Dynamic simulation of gas-turbine generating unit

W.W. Hung, PhD, CEng, MIEE

Indexing terms." Simulation. Gas-turbines

Abstract: Gas-turbine generators are often connected to weak supply systems or even used in isolated operation. System disturbances arising from fault or load fluctuation could cause these generators to become unstable. There is an increasing demand for an accurate model of such a system, to enable the system reponse to be investigated and improvement to the associated control system to be made. A mathematical model describing the dynamic behaviour of a gas-turbine generator set, sufficiently accurate for the above application and yet efficient in computer usage is presented. A fullscale site test on a 13 MW gas-turbine generator has been conducted and the recorded results are generally in good agreement with the computed results.

Introduction

Synchronous machine stability studies have been a subject of interest for many years. Much of the work presented has been based on steam- or hydro-turbine generating sets. Emphasis in this paper is placed on dynamic stability studies of a gas-turbine generating unit.

Aero-type gas-turbine engines have been widely adopted as prime candidates for electrical power generation. The fully automatic start-up capability and the fast run-up characteristic of such engines have made them particularly suitable for peak-load lopping and standby power supply purposes. Many engines of this type have been installed in large thermal and nuclear power stations for black-start applications. In terms of size, weight and adaptability to a wide range of fuels (from natural gas to crude or residual oil), the gas turbine is far superior to other forms of generation. The gas turbine has lent itself directly to the oil and gas industries, not only as an ideal candidate for electrical power generation, but also for gas compression and injection and crude oil pumping.

Unlike steam-turbine or hydro-electric generators, gasturbine generators are commonly connected to small networks, or even used in isolated operation such as in oil fields in desert areas and offshore installations. Such systems are liable to become unstable after a severe system disturbance. The relatively small rotating inertia of this type of gas turbine further aggravates this problem.

The increasing use of large induction motor drives with ratings up to about 10 MW and the general requirement for direct-on-line starting of these motors make it

Paper 8033C (PI, PIO), received 9th January 1991

The author is with the System Technical Branch, National Grid Company plc, National Grid House, Sumner Street, London, United Kingdom

342

essential that the possible interaction between the gasturbine generators and the large induction motors be clearly defined to avoid any future operational problems.

On offshore installations, thyristor switching employing a burst-firing technique is often used for trace heating applications. The switching power could be in the MW range and this has been known to cause interaction problems with gas-turbine generators. Short-bursts of power demand of above 2 MW, at regular intervals during the draw-works operation on a drilling platform, could present instability problems to gas-turbine generator systems.

An effective control is required to maintain system stability following a system disturbance. Failure to do so will cause an inevitable plant shut-down, from which a loss of production and considerable damage to the plant may result. There is an increasing demand for a more accurate gas-turbine/generator model than those previously published [2, 3], to enable the system response to be investigated and improvements to the associated control system made. The computer model presented was developed, and the full-scale site tests were undertaken, by a major gas turbine manufacturer. It is therefore unlikely that models developed elsewhere without direct access to detailed and confidential information would give the same degree of accuracy.

The main objective is to present a detailed gas-turbine generator model, comprising a generator, a gas turbine and a brushless excitation and an electronic/hydraulic governor control systems, which is suitable for these investigations.

More recently, interest has centred on the use of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) generators connected to the power supply system. This application, in view of the possible interaction with steam sets, also requires accurate modelling of such a system. Although the model presented is based on a twin-shaft gas-turbine system, the same modelling technique can be applied for either opencycle gas-turbine or CCGT applications.

2 Gas turbine model

The model developed is for a twin-shaft gas turbine with an arrangement as shown in Fig. 1. The station numbering shown are adopted for the sub-fix of the gas-turbine

output shaft

compressor

combustion chamber c~essor power

turbine turblne

Fig. 1

Gas-turbine engine layout and station numbering

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No. 4,JULY 1991

variables, e.g. P 2 for compressor discharge pressure, T4 for exhaust gas temperature, etc.

