he turns on them and says you are causing division and schism. And the
person quiets down. You don't see the error until someone protests. When there is a conflict get in
and study it. This is how error has come in to the church today. NT no sanctuary, you can't
overcome sin. This is evangelical Protestantism that has come in. those who have protested have
been isolated from mainstream Adventism.

Erasmus & Luther


There was a struggle going on between Erasmus and Luther. Erasmus compiled the New
Testament in Greek from uncorrupted manuscripts during the time of the reformation. Both
of them recognized that there was need for reform in the church. And Luther had a different view as
to how the reformation would take place. Erasmus was a scholar. He said the way to reform the
church is to present the hierarchy with the truth they will accept it and let in trickle down to the
rest of the people. Luther said there is too much money, power and different interests of the people
involved. They will ignore our suggestions. And they became upset with each other, they also
became enemies over it. But Erasmus set out to convince the hierarchy of the need of reform. He
compiled the scriptures to the NT from the uncorrupt MS. They both recognized that the only way
to have a pure church is to have a pure bible. So he took the Greek and brought all the NT texts that
he could, he took the best ones and put them together in a compilation of the NT of uncorrupt MS.
Which became the Received Texts.

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The hierarchy ignored it. They didn't reject them because he was not a heretic, he was a great
scholar, but they ignored them. Nothing changed. And when it came time for Luther to work he
realized that Erasmus had did a great work for the reformation. Luther and the others took those
MS and translated them into the language of the people. During this time the printing press was
invented. This invention has impacted history greatly. It placed the Scriptures in the hands of the
people.

Luther's History con..:

Luther was troubled by many things, and the pope issued a summon for him to be tried in Rome.
His friends said have the trial in Germany. They obtained their object. He was summoned before the
legate in Oxford. He refused to visit with them until he had a 'safe conduct' issued him. He got it and
he attended the meeting.

GC 136 The Reformer showed that his position was sustained by the Scriptures and firmly declared
that he could not renounce the truth. The legate, unable to reply to Luther's arguments, overwhelmed
him with a storm of reproaches, gibes, and flattery, interspersed with quotations from tradition and
the sayings of the Fathers, granting the Reformer no opportunity to speak. Luther presented a clear,
concise, and forcible exposition of his views, fully supported by many quotations from Scripture. This
paper, after reading aloud, he handed to the cardinal, who, however, cast it contemptuously aside,
declaring it to be a mass of idle words and irrelevant quotations.

The legate gave idle gibberish tales to Luther, but then they accused him of the very same things
that they were guilty of. When he presented scripture they said this about him. Often the thing that
you are accused of is what they are guilty of.

Luther was excommunicated. After he was excommunicated he felt greater liberty in his heart.

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The Diet of Worms
Catholicism: Salvation of individual is according to his relationship to the church
Protestant: Primary relationship to the Word not the church.

GC 146 If I cannot go to Worms in good health, I will be carried there, sick as I am. For if the emperor
calls me, I cannot doubt that it is the call of God Himself. If they desire to use violence against me, and
that is very probable (for it is not for their instruction that they order me to appear), I place the
matter in the Lord's hands. He still lives and reigns who preserved the three young men in the
burning fiery furnace. If He will not save me, my life is of little consequence. Let us only prevent the
gospel from being exposed to the scorn of the wicked, and let us shed our blood for it, for fear they
should triumph. It is not for me to decide whether my life or my death will contribute most to the
salvation of all. . . . You may expect everything from me. . . except flight and recantation. Fly I cannot,
and still less retract."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 1.

Aleander knew that if Luther came to the counsel of Worms he would convince many that were
there to his doctrines. So he pursued Charles V to condemn him in his absence. Truth has an
advantage in a fair hearing. We cannot compromise under pressure. This is the time to be firm. It
was not for him to determine if his life or death would serve the cause of God.

GC 147 Not content with this victory, Aleander labored with all the power and cunning at his
command to secure Luther's condemnation. With a persistence worthy of a better cause, he urged the
matter upon the attention of princes, prelates, and other members of the assembly, accusing the
Reformer of "sedition, rebellion, impiety, and blasphemy." But the vehemence and passion
manifested by the legate revealed too plainly the spirit by which he was actuated. "He is moved by
hatred and vengeance," was the general remark, "much more than by zeal and piety." The majority of
the Diet were more than ever inclined to regard Luther's cause with favor.

He went too far. It raised questions in the minds of the other people in the diet. They knew he was
motivated by a personal agenda. If you are fighting the cause of God, He will use your fighting to
promote the cause. He will create an interest based off of the opposition. When you see opposition,
persecution, or whatever, it is a way of God bringing attention to His cause. It is also a way of
destroying pride in those who are supporting the cause. The things of the world are the opposite of
the things of God. The purpose of the gospel is to make man of no reputation so God can get the
glory.

GC 147 With redoubled zeal Aleander urged upon the emperor the duty of executing the papal edicts.
But under the laws of Germany this could not be done without the concurrence of the princes; and,
overcome at last by the legate's importunity, Charles bade him present his case to the Diet.

Aleander knew that if Luther was tried after his writing were condemned, the emperors and kings
would say the pope's authority is subject to the diet, but if he didn't appear, the pope's authority
would stand. The church and the state were united in the body of politic. So when there was a
secular gathering with the state officials, the ecclesiastical officials were there too. Aleander was
trying to support the pope's power in accusing Luther.

The secular state had an amount of power. Without the support of the other princes it could not
stand. Even though the papal legate was pressuring Charles to execute the papal demand, but he
could not do it unless the princes were in agreement. He told them to present their case to the
princes, and if they supported it, then we can go forward. He was a young man. He was not
established in his own mind, so they persuaded him. (Books: Charles V by Robinson)

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GC 147 "It was a proud day for the nuncio. The assembly was a great one: the cause was even
greater. Aleander was to plead for Rome, . . . the mother and mistress of all churches." He was to
vindicate the princedom of Peter before the assembled principalities of Christendom. "He had the
gift of eloquence, and he rose to the greatness of the occasion. Providence ordered it that Rome
should appear and plead by the ablest of her orators in the presence of the most august of tribunals,
before she was condemned.""

"Princedom" refers to the secular domain on earth. Christendom refers to the spiritual domain on
earth. And the two were united.

"Princedom of Peter" this is in reference to the secular and temporal authority of the pope.
Alenader was going to defend the temporal rule of the pope.

God gives error a chance to defend itself.

GC 148 In conclusion he endeavored to cast contempt upon the adherents of the reformed faith:
"What are all these Lutherans? A crew of insolent pedagogues, corrupt priests, dissolute monks,
ignorant lawyers, and degraded nobles, with the common people whom they have misled and
perverted. How far superior to them is the Catholic party in number, ability, and power! A unanimous
decree from this illustrious assembly will enlighten the simple, warn the imprudent, decide the
waverers, and give strength to the weak." --D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 3.

He is showing that human power is more important to him than the power of God.

GC 148 With such weapons the advocates of truth in every age have been attacked. The same
arguments are still urged against all who dare to present, in opposition to established errors, the
plain and direct teachings of God's word. "Who are these preachers of new doctrines?" exclaim those
who desire a popular religion. "They are unlearned, few in numbers, and of the poorer class. Yet they
claim to have the truth, and to be the chosen people of God. They are ignorant and deceived. How
greatly superior in numbers and influence is our church! How many great and learned men are
among us! How much more power is on our side!" These are the arguments that have a telling
influence upon the world; but they are no more conclusive now than in the days of the Reformer."

This is prosperity religion. God wants you to be wealthy. If you are in prosperity you are accepted of
God. Neither prosperity or adversity are an indication of God's favor. God could bring adversity to
keep us humble and strengthen our faith. Adversity could be a result of tests or consequence. You
must pray and search the Word of God to find out.

GC 148 The Reformation did not, as many suppose, end with Luther. It is to be continued to the close
of this world's history. Luther had a great work to do in reflecting to others the light which God had
permitted to shine upon him; yet he did not receive all the light which was to be given to the world.
From that time to this, new light has been continually shining upon the Scriptures, and new truths
have been constantly unfolding. The legate's address made a deep impression upon the Diet. There
was no Luther present, with the clear and convincing truths of God's word, to vanquish the papal
champion. No attempt was made to defend the Reformer. There was manifest a general disposition
not only to condemn him and the doctrines which he taught, but if possible to uproot the heresy.

We are a continuation of Luther's work. But the rest of the protestants did not progress. They have
lost their barring, they are now part of the ecumenical movement. Even though he didn't have a
defender, God raised up one who was opposed by Luther.

GC 149 Duke George of Saxony stood up in that princely assembly and specified with terrible

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exactness the deceptions and abominations of popery, and their dire results. In closing he said:
These are some of the abuses that cry out against Rome. All shame has been put aside, and their only
object is . . . money, money, money, . . . so that the preachers who should teach the truth, utter nothing
but falsehoods, and are not only tolerated, but rewarded, because the greater their lies, the greater
their gain. It is from this foul spring that such tainted waters flow. Debauchery stretches out the hand
to avarice. . . . Alas, it is the scandal caused by the clergy that hurls so many poor souls into eternal
condemnation. A general reform must be effected."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 4.

He was against Luther, but he said the church needs reform. This wiped out Aleander's appeal.

GC 150 A more able and forcible denunciation of the papal abuses could not have been presented by
Luther himself; and the fact that the speaker was a determined enemy of the Reformer's gave greater
influence to his words.

Had the eyes of the assembly been opened, they would have beheld angels of God in the midst of
them, shedding beams of light athwart the darkness of error and opening minds and hearts to the
reception of truth. It was the power of the God of truth and wisdom that controlled even the
adversaries of the reformation, and thus prepared the way for the great work about to be
accomplished. Martin Luther was not present; but the voice of One greater than Luther had been
heard in that assembly. "

(*PO This shows the work of the horses of Zech, white, black, etc. that were doing a work within the
secular powers to advance the work of God. This is happening under the 4th seal. Corresponding
with the 4th horse. 5th seal opens showing God's work in heaven, how He is responding to the
secular powers….Study!!)

Then and Edict was summoned to get Luther. And Charles would not revoke the safe-conduct.

GC 152 Luther made no reference to his own perilous position. He did not seek to make himself the
object of thought or sympathy. In the contemplation of Christ he had lost sight of self. He hid behind
the Man of Calvary, seeking only to present Jesus as the sinner's Redeemer.

Do not seek a few sympathetic ears to sustain your position, uplift Christ. Luther was called there
over the protest of the princes. If Luther would be arraigned there, it would be a slap in the face for
the pope. And the authority of the pope would be undermined.

Many questions were raised. The authority of the Word vs. the authority of the church. Protestants
believe the bible is authoritative over the church and the pope himself. In the pope's letter he
appeals to tradition. He uses texts, but he distorts how they are applied.

GC 155 This appearance was of itself a signal victory over the papacy. The pope had condemned the
man, and he was now standing before a tribunal which, by this very act, set itself above the pope.

The emperor was pressured to remove the safe-conduct, but he did not. The people had to decide
either for the pope or the word. God directed that the Word be heard.

GC 156 Such calmness and self-command, unexpected in one who had shown himself bold and
uncompromising, added to his power, and enabled him afterward to answer with a prudence,
decision, wisdom, and dignity that surprised and disappointed his adversaries, and rebuked their
insolence and pride.

We must know when to be bold, and when to work softly and appeal to the conscience. Luther used

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it very effectively.

GC 156 The next day he was to appear to render his final answer. For a time his heart sank within
him as he contemplated the forces that were combined against the truth. His faith faltered;
fearfulness and trembling came upon him, and horror overwhelmed him. Dangers multiplied before
him; his enemies seemed about to triumph, and the powers of darkness to prevail. Clouds gathered
about him and seemed to separate him from God. He longed for the assurance that the Lord of hosts
would be with him. In anguish of spirit he threw himself with his face upon the earth and poured out
those broken, heart-rending cries, which none but God can fully understand.

GC 157 An all-wise Providence had permitted Luther to realize his peril, that he might not trust to his
own strength and rush presumptuously into danger. Yet it was not the fear of personal suffering, a
dread of torture or death, which seemed immediately impending, that overwhelmed him with its
terror. He had come to the crisis, and he felt his insufficiency to meet it. Through his weakness the
cause of truth might suffer loss. Not for his own safety, but for the triumph of the gospel did he
wrestle with God.

All of us are going to have a Jacob's Time of Trouble. We must take hold of God's strength. God is at
the head of the work, not us!

Luther's perspective concerning conflict…


God's people are always accused of being schismatic. What is the real cause?

GC 159 I rejoice to see that the gospel is now, as in former times, a cause of trouble and dissension.
This is the character, this is the destiny, of the word of God."

He knew that truth was overturning error. Light broke through the darkness. Satan always seeks to
repress the Word of God.

