Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future

Climate Risk
Climate Risk Pty Ltd provide specialist professional services to
business and government on risk, opportunity and adaptation to
climate change.
Towards a
High-Bandwidth,
Low-Carbon Future
Telecommunications-based Opportunities to
Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
www.climaterisk.net
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Climate Risk

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Climate Risk Pty Limited (Australia)
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Fairlight, NSW 094
Tel: + 6 8003 454
Brisbane: + 6 7 30 453
www.climaterisk.net
Climate Risk Europe Limited
Manchester: + 44 6 73 474
This report was prepared by:
Dr Karl Mallon BSc PhD
karl@climaterisk.com.au
Gareth Johnston GC. Sust CSAP
gareth@climaterisk.com.au
Donovan Burton B.Env.Plan (Hons)
donovan@climaterisk.com.au
Jeremy Cavanagh B.Eng
Design and layout by Bethan Burton BSc
bethan@climaterisk.com.au
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future:
Telecommunications-based Opportunities to
Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Version 1.0
ISBN: 978-0-9804343-0-9
Disclaimer
Climate Risk provides professional services in relation to climate
change risks and opportunities. Our technical and professional staff
endeavour to work to international best practice standards using
experienced scientists, sector specialists and associated experts.
This document is intended to stimulate ideas and generate
discussion amongst business government and society about the role
telecommunications can play in reducing carbon emissions. While
the information contained is drawn from reputable sources in the
public domain, Climate Risk cannot take responsibility for errors or
inaccuracies within original source material.
This report does not consider individual investment requirements
or the particular needs of individuals, corporations or others and as
such the report should not be relied upon as the basis for specific
commercial decisions.
Telstra and Climate Risk support a constructive dialogue about the
ideas and concepts contained herein.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Dr Karl Mallon
Dr Karl Mallon is director of Science and Systems at Climate Risk Pty Ltd. He is
a first class honours graduate in physics from the United Kingdom and holds a
doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Melbourne. He has
been the recipient of research scholarships from the British Council and European
Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN). Karl has worked in the field of climate change
and energy since 99 and is the editor and co-author of ‘Renewable Energy Policy
and Politics: A Handbook for Decision Making’ published by Earthscan (London). He has worked as
a technology and energy policy analyst for various international government and non-government
organisations. Karl was a member of the CSIRO’s Energy Futures Forum which reported in 006, as well
as a director of the Australian Wind Energy Association between 003 and 005.
Gareth Johnston
Gareth Johnston is director of Corporate and Government Risk at Climate Risk
Pty Ltd. Post graduate qualified in sustainability, with a background in land
management and infrastructure development, Gareth focuses on emergent
opportunities for Climate Risk clients. As founding CEO of a CSIRO energy
technology company and executive director of an Australian management
consulting company, Gareth has consulted to the largest Australian, European and
Japanese utilities. His development work has given him exposure to local, state
and federal governments across Europe and Australasia.
Donovan Burton
Donovan Burton is a Senior Associate with Climate Risk. Donovan heads Climate
Risk’s Planning and Local Government section where he works closely with
local government and industry to help develop climate change adaptation and
mitigation strategies. He has a degree in Environmental Planning and achieved a
first class honours for his thesis on local climate change mitigation. Donovan is
also a PhD candidate at Griffith University and has recently been announced as a
Wentworth Scholar. Donovan’s recent research is on local scale adaptation where
he is developing tools to quantify the impacts of climate change on human settlements.
Jeremy Cavanagh
Jeremy Cavanagh has a degree in electrical engineering from University
Technology Sydney and postgraduate qualifications in sustainability. With
over 0 years international telecommunications experience he has provided
technical operations management for terrestrial and satellite service operators
including AUSSAT and France Telecom. Jeremy is a recognised analyst of
media technology innovation and has been published in DTV(US), TVB Europe
and BEN (AUST). Jeremy provides technical planning and execution expertise
which is used by international broadcasters including CNN, CBS, ITN, ITV and Channel 7. His work in
telecommunications and broadcasting has been recognised internationally and he has shared in three
US Emmy awards for technical excellence.
Climate Risk Team
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Greg Bourne
Greg Bourne is chief executive of WWF Australia and a member of the National
Advisory Committee for Environment Business Australia. Greg was formerly
Regional President of BP Australasia, part of a career in the oil and gas industry
spanning over 5 years. Greg’s work in oil research and exploration included work
in the United Kingdom, the USA, Latin America, Canada, Ireland, Brazil, China,
Australia, Papua New Guinea and Middle East. During the middle of his career,
Greg was also seconded to the Prime Minister’s Policy Unit at 0 Downing Street
in 988 as Special Adviser on Energy and Transport. Greg took up his current position as CEO WWF-
Australia in October 004. Greg is also Chair of the Sustainable Energy Authority of Victoria and a
Member of the CSIRO Sector Advisory Council to the Natural Resource Management and Environment
Sector. He was awarded the Centenary Medal for services to the environment.
Dr Hugh Saddler
Dr Saddler has a degree in science from Adelaide University and a PhD from
Cambridge University. He is the author of a book on Australian energy policy,
‘Energy in Australia’ and over 50 scientific papers, monographs and articles
on energy technology and environmental policy, and is recognised as one of