The high-pressure compressor turbine powered by the exhaust gas from the combustion chamber drives the compressor. The combination acts as a gas generator for the low-pressure free power turbine. The power turbine drives a generator through a gearbox. The gas generator is derived from a Rolls Royce A von single-shaft turbo-jet aero-engine. This type of gas generator gives the overall unit a rapid transient power response because of its relatively low rotating inertia. A disadvantage is that a shedding of electrical load could lead to excessive over-speeding of the power turbine. The control system must be designed to minimise this adverse effect

2. 1 Basic gas generator dynamic equations

A gas turbine can be represented by a linear model which is devised assuming that the engine can be represented as a collection of multi-variable functions, which can be linearised by writing them in a total differential form. This approach has been extensively used in gas-turbine control studies [2-5].

The development of linearised equations describing the dynamic response of a gas turbine is based on the hypothesis that transient thermodynamic and flow processes may be considered as quasi-static. These processes continuously progress from one equilibrium state to another along an equilibrium curve. This assumption permits functional relationships to be written between the different input and output variables. In a gas-turbine engine, the fuel flow QF is a true independent variable with respect to the engine. The engine speed N a is an independent variable with respect to the thermodynamic cycle but a dependent variable in the inertia/speed relationship. The dependent variables chosen are the compressor discharge pressure P 2, the exhaust gas pressure P 4' the exhaust gas temperature T. and the exhaust gas power EGP.

For equilibrium running, with specified engine geometry and inlet conditions, each engine performance parameter can be defined as a function of the fuel flow Qp. Under transient conditions this is no longer true, but the quasi-static principle enables each of these parameters to be related to the fuel flow QF as well as the engine speed N a. With this additional independent variable, the departure of the engine parameters from their steady-state line and hence their transient response characteristics can be defined.

The basic linearised gas-turbine model equations relating to the gas-turbine variables derived in Reference 1 can be summarised as follows:

&Qp = Qp - Qp.

&N _ I &

G - /-lNa (1 + sTa)l) + sTcJ Qp

AX _ (1 + sax Ta)

- I'x (1 + sTaXI + sTcJ AQp

Na= Nao + ANa

X =Xo +&X

where X is the gas-turbine variable P2, P4, T4 or EGP, &X, ANa and AQp are small deviations of X, Na and QF, respectively, I'x and I'NO are the gain or sensitivity of X and Na to Qp, ax is the lead/lag ratio for X, Ta is the equivalent engine time constant, Tc is the combustion chamber time constant, X 0, N GO and Qpo are the initial

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No.4, JULY 1991

steady-state values of X, Na and QF and s is the differential operator.

Since the variation of the engine variables P 2, P 4, 14 and EGP, i.e., X in the above equations, are based on deviations from their corresponding initial steady-state values, i.e., P20, P40, T40 or EGPo, the simulation is restricted to small disturbances. To improve the accuracy of the model for larger disturbances, the equations for the dependent variables are modified to the following general form:

(6)

where X sa and QpNa are engine variables and fuel flow corresponding the engine speed Na, respectively.

2.2 Power turbine representations

The output shaft power PT, developed by the expansion of the gas generator exhaust gas through the power turbine can be expressed as

(7)

The term 'IT' defined as the insentropic efficiency of the power turbine, can be expressed as a function of NTIC. NTis the power turbine speed and C the gas velocity resulting from the expansion of gas through the power turbine, and calculated from

(8)

where Cp is the specific heat of the exhaust gas at constant pressure and T4s is the temperature drop across the turbine resulting from an isentropic expansion of the gas from P4 to Ps or

T4S = T4[1 - (PsIP4)(Y-')/Y] where l' is the ratio of specific heats.

(9)

(1)

2.3 Curve fittings for engine variables

Since the time constants, leadj1ag ratios and gas turbine variables are engine-speed dependent, and 'IT is a function of N TIC, the computer program is written to store these characteristics and to enable the parameters to be updated throughout the simulation period. The effects of ambient temperature and pressure on the engine characteristics and the bleed valve operation on the engine performance are also taken into consideration.