Luther first spoke in German at the diet, and then he was directed to speak in Latin. This was
strategic. The men were well learned.

GC 159 Luther had spoken in German; he was now requested to repeat the same words in Latin.
Though exhausted by the previous effort, he complied, and again delivered his speech, with the same
clearness and energy as at the first. God's providence directed in this matter. The minds of many of
the princes were so blinded by error and superstition that at the first delivery they did not see the
force of Luther's reasoning; but the repetition enabled them to perceive clearly the points presented.
"

GC 160 The Reformer answered: "Since your most serene majesty and your high mightinesses
require from me a clear, simple, and precise answer, I will give you one, and it is this: I cannot submit
my faith either to the pope or to the councils, because it is clear as the day that they have frequently
erred and contradicted each other. Unless therefore I am convinced by the testimony of Scripture or
by the clearest reasoning, unless I am persuaded by means of the passages I have quoted, and unless
they thus render my conscience bound by the word of God, I cannot and I will not retract, for it is
unsafe for a Christian to speak against his conscience. Here I stand, I can do no other; may God help
me. Amen

GC 168 Upon his homeward journey he was seized, separated from his attendants, and hurriedly
conveyed through the forest to the castle of Wartburg, an isolated mountain fortress. Both his seizure
and his concealment were so involved in mystery that even Frederick himself for a long time knew
not whither he had been conducted. This ignorance was not without design; so long as the elector

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knew nothing of Luther's whereabouts, he could reveal nothing. He satisfied himself that the
Reformer was safe, and with this knowledge he was content.

On his way home Luther was taken to Wartburg by his friends.

God knew that Luther needed to be humbled and not have a lot of accolades. He took him off of the
scene of action. Luther had a work to do at Wartburg that couldn't be done anywhere else.

Fanaticism
GC 189

Thomas Munzer led this movement. They claimed to have new light. A crisis was developed that
undermined the authority of the Word. If Satan can't get one, he gets the other. They were saying
you don't have to pay attention to the Word, listen to the Spirit. But the Spirit reveals itself through
the Word. Reality is that you need both. Many students left school. They didn't feel like they needed
that training because of the influence of the fanatics. They used scripture to justify their position.
But the bottom line of what they taught was this. (cut through the emotions and find out what they
are teaching. If it is contrary to the Word, they are on the wrong tract.)

He decided to go to Wittenberg at the peril of his own life. He recognized that another crisis came to
the reformation. He dealt with it. He told the people to go to the Word. It is the final authority of all
faith and practice.

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The Diet of Spire 1529
Quiz:

Where was Luther's friendly imprisonment? Wartburg Castle

What most important work did he accomplish in this place? Translating the NT scriptures into
the language of the people, German.

Who was the first Swiss reformer? Zwingli

Who was the boastful opponent of this reformer at the debate in Boten? Doctor Eck

What was the affect of the debate upon the people? It gave more publicity to the reformation
and raised interest. Bosel and Burn declared their cities to be a part of the reformation.

Rome believes that you cannot have freedom of conscience. The princes realized that this was not
right. There is something in the human heart that wants to accept that religious authority must be
accepted without question. We see this today. In some cultures it is very strong. The protestant
principle liberated the mind to find truth for themselves. Priesthood of all believers comes from the
principles of Protestantism. We do not have to go through a medium; we all have a connection with
God for our self.

Toleration arose in Germany, so Luther's ideas could spread.

Toleration
It is a privilege that can be granted by the state or civil authority to practice your belief system or
religious beliefs. But it can be withdrawn at any time. (FINAL)

Religious Liberty
Recognizes the unalienable (you cannot separate it) right given by God. And it is that the individual
has a responsibility to follows one's own conscience.

Recap: When you have a true composite society you have religious liberty. Toleration is a privilege
to practice certain beliefs. Not necessarily all. You can practice certain beliefs or all beliefs, and it is
granted by the civil authorities.

This diet brought toleration to Germany. It was welcome. It gave the reform an opportunity to
develop. It did not bring full religious liberty. That didn't come until the end of the 18th century in
the founding of the American constitution.

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History of the Cannon of Scriptures
Quiz:

How did Protestants get their name? Protests of the princes; At the Diet of Spires

Who was the man who compiled the Greek uncorrupted NT during the time of the
reformation? Erasmus

Who was the first protestant to translate the Bible to English from the Greek uncorrupted
compilation? William Tyndale

Canon comes from the word that means a piece of artillery. A piece of artillery gives it its direction
and projectory. The canon of scripture is the directing principle in the Christians life. The bible
makes rules. The canon puts it in certain boundaries for the ball to be released. Same is true for the
Bible. It is the rule that guides your life, so it is a canon.

In Alexandria the term was used to designate modern authors, especially those who made the rules
of literature such as grammar. Christian writers used it to mean Christian doctrine. It was used
finally to determine the collections of book composing the Christian faith. The Old Testament and
New Testament. This became the exclusive definition. The books that are the valid books of
inspiration.

Formation of the Canon (Background)


During the first 15 years after Christ went to heaven, the formation of the church occurred from the
oral preaching of the truth. The apostles were doing itinerate preaching. Others realized that they
would die off, and then who would take their place? So they begin to write letters. They knew the
written word was needed or written preaching. During the times they were giving oral preaching,
there were signs and wonders that manifested that the spirit of God was motivating them. Ex. The
dead were raised, people healed. Ananias and Sapphira. God showed that they were inspired by a
power outside of themselves. (1) This confirmed their apostolic authority. This is important
because it opened the foundation to accept their letters. This is how the churches came to accept
the principle of written preaching.

(2) They also appealed to the OT in their preaching and teaching. This is important because this
gave a link between the OT and NT. This was the final link between the OT and NT.

It would have been easy for them to say lets throw out the Old Testament and just stick with the
New Testament because that is all that they gave us. But because they consistently used the OT, it
was used to compose the canon of both the OT and the NT.

Because of Paul's letters to the church and him urging them to read this to the other churches, he
strongly influenced these new churches. (3) Because of this the churches were willing to add new
books to the OT cannon. The Christian churches kept these letters for instruction. They did not
revere Paul as divine, but they saw that the Holy Spirit inspired him. So they revered his writings
and treated them as oracles of God.

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Scriptures
1 Thes 5:27 I charge you by the Lord that this epistle be read unto all the holy brethren.

1:5 "For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in
much assurance; as ye know what manner of men we were among you for your sake."

These were the first two books received into the canon. They were preserved and copied. Between
48 AD and the death of Paul AD 65 almost all of the NT writings were produced. At least 20. The last
two were done by the end of the first century. (John's Gospel and the book of Revelation)

They were spread around the world very quickly. There was a lot of commerce going on. It also
aided the spread of Christianity in the different providences. The people would be encouraged and
a church would be spread. The Canon was developed little by little. It happened over time. Paul and
the apostles couldn't be everywhere at once. So they needed the writings so the churches could
review on a weekly basis. And also this way the teachings could be preserved from age to age more
safely. Ex. During the time of the Patriarchs things were preserved orally until Moses. The people
had good memory so it could be passed on. But now it was needed.

Preservation & why uninspired books or counterfeits were not accepted:

There were many reasons why non-canonical books, uninspired and counterfeit books were
separated from the canonical books.

Objection: Were these established before the counsels of the Roman church? Yes, the counsels were
much later. Rome claims that the canon of scripture was established by the Church of Rome. We see
from this that the cannon was established well before the first council. In 65 AD already 20 books
were accepted by the church, and it had nothing to do with Rome. At the end of the first century all
27 were complete.

Background: (4) Persecution preserved the canon.

(1) Cohesiveness because of persecution:

Under persecution from the pagans, the people and the church were under pressure. God permitted
this so that the environment was intense, meaning it was charged with emotional gravity, it was
important to preserve the oracles. And the cohesiveness was in tact. When under persecution
people bind together for safety. They were one. They were close in fellowship in mutual suffering.
The bishops primary reason was to prepare the people to die for their faith. So the letters of Paul
and the other apostles meant a great deal more to those churches. The letters were their life. It was
essential to their religion. These letters brought them the truth. That is why they were being
persecuted. Because of those teachings and doctrines. They read them and this helped establish the
church. They copied them and shared them with the other people. When they were scattered, the
people established new churches.

(2) The power of God:

The character of the apostles helped to establish the authenticity of the canon. The power of the
gospel was so great by the thousands who accepted it, it was seen as the power of God. So there was
no question about the inspired books that were preserved from the apostles.

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The public credibility of the character of the apostles who wrote these books was strong. So there
was no question about their authorship. So a huge distinction existed between the divinely
inspirited books in contrast to the uninspired books.

Ex. Apocrypha. There is a lot of non-sense in there. Maccabee's, etc. There is foolishness and history
that is inaccurate.

(3) Unity of Message:

Even though they were men from different backgrounds, circumstances, and personalities, etc.
There was a unity within their writings.

(4) Focus of the books of the canon:

Other ancient works were directed more to individuals by isolated persons. The secular, or
uninspired writings were written from one person to another individual. Or the general public at
large.

But the NT was written by the apostles to the churches of their day. By the great men of God, to the
great associations of God. To the people who knew and respected them. The canon was established
while the apostles were still alive. The canon was not established at a counsel later on. Other
counsels recognized the canon of scripture but did not accept it. Note: Even the individual letters to
a person (within the canon) had an affect on the church at large.

(5) Ancient books lost their interest:

The inspired books have living interests that have come down to our own day. But the uninspired
books came to light and died out.

(6) Carefulness of the early Christians:

They wanted to be certain. They checked carefully. They were willing to give their life for their faith.
So they wanted to make sure they were dying for what was authentic. So the authenticity was
preserved.

(7) Eyewitnesses:

The authors of the other books were not eyewitnesses of the things that were reported.

But the things written by the authors of the canon were eyewitnesses. The things reported were
seen and heard by the entire churches. And when this was not the case, they had the testimony of
those that certified their authenticity. And this happened before the end of the first century. They
quoted living people, actual authors, and ministers known by the people. All this made it certain
that it could be trusted.

These letters arose out of their experience and as a result of their faith. The uninspired books did
not have this factor. They wrote something they thought they heard about.

(8) Numbers of people protecting the canon:

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Ancient literature was published under the authority of one man. And there was no security for
accurate transmission. It was sent and no one knew who he was.

But with the canon, it was published and circulated by the body of the apostles and preserved by
the bishops of the church. And because of this they protected the canon and it was impossible for
spurious writings to come in. and when they did, they were discovered and eliminated.

(9) The ancient secular writings were read and then neglected:

The canon was constantly studied, and reread, and reread.

(10) Loyalty to the scriptures:

Ancient writings were lost and never to be recovered. A lot of their works disappeared. If they were
so important they would have protected them. But with the canon, they were preserved on the pain
of death.

(11) Ancient literature was translated long after:

Some ancient piece was later translated from that language to another after one thought it was
good. This happened long after

The NT was translated into all the languages of the east by the end of the first century. Syriac,
Arabic, Coptic, Armenia, Persian, Ethopian. And the languages of the west after the Teutonic or 10
tribes invasion. Latin, gothic, scholvonic, Anglo-Saxon

Pisshita bible – done about the beginning of the second century


Itala – translated by the end of the first century, used way before the 4th century when Jerome came.
Tertullian quoted it in the end of the second century 100 years before Jerome.

(12) Opposition to the scriptures:

Ancient writings caused no profound controversies from the beginning like the scriptures. It has
reached us today.

Many people attacked the authenticity. This gives proof to the authorship because they oppose it.
The opponents of the NT didn’t argue that it was not written by them, but they argued against the
teachings, they did not say they were spurious, just erroneous.

They did not argue the authenticity.

(13) Usage by collective bodies:

Ancient readings were read by a person here and there.

Canon read by collective and permanent societies such as churches. And they are still read today in
every living church. This will happen until the second coming.

(14) Succession of men controlling the NT canon:

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Ancient literature did not have a succession of men to protect and control these writings.

Canon: bishops were careful to protect. They excluded any books that did not have their
authenticity.

(15) Long ministry of the apostles:

Except James who died 10 years after the ascension of Jesus, the apostles had a relatively long
ministry. Some 30, 50, 60, 70. This means they were in close contact with the churches for a while
so these churches could be established by these men. This is why it was important that Christ did
His work with them while He was there.

He was laying groundwork that would establish His church for millennia. Even during his last year
while he was in Ephesus, John was allowed to communicate with all of the churches because of the
oriental and occidental churches meet, this allowed him to do so.

(16) Number of churches:

There were so many churches, that these numbers prevented broad acceptance of spurious books
until much later. The fourth century when other things came in.