Australia’s leading experts in this field. He is currently a member of the Experts
Group on Emissions Trading, appointed by the Australian Greenhouse Office, of
the ABS Environmental Statistics Advisory Group, and of the ACT Environment
Advisory Committee. In 998 he was appointed an Adjunct Professor at Murdoch University. He is a
Fellow of the Australian Institute of Energy and a member of the International Association for Energy
Economics. Between 99 and 995 he was a member of the Board of the ACT Electricity and Water
Authority. In 995 he was a member of the Expert Selection Panel for the 995 Special Round of the
Cooperative Research Centres Program (renewable energy technologies).
Peer Reviewers
Acknowledgements
Climate Risk acknowledges the support of the following: Telstra staff especially Cassandra
Scott and Virginia Harrison; Heritage Pacific staff Natalie Philp, Bianca Duncan and Stephen
Harrison; Catholic Education Parramatta: Loddon Mallee Health Alliance. We would also like
to acknowledge the expert advice from Peter Best and Corin Millais and the support from
Ruth Tedder and Nicole Hercus.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
The 007 Lowy Institute Poll found that tackling climate change is as important to Australians as
improving standards in education - and more so than improving the delivery of health care, ensuring
economic growth and fighting international terrorism.
This Report is a first attempt at a nationwide quantification of the carbon savings and financial
benefits resulting from using telecommunications networks to conserve energy and increase clean
energy use at home, in the workplace and in ways we connect people, enterprises and communities.
The analysis presented in this report finds that the telecommunications sector is uniquely placed
to provide important services that can yield nationally significant reductions in greenhouse gas
emissions. Indeed a key finding is that many of the telecommunication solutions for living and working
in a future carbon-constrained world can actually lead to cost savings for business and the consumer.
There is scant information in the public domain that quantifies the opportunities presented by
telecommunications to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report does.
This report is not the last word on telecommunications and carbon emissions, but one of the first.
We welcome a robust public dialogue around the ideas presented in the report – including critiques
by national and international specialists who may provide more detailed insights and more refined
ideas. Climate Risk, the authors of the report, and Telstra are committed to raising the level of public
discourse and to capture and share learning that can result. This dialogue will, we hope, lead to a
more comprehensive understanding of how we can work together to achieve the benefits of a high
bandwidth, low carbon society.
Time is of the essence as we find innovative solutions to reducing carbon emissions. We are delighted
to offer this study into the marketplace of ideas and we invite you to share your reactions, insights
and ideas with us and with each other through forums, the media and private discussions.
Philip M. Burgess, Ph.D
Group Managing Director
Public Policy & Communications
Foreword
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Climate Risk
Executive Summary vi -xiii
Part 1 1
Climate Change - The Challenge 1
The Global Consensus 1
What is the ‘greenhouse effect’? 1
The Complexity of Climate Change 2
What Does ‘Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change’ Actually Mean? 5
Understanding Emission Cuts 6
National Emissions and Per Capita Emissions 7
Adaptation and Mitigation 7
A Carbon Price 8
Emissions Trading 9
Part 2 10
The Emissions Signature of Broadband 10
Understanding Telecommunications Networks 10
The Balance of Network Impacts 16
Part 3 18
Identifying Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication networks 18
Step 1. Identifying Relevant Sectors 18
Step 2. Reviewing Current and Emergent Network Technology 19
Step 3. Major Carbon-Opportunities for telecommunication providers: Overlaying
emission sources with network technologies 20
Viability and Implementation 23
Part 4 24
Major Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication Networks 24
Carbon-Opportunity 1: Remote Appliance Power Management 24
Carbon-Opportunity 2: Presence-Based Power 27
Carbon-Opportunity 3: De-centralised Business District 29
Carbon-Opportunity 4: Personalised Public Transport 33
Carbon-Opportunity 5: Real-time Freight Management 36
Carbon-Opportunity 6: Increased Renewable Energy 38
Carbon-Opportunity 7: ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 45
Part 5 48
Quantifying the Opportunities 48
Remote Appliance Power Management 48
Presence-Based Power 49
De-centralised Business District 50
Personalised Public Transport 51
Real-time Freight Management 52
Contents
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Increased Renewable Energy 53
‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 54
Total Impacts of Abatement Opportunities 55
Value of Avoided Carbon 56
Total Value of the Identified Opportunities 57
Attribution 57
Regulation 58
Timing 58
Part 6 60
Conclusions 60
Beyond Carbon Neutral 60
The Climate Challenge 60
Telecommunication’s Significance in Climate Change Mitigation 61
Part 7 64
References 64
Glossary 68
Appendix 1 73
Industry Example: Broadband and Urban Development - Genesis, Coomera
Appendix 2 78
Industry Example: Next generation networks, Carbon and Education - Catholic
Education Parramatta
Appendix 3 81
Industry Example: Telstra - Change Through Leadership
Appendix 4 84
Industry Example: The Health Sector, Climate Change and Telecommunication
Networks
Appendix 5: 89
Summary of Sectors and Applications Considered with Action
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Climate Risk
Executive Summary
This report provides an analysis
of the opportunities for Australian
society to achieve nationally
significant greenhouse gas
abatement using telecommunication
networks.
The report identifies that the scale
and scope of telecommunication
network services and users provide
a unique opportunity to harness
economies of scale to achieve
meaningful emission reductions.
Many of the carbon-opportunities
identified lead to energy and other
cost savings for commercial and
residential customers, and in some
cases will enable the on-selling
of newly created carbon credits
i