A least-square cubic-spline curve-fitting technique is used to fit curves to the input data which are obtained from the given engine characteristics. The resulting engine characteristic curves used for the present model are shown in Reference 1. There are a total of seventeen fitted curves including:

* five for the engine steady-state operating characteristics, i.e., N G, P 2, p., T. and EGP as functions of QF

* five for the gains of the above variables to fuel flow, i.e., /-lNG' /-lP2' /-lP., /-IT., and /-lEap as functions of Qp

* two for the time constants, i,e., TG and Tc as functions of Na)

* four for the lead-lag ratios, i.e., ap], ap., aT., and aEap as functions of N G

* one for the power turbine isentropic efficiency, i.e., 'IT as a function of N TIC

The computer program was arranged such that, at the end of each integration step, the time constants, the lead/ lag ratios, the fuel flow, the gas turbine dependent variables and the gains corresponding to the computed engined speed N a are obtained from the fitted curves.

(2)

(3) (4) (5)

343

With the updated values of T4, PI .. and NT' the ratio N r/C is computed using eqns. 8 and 9 and the corresponding power turbine isentropic efficiency 'IT can be obtained from the given characteristic. The output shaft power from the turbine to the generator can be evaluated using eqn. 7.

3 Gas turbine control system model

The gas-turbine governor control system described was used to control a split-shaft, liquid-fuel gas-turbine/ generator unit. It can easily be converted to control a

CNer- temperature zone

engine steady state operating line

Fig. 2

compressor discharge pressure Acceleration and deceleration fuel schedules

range of industrial gas turbines for various applications. It is suitable for liquid, gas or dual-fuel burning engines.

3. 1 Basic control requirements

Acceleration and deceleration fuel schedules, as shown in Fig. 2, are basic control requirements for maintaining the gas-turbine engine to operate within its safe margin during steady state or transient conditions.

An ideal acceleration control allows the engine to accelerate at a reasonably fast rate without the engine being driven into the surge region or overheating the engine components. Following load rejection, a rapid reduction of fuel flow is required to limit the maximum speed rise. There is a minimum level to which the fuel flow can be reduced without causing a flame-out problem. A deceleration fuel schedule similar to that shown in Fig. 2 is required to minimise the turbine speed rise on load rejection, but not the flaming-out of the engine.

3.2 Electronic/hydraulic governor

Fig. 3 shows the gas-turbine governor control system. The electronic governor monitors the power turbine speed NT' the gas generator speed N G and the exhaust gas temperature T4•

These signals, after comparing with their corresponding datum settings, are fed to a lowest win logic gate where the least power demand signal is chosen as the final control function Vc.

The control signal derived from NTis normally used to maintain the generator speed. Should N G or T4 exceed their limits, the corresponding signal, i.e., VNG or VT4, decreases to override the power turbine speed control. It reduces the fuel flow until the engine is brought back to within a safe operating level.

To eliminate any possibility of motoring the generator following its synchronisation to the system, a block-load switch is arranged to close on detection of circuit breaker closure. This switching arrangement gives a step increase of power demand in the covemor leading to an export of

C.OP derrand reference setting

Fig. 3 Gas-turbine control system

344 lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. /J8, No.4, JULY 1991

power on connection to the system. The tripping of the generator circuit breaker, owing to the opening of the block-load switch, causes a step-down change of output demand resulting in a fast cut back of fuel on load rejection. The effect of this switching arrangement on the gasturbine response is evident in the test result given.