(17) Today ancient literature is not quoted as much:

Some quotes from Plato or Socrates here, but it is not on a wide scale in comparison with the
scriptures. Cited, explained, taught, etc. We can never loose them.

Claims of Catholicism
They say they decided what was canon and what was not. The implications are dangerous. If this is
true, then they become the ones to determine what is true and what is not.

The canon determines divine revelation. If man can chose it, then man can interpret it. But God
established it. And because of the circumstances and principles involved, the canon was considered
authentic by the church. This was not determined in a counsel.

If they determine it, then all the churches would have to look to her to be authoritative in all
matters of doctrine and faith.

This is why the council of Trent was so important for the Catholic Church to authenticate the
apocrypha. Protestants said no it is not canonical! Because the ecumenical movement which is the
outworking today is suppose to bring all churches back to Rome.

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History of the Bible in Connection with the Reformation
This chapter covers how Rome got authority of the monarchs.

What caused the greatest impact in Luther's ministry?

1. It exposed the errors of Rome. (He swept away many of the galling and prevailing errors.)
2. His fidelity to the Bible presented as sole authority.
3. His character (Holy boldness, perseverance, humility, meekness, serenity under pressure, piety,
zeal, true conversion)
4. Translation of Bible to German. (Putting the Bible before the people)
5. Prior reformers – the work of the Waldensians laid the spiritual climax for the reformation. Huss,
Wycliffe.
6. True Christians were anxious for reform.
7. The corruption of the clergy.
8. He met the people were they were. (Their broad spiritual needs) Spiritual hunger and ignorance
created a climax for Luther to bridge the gap.
9. Support of the princes. God used the civil structure to create an environment that would protect
His message through Luther.

3 reasons why uninspired writings did not get into the canon?

Character of the apostles


Succession of men protected them
Interest of the writings lasted until our time
Opposition to the Word of God
Writings dealt with the whole church and not just to an individual

Why does Rome want to claim that she established the canon? Because if she established it all
churches would have to look to her as authoritative in all matters of doctrine and faith.

From what source did the reformers of the 16th century get their manuscripts for the translation of
their Bible? Erasmus' compilation

There has always been in the heart of man a hunger to know about God. God made man a spiritual
being. The Bible brings spiritual life, it brings us in touch with God. We understand Him by reading
the Bible. Without it how can we know about God? The priest and Sadducee's misrepresented the
character of God. People were in darkness, so Jesus came to shed light. God wanted to demonstrate
what He is really like through Jesus. The Life of Christ and the Word has a lot to do with society. If
they don't have this, the will go elsewhere to satisfy this longing.

Rome had all these sacraments, but it could not satisfy the longing.

The Waldensians, Patrick, Columba and other men realized the necessity of the Bible. But Rome
would not allow them to have it. They were too sinful and too fallen. The holy priest who were holy
could understand it. They were not sanctified to understand it. While the people could not have the
bible, it was still being given out. When the reformation came God brought out the Bible into the
language of the people. Wycliffe during the time of the reformation brought out the Bible in English

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for the common people. It spread to the Bohemia.

Erasmus
When he came he realized the importance of the scriptures. The reformers realized this. No matter
who they were they all recognized the importance of the people studying the word for themselves
and having a direct relationship with God instead of the priest. The priest created a barrier between
God and the people. The reformation changed this; it bypassed the pope and priests and put the
people in contact with God by skipping over them through the scriptures. Without them giving
people the bible, the reformation could not establish roots in the ground so to speak.

Germany and England were the primary countries were the reformation was the strongest and had
the greatest impact on the world. England was a monarchial kingdom. Meaning they had a king, a
monarch. It was not an elected ruler; it was a succession of rulers based upon the familio succession
of rulers. They were autocratic; they could do what they wanted without having to ask anyone.
Rome wanted to rule over them and the whole world. They needed to place the kings in subjection.
So a principle arose of the divine right of kings. Meaning they were divinely raised up to sit on the
throne. The pope came up with this. They were upset with this idea, and eventually brought into
subjection to Rome, but it could not last because they did not accept the divine right of kings.

Rome used the text in Romans that says the civil law rulers are set up to bring righteousness and
judgment in the land. Rome twisted this to say, that because she was the vice generant of Christ on
earth, she had the right to setup the kings on earth. Rome presumed to be God for these kings.

Once she controlled the kings and monarchs of the earth, she could control the people.

But the bible changed all of this. The bible placed a new light on the monarchy and the papacy. And
this led to a change in England. It went from a monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. Magna
Carta this was a document that changed the way the king of England related to his people. Without
the bible coming into England at the time of the reformation in the tongue of the people they would
not have been able to change their attitude about authority and they could not have changed their
minds about the king. The king could only rule the people as they gave consent. The people said you
can rule over us with these conditions and they gave a list and it was the Magna Carta. And during
this time Charles the V. didn’t have complete control over the princes. There was a change in how
people related to authority.

Rome tried to prevent liberty from arising. This is why Rome tried to do away with the bible. The
bible brings liberty. It takes away sin. It brings knowledge of how to have peace with God.

The reformation principle was to place the bible over the people not the throne of Rome.

William Tyndale
Tyndale and others started to translate their bibles and give them to the people. He was a preacher,
and he was a Roman Catholic. He would go place to place and preach. And he noticed that the
monks would come behind him and preach and undo what he had done. The people would listen to
both and agree, they did not know how to discern from the error. They did not have truth. Today we
have the same thing. They say Amen to error and truth because they don't know. They are not
studying the bible.

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As he saw this he knew he needed to do something to help the people. He fled England and went to
the Netherlands (Belgium) because a warrant was out for his arrest; they didn’t want him to preach
those things. While here he preached by his pen, he translated the bible from Erasmus' compilation
into English, and while he did it, he published it in little pieces, and he smuggled it back to Britain in
wheat bags to his friends.

After a while his bible became a powerful influence in Britain. They could read it for themselves and
know God for themselves.

The bishops wanted to burn the Tyndale bibles. The first edition of Tyndale's bible is in the british
museum. (go there if you have a chance to go to Britain. There are only 2 in the world.)

It was published and brought into England and a friend of the bishop of Durum asked him how to
get rid of them, and he said buy them all and burn them. And he arranged for him to buy all the
bibles and burned them. He had a huge bond fire. So now Tyndale had a lot of money and he made
better editions. And he sent them across in ships in the wheat bag. The archbishop of Canterbury
head of the church of England asked who was responsible for the bible's being spread, and he said
the Bishop of Duram.

Jesuits
They began to work; they had already gotten into the colleges. The purpose of the Jesuits was to
destroy the reformation and undo all that Protestantism had done. The Catholics decided to join
them because they couldn't beat them. They commissioned the Jesuits in Reams France to publish a
bible in the English language. It was translated from the Vulgate and the western manuscripts. All
the bibles had wide margins with notes. And the NT was published and released in 1582. These
bible came into England from France, but by this time the Tyndale bible had made such an impact
on the bible, that the people were astonished, they made claims that were crazy in the Jesuit bible. It
was way out there. The English protestants laughed it to scorn. They said it was not consistent with
its own teachings. They knew it was from the western corrupt manuscripts and was essentially a
Roman Catholic bible. It was so bad that they had to withdraw it from circulation and redo it. They
had to retranslate it, so it was more close to the Tyndale English, they had to get doing it over and
over, so it would be accepted by the protestants.

Then there was the Reams Duoy, the Duoy, and the duoy we have today is not the same as the one
back then. The first edition is a lot different. We are going to talk about the importance of the King
James Version and how it was translated from the Tyndale Bible. We will talk about the effect of the
King James Version bible on the language.

The Language is very, very important! The Tyndale Bible and the Luther Bible these bibles
developed the language of the people. The people in the early church would learn to read just so
they could read the bible and the letter of the apostles. Same in the reformation. Older people went
to school to learn to read so they could understand the language. This helped the people develop
their own language. It matured the French and English language. Wherever the protestant bible
found entrance it developed the language. The people's language was not vulgar.

Tyndale was right before the time of Shakespeare. The English language was at a pinnacle when he
began. It was simple and direct, straightforward. This came as a result of the bible.

It also had an impact on the intellect of the people. This happened in Germany, England, and France,

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wherever the power of Rome was cut, the powers of the mind developed.

King James Version


After Tyndale there were many English versions of the bible
that were published. Geneva, Basil, etc.

Reams Duoy was the competition to the Tyndale Bible. In


England many bibles were developed too. Ex. Miles
Coverdale, and other bishops. There was a development of a
need for the people to have an English protestant bible that
could be available for the people to read in the churches. In
the churches on the table you could read it.

1602 Bishop's Bible, it was an edited Tyndale Bible. They were very well received by the protestant
people. This bible was the immediate predecessor to the 1611 King James Version Bible. It came
about because of the puritan's. They wanted a bible that would not have marginal notes. They
wanted the Holy Spirit to teach them the Word. They wanted the pure Word of God.

The KJV was translated from the original languages and using as its model the 1602 edition of the
Bishop's bible. They took the work that had been done by the scholars and reviewed it and
evaluated it carefully with the original texts and made revisions and changes so that the new text
would be the very best they could do to bring it in harmony with the original MS in connection with
the English language.

This was done very systematically. 46 Translators were appointed to go about the process of
translation. But they were not just given individual passages to translate. They were divided into
groups, and when a portion was finished they would check and cross check each other, and it would
be passed for review and subsequent editorial work. This process was open to the public for
discussion and comment with other scholars who were not of the 46. It was not a secret project.
The translation of the KJV, each text of scripture was reviewed at least 14 times by different
individuals. They wanted to make sure that they had the most scholarly protestant review of the
texts that were adopted as the KJV bible. They worked on this for many years. Shortly after 1602
they began. It came out in 1611 and was anticipated greatly.

The result was that they had a bible that was purely and systematically developed from the eastern
uncorrupt MS. Known as the Received Text. And this bible greatly influenced the English language
like the Tyndale Bible, but it took it a step further.

Language POWERFUL: The predominance of words are monosyllabic (having one syllable). The
words are simple and straightforward. Now today are words have multi-syllable. In the new
translations there is a large number of more complicated words.

Some say the new translations are easier to read like the NIV. Are they? They really are not.

You will see a fog index in the writings of the new translations.

*fog index = when people write with complicated words, it is called in linguistics fogging. It makes
what you are trying to say more obscure. Many times they will apply the fog index to a text. Ex
Newspaper, textbook, or bible. And they will evaluate the number of syllables in each word, and

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they will take an average. And the average will give them some basic idea of the grade level of the
reading material. Most newspapers are on the sixth grade level. Same with the popular magazines.
But even in TIME there are words that are unknown.

But the language that was used in the KJV was simple monosyllabic and direct. The reading level of
the KJV is fifth grade. This doesn't make it simplistic, it is profound, but even a child can understand
it. Once you know what thee, thou, and sayest means, it is not hard to understand.

Remember when comparing the KJV with Modern Translations, there are alterations in these
passages that create problems.

Illustration of reading with Different translations:

Matthew 18:11 For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.

KJV - Given

NIV – Missing

NRSV – Missing

RV – In the footnote it says most ancient MS omit this verse.

Amplified Bible

Erasmus and the other reformers recognized that the Western Manuscripts did not have complete
texts of scripture. They had been corrupted, and many things were left off.

Some modern versions include this text, and say they are not in the ancient MS. They are really
saying it is not in the vulgate or in the MS in which the vulgate came. The Sanaticus, Alexandrianus,
and Vaticanicus, and one more.

What happened to the MS from the east? They have been destroyed. The most ancient ones have
been destroyed over time. The reformers understood this. We see it amplified today.

Burnside did a study on how many verses have been dropped out completely or significantly
altered so we can see what happened to the modern bibles based off of the corrupt MS.

The reformers could not use those MS to get a bible for the protestant faith. So they went and got
Erasmus' compilation because he was careful to bring these complete MS from the eastern source.

When you look at the other texts that were changed they specifically attack the divinity of Christ,
which was a key issue.

We even have a gender neutral bible, that makes God neither male or female.

Side note: 1 John 5:7 Study has been done by Manard. He showed that it was not an addition of
scripture that was added later on. The people who say that don't believe in the Godhead. This is a
better term for us to use. EGW doesn't use Trinity. To catholic it means something totally different.

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Remember this: People say I can get Adventism out of the new translation and the NIV. We can
support all of the doctrines out of this bible. Yes you can get certain things from the NIV, but it was
designed to be a bible that all churches can read, and they will read the same passage and get
something out of it that is totally different that what we believe. They will read something else into
what we use to prove the Sabbath.

The New Trans. Are post Adventism, except the RV. They were developed since Adventism began.
Even though the NKJV was translated from the eastern MS, the textus receptus, yet is has
translational bias in them. They have no burden to support the Adventist message.