and electricity management
commodities.
The estimated abatement
opportunity calculated herein is
almost 5% (4.9) of Australia’s total
national emissions, making the use
of telecommunication networks one
of the most significant opportunities
to reduce the national carbon
footprint.
.
.
3.
4.
The estimated energy and travel
cost savings are approximately
$6.6 billion per year, and value of
the carbon credits created may
be between $70 million and $.
billion subject to the future price of
carbon.
Some of these carbon-
opportunities can be realised
immediately; others are
contingent on the roll-out of
a national fibre optic network
to residential and commercial
consumers.
In combination with other
measures being implemented by
Government, a deployment of
the carbon-opportunities in the
period 008 to 04 would have
the additional effect of stabilising
national emissions in the period
up to 04 in keeping with the
findings of the IPCC and the Stern
Review, as shown in Figure i.
5.
6.
7.
The opportunities
outlined in this
report result in total
greenhouse gas
reductions equivalent
to approximately
4.9% of Australia’s
total national
emissions.
i When pollution levels are capped, in some schemes, it may be possible to trade greenhouse gas pollution
rights referred to as ‘carbon credits’. Currently NSW has a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme, the
Federal Government has announced plans to introduce a national scheme in 0 and there are also voluntary
abatement markets.
Key Findings
CARBOn-
OPPORTuniTiES
Throughout this document
carbon-opportunities is
used as a short hand for
‘carbon dioxide emission
abatement opportunities’
which include an activity
that provides real and
measurable reductions
in, or avoidance of,
greenhouse gas
emissions. They do not
include the use of offset
mechanism to reduce
emissions.
The scale and
scope of the
telecommunication
sector’s operations
unlock the ability to
aggregate multiple
distributed initiatives
to achieve nationally
significant emissions
savings.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Figure i. If the seven
carbon-opportunities
identified in the report
were deployed, over
the period 008 - 04,
the effect would be a
stabilisation of national
emissions in the period
0 - 04. Graph is a
modification based on
AGO 007a.
Figure i: Combined effect of telecommunication networks Carbon-
Opportunities
Table i. Summary of
emissions abatement
from carbon-
opportunities
Table i: Summary of emissions abatement from Carbon-Opportunities
Total 27.3 4.88
Carbon-Opportunity (in order of size) MtCO
2
-e saving Percentage of
national emissions
increased Renewable Energy 10.1 1.81
Personalised Public Transport 3.9 0.70
De-centralised Business District 3.1 0.55
Presence-Based Power 3.0 0.53
Real-time Freight Management 2.9 0.52
‘On-Live’ High Definition Video
Conferencing
2.4 0.43
Remote Appliance Power Management 1.8 0.33
Year
1990 2020 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995
850
250
350
450
550
650
750
Emissions
MtCo
2
-e
Business as usual
Best estimate with effect of
anticipated government
measures to reduce emissions
1990 levels
Kyoto target
CR-Telecommunication
Networks Scenario
QuAnTiFyinG
EMiSSiOnS: MtCO
2
-e
Mega-tonnes carbon
dioxide equivalent
(MtCO