The final control function voltage Vc, as shown in Fig. 3, is directed to the increased jump and rate limit circuit, where Vc is modified, if required, to ensure the rate of increase of power demand to the gas turbine is within a limit. This circuit has no effect on the demand for reduction of power to secure the safety of the gas turbine operation. The output voltage Vi of this circuit is then compared with the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) feedback voltage VI'2' with the error signal being amplified and fed to the air fuel controller (AFC) which acts as an interface between the electronic governor and the fuel valve package. The acceleration and deceleration fuel schedule limits discussed are imposed on the governor demand voltage in the AFC, if required, before entering the throttle control amplifier as a throttle demand voltage VTD•

This voltage is then compared with the throttle angle feedback voltage Ve at the throttle amplifier. The output controls the fuel valve actuator and hence the engine fuel flow by adjusting the fuel throttle valve opening IJ.

3.3 Mathematical representation of governor control

system

A detailed model of the electronicfhydraulic governor system shown in Fig. 3 was developed by deriving transfer functions from the corresponding electronic circuits and the measured hydraulic response characteristics. Details of the control circuits and hydraulic systems and their mathematical derivations are given in Reference 1 with the corresponding transfer function block diagram

gas turbine feedback circuits

for the complete gas turbine and governor control system shown in Fig. 4. The values adopted for each of the parameters including gain constants C, bias setting voltages B, time constants T and limits are given in the Appendix.

4 Generator and excitation system

4.1 Generator

The stationary two-axis representation is adopted for the generator model. The model equations are arranged in state-space form with five first order differential equations for the generator currents, i.e., one for the field, two for the armature and two for the damper windings, and two for the rotor dynamics.

4.2 Excitation system

Various types of excitation system are used with gasturbine generators, but a brushless scheme employing silicon diodes is, by far, the most widely adopted method. The elimination of commutators, slip rings and any associated brushgear leads to an excitation system which is reliable, compact, requires minimum attendance and, most important of all, is free from electrical sparking. These characteristics are especially favourable in gasturbine applications, since such units are commonly operated on sites which are remote, unattended and contaminated with inflammable gas.

The excitation system model employed is of the brushless type consisting of a pilot exciter, a main exciter, rotating diodes and an automatic voltage regulator (AVR).

The A VR responds to any deviation of generator voltage from a zener-stabilised reference setting. The resulting error signal is amplified to control the firing

Fig. 4 Signolflow diagram of gas-turbine/governor control system

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No.4, JULY 1991

345

il

pulses of a half-controlled thyristor bridge at the power output stage, which in tum controls the excitation to the main exciter.

A mathematical representation of the A VR was derived using the component model approach [1]. To adopt a universal approach to the representation of excitation system, the model was modified and coupled with an exciter model to conform with the IEEE Type 2 format [6, 7]. Details of the model derivations are given in Reference 1 with the excitation data adopted for the present studies given in the Appendix. Such a computer representation of excitation systems has been widely adopted and has formed a consistent frame of reference whereby manufacturers can respond to a user's request for excitation system data.

5 Overall system model

The mathematical models developed for the generator, the gas turbine and the associated excitation and governor control systems are coupled to form a complete gasturbine generator model.

The differential equations describing the transient behaviour of the gas-turbine/generator unit are expressed in state variable form. The approach provides a systematic means of assembling the system equations in a form which can conveniently be solved by a digital computer using numerical integration methods. The predictorcorrector routine developed by Gear [8] was chosen for the present studies.

Details of the system equations and their derivations are shown in Reference 1. The data adopted are given in Reference 1 and the Appendix.

6 Comparison of test and computed results

A full-scale site test was conducted on a typical 13 MW gas-turbine generator unit operating in isolated mode onto a load tank. Various tests such as governor and A VR step-response tests and load acceptance and rejection tests were carried out and the test results [1] are in good correlation with the computed results. Some of these results are discussed and presented.

6.1 Excitation step-response tests

Step-response tests on the excitation system were conducted with the generator operating at the rated speed and on open circuit. The test results are unavailable because of technical difficulties on site. These are typical routine commissioning tests, so results obtained from a similar set using an identical type of A VR are considered to be adequate for the present excitation system/ generator model validation purpose. The corresponding generator and excitation system data, given in the Appendix, were adopted for these excitation stepresponse test simulations. Another data set given in the Appendix was used for the simulation of load acceptance and rejection tests and fault studies.