Adventist has developed their theology and doctrines from the KJV. It is a very important reason for
that. It is because this bible preceded them by 300 years. And it was the standard English bible for
centuries against Roman theology, doctrine and practice, and it was the basis upon which God
raised His church.

When we use the Modern Translations we loose our certainty in the Adventist message

Example: Exodus 20:10

KJV – " But the seventh day [is] the sabbath of the LORD thy God:" when we say 'the' we are
referring to a specific Sabbath.

NIV – "Seventh day is a Sabbath day" there is a difference between 'a' Sabbath and 'the' Sabbath.

You become less focused on the Sabbath, and you can pick any day, at least one. You loose the
certainty and the simple clear connection in the Greek.

The Greek does not support 'a' Sabbath it is a traditional bias.

The Jews had many Sabbaths, so this does away on the cross the Sabbath of creation. It makes it
seem like it was one of the ceremonial Sabbaths.

Question: How do you explain Ellen using the RV?


She would not have been opposed to using a different translation for clarity sake; even in the NIV
some things are clearer. But when you use it for a doctrinal foundation that is different.

Answer: it constituted only 5% of her writings, and it does not pertain to doctrine.

There are mistakes in the KJV. But they are not mistakes with an agenda, they were mistakes with
the scribing.

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The Sabbath in History
Fathers 2-4th Century
After the death of the apostles a slew of apostasies came in the church. But many people appeal to
the authority of the fathers as to why they keep Sunday observance. The church fathers some time
supported Sabbath or Sunday. They began to divert from the plain teaching.

Some things the fathers have said..(Can read in the antinicean fathers..ask)

Tertulian – Christ Himself maintained the Sabbath as His own institution.

Origen – (corrupter of the western manuscripts, he opposed Sabbath, but said this) rest of God
followed the completion of creation.

They spoke of the seventh-day as something being valid. They were mostly bishops.

5-7th Century
Historians identify that there were seventh-day Sabbath keepers during this time.

Morer (Dialogues on the Lord day, he was not a sabbatarian) the people spent the day in devotions
and service, and they derived this teaching from the apostles themselves.

He says that as time went on people kept both Sabbath and Sunday. This was not wrong.

Hypsisdary – one group of people that are Sabbatarians

William Twiste - Sunday and Sabbath were both kept sacred.

Glesiere – Gentiles observed the Sabbath and Passover.

Coleman (Ancient Christianity exemplified) – last day of the week was kept with the first day of
the week. Well into 5th century it was kept, and after time it was done away with. Converts to
Christianity kept this day. No law was given from Christ to change the seventh day to Sunday.
Neither from Christ or the Apostles. Note: it was not until Sunday arose in solemnity with Sabbath
was it then replaced, before that Sabbath was kept. It was denounced as heretical.

Gibbon (Decline and Fall of Rome) – Jewish converts (called Nazarenes)who laid the foundations of
the church were overwhelmed by those who came in. Note: these Jewish Christians were for a long
while were part of those who kept the Seventh-day Adventist

Joseph Bigim – Hypsistherians. They observer their Sabbaths and ate clean foods.

Cox (Sabbath Laws and Sabbath Duties) – Sabbatarians during the third and fourth century the
Sabbath was observed 300 years after Christ. They had the apostle's doctrines and example to
instruct them. They would have restrained if need be.

Bishop Taylor (during the time Constantine made the first Sunday Law) – the primitive Christians
did work on Sunday, when Constantine made an edict not to work on Sunday, they continued to

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work on Sunday.

William Donville – Centuries passed before Sunday was observed as the Sabbath. History doesn't
show that before Constantine's law there was any significance to the day. For centuries Sabbath
was kept.

Time of the Reformation & Dark Ages


Peter Halen or Haley (Presbyterian Historian: Book History of the Sabbath): Saturday is called
among them the Sabbath. Note: Many early writers for centuries always referred Sabbatumdum to
the Sabbath. The fifth and sixth centuries were gone until it was brought to prominence.

Alvin Butler (Lives of the saints) 6th century on Columba. On Saturday columba said this day is
called the day of rest. Columba was a Sabbath keeper.

William Jones – Waldensians, they were falsely supposed to neglect the Sabbath. Called inSabbatati.

David Benedict (History of the Baptist denomination) – the Waldensians were called
insabbados, regardless of Sabbaths.

Mr. Milner – name given because they rested from occupations on Sunday. They did not regard the
first day as Sabbath.

Throughout history the Lord's day applied to the Seventh-day as the Sabbath. Rome called the Ten
Commandments the law of Moses and not the law of God. They do this to call those who kept the
Sabbath holy Judiazers.

Point: When the people were called heretics for keeping the Sabbath, they would always falsely
accuse them of doing other things that they were not doing because they kept the Sabbath. So when
we are accused for keeping the Sabbath, we will also be accused of keeping something else that is
considered heretical.

Benedict (Baptist historian) Pasagenians: people who lived in the mountain passages. They were
called Jews because they kept the Seventh-day. Same as Sabbatarians are called today.

Francis White: Anabaptists were also keeping the seventh-day Sabbath. Anabaptist means re-
baptizer. They believe that if you were baptized as an infant once you accept Christ as your savior
you need to be re-baptized. They would take a huge bucket and pour it on the person's head.

Michal Gayes (history of the church of Ethiopia. EGW used this in writing the GC.) – Abisenians
(Ethiopians) observed the Sabbath.

Yates (East Indian church history) - Armenians of India. Jewish wickedness was keeping the
seventh day Sabbath.

Refer to the handout on the Sabbath.


Constantinople
"The people of Constantinople, and almost everywhere, assemble together on the
Sabbath, as well as on the first day of the week, which custom is never observed
at Rome or at Alexandria." Socrates, "Ecclesiastical History," Book 7, chap.19.

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The World - Augustine, Bishop Of Hippo (North Africa)
Augustine shows here that the Sabbath was observed in his day "in the greater
part of the Christian world," and his testimony in this respect is all the more
valuable because he himself was an earnest and consistent Sunday-keeper. See
"Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers," 1st Series, Vol.1, pp. 353, 354.

Pope Innocent (402-417)


Pope Sylvester (314-335) was the first to order the churches to fast on Saturday,
and Pope Innocent (402-417) made it a binding law in the churches that obeyed
him, (In order to bring the Sabbath into disfavour.) "Innocentius did ordain the
Saturday or Sabbath to be always fasted." Dr. Peter Heylyn, "History of the
Sabbath, Part 2, p. 44.

Waldensians
"Among the documents. we have by the same peoples, an explanation of the Ten
Commandments dated by Boyer 1120. Observance of the Sabbath by ceasing
from worldly labours, is enjoined." Blair, History of the Waldensians, Vol.1, p. 220

"Robinson gives an account of some of the Waldensians of the Alps, who were
called Sabbati, Sabbatati, Insabbatati, but more frequently Inzabbatati. "One says
they were so named from the Hebrew word Sabbath, because they kept the
Saturday for the Lord's day.'" General History of the Baptist Denomination, Vol.II,
P. 413

"It cannot be shown that Sunday has taken the place of the Sabbath (P.366). the
Lord God has sanctified the last day of the week. Antichrist, on the other hand,
has appointed the first day of the week." Ki Auszug aus Tennhardt's "Schriften,"
P.49 (printed 1712)

America – But before Zinzendorf and the Moravians at Bethlehem thus began the
observance of the Sabbath and prospered, there was a small body of German
Sabbath-keepers in Pennsylvania. See Rupp's "History of Religious
Denominations in the United States," pp.109- 123

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Reviews of the Reformers Concerning the Seventh-day Sabbath
Resource Leonard Verduin (Reformers and their stepchildren. About Anabaptists)

The Roman church had darkened the minds of the people with image worship, false teaching,
festival, etc. to the point that it would be more for them [the reformers] to bare to go back to
Sabbath keeping during time. The primary leaders of the reformation did not adopt Sabbath
keeping even though they proclaimed the bible and the bible only. God led them step by step as they
could bare the light. They did so much to bring them out of darkness and we see how it could be too
much. But many of them had a clear understanding that keeping Sunday was not authorized by
scripture. The reformers knew it was not based on the bible.

Swiss confession "church may alter the day at pleasure" Cox's laws and Sabbath duties.

Zwingli said it was lawful on the Lord's day (Sunday) to pursue labors after the worship service.
Sunday had no sacredness according to the reformers. Note: if they treated Sunday as Sabbath, it
would be works and not of faith.

Basa - no cessation of work on the Lord's day is required of Christian. He did not observe Sunday as
an ordinance.

Booker – an apostasy of Christ to think working on Sunday is sinful.

These men rejected the idea that Sunday was sacred.

Kramer – the magistrates (civil rulers) said it was convenient to worship on that day.

John Calvin – he does not assign Sunday establishment to Christ or the disciples. He describes the
change to the ancients. He doesn't say the day that John call's the Lord's day, it is the day that 'we'
or they called the Lord's day. False prophets in past ages have infected the people with a Jewish
notion affirming that nothing but the ceremonial part of the commandment the 4th day has been
changed. Note: He is saying that if anyone says Sunday should be kept like the Sabbath was is just
changing the day, but they are clinging to the teachings of false prophets. He did not think it should
be kept in a sabbatical manner. Troas he says Paul gathered the people together on Saturday not
Sunday. He believed in the day for meeting was Saturday not Sunday.

John Knox – To have one God and reverence His name, etc. are the works of the first table. He is
saying certain principles apply to the first half of the commandments. And one is not observance of
the seventh-day Sabbath. He believed the seventh-day Sabbath was done away. The Presbyterian
church was inconsistent. They rejected mass and other things, but not Sunday observance.

Point: Rome claims authority to change the Sabbath to Sunday. And upon this change they establish
their authority. Protestants who follow do so inconsistently. They establish the mass and other
superstitions, but they obtain Sunday observance the mark of Rome's authority.

John Calvin believed that Sabbath could be any day and it was up to the church to change it. And
Luther said you must keep it uniformly. They didn't agree on that. Luther put it more in context of a
holy day than Zwingli, Calvin, and other Swiss reformers. Over time there was an estrangement
between the Swiss reformers and the Luthern reformers. (Cox's Sabbath Laws and Sabbath duties)

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England – 16th century Sabbath keepers were there. There were many 7th day Baptists.

Francis White – Book: Treatise on the Sabbath Day

The Anabaptists
Who was the Sabatarian that was a close colleague of Luther? Karlstot

Who was the leader of the Sabatarian's in Transylvania? Divitis

Where did the donovist live and what was their main argument with the Catholic church? North

Africa & Intermingling the sword of the church with the sword of the state. They did not want the
church to mingle with the state. They wanted the separation of church and state.

What was the main argument of the stepchildren of the reformation against the reformers?
Separate church and state. Get away from the sacral mentality.

Lecture:

Donotist = North Africa

They were considered the radicals of the reformation. Today's their views would be considered
normal, but back then they seemed to be extreme. But they were farther along than the reformers
in terms of their understanding of the NT concept of society. At that time Anabaptists did not refer
to a group of people, they were more scattered. They were excited about the reformation and they
endorsed sola scriptura. As time went on they realized that Luther, Calvin and the rest of the Swiss
reformers did not follow their own council. They were not willing to go all the way with the
scriptures. They only went as far as they felt they could.

Background:

All pagan societies were sacral. In the pagan view the success of the nation is dependent upon
pleasing the gods. But they are fical and vindictive, so unless all the members of society were
faithful to this the gods could retaliate upon the state. So a deviation from this sacral worship, was
considered treason, and they were worthy of punishment. The purpose was to keep society stable.
If there was a famine or something, this was a result of someone not being faithful to the sacral
community. They would look for blame if this happened.

Christianity is not sacral. To be a Christian you had to believe certain things, and it is usually against
what is considered normal to society. This puts the Christian at odds with the society. So because of
this all of society could not be Christian. Only those who accept these doctrines could actually be
Christians. When Constantine became Christian, the empire became Christian too. But it was sacral.
His Christianity was contrary to what Christ said Render unto Caesar, my kingdom is not of this
world. Etc. Jesus separated the gospel from society. When Peter took the sword, he was trying to
defend the gospel. The gospel is not to be protected by a sword of steel.

Constantine united state and church. It was not long until religious laws became oppressive. He
replaced sacral paganism, with sacral Christianity (which is not true Christianity)

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The donovists did not agree. They thought there should be a separation that was based off of the
bible between church and state. The believed that state should keep peace in the market place in
society but not with religion. Ecumenism is seen in a sacral society. It is tolerable as long as there is
no exclusiveness. In a society you can believe what you want as long as we have a basic view that is
similar. But if one steps outside of this and believe something exclusive aside from everyone else
then you have now offended the sacral society and you can be punished. The ecumenical view
brings all views together, which is what Constantine did by intermingling the church and state and
forcing it through legislation, which is not right. The donovists saw themselves as a small group in
society who were true to its claim; same with the Anabaptists, and those who are true SDA's will be
the same. All pagan societies are pre-Christian societies, including, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece,
Rome, and native Americans today. Aborigines too, they are sacral because they unite with the civil
government.