-e) is the
internationally recognised
measure used to compare
the emissions from the
various greenhouse gases.
This measure factors
in differences in global
warming potential and
converts them to a carbon-
dioxide equivalent. For
example, the global
warming potential for a
tonne of methane over 00
years is times that of a
tonne of carbon dioxide.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
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Beyond Carbon Neutral
This report goes significantly beyond
‘holding the line’ goals of corporate
carbon neutrality and carbon. Instead
it sets out a suite of opportunities
that would allow telecommunications
providers to play a leadership role in
decarbonising the Australian economy
and equipping the nation to prosper in
a carbon constrained future. All of the
strategies and opportunities are based
on avoiding the release of fossil carbon
into the atmosphere; they are not based
on off-setting emissions.
Seven options are proposed to build on
existing and next-generation networks.
The realisation of opportunities
outlined in this report would result in
telecommunications providers assisting
Australian businesses and households
achieving total greenhouse gas
reductions equivalent to approximately
4.9% of Australia’s total national
emissions. Some of the opportunities
identified in the consumer space can
be achieved using existing network
services and others are contingent on
the roll-out of fibre to the node (FTTN)
broadband infrastructure. Overall
the initiatives identified in this report
present the opportunity for one of the
single largest reductions in Australia’s
carbon footprint by an Australian
corporation.
Companies seeking to maximise
their carbon emission reduction
could leverage the existing and next-
generation networks already built by
Telstra.
The Climate Challenge
The latest statement from the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC 007) indicates the
next ten years are critical in meeting
the challenges posed by climate
change. For the first time, scientists
and governments are now agreed that
global emissions must be stabilised
by 05 if climate change is to be
effectively addressed. Similarly
the global economic Stern Review
concluded that “to stabilise at
450ppm
ii
CO

-e, without overshooting,
global emissions would need to peak
in the next 0 years“ (Stern 006, p.
93). Reducing greenhouse emissions
requires major commitments from
both the public and private sectors as
well as the government.
In 005 Australia’s net annual
emissions totalled 559 mega-tonnes
of CO

equivalent (MtCO

-e) from all
activities, which equates to .4% of
the global total. In the short term,
it appears that Australia will stay
close to its Kyoto Protocol target of
no more than an 8% increase above
990 emission levels (AGO 007b).
However, the underlying trend is that
Australian emissions will increase at
about .3% per year.
The use of fossil-fuels in stationary-
energy
iii
and transport applications
is the nation’s major source of
emissions. The trend is not declining
or stabilising, but continuing to grow
significantly. If deep cuts in emissions
are to be achieved, emissions from the
energy sector are Australia’s greatest
greenhouse challenge.
THE KyOTO PROTOCOL
AnD AuSTRALiA’S
TARGET
The Kyoto Protocol is
an agreement made
under the United Nations
Framework Convention
on Climate Change
(UNFCCC). The main
objective of the protocol
is the “stabilization
of greenhouse gas
concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level
that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the
climate system.” The first
commitment period of the
Kyoto Protocol requires
industrial nations to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions
by at least 5 per cent
below 990 levels by 0.
Australia received a 08%
target above 990 levels.
GREEnHOuSE GASES
(GHG)
Greenhouse gases
are those gaseous
constituents of the
atmosphere, both natural
and anthropogenic (man
made), that contribute
to increasing the global
mean temperature of the
earth. Greenhouse gases
including water vapour
(H