A 10% step increase in the AVR reference voltage was made. This resulted in the A VR output increasing to its field forcing level which was sustained for about 0.15 s before reducing to almost zero output at 0.35 s (Fig. 5). This short-burst of A VR output improved the response time and reduced the overshoot of the generator output voltage.

In spite of the responsive action of the A VR in suppressing its output, the generator voltage was slow in responding to the 10% step reduction of voltage demand

346

(Fig. 6). This could be improved if a fully-controlled thyristor bridge had been used to allow for an inverting AVRoutput.

>ml

too

'5

B- 40

~. . .....

4:i 0 • • ~

o 0.5 '0

......

. ~ 2.0

15

,OO~

~~. 75

11 E 50

~~

~ 25 -------------

00 0.5

':5 2.0

<5'v

h

if:" .. · : · " · :

0.!:--------;0f;.s--------;';,'0;--------",.,S------~2.0

•••••

time,s

Fig. 5 Generator response to 10% step-up derruuut in stator voltage ••• measured

-- computed

'Oo.50~

~>038

~ ~.

~E°.25 ------------

c g

~ 0'2

00 0.5 10 ,'5 2.0

11~

<5

§a

~ 09 _______:_~ • ._..!_~.!...t_: .A. • ......_.. • ._._ •..... :

o,\- -------r0~.5--------;';10;--------,',.,.5--------;2'O

time, S

Fig. 6 Generator response to 10% step-down demand in stator voltage ••• measured

-- computed

6.2 Load rejection tests

With the generator operating at the rated speed, the outage voltage was adjusted to generate the required level of power to the load tank. The load was rejected by opening the generator circuit-breaker after the gasturbine was thermally stabilised Load rejection tests at various load levels, i.e., 3, 5 and 7.5 MW, were conducted and the resulting transients [1] are generally in good agreement with the computer simulation results. The recorded results obtained from the 3 MW load rejection test was found to give the best insight into the various limiting and control functions of the governor and is

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No. 4, JULY 1991

therefore presented (Fig. 7). The complex and nonlinear governor control actions and the gas turbine dynamic response arising from such a disturbance are described.

4

>

>

U100

-e Q75

>2.00~_

S fl50l ~._... - -- -. - _. - .

i j~- . .-._..--.- -.- - .

! i ~~ .. ~-"....,r1,.......- ,.. __ _._..._ .

BE ~l'--

Ii &m ........... .._.... ..........._._ • ............__.._._..._ ............

8. 5000

UL'"

64000 t 2 3 1.

. . . .
. . . ~ . ~
,
6 8 9 time, S

Fig. 7 Gas-turbine response to 3 M W load rejection ••• measured

-- computed

The opening of the circuit breaker, owing to the operation of the block-load switch in the power turbine speed control circuit as described, caused a step reduction of the power turbine speed demand voltage VNr• This switching action (Fig. 7), resulted in an initial step reduction of Ve from 3.5 to 2.5 V. The subsequent decay of Ve after about 0.9 s is the result of the power turbine speed droop control characteristic.

The effect of the increased jump and rate limit circuit on the control voltage Ve is evident in the response characteristic of its output voltage Vd• The initial reduction of Ve was immediately followed by the reduction of v., indicating that no control restriction was imposed by the circuit. The subsequent recovery rate of Ve exceeded the rate limit setting of the circuit giving rise to a ramping characteristic of its output voltage v., during the period between about 2 and 5 s.