The donotists suffered for their views and were annihilated by papal conquests. But they believed
that only the true believers could make up the true church, and this was the church that was driven
in the wilderness, it was a result of a sacral view of society. When the Church of Rome used the arm
of the state to enforce their religion, this drove them in the wilderness. All who could not support
the sacral view of Constantine and their activity caused them to go underground. Communists are
sacral in their view. The faithful went underground, and someday in this country and other free
lands, they remnant will have to go underground because of a sacral view of society. Note:
Adventism in principle is against a sacral society, but there are those in our church that have sacral
views. The New Theology is supportive of all views so long as there are no exclusive views. If one
says you are wrong and you will not be saved if you continue to believe this, then you step across
the line, and the net result is that people are put out of communication with others.

As the dark ages went on their views did not go out. They were carried through by the Waldensians
and other reformers. There were many groups that spread these views. This was composite work.
They were establishing the view of the gospel aside from the roman church.

The Anabaptists upheld that everyone should be able to believe according to their conscience, and
no state should force that all citizens should accept their established views. The inquisition was
made to punish even the thought to go against this view. They were not cohesive in all that they
believed, except in the view of church and state. The munster situation was one exception that led
to an uprising that discredited the Anabaptists movement. In munster some Anabaptists tried to
take matters into their own hand and get the civil authorities to accept their view on separation
between church and state. They wanted the local government to accept a composite society. When
they would not, there was an uprising that was squashed by the civil government. They were trying
to force the state to uphold this view. This did not happen until USA came in.

Anabaptists & Reformers


The reformers rejected the idea of the Anabaptists of having a composite society. They felt like it
would undermine society, they were sacral in their view. They accused them of being Neo-
Donovists, although others believed this too. But this gave support to the papacy of accusing the
reformers of their movement bringing chaos.

The reformers taught that the church was made up of believes, but they upheld a sacral society
where all people were a part of the established church. The reformers were trying to reform the
church and not the society. They saw the church and the clergy as the problem, not the whole

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concept of a sacral society. They didn’t see that the clergy was the way they were because of a sacral
society; they were coming out of centuries of a sacral view of society, thus God used them to bring
God's church out of darkness, but His people were not ready to go all the way into a composite
society. This is the upside and downside of the reformation. Luther could not have done this even if
he believed it, because they needed support of the secular government to support the reformation
at this state. They needed the protection of the secular state behind them. God knew He had to bring
it step by step. So the Anabaptists that were way ahead who laid the foundation had to suffer. They
laid the foundation to go the next step. Mennites, Omish, etc. come from Anabaptists roots. God
needed more time. The protestant loyalty to the scriptures who lead the people to wanting a
composite society, it eventually led them to decide between the two societies.

The Anabaptists were as salt to develop or influence society. A composite society allows this
persuasion to take place by the Christian (or us today as SDA). They came to the conclusion that
Christendom was myth in their more developed ideas. You can't force people to believe, it is a
matter of the heart. This was their underline principle. You can't be born and baptized and be a
true Christian. They had to be re-baptized and if not they said they could not be true Christians.

They were champions of the idea that the gospel was not an outward form, but an inward
experience. SDA's must be rooted historically in the Anabaptists. We are the champions of the
Donovists and Anabaptists idea of having a separation of church and state. Until the end of time we
will fight this issue.

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The Church, What Is It? Catholic View and Protestant View
Quiz:

Why were the Anabaptists called Donovists by the reformers? Because they believe in the
separation of church and state like the Donovists did.
What is the meaning of Anabaptist? Re-baptizes.
List as many of the causes of the French Revolution as you can

Roman Catholic View


Visible Church = Organized hierarchy of the church. Because of a sacral view they came to this view.
They viewed it exclusively as the structure of the religious system. You could not be a part of the
church or saved unless you were connected with the church. Membership = Dependent upon your
relationship to the hierarchy.

Invisible Church = What is seen in heaven. Unseen realities, you cannot be a part of it unless you are
a part of their church on earth. "bond on earth, loose in heaven" Catholics applied this to their
leadership. They said the pope and hierarchy, have the keys to the earth, they determine who is
saved and who is lost. Their concept of the church replaces the ministry of Christ to a human
ministry. This is a result of a sacral society. Roman Catholicism retorts the relationship between
God and man.

Protestant View
Visible Church = A body of believers with Christ as the Soul (they were using the immortality of the
soul as an illustration. Soul can't be seen, Body can, this is erroneous, but what they believed). Also
a company of Christ like people in whom the Holy Spirit has called, enlightened, and sanctified
through the preaching of the Word, which changes the mind, and sanctifies the heart through the
power of the Holy Spirit. The members must have a relationship with Christ, and the collective body
must have a relationship too. And this church will be seen wherever faith is worked out. This is the
visible church.

Invisible Church = Secret hidden fellowship with Christ. You are drawing light from the unseen. But
this life has an outward manifestation of fruit. It includes witnessing. The Catholic Church was only
an outward relationship. You can't be a true member of the church and not have a relationship as
well. Even though they said this, they still said we must all be sacral. So as a result all the people did
not have this. This was the problem with the reformers, and the Anabaptists tried to show them
this.

They knew there was an invisible physical church; in heaven we will be direct communion with the
visible church. But you could only be a part if you had an invisible connection with Christ. Two
aspects of the invisible church: Invisible relationship and Invisible unseen realities. The invisible
was a part of both the visible and invisible church in the universe.

Wycliffe
"Morning Star" but not the Sun, he was the beginning of light that sprang forth on the people. View:
The church is the communion of the elect. Calvin developed the idea of the elect and he came to the
view of predestination. Some chosen to be lost or saved. It is Christ body or His bride. To be part of
the invisible you must be in communion with Him. If you will be a member of the elect (the visible),

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you also had to be in communion with Christ. You must be called by God to be a part of the church.
God only knows who is called. Includes all who are the elect of God. It is narrower because it
excludes hypocrites, half-hearted, even if you are clergy. It is broader because it accepted more than
just Catholics.

Anglican Church View


Church = Visible church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men in which the pure Word of God is
preached, and the sacraments delivered. Note: John Wesley didn't believe this. He did not see it as a
body in which the pure word of God was preached and the sacraments given. How come there can't
be faithful souls wherever they are, they have a relationship with God even if in error. Anglican
went beyond Wesley's view and other reformers. You can be faithful to God even if you never
entered a church or had communion. Adventism: We have the Wesley concept. It is in harmony with
the bible. John 9 blind man, Christ accepted the outcasts. This man was cast out of the church. Christ
found him and it says the man worshipped Jesus, even though he was cast out of the church. He
even had false concepts of God. As long as they followed Him, they were a part. We also believe
there are many who are not of this fold, they are sincere in wherever they are.

Church: No matter what the number is small or great, they are a part of the church. It is not the
building where people gather. It is the assembly of the people that gather together. Wherever God's
people are together. Those who have been called out of the world who have one body, one faith, one
baptism, etc. Those who fellowship with Christ.

Seventh-day Adventist
Visible Church = ST "God's presence is not confined to the splendid edifice…cotton tent..repulsive in
the sight of God." Wherever God is, there is where His church is…"God has a church…various
denominations…keep his commandments." She is not saying that it is a denomination in this
statement. Note: There are other statements where she talks about the visible SDA church being the
church of God. The structure or visible SDA church on earth. She speaks of the church in many ways.
She doesn't limit it to one definition. In this statement she refers to both the visible and invisible.

"Where Christ is even among the humble view...this is Christ's church." The presence of God
constitutes the church. Where Christ is this is where His church is. (one definition)

MR "two or three are gathered together…professing Christian who is not one in practice is not in this
promise….voice of Christ…fullness."

This is speaking of the voice of the church

AA 11 The church is God's fortress. His city of refuge, which He holds in a revolted world. Any
betrayal of the church is treachery to Him who has bought mankind with the blood of His only-
begotten Son. From the beginning, faithful souls have constituted the church on earth.

She is speaking of the visible church that which people can see. She then describes how the faithful
church has always been. The unfaithful are not part of the visible church

*PO Rev 12:1 – this also shows that this woman represents all those who have ever been faithful to
God. It also shows that these people were brought into a covenant relationship with God. Then it
shows how the church has been passed from generation to generation.

She has a concept of both the visible church and the invisible. The faithful visible members are

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united with the invisible members in heaven.

Contrasts: Catholic = You are united with the church in heaven through the hierarchy. Adventist =
you are united with the church in heaven when you are united in a covenant relationship with
Christ.

AA 12 During ages of spiritual darkness the church of God has been as a city set on a hill. From age to
age, through successive generations, the pure doctrines of heaven have been unfolding within its
borders. Enfeebled and defective as it may appear, the church is the one object upon which God
bestows in a special sense His supreme regard. It is the theater of His grace, in which He delights to
reveal His power to transform hearts.

Whatever borders this may be. Ex. Waldensians or others, God unfolded it in the process. Be
careful with this statement. It does not say that the church structure is the supreme object of
God's regard, she said previously that faithful souls constitute the church. These faithful
souls are the object of God's supreme regard. This doesn't mean that the structure is not a
part of it, but there is a bigger picture behind this all.

Note: There are times when EGW makes comments concerning the Adventist church being God's
church. She refers to it as being God's remnant church.

When does the GC has authority as the voice of God, and when does it not? GC as the voice of God.
1901 – The GC is the voice of God, when the GC's decisions are in harmony with the Word of God. If
it is out of step with the Word of God, they are no longer the voice of God.

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France & the French Revolution
Sermon: (For objection to strong anti-papal movements) 1.) "Dilemma in France" Start in Rev 12
church fled into the Wilderness, then go to Rev 11 explaining why we should be careful in how we
approach teaching against Rome. Support: GC French Reformation 2.) "Daniel 11 King of the South"

Netherlands & Scandinavia


This was the home of Meno Simons. He was the founder of the Mennonites. These were Anabaptists.
He recognized that among the AB there were many sound ideas and views. He supported the views,
but not the fanaticism. He was concerned about the uprising in munster. He knew it would bring
reproach on the cause of the AB. He kept confirming the people and teaching them in the
Netherlands. They stood for the separation of church and state, but they were ahead of their time.
The time had not yet come; He had to bring others out of darkness.

When God brought these views into place within nations, they were based in the new world, not in
the old world. The old world was deeply established in their way of thinking. And it was hard for
them to adopt new ideas and change what they have thought for thousands of years. It would have
been very difficult for God to establish the separation of church and state principle in Europe. That
is why in Rev 13 we have a lamb-like beast, a new young lamb, and they established these
principles and became the pattern for others such as Australia. And eventually the old world was
influenced by it. God raised the new world up to help bring the old world out of darkness.

In Scandinavia Tausen from Denmark who was a devoted monk, brought the reform faith there. He
could choose any university in Europe except for Wittenberg. So he went to
Colonse. He went there for a while and went to Wittenberg later. It is human nature to tell someone
not to do something and they do it. We are curious. God allows opposition to come to the work so it
will be more powerful. This is one of God's methods of making His work effective, and this
separates the sheep from the goat. Those who are faithful will follow the work.

There were two people named Olave Petry and Laurentias Petey. They went and studied at
Witternberg under Luther, and they came back to Sweden in Scandinavia, and with the support of
the king they went and began preaching. They were in Orebro. King Goosetoff was wise. He did not
rise up opposition to Rome through politics. He was open to the reformation. He protected the
truth, so it could be presented. He eventually realized that the Roman bishops had taken away all
their wealth and monarchal rights. They had subjected their throne to Rome. So the kings helped
Goosetoff recover some wealth and authority as civil rulers from the bishops. Then the bishops
were not happy. When the reform doctrines were preached all over Sweden, the prelates were
quite concerned, so they worked on Goosetoff to keep him from allowing it to happen. They
complained, but he saw the problem was with the Monks, they were selling sins, and this caused
their money to go to Rome. Most of their money went to Rome. He was determined to do what he
could to stop it.