O), carbon dioxide
(CO

), nitrous oxide (N

O),
methane (CH
4
), and ozone
(O
3
) are the primary
greenhouse gases in the
Earth’s atmosphere. There
are a number of entirely
human-made greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere,
such as the halocarbons
and other chlorine- and
bromine-containing
substances.
ii Associated with a 50% chance of exceeding
o
C warming above pre-industrial levels.
iii Stationary energy includes emissions from electricity generation, the use of fuels in manufacturing,
construction and commercial sectors, and residential heating. It excludes transport fuels.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Telecommunication’s Significance
in Climate Change Mitigation
Telecommunication operators are a
major conduit for new technology and
infrastructure. Australia has the only
national wireless broadband network in
the world.
The scale and scope of the
telecommunication sector’s operations
unlock the ability to aggregate multiple
distributed initiatives to achieve
nationally significant emissions
savings. The anticipated greenhouse
emission constraints coincide with the
government’s plans for next-generation
networks, which provides synergies for
new emission reduction opportunities.
This report identifies seven carbon-
opportunities appropriate for Australian
businesses and households, which
have the potential for viable carbon
abatement using existing and next-
generation networks. These carbon-
opportunities have relevance for
energy consumption in buildings, road
transport, renewable energy production
and aviation.
Buildings
Today electricity consumption in homes
and the workplace accounts for one fifth
of total national emissions (ABS 007,
AGO 007b); in both locations there
are two significant sources of energy
wastage. Firstly, standby power, in
which numerous appliances that appear
to be ‘off’ are still consuming energy,
typically this accounts for over %
of electricity use in an average home.
Secondly, devices and appliances which
are on, but not being unused, may
also waste large amounts of electricity
(estimated herein as 5%), we refer to
this as ‘orphaned’ energy. We have
identified two relevant commercial
opportunities:
Carbon-Opportunity: Remote
Appliance Power Management
Broadband can provide both the
monitoring and control of electrical
networks down to the electric
switch box or even plug socket and
in addition facilitate analysis and
management elsewhere on the
network. Standby switching can be
centralised to allow electricity to be
halted to devices on standby, such as
a phone that has finished charging,
a TV that has not been used for an
hour, or a hot water system which is
on, even though no one is in the house.
While this is not appropriate for all
devices, it is applicable to many.
Annual Saving: The estimated
emissions saving of Remote
Appliance Power Management
iv
is .8
MtCO

-e, or 0.33% of total national
emissions. The financial value of the
avoided electricity spending is $70
million and the value of the carbon
credits would be in the range of $8
million to $9 million.
Carbon-Opportunity: Presence-
Based Power
It is very common for any energy
consuming devices to be left on even
though the user may not be present.
nATiOnAL EMiSSiOnS
AnD PER CAPiTA
EMiSSiOnS
Greenhouse gas
emissions vary
considerably, especially
between developed
countries and developing
countries, both at a
national level and per
person. Australia has the
highest emissions per
capita of any developed
country (OECD) with the
equivalent emissions
of 6 tonnes per person
carbon dioxide per year.
China is one of the worlds
biggest greenhouse
gas polluters, but this
is largely due the high
population. On a per
capita basis a Chinese
person is responsible for
about .5 tonnes per year.
iv Assumes broadband-based Remote Appliance Power Management solutions are used to reduce standby
emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings.
With Presence-Based
Power the supply
of energy follows
the person, not the
appliance.
The underlying trend
is that Australian
emissions are
forecast to increase
at about 1.3% per
year.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
However, the supply of energy can be
made dependent on the presence of
a person. For example, most office
meeting rooms remain air-conditioned
while no one is using them and
computers stay on when the person
is at lunch. Significant reductions in
energy consumption can be achieved
if devices are deactivated when people
walk away, and turned back on when the
person returns. This ‘Presence-Based
Power’ can use a person’s mobile phone
or company identification tag to register
their presence meaning the supply of
energy is linked to the presence of the
person, not just the appliance.
Annual Saving: The estimated
emissions saving of Presence-Based
Power
v
is 3.0 MtCO