The operation of the deceleration fuel schedule, incorporated in the air fuel controller (AFq, is evident in the response characteristic of VrD shown in Fig. 7. Prior to the load rejection, the gas-turbine engine was operating under steady-state condition and the compressor discharge pressure demand voltage VeDP at the input of the AFC (Fig. 4) was in control, i.e., the AFC output voltage VrD followed the input voltage VeDP'

On load rejection, the rapid reduction of the demand voltage v., resulted in ¥CDP to reduce to a level which could cause flame extinction problem. The deceleration

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C. Vol. 138. No.4. JULY 1991

fuel schedule control limit voltage VDCL (Fig. 4) took over control. i.e., vTD = VDCL, and limited the initial drop of VrD to about 0.9 V. The subsequent slow decay of VrD was caused by the gradual reduction of VDCL which is a function of the decaying engine compressor discharge pressure p 2' The voltage VeDP regained control after about 0.3 s.

Despite the complex governor control actions, the computer simulation results are in good agreement with the measured gas turbine and governor responses. It is unlikely that a simplified model would provide the same degree of accuracy.

6.3 Load acceptance test

On the 2 MW load acceptance test, the response characteristics of the gas turbine, as shown in Fig. 8, was dominated by the ramp rate setting of the increased jump and rate limit circuit. The rate of increase of output power from the gas turbine was thus limited and no acceleration power was available until 3.5 s after the load was applied. As the power turbine speed recovered, the speed governor output voltage VNr, caused by the governor control action, was reduced and regained control at the least gate resulting in the rapid reduction of Ve. The demand voltage v., was reduced leading to the rapid reduction of fuel flow to the gas turbine. This limits the subsequent power turbine speed overshoot.

Since a water tank was used for loading the generator • the effective resistance of the load was dependent on the water temperature, purity and turbulence in the tank.

The load in the computer simulation was based on a constant resistance and this could be the major reason

6

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~f

~ 1 .s E 8CO)

~e-

H~

t~~.___--- ~ ...

.0<1.

216m .. -.---

[5800-' ~~,

0123456789

time,s

-----".'------~...::. ..

Fig. 8 Gas-turbine/governor response to 2 MW load rejection ••• measured

-- computed

347

for the small discrepancy between the measured and simulated transient power turbine speed.

6.4 Generator voltage responses on step-load

changes

The generator and excitation system responses during the load acceptance and rejection tests were not recorded because of technical difficulties. The corresponding generator and A VR responses were predicted and shown in Fig. 9. The computed generator transient voltage

90

time,s

90

f

g 4

]

~3

~

~ 20!;---+-----,t------l

time,s

Q b

Fig. 9 Predicted generator/AVR response of 15 MW gas-turbine generator

a 3 MW load rejection b 2 MW load acceptance

132V

-g 7.2 kV

P.7~

b~

P3"

1j, 0 0.5 1.0. 1.5 2.0 25

trne.s

Q

ee c- ~68.1V

a.~

a E 16.7 -23.6V

r~

:2>

jiJ~

~~ ~-,----:-

~ 0 0.5 1.0 15 2:0 2.5

~ tirre, 5

b

Fig.10 Measured generator/AVR response of22 MW gas-twbine generator

III 8 MW load rejection

b B MW load acceptance

348

responses, appeared to be incorrect because of the abnormal phenomenon, i.e., the initial exponential decay of voltage on load rejection and exponential rise of voltage on load application. This phenomenon is possible on the acceptance or rejection of unity or leading power factor load [9]. A similar phenomenon was observed in test results obtained from a 22 MW gas-turbine generator (Fig. 10).

6.5 Three-phase short -circuit fault

The chance of conducting a three-phase short-circuit test on a gas-turbine generator is remote. It is therefore essential to develop an accurate model to study its dynamic behaviour under severe system fault conditions.

The gas-turbine generator was assumed to be connected to an infinite system through a step-up transformer and a transmission line, with a total impedance of (0.06 + j 0.48) pu on 100 MW. A symmetrical three-phase short-circuit fault was assumed to be applied to the highvoltage terminals of the generator transformer, with the generator at rated load and power factor, for a period of 0.37 s.

The computed maximum rotor angle swing as shown in Fig. 11 is about 160°. The generator is stable and the oscillation is well-damped, The predicted transient responses of the A VR output voltage, generator terminal and field circuit voltages and currents and gas turbine output torque are also shown.