In order to deal with this problem, it was necessary to translate the bible into the language of the
people. So the king supported Oreoff in translating the NT. Which Bible did he translate? Luther's
Bible. It was translated into the Swedish language. Luther's Bible came from the uncorrupt text.
When this NT was published, the king was pleased and he ordered Oloff and his brother Laurence
to publish the OT too. While they were translating it the prelates went to the king and argued that
the translation that was done was not scholarly and they needed another translation, and that they

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should stop that translation and let the bishops translate. They were referring to the corrupt texts.
So the king didn't trust them. How could those who suppressed the bible bring one out? He was
wise, he knew they would not finish it any time soon. Oloff and Laurence put out a bible that
allowed the people to have the truth, the Word of God. The Word of God reforms the church and
the nation! 100 years later. Rome made one final attempt to conquer northern Europe. It was
known as the 30 year war, and Rome had a lot of success with their armies going into Germany
conquering city after city. It looked like they would not be conquered, but the sons of the Swedes
were willing to stand up against them because of Oloff and Laurence. They were the only nation
willing to stand up. They came down under Goosetoff and they defeated the Emperor's armies. He
defeated them, which drove the papal troops back south, and they were confined within their own
borders. Europe is still free today because of Oloff and Laurence. Extra: One last attempt was made
to take over Britain too. They tried to use the Spanish Armada. The British navy was outcome and
out maneuvered, and they people began to pray that God would preserve them. God allowed the
midst to come in on the ships and they could maneuver easily around the other ships and blew
them to pieces. They sunk many ships, and they had to flee. Tremendous victory for the protestant
cause, and a tremendous defeat for Rome.

Spanish Armada
Because a lot of the Empire became Protestant they
lost a lot of revenue as a result they had to try and
control the people. But England, wanted to control
the world. At this time Spain was the power of the
world. And these were Catholic conquests. They
conquer the south of the west, and that is way we
have many Spanish places in South America. The
English settled the north. It was a global conquest
between Spain and England. Rome saw this, and
knew that if England remained Protestant then the
world would become Protestant. That meant that if
the sun never set on the English empire then the Sun would set on the Roman Empire. She knew
that she had to do something. This is the reasons why Rome sent Spain to attack England, to
recapture the Protestants and make it Catholic.

The Spanish Armada were massive ships which much fire


power. They were waiting in the English Channel, for some
more ships from the Dutch, during this time the English
prayed and prepared to fight. They only had about 30
ships, the knew the channel, and they knew that only if
there was some kind of bad weather would stop them. Fog
came down and the ships could not see. Then the English
came right up close to these ships and blasted them.

God needed America to be disconnected to Rome, and this


was to be down by beginning Protestant, and Republic.
This could only be if there was no strong ties to Rome, and the Spanish where connected very
deeply to the Roman Catholic Church.

So God took these steps;


 England > Colonies America

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 Language
 Geographic
 Political
 Religious

These things created the gulf, between America and Rome, however this gulf has now been bridged.
England was a very important power in protecting America.

The reasons they Rome sent the Spanish Armada


 Rejected her authority
 The Prostates had rejected the Vulgate (her bible)
o Rejected the Jesuits (1582 Bible English)
 Rejected her presence

France

French Reformation
France started out in the reform under a man named Lefevra. He linked up with the bishop of Moe.
And they did a great work in France. He was a professor at the university of Paris. He gave up on
Rome and became a reformer when he got the light. He taught the students, one named William
Ferrell. He was a relative of the Waldensians. He was concerned about defending Rome, but he
accepted the reform doctrines. He went to Geneva and met up with Calvin. He had to flee from Paris.

Louie D'Berquee. He was a bold man, he was ready to do and die for God. He was a friend of
Erasmus, but he was under assault from the bishops and it looked as if he would die. He was
warned to flee from Paris, but he didn’t want to.

Ellen called him a time-server " At all events, do not compromise me with the faculty of theology."
GC 216

He was more worried about his reputation than the honor of God, and this is why he was a time-
server. Many reformers were persecuted. Burquin was not like that, he was in prison many times.

GC 218 At the stake, Berquin endeavored to address a few words to the people; but the monks,
fearing the result, began to shout, and the soldiers to clash their arms, and their clamor drowned the
martyr's voice. Thus in 1529 the highest literary and ecclesiastical authority of cultured Paris "set the
populace of 1793 the base example of stifling on the scaffold the sacred words of the dying."--Ibid., b,
13, ch. 9.

Calvin
As Calvin was studying he came in contact with his cousin who was a Waldensian named Olivetan
(Calvin was related to the Waldensians) he translated a bible for the Waldensians.

Olivetan " "There are but two religions in the world," said Olivetan, the Protestant. "The one class of
religions are those which men have invented, in all of which man saves himself by ceremonies and
good works; the other is that one religion which is revealed in the Bible, and which teaches man to
look for salvation solely from the free grace of God." {GC 220.1}
"I will have none of your new doctrines," exclaimed Calvin; "think you that I have lived in error

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all my days?" --Wylie, b. 13, ch. 7. {GC 220.2}"

Many of us are at peace in our errors. We start with a reaction. God stirs us up to help us. And like
Paul he became a powerful reformer.

"While still engaged in these fruitless struggles, Calvin, chancing one day to visit one of the public
squares, witnessed there the burning of a heretic. He was filled with wonder at the expression of
peace which rested upon the martyr's countenance. Amid the tortures of that dreadful death, and
under the more terrible condemnation of the church, he manifested a faith and courage which the
young student painfully contrasted with his own despair and darkness, while living in strictest
obedience to the church."

Calvin was in darkness, this martyr didn't know it would bring Calvin, God can use a bad experience
to bring others to a knowledge of truth.

Calvin had to flee from persecution, he went to Geneva and met William Ferrell. And eventually this
became the center for his reformation.

Dilemma in France
The King of France was vacillating between the Catholics and the Protestants. The Hugenots, it was
over political reasons. He switched support. Rome was anxious to keep him with Rome. But because
of the power of the Hugenots with their economic success. (Artisans etc. the were the genenius of
France). Some zealous reformers made a mistake. They wanted to strike a blow against Rome in
France. They posted up writings against the Mass and other things. They objected certain key
Roman doctrines.

GC 224-225 The French Reformers, eager to see their country keeping pace with Germany and
Switzerland, determined to strike a bold blow against the superstitions of Rome, that should arouse
the whole nation. Accordingly placards attacking the mass were in one night posted all over France.
Instead of advancing the reform, this zealous but ill-judged movement brought ruin, not only upon its
propagators, but upon the friends of the reformed faith throughout France. It gave the Romanists
what they had long desired--a pretext for demanding the utter destruction of the heretics as agitators
dangerous to the stability of the throne and the peace of the nation. By some secret hand--whether of
indiscreet friend or wily foe was never known--one of the placards was attached to the door of the
king's private chamber. The monarch was filled with horror. In this paper, superstitions that had
received the veneration of ages were attacked with an unsparing hand. And the unexampled boldness
of obtruding these plain and startling utterances into the royal presence aroused the wrath of the
king. In his amazement he stood for a little time trembling and speechless. Then his rage found
utterance in the terrible words: "Let all be seized without distinction who are suspected of Lutheresy.
I will exterminate them all.--Ibid., b. 4, ch. 10. The die was cast. The king had determined to throw
himself fully on the side of Rome.”

This set a great lost for the reformation in France, we don’t know if it was friend or foe.

Many people lost their lives, so they found someone who wanted to sell the Protestants to
survive, and the result was that France rejected the reformation, not entirely, but partly
because of an ill-conceived idea. Note: Billboards attacking the Pope. Magazines strongly
anti-papal. All this does is set a stage for retribution later. It creates a reaction in the minds
of those who may have accepted the truth if presented in the right manner. We must be
careful in our missionary labors in how we approach the subject of Rome. We must watch
how we speak of it to those who don’t realize it.

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GC 230 When France rejected the gift of heaven, she sowed the seeds of anarchy and ruin; and the
inevitable outworking of cause and effect resulted in the Revolution and the Reign of Terror.

235 – Jesuits effectively spread through Europe. Wherever they went a revival of popery followed.

French Revolution
Key reason why it came about:

(1) Because of the suppression of the Scriptures


(2) The corruption of the Roman priests and their abuse of power.
(3) Incessant persecution of the Protestants to where they fled and left France to other countries
and taking their economic power with them.
(4) Economic decay.
a. Loss of middle class. When you just have rich and poor it is an element for revolution.
(5) Immorality of the nation
(6) Loss of civil rights
(7) Agricultural decay
(8) Intellectual dullness
(9) Corruption of justice.
a. No confidence between the people and the rulers.

Note: Every single one of these issues is being developed in America except for persecution, and
that will come.

This happened over centuries. All these things, and eventually the people rose up and said we want
our rights. Over 2,000 priests were killed alone.

EGW: All of this was the result of the influence and oppression of Rome. The result was the
overthrow of all Christian religion. The people didn't want anything to do with this, if this was
Christianity. (*PO This is Daniel 11 right here STUDY!!)

Atheism ruled supreme. They setup the goddess of reason, which was the worship of the mind,
exalting human thought against God. Voltaire developed this philosophy.

The reign of terror went on for 3 ½ years. The Bible was outlawed and any religion other than the
state religion was outlawed. After 3 ½ years the country was so devastated that they had to do
something to solve the problem.

Revelation 11 – Two witnesses would rise up again. This chapter talks about the French Revolution.
After 3 ½ years the bible was again tolerated. The Law of Toleration was installed in the French
government, and the circulation of the Bible was possible. Shortly thereafter in 1804 the British
Informed Bible Society circulated bibles all over the world in due time. The effect of the
French Revolution is still seen today.

In Paris they studied Marx, Lennon, and Stallan, and the result was atheistic communism. Which
in only a few years ago was still in power.

Communism may be gone in some places, but where it is Socialism in principle is still around. We

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have communism in China, Cuba, North Korea, and other places. But God will break through this. He
will develop circumstances so His Word can be proclaimed to the fullness at the end of time.

The French Revolution was a direct result of the inquisition. Human beings became so fed up with
the church that there was a revolt. There was another form of government that arose nearly at the
same time. 1776 – the American colonies rebelled against the English rule. It lead to a
Constitutional Republic that was a response to the inquisition.

Inquisition Constitution of the United States


The victim was assumed guilty The accused is innocent until proven guilty
beyond a reasonable doubt
It was up to the victim to prove his innocence The ownice is on the accuser to prove the guilty
of the accused
The accused was not permitted to know his The accused has to face his accuser
accuser
The crimes for which you are being tried is If you are accused, you are allowed to know
hidden from the accused what the accusations are against you so you
could disprove them
Can be tortured Cannot be tortured
The accused was permitted to lawyer, but You are allowed to have a lawyer/council and
circumstances were such that it was impossible the lawyer/council is immune from any
to find someone to represent you suspicion of wrong doing just because he
represents you
Judge is the tribunal – There on way to appeal The tribunal are peers
Appeals – same judge Several levels of Appeals courts
There was pecuniary profit in denouncing There is no pecuniary gain
someone
Forbidden of freedom of speech, press and Freedom of speech, press and assembly
assembly

The effect on society


Every book published had to be reviewed by the inquisition. Education was stifled. Families were
afraid of each other. Children could denounce their parents, and vice versa. Society developed a fear
that somehow somebody whom you worked with or knew would lead you to the destruction of
your physical property and maybe even your physical life as well – it was very suspicious and
distrustful.

The inquisition was everywhere, but it was not as bad as in Spain. It destroyed all originality of
thought.

It leads to the destruction of everything in society that was worthwhile. Men’s life depended on how
well they lied. It leads to the destruction of moral obligations.

Without these key point society was not going to advance or grow, there would be fear and poverty;

1. Freedom of speech – There is not development of culture, science, politics


a. This is the need for the foundation of the rest of freedoms, like property, press,
education, religion, economy etc. The lead to the decline of the empire and all the
good things. With out the freedom of speech society stagnates.

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2. Freedom of the Press
a. Books had to be approved by the Inquisition
b. You need to be able to write what you believe which is the written version of the
freedom of speech.
3. The right of public assembly
a. If you cant hold a meeting then what can you do? You don’t have a venue to promote
your ideas.
4. The right to worship according to ones conscience
5. Must not have an established church
a. If there is an established church there is no way you can have freedom in the true
sense.

If people live in fear they leave their motivation to


advance themselves, if its going to be taken away why
bother? Just live out your life and don’t bother anyone.

Story
Henry Charles – “The history of Inquisition in connection
with Spain” (1890)

Printing Press
Invented by Guttenberg – The Church was worried, and
so the Pope tried to suppress the printing press, a bishop told him not to
suppress it because they could use it, so it was not suppressed. Without the
press the Protestant Reformation could not have taken off, because they needed
the eastern manuscripts and a press.

God was working behind the scenes to bring all these things together to create
dynamite that almost blow the hat of the pope.

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The French Revolution & Its Contrast with the Reformation

Lecture:

What were the reasons for the French Revolution?