-e, or 0.53% of total
national emissions. The financial value
of the avoided electricity spending is
$70 million and the value of the carbon
credits would be in the range $9 million
to $50 million.
Transport
Today road transport produces nearly 70
MtCO

–e of emissions per year, around
4% of total national emissions
vi
. Three
quarters of Australians drive to work;
of these only 4% share a car (ABS
005). Though significant attention
has focused on making traffic flows
more efficient, this often only increases
traffic volumes. Meaningful emissions
abatement requires the provision of
more compelling alternatives to car use.
Major emissions also result from the
movement of freight totalling about 5%
of national emissions. Overall, freight
vehicles are empty for 8% of the
kilometres travelled (ABS 005).
For all of these emissions we have
identified three commercially-viable
opportunities:
Carbon-Opportunity: De-
centralised Business District
Broadband-enabled homes, suburbs
and regional centres can either
remove or significantly reduce the
emissions generated by people
travelling to and from work. At one
end of the spectrum, people would be
working from home one day a week or
more; at the other end, people would
be working in suburban or regional
centres where minor commuting is
involved. In the latter case, people
would continue to enjoy employment
in a national or international company
with no career disadvantage. A hybrid
is the telework business centre, open to
staff from many different businesses
and placed in locations close to where
people live but able to offer all of the
amenities of a large office.
Annual Saving: The estimated
emissions saving of De-centralised
Business Districts
vii
, from reduced
travel emissions only, is 3. MtCO

-e
or 0.55% of total national emissions.
The financial value of the avoided fuel
spending is $. billion and the value of
the carbon credits would be in the range
$30 million to $50 million.
THE VALuE OF CARBOn
Greenhouse gas
emissions trading will be
operational in Australia
by 0. This will create
a cost for the right to emit
greenhouse gas pollution.
Reciprocally it will create
a value for greenhouse
gas abatement. The
value of greenhouse
gas abatement will
depend on the cuts in
emissions specified by
the government and will
be set by the market. In
this report we use a range
of possible carbon prices
from $0 to $50 per tonne
of carbon dioxide based on
analysis by the CSIRO and
ABARE.
vii Assumes that De-Centralised Workplaces are used by 0% of employees who have telework suitable jobs, and
their commuting emissions are reduced by at least 50%.
v Assumes network enabled Presence-Based Power solutions are used to reduce ‘orphaned’ energy emissions
by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings.
vi Much of this is caused by the sheer size of the nation. Other continentalised nations, such as the US and
Canada, also have comparatively high transport-linked emissions. This may also affect vehicle type and
choice.
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Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Carbon-Opportunity: Personalised
Public Transport
Wireless-broadband can facilitate public
transport on demand. Personalised
Public Transport allows the user to
order public transport provided by an
integrated network of multi-occupant
taxis, minibuses, buses and trains,
which starts at the front door. The
personal efficiency of Personalised
Public Transport can exceed that of
using the private car, with faster speeds
door-to-door, greater flexibility and
lower costs. Further, Personalised
Public Transport can greatly increase
the catchment of other public transport
options, such as bus and rail, resulting in
significant opportunities for greenhouse
gas abatement.
Annual Saving: The estimated
emissions saving through Personalised
Public Transport
viii
is 3.9 MtCO

-e
per annum, or 0.7% of total national
emissions. The financial value of the
avoided fuel spending is $.6 billion and
the value of the carbon credits would be
in the range $39 million to $00 million.
Carbon-Opportunity: Real-time
Freight Management
Wireless-broadband allows freight and
freight vehicles to be monitored in real
time. Consolidating this information
allows more freight to be assigned to
unladen, or underladen, vehicles. Real-
time Freight Management creates an
integrated clearing house for multiple
suppliers of freight services.
Annual Saving: The estimated
emissions saving of Real-time Freight
Management
ix
is .9 MtCO