It is important to note from Fig. 12 that the intervention of the speed governor control action by the increased jump and rate limit circuit results in a fast reduction but slow in recovery of gas turbine power. The net effect (Fig. 11) is the significant reduction of gas turbine output torque immediately after the fault disturbance. The recovery time is governed by the increased jump and rate limit setting.

If the generator is connected to a small system, the phenomenon could cause the system frequency to fall leading to the complete collapse of the system on under frequency. An optimised increased rate limit setting to improve the gas turbine power recovery rate without compromising the safety operation of the engine is therefore recommended. It is also important to implement an effective load shedding scheme to limit the falling of the system frequency to an acceptable level by disconnecting the required amount of non-essentialloads.

The fault clearance time of 0.37 s is critical. It is shown in Fig. 13 that an extended fault duration of 0.39 s results in a loss of generator stability. Unlike steam-turbine generators, the governor control action of a gas turbine can have a significant effect, as shown in Fig. 14, on the transient stability of the gas-turbine generator.

7 Conclusion

A detailed computer model simulating the dynamic response characteristic of a gas-turbine generator unit is presented. This theoretical work has been substantiated by extensive test results. The high level of agreement evident between test and computed results gives confidence in both the formulation of the theory and the adaptation of the modelling technique. It encourages the application of this computer model to investigate the dynamic behaviour of gas-turbine generators under various types of system disturbances.

As the computer model described was developed and

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C. Vol. 138. No.4. JULY 1991

the gas-turbine generator tests were undertaken by a major gas turbine manufacturer, it is unlikely that models

16~

~:. 12

~ ~ 8

a a 4

o 1

foul1 fault time,s

applied cleored

time,s

Fig. 11 Computed ge1ll!l"ator/excitation system transients following

symmetrical three-phase short-circuit fault

developed elsewhere without access to detailed and confidential information would give the same degree of correlation.

Improvement on the control can be implemented at the design stage, if required, to secure the reliable operation of the system.

Although the model has been developed on the basis of a twin-shaft gas-turbine system, the same modelling

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No.4, JULY 1991

technique can be applied to other types of gas-turbine engines such as those for CCGT applications.

>

time,s

Fig. 12 Computed gas-turbine/governor system response following symmetrical three-pIuJse short-circuit fault

200 .s ~ 100

~~

0"0

'11".

~i5>-1oo time.s

1!,§

-200

Fig.13 Sensitivity offault duration to generator transient stability +-+ 0.35 s fault period

0.37 s fault period

0-0 0.39 s fault period

200~

U 100

!sf An.. ~v:o ° oyg

1f-1~ V~.s 2 3

-200

Fig. 14 Effect of governor control action on rotor angle swing O~O governor inoperative

8 Acknowledg",ents

The author is greatly indebted to the General Electric Company and GEC Gas Turbines Ltd, for the GEC Fellowship awards which enabled the author's research work to be concluded at Loughborough University of Technology.

349

9 References

1 HUNG, W.W.: 'Digital simulation of a gas-turbine generating unit'.

PhD Thesis, Loughborough University of Technology; 1983

2 STRONACH, A.F., and SMITH, J.R.: 'The simulation of small systems incorporating gas-turbine and diesel prime movers', Symp. Performance, Economics and Operation of Generation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1986

3 MORTIMER, S.: 'The application of an advanced computer stability program for the calculation of the dynamics of industrial power systems'. 1st Industrial Conf. Industrial Power Engineering, 1986

4 MUELLER, G.S.: 'Linear model of a two shaft turbo jet aod its properties', hoc. lEE., 1971, Ill, pp. 813-815

5 TIWARI, R.N., PURKAYASTHA, M.E., and TIWARI, S.N.: 'Synthesis of stable and optimal controllers for a z-shatt gas turbine', hoc.IEE, 1977, 124, pp. 1243-1248

6 IEEE Committee Report: 'Computer representation of excitation systems',IEEE Trans., 1968, PAS-87, pp. 146(}...1464

7 IEEE Committee Report: 'Excitation system models for power system stability studies', IEEE Trans; 1981, PAS-1OO, pp. 494-509

8 GEAR, C.W.: 'Numerical initial value problem in ordinary differential equations' (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs)

9 CONCORDIA, c.: 'Synchronous machines' (John Wiley, New York, 1951)

10 Appendix

All simulation studies presented are based on the first set of gas turbine/generator data with the exception that the excitation step-response simulations were conducted using the second set of generator and excitation system data.