(1) Suppression of the Scriptures


a. Persecution of Protestants, resulting in the loss of the top quality of people. The artisans
(2) Abuse of power
a. They usurped the power of the kings, princes, and nobles. These were the magistrates.
They came under the power of the papacy.
(3) Corruption of the clergy
(4) Moral Decay
(5) Loss of civil rights
(6) Decline of the economy
(7) Decline in intellectual development
(8) Decline in agriculture
(9) Destruction of the family
a. Rome was foremost because a lot of people went to the monastery, and people became
celibate.
(10) Corruption of Justice

These conditions brought on the French Revolution. And these were the same precise conditions
that brought on the Reformation. Both of them came as a result of these conditions. The conditions
created an environment for them both.

What is the basic difference between these two? The bible

In France the bible was not only suppressed by expelled. And the result was bloodshed and the total
overthrow of the society, it became anarchy. God uses the bible to preserve people even under
situations that are not the most favorable. It is used to preserve people.

The Protestant revolution over threw the papacy, but not society. The French Revolution over
threw both. Why? Because of the bible. The bible separated the carnal issue from the spiritual
issues. The bible helps to elevate the morals. It removes corruption and corrects abuse. It elevates
morals, the intellect, agriculture, the family, and corruption of justice is corrected.

France replaced Catholicism with Atheism. Under atheism if you did not conform you didn't have
certain advantages. The sacral society had to be overthrown with the papacy. The bible will play a
central role in the last days. The people neglect to study the bible, so we have to bring them back to
the law of God.

England
In a sacral society the state and church are linked together. It was designed to make the state and
church more pure, but it did the opposite.

After a time the dissenters of the church of England, those who didn't agree with the established
doctrines and principles, they were persecuted and expelled from Britain. God rose up someone to
proclaim the truth during this time. During this time a lot of Anglican pastors were expelled. So a lot

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of puritans ended up in prison or in exile.

John Bunyan wrote Pilgrim's Progress. Books were written to help many people understand
salvation. Ellen White tells us to read the writing of these great men. (humm..check)

3 Men rose up: Whitfield, Wesley, and Wesley

Whitfield was a good preacher. These were pioneers of a second reformation. They dissented from
England because the England church digressed because of their connection with Rome. The
spirituality went to a low point, to the point of works.

GC 253

They were persecuted from city to city and they were beaten. Someone punched John Wesley in the
face. One man came to punch him and stroked his hair and say what soft hair you have.

Wesley's
They were sent by the Anglican Church to America for missionary work. In the ship there were a
group of German Moravan brothers. They were from Moravia (East of Czech) they had their roots in
the bohemian reformation under John Huss, they were effected by the teachings 100 years later.
They were calm while the water was coming in the ship. He asked them do they fear the lost of life?
They said no. And he said our women and children are not afraid to die.

Wesley in Britain was under the guidance of a minister and he experienced RBF, he realized the life
of works was worthless.

Whitfield and the Wesley's had some disagreements. These differences threatened alienation. But
because of humiliation they worked together.

GC 258 The differences between Whitefield and the Wesleys threatened at one time to create
alienation; but as they learned meekness in the school of Christ, mutual forbearance and charity
reconciled them. They had no time to dispute, while error and iniquity were teeming everywhere,
and sinners were going down to ruin.

She says the flock needs Present truth now. Our Pastors to often preach pleasant truth instead of
Present truth. They don’t understand it. They push Evangelical Protestantism, which contain the
errors of Satan. Sin and live, law no longer valid, life after death, this is coming in Adventism
steadily. Our pillars are being undermined. The pillars are the present truth. When one seeks to
undermine the pillars you are not dealing with a minor issue. Ex. 144,000 is not a huge issue. When
inspiration is clear on something there is not point to argue. When she says Christ life was
'unborrowed and underived' you can share this with people who say He is not divine.

Our minds must be steeped in the Word of God, and then in God's time, He will bring to our
attention what we need to share with the flock, those things that are the most important.

The Wesley's did a great work in Great Britain. They were accused of much, and derisively they
were called the Methodists. They chose the name that was used against them to mark them. The
Methodist connection, which were a circle of those who supported their work, eventually evolved
into the Methodist church.

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Their work was to bring Britain out of darkness and bring them back into the light of the Bible.

GC 260 Their doctrine is too strict; they make the way to heaven too narrow.' 'I may not bring down
the Scripture to your taste. You must come up to it, or perish forever.' This is the real ground of that
other popular cry concerning 'the uncharitableness of these men.' Uncharitable, are they? In what
respect? Do they not feed the hungry and clothe the naked? 'No; that is not the thing: they are not
wanting in this: but they are so uncharitable in judging! they think none can be saved but those of
their own way…The spiritual declension which had been manifest in England just before the time of
Wesley was in great degree the result of antinomian teaching.

Antinomianism is overthrowing the law in the life of the believer. This is the idea that the moral law
was abolished and the Christian is no longer obligation to keep it. He attacked predestination, once
saved always saved. Irresistible grace. The issue has always been over the law. Rome over threw it,
the reformers tried to bring it back. The reformers tried to do it, and the second pioneer's the
reformers tried to bring it back. Wesley also did a work of publication or tracts and he also did
education. He was an itinerate preacher, education, and publisher.

Pilgrim Fathers
Who were they? The puritan dissenters. They were expelled from Britain. They wanted the pure
word of God, they did not agree with the Anglican Church, they didn't think they should financially
support something they couldn't hold in their life or be forced to worship. They ended up in the
Netherlands. The Dutch republic, they were supportive of liberty.

The puritans found it difficult to live there because it was a different language, they had to make up
new trades, they could not fit in to the society. So when it came time for the new world and the
colonies were developed in America, the puritans saw an opportunity to come to USA and establish
their colonies. They built their churches. They had not yet learn to get from under a sacral society.

Conditions were coming in for a new style of government that God would establish. In the new
world, God could take things a step further.

All those who didn't agree with the Puritans were dissenters. Then Roger William's came along and
he came to Rhode Island, the colony in Massachusetts bay. He had to flee from persecution because
of the ecclesiastical and civil authority of the colony. He had to live in a hallow long and he lived off
of roots. He met some Indians and they were friends and he helped them mediate with the puritans.
Then he went to Rhode Island and set up a colony and they could believe what they wanted to. They
could go to church if they wanted to, and if not they didn't. The colony prospered. The Quakers in
Pennsylvania started their society with civil and religious principles. The colonists in Virginia
created their religious civil connection. God knew that this could not last in this big land. And if a
government would rise up, it would have to tolerate all of these religions.

Then we have the Baptists in VA. They came from the Anabaptist line of thinking. They had no
where to come, so they set up organizations and communities in the larger colonies. The main point
was that the conditions were right for God to change the government concept from sacral to a
composite society. The union of church and state had to come to an end. Otherwise the truth of God
and the final climatic events surrounding His last proclamation to a fallen world, had to have a
ground to flourish and grow. So the USA was the ideal place for Him to rise up His remnant church.

This colonization of the new world was God's way of developing conditions for His remnant church
to rise.

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The American Constitution & the Separation of Church and
State
Book: Citizen's Rule Book (it has the rights of the constitution.); Get some photo copies of this book
that he uses The documented history of the struggle for religious liberty in VA by Charles James.

Story: man being beaten for his life seen by Patrick Henry

King John: Encyclopedia. The 11th Edition on the Magna Charta. Photo Copy H-land library.

Quiz:

Who was the primary Methodist preacher? John Wesley


What group of people were on board the ship when Wesley was going to the USA? The Moravians
Who was the founder of religious liberty in the states? Roger Williams
What colony did he establish? The Rhode Island colony

3 Quarrels of King John


He was a 13th century king who was quarreling with the pope, France, his barons in the castle over
money. He wanted more money from them. He was an English king. He was fighting with the pope
over the bishop of Canterbury, he wanted to appoint him, but the pope wanted to too. France over
who was going to possess Normandy? Under the French crown or the English crown? These
quarrel's led him in to a great difficulty. He ended up establishing principles of a constitutional
monarchy to keep his throne. Once the arch bishop was in place, king John tried to use him to get
more money from the vassals. They came into league against him. The baron's leagued together for
their rights. During that time he sent troops to France over the crown, but he lost, he came back
greatly weakened.

He needed to recover the lost, so he asked for a third more of money, so they marched on London.
In 1215 a council was held at Runnimead. The baron's presented king john with a list of conditions
for them to give their loyalty back to them. These rights guaranteed their rights as Nobel's and
baron's and he agreed and signed it. This was formed into a document known as the Magna Charta.
It asserted the liberties of the Nobles. Not the people. They were considered possessions, it didn't
guarantee them liberty. It guaranteed certain rights for the nobility. There was a separation of
powers. They took away some of the power of the monarchy and put it in their hands. 300 years
passed until the reformation. During this time there was a gradual increase in independency of the
nobility of England. The Magna Charta gave a legal basis for constitutional government. It laid a
foundation for what was to come. It was appealed to as a model to develop other political
relationships as well as legal relationships.

God was developing circumstances, and resources that would come together later for the
reformation and the principles for the USA.

Once the MC was established, King John appealed to the pope to help establish his monarchy. So the
Pope passed a Bull to do away with the MC, but the baron's would not let it happen. Overtime
before the reformation began, a series of revisions and confirmations were given that lead to
constitutional monarchy. The liberties were increased for the barons, and the monarchy was
limited. It laid the foundation for freedom for everyone. The more freedom you have in a country

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the more they have gained for those in the higher positions.

1215 is when the MC started, overtime it gained significance, so when the reformation came 300
years later it developed. The reformation changed the liberty of the nobles to the people. The bible
brings liberty. So the principles filtered down to the common people. the MC and reformation
established the foundation for liberty in Britain and other countries.

Colonies of the New World


550 years after the MC these came. There were many colonies. MASS, NY, PENN (Quakers) William
Penn imprisoned for his beliefs. Penns Wood, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia which means brotherly
love, it was a Quaker colony. Then we have VA. It then included WEST VA, they separated because
in the civil war, WEST VA sided with the North, and VA sided with the South over slavery. Various
arguments arose between the colonies and there kings. Especially Mass and VA. They didn't like
being taxed by the king and not being able to say anything, they didn't have any say in the
parliament. This led to the Boston Tea Party. Late one night a group of Colonists dressed like
Indians boarded the ship and threw the boxes of tea over the ship in protests not having
representation. All the colonies were separate, there was no form of government established as of
yet.

Declaration of Independence
All of them were sacral societies, and they were intolerant of dissenting views from their colonies.
Whatever the colony, they were intolerant except for Rhode Island. The people worshipped as they
pleased. Study Roger Williams (get a book on his history).

The tension between the king and the colonies was so great until the colonies banded together to go
against the king and declare themselves independent.

So in 1776 we saw the declaration of independence. This resulted in war between the king of
England and the colonies, he sent his troops to the colonies to re-subjugate the colonies to the
throne, and the colonies raised up Militia in order to fight off the British.

This was to establish the liberties of the people. This was the purpose of the revolution. The war
effort was a challenge to the colonies and it was an extensive war for the colonies, but they won and
defeated the British and they won and the USA became an independent nation.

In the process the famous wealthy men like James Madison, Monroe, and Adams, they sacrificed
their wealth to establish the nation. They died poor men.

Virginia Colony
They played a pivotal role within the 13th colonies in deciding the religious liberties in this nation.
This was the home of James Madison (other side of Orange). It is also the home of Thomas Jefferson
(Monticello). History books are arguing saying what they believed and what they didn't Thomas
Jefferson was a humanist, he believed in some sort of god, but he was strongly connected to France,
he was an ambassador for a while. But he was a strong believer in individual liberty and freedom
and to believe what you want.

James Madison was the person who drafted the constitution of VA and the USA.

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The Parliament in VA was a sacral society and they were concerned about religious conformity.
Those who lived in Williamsburg were expected to be in church every Sunday, and if not you were
fined to prison and you could end up in stocks. The government was concerned and many people
who were members of the church of Scotland, which are the Presbyterians, they came to VA and
they wanted more tolerance. Note: the reason why the people who preached had to have a license
for themselves and the venue. The Anglican clergy were determined to maintain a hold on the
religion of VA. After the revolution they became the Episcopal Church. This happened after they
separated from England. It was Anglican the Church of England, but they are now the Episcopal
Church. They are independent of the Church of England in America now. When the civil government
broke away from England, they also had to break the church away from England.

Governor Gouch said we will give you licenses as long as you apply and accept the licenses. We will
tolerate it as long as you adhere to the authority of the state or colony. And he followed through and
the Presbyterians established themselves in VA. They wanted more people to come to strengthen
them, so they could do better financially, it strengthened the colony. So they were willing to tolerate
other views.

The Baptists
But when the Baptists came to Va they didn't believe in toleration but liberty. When they came
governor Gouch offered them the same thing, but they said our commission to preach is from God
and not from man. If we accept a license from man it also implies they could remove this license and
we will not be following what God has told us to do. So they said on religions and conscientious
grounds we cannot receive a license. So they established their homes, communities and practices
independent of the common wealth of VA or the state. The Anglican bishops were quite upset, and
so the Baptists faced persecution.

Patrick Henry saw a man being beaten mercilessly, he could see the bones in his back and the blood
coming out. One told him this was a Baptist minister who refused to receive a license to preach, so
they persecuted him to the fullest extent of the law, the Anglicans persecuted him, he was taken
away then beaten a couple of days later and he died in Culpepper.

James Madison was driving through Orange. And while he was there he heard one preaching, and
inside the prison one was preaching through the bars to the people. He was imprisoned for not
accepting a license. He was a Baptist preacher. This affected James Madison. He was a sacral in
thinking (but this influenced him), but he thought why should this man suffer in prison for his
beliefs and calling, when he left the Old World to find a new life of freedom here. Why should he
suffer in this New world. This stayed in his mind and when he worked on the constitution of VA he
remembered this. When the war of independence came along and the declaration of independence
was signed, the atmosphere changed in these colonies, they knew they would have to raise up a
militia to fight the British soldiers, the kings armies. They knew the new colony would have to
establish its own government its own constitution. So in the house of burgesses or parliament met.
All the representative of VA came together to make the Constitution of VA.

Two events were going on: Preparation for war, and establishing a new government. The Baptist
knew they couldn't get religious freedom at this stage, but they got their foot in the door. They went
to parliament and said they would give militia if their own chaplains could minister to them. The
parliament knew that this would cause trouble. The knew after the war the Baptists would press for
religious freedom, but they needed the militia, so they had to grant them. There were many

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Anglican chaplains to minister to them, so how come we can't? We will give Baptists to give their
blood to bring independence to this colony, but we must have our clergy. So they reluctantly
granted it. And after the war was over, the Baptist came and said we fought in the war and gave our
blood for independence, now we also want our freedom. So the new government granted it.

But something else was going on simultaneously with this. As they were working on the
constitution in VA. The Baptists sent 3 ministers one was John Leiland. They went to the house of
burgesses and they were lobbying for religious liberty among the representatives that were putting
it together. One day James Madison handed a copy of the draft to these men. And they read it and
went back to James and said there is a problem the article says that all men will be able to worship
as their conscience dictates as long as they don't disturb the peace. They said this is unacceptable.
Who determines who disturbs the peace? And what if I go preach and someone doesn't like the
preaching as says he disturbs the peace, then what? He saw this point because he remembered
what happened to the man. So he went back to the committee and had the part that said disturbs
the peace taken out. And it just said that all men in common wealth of VA could worship according
to their conscience. This is the first common wealth that provided actual religious liberty.

Federal Constitution
After the war they came together in PA for the constitutional convention to establish a federal
constitution. The federalists won out against the monarchists. Patrick Henry the one who said 'give
me liberty or death' was a monarchists. He and James were at odds with each other in burgesses.

Va was the swing state. Out of 13 9 had to approve the constitution. 8 had approved it, and 4 did
not. And VA had the last vote, which way would they go? And there was a great struggle in VA.
Anglican wanted to hang on to a sacral view, but the Baptists came back and argued very strongly
that it was the established church becomes the corrupt church, it oppressed other churches. So it
went back and forth, until the VA constitution settled the matter. Once this happened VA could
enter the PA constitution. But in order to do that they had to send delegates. The people elected and
sent them. Patrick didn't want James to go. They said his word was law then. He was in the area of
Richmond.

John Leland competed with James Madison for the seat in PA. At this time the Baptists didn't
support James because he was slow moving in religious liberty so they wanted one of their men in.
James went to John Leland to talk to him about what was at stake. He said if you push religious
liberty from the beginning in the constitution it would never get through. The other colonies would
not accept it. He made a smart move. He went out and did a public meeting explaining this to them.
He said we must wait until after the constitution was established and then come back with the
amendments.

2,000 people showed up in Orange to see what would happen. James would speak then John. He got
up and explained religious liberty and they said it was a boring sermon, he went for 2 hours. John
got up and said friend what James has said is correct vote for him. And the people did. He went to
PA and James pushed through the constitution and it became a reality. The people of VA
voted for it and the net result was that it became the federal constitution of America. Then he
went back with the first 10 Amendments already framed, he drafted them brought them to
the floor of congress argued for them all and they were passed. Including the first amendment
that gives all the right to worship as they please, and the government should not establish religion
or prohibit the free exercise of it.

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This is the story of religious freedom and how it became reality in the New World. Afterwards
Australia, New Zealand and other countries adopted almost the same wording out of our Bill of
Rights (the US Constitution) to establish their own constitutions. They did to prevent that Rome
would ever again gain the ascendancy. Not that they are all free, but they are more tolerant.

We have a lot to thank the Baptists for, but they also have lost the principle too. For when they were
in the ascendancy, they become the persecutors of those who don't agree with them.

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The Baptists in VA & Believers Baptism
Quiz:

Why did the Baptist preachers in VA refuse licenses? They believed their license to preach was from
God. No human could give it, it was too restrictive.

Who drafted the VA constitution and the federal constitution of the USA? James Madison.

How did he get the US constitution come to accept religious liberty? He later wrote up the 10
amendments and presented them to the congress.

Why is liberty of conscience threatened in the USA? Because they are trying to do away with the US
constitution. (GC 35 read for final) Rome never changes she is trying to redevelop a sacral society

PA visit liberty bell; Continental congress, the hall where they met.

Why would the Baptist suffer so much at the hand of the new world colonies? Why did the
Anabaptist suffer so much in Europe? The Baptist believed in personal decision, and they call it
believer's baptism. Infant baptism was a part of a sacral society.

Believer's baptism created for the Baptist that only professed believers could be a part of the
church and that no one could be forced. As a result of believer's baptism you had to have non-
believers living next to believers. But its very nature it created a problem for the Baptists, everyone
else was saying no, you must be a part of the sacral society of which infant baptism was a sign. They
had to be baptized to be part of a sacral society. It was a way of identifying a person as a legitimate
member of society. But the Anabaptists and Baptist said no, it is a free choice. So society is a mix of
both believers and non-believers. This is what caused hostility towards them.

If you believed in a priesthood of all believers you were part of a composite society. They could not
be linked with both. If you believe Be Bap you cannot believe a sacral society is valid. But when they
had power the Baptists persecuted others. They are the offspring of Catholicism. So like their
mother they will persecute.

The carnal nature naturally when united with religious concepts gravitates toward a sacral view of
society. The papacy is a development of carnal nature. Orthodoxy is the same. It is the full
development of carnal nature. So in Rev the daughters of Babylon are daughters because they
believe the same way she does. They persecute like her because they have the same concept. But
now their belief has now degenerated not to a specific doctrine, but to a doctrine that we all accept.
We have a set of doctrines that are the same, this is sacral. Note: Carnal nature distorts all
institutions of God.

(*PO the papacy is an example of the carnal nature and what it will naturally do with power. So if
we are carnal we will persecute our brethren when given the power to. Revelation 13)

Ecumenism is at root developing a sacral society by uniting the churches on beliefs they hold in
common. And the rest is considered not important to salvation.

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The Remnant Church & 1798
They are the successors the church in the wilderness. Light must continue to develop. It always
travels. Truth is light, so truth will also travel, and those who go with it and develop with it mature
in their experience, and if not they retrograde. Light and truth is the principle of God's work on the
heart, and a true heart will follow the light. As God has revealed more light, each successive
generation has been tested by that light, and in testing God separate those who will sincerely follow
Him and those who will be left behind. The concept of the remnant is simply those that remain.
After what? After the sifting out. God brings an advance in light, and the remnant are sifted, and
those who advance continue as the remnant.

Many people realized in 1798, that the time of the end had come. And because of this there would
be natural movements among those He will call out dealing with the time of the end.

And man by the name of Emmanuel De La Cunza. He was a Jesuit in a monastery in Chile in South
America. He became a convert to the teachings of the reformers he studied the bible diligently and
he became convicted of the 2300 day prophecy, and the second coming he was persecuted and
driven out of Chile, and he went to Europe and proclaimed the message and was persecuted there
too. But he wrote a book the coming of Christ is majesty and glory.

Edward Irving
Scotch Presbyterian that was interested in prophecy. He was a leading preacher in London and he
had great influence. He had overflow crowds. He especially preached on Daniel 8:14. La Cunza
heard of him and he sent him his book. He was astonished. God was raising up people to preach
about the coming of the Lord.

Ezra Ben Ezra AKA Joseph Wolfe


He was a converted Jew who changed his name. He studied the prophecies and traveled and
preached. He preached everywhere especially in the Middle East. Afghanistan, Palestine, Egypt,
Mesopotamia, Georgia, Greece, Tabet, Europe, Holland, Scotland, Ireland, New York, Crimea,
Bulcara. He also preached about the second coming of Christ.

William Miller
He set some dates October 1843 and Oct 1844. But it made a huge impact on America. And it made
the greatest impact in this country. They listened to William Miller. He was from an infidel
background. And deist at one point. God created the world and then left it on its own. But he
became a powerful preacher. After the great disappointment the majority of his followers left. Then
those who were left studied the Word of God, and He raised them up from this group the SDA's. He
shook them with the great disappointment and only left a remnant and He built upon that remnant.
And before the shaking is over he will have another remnant. He will have to sort out those who are
sincere and who are honest and will serve Him with a whole heart. Let us be a part of this remnant
is my prayer!! Study Adventist Heritage & Mission to continue.

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The 95 Theses
by Martin Luther

1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, "Repent" (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of
believers to be one of repentance.

2. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and
satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.

3. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it
produces various outward mortification of the flesh.

4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till
our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.

5. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own
authority or that of the canons.

6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by
God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant
remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.

7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him
submissive to the vicar, the priest.

8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves,
nothing should be imposed on the dying.

9. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always
makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.

10. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical
penalties for purgatory.

11. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown
while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).

12. In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of
true contrition.

13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are
concerned, and have a right to be released from them.

14. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and
the smaller the love, the greater the fear.

15. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty

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of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.

16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation.

17. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.

18. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory
are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.

19. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured
of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it.

20. Therefore the pope, when he uses the words "plenary remission of all penalties," does not
actually mean "all penalties," but only those imposed by himself.

21. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty
and saved by papal indulgences.

22. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon
law, they should have paid in this life.

23. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be
granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.

24. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding
promise of release from penalty.

25. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any
bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and parish.

26. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of
the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.

27. They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money
chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.

28. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but
when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone.

29. Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St.
Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.

30. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary
remission.

31. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is
exceedingly rare.

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32. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence
letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.

33. Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that
inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.

34. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction
established by man.

35. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out
of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine.

36. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without
indulgence letters.

37. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the
church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.

38. Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I
have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.

39. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend
to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition.

40. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of
indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them -- at least it furnishes
occasion for hating them.

41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are
preferable to other good works of love.

42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should
in any way be compared with works of mercy.

43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better
deed than he who buys indulgences.

44. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however,
become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties.

45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money
for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath.

46. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve
enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.

47. Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not
commanded.

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48 Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their
devout prayer more than their money.

49. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in
them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he
would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh,
and bones of his sheep.

51. Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even
though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of
indulgences cajole money.

52. It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or
even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.

53. They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of
God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others.

54. Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time
is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.

55. It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are
celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very
greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred
ceremonies.

56. The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not
sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.

57. That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do
not distribute them freely but only gather them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always
work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man.

59. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke
according to the usage of the word in his own time.

60. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ,
are that treasure.

61. For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases
reserved by himself.

62. The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God.

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63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. 20:16).

64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last
to be first.

65. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth.

66. The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men.

67. The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood
to be such only insofar as they promote gain.

68. They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of
God and the piety of the cross.

69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all
reverence.

70. But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own
dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.

71. Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed.

72. But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed.

73. Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the
sale of indulgences.

74. Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to
contrive harm to holy love and truth.

75. To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the
impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.

76. We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far
as guilt is concerned.

77. To say that even St. Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy
against St. Peter and the pope.

78. We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces
at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written, 1 Co 12[:28].

79. To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence
preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will
have to answer for this.

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81. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the
reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity.

82. Such as: "Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of
the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money
with which to build a church? The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.

83. Again, "Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not
return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for
the redeemed?"

84. Again, "What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a consideration of money they
permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of
God and do not rather, because of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's
sake?"

85. Again, "Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and
through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in
force?"

86. Again, "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest
Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor
believers?"

87. Again, "What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a
right to full remission and blessings?"

88. Again, "What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these
remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?"

89. "Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he
suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy?"

90. To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by
giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to make
Christians unhappy.

91. If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all
these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is
no peace! (Jer 6:14)

93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Cross, cross," and there is no
cross!

94. Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties,
death and hell.

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95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through
the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).

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