All parameters given in this Appendix are expressed in per unit unless otherwise specified.

10. 1 Gas turbine/generator data

Table 1 : Generator data

Ratings

16 MVA. 0.8 pf. 6.6 kV 50 Hz. 1500 r.p.m.

Synchronous reactances x d x.

Transient reactance Xd Sub-transient reactance x; x; Short circuit time constams Transient r:

see- transient r:;

T'~

Armature time constant T. Armature leakage reactance x. Armature resistance,.

Field circuit resistance, r Inertia constant H

2.0 1.6 0.263 0.173 0.20

1.105s O.035s 0.035 s 0.20s 0.20 0.003 0.006 2.60s

Subscripts: d - direct axis: q - Quadrature axis

Table 2 shows the well-defined IEEE Type 2 excitation system parameters [6].

Table 2: Excitation system data

K.

K.

KE

KF

T.

T.

TE

TF! TF2 VRMAX VRM1N VFMAX VFM1N SEMAX SEItAIN

1.0 1375.0 1.0 0.0124 O.04s 0.0025 s O.96s 1.716 s 0.154s 16.44 0.0

5.83

0.0

1.82 1.71

350

The derived constants for the gas turbine/governor
model shown in Fig. 4 are given in Table 3.
Table 3: G_ turbine/governor data
Gain Bias settings. Time constants, limits
constants V
CNTT 0.000774 BNTT 0.0 TNT1 0.47
CHUG 20.83 BNTS . TNT2 1.052
c., 0.0059 e.; -3.4
ercif 0.709 Brs TTCR 2.5
eNGr 0.000625 SNOT 0.0 TNOT 0.014
CNGSG 4.0 BNGS TNG 1.55
Cn 0.0027 B'2 0.406
CJ• 10' TCJR 100.0 VJRMAX 0.042
CD 0.36
CADL 3.04 V'dl. 0.67 TADL 1.6
C" 1.975 B" -0.75
CD' 0.3
C,. 2540.0 T., 0.10 DIJ"AX 7.5
CT.II2 69.95 T'2 0.0314
T'3 0.00042
C, 0.195 T,.. 0.D19
C'H 2.385 TH, 0.04
TH2 0.000625 • Calculated from given initial conditions

Table 4: Generator data

10.2 Excitation step-response test generating set data

Ratings

18.875 MVA. 0.8 pF. 11 kV 60 Hz. 1800 rpm

Synchronous reactances x d

Transient reactance Xd see- transient reactance x~ x· .

Short circuit time constants

Transient T'd Sub-transient T~

r.

Armature time constant T {I

Armature leakage reactance x. Armature resistance r.

Field circuit resistance, f Inertia constant H

1.78 1.78 0.272 0.194 0.194

1.12 s 0.045 s 0.045 s 0.192s 0.12 0.0023 0.00064 2.5s

Subscripts: d -direct axis: q - quadrature axis

Table 5 shows the well-defined IEEE Type 2 Excitation system parameters [6].

Table 5: Excitation system data

K.

K.

KE

KF

T.

T.

T,

T" TF2 VRMAX VRM1N VFMAX VFM1N SEMAX SEMIN

1.0

1660

1.0 0.018 0.02s 0.0017 s 1.02 s 1.632 s 0.232 s 20.0

0.0

6.23

0·0

2.21

2.21

lEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No.4, JULY 1991

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