-e per annum,
or 0.5% of total national emissions.
The financial value of the avoided fuel
spending is $. billion and the value of
the carbon credits would be in the range
$9 million to $50 million.
Renewable Energy
Today Australia’s energy supply is
dominated by fossil fuels. However
deep cuts in Australian emissions
will require a transition to low and
zero emission sources of power
supply. Despite being plentiful, low-
cost renewable energy sources like
wind power are hampered by the
variability of the supply; this has in
part prompted restriction of new wind
farm development in South Australia
and has been used in the advocacy
of higher-cost nuclear generation.
The report identifies a means by
which next- generation networks can
dismantle such barriers to renewable
energy uptake.
Carbon-Opportunity: increased
Renewable Energy
Australia’s extensive broadband
networks allow a link to be made
between renewable energy supplies
and active load management of
heating, cooling and other appliances in
buildings and homes across Australia.
This can be used to create ‘virtual’
energy storage to effectively neutralise
aspects of short-term variability, turning
such renewables into ‘stable and
predictable generation’. This in turn
would enable renewables to contribute
an increased component of the
electricity supply.
REnEWABLE EnERGy
COnSTRAinTS
Europe, US states and
developing countries
like India and China have
established very high
targets for renewable
energy. The Australian
government has recently
announced a target for
about 30,000 gigawatt
hours of electricity
per year to come from
renewables. Some of the
most successful renewable
energy sources, like wind
power, produce constantly
varying amounts of
energy. Properly
managing this variation
can limit the amount of
renewable energy which
can be installed in certain
locations or increase the
value of such energy.
ix Assumes that Real-time Freight Management effectively avoids 5% of unladen truck kilometres.
viii Assumes that wireless broadband-facilitated Personalised Public Transport is able to capture 0% of car-based
commuters and assumes that the relative emission intensity of public transport is 90% lower than personal car
travel in the urban environment.
The report identifies a
means by which next
generation networks
can dismantle barriers
to renewable energy
uptake.
xii
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Annual Saving: The emissions
abatement from using Increased
Renewable Energy
x
is at least 0.
MtCO

-e or .8% of total national
emissions, though this could be
considerably higher. The financial
value of the avoided fuel spending is
$86 million and the value of the carbon
credits would be in the range $00
million to $300 million.
Aviation
Aviation emissions are amongst the
fastest growing in the energy sector.
Domestic aviation alone produces
5. million tonnes of CO

per year and
international aviation using fuels
procured in Australia give rise to
approximately twice these emissions.
Yet because aviation emissions occur
at altitude the warming effect is as
much as .7 times higher. Based on
international studies about 50% of short
haul air travel may be for business
(Mason 000).
Carbon-Opportunity: ‘On-Live’ High
Definition Video Conferencing
Long-distance, short-duration travel
can be effectively replaced with ‘in-
person’ high-definition, high fidelity,
online conferencing that is significantly
more efficient in cost, time, energy and
emissions.
Annual Saving: The emissions saving
of ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video
Conferencing
xi
services in avoided
domestic and international air travel
is .4 MtCO

-e per annum through
direct fuel use reduction (equivalent
to 6.5MtCO

-e per annum when the
increased warming effect of aviation
emissions at altitude or ‘up-lift’ is
included). Excluding up-lift, the avoided
emissions are equivalent to 0.43% of
total national emissions.
The financial value of the avoided
spending on air travel is $. billion and
the value of the carbon credits are in the
range $4 million to $0 million.
Real World and Industry Examples
For each of the carbon-opportunities
identified above, the report provides
international examples of current
applications of the required technology
or systems.
To illustrate the opportunities and
barriers in achieving the carbon cuts
from the use of Telstra’s existing
and next-generation networks, four
industry perspectives have been
presented:
Housing: The Genesis residential
housing development in South
East Queensland
Education: Catholic Education
Parramatta which administers 7
schools
Business: Telstra which has
approximately 36,000 full-time
equivalent employees in Australia
Health: Information
Communications Technology (ICT)
networks in regional and rural health
services
.
.
3.
4.
Because aviation
emissions occur
at altitude the
warming effect is
approximately 2.7
times higher.
x Assumes that one-third of homes and commercial buildings are broadband enabled and that they have agreed
to have their discretionary (non-time-sensitive) loads managed by Telstra. Assumes that on average, 5% of
the total loads across residential and commercial buildings are discretionary at any one time.
xi Assumes /3 of business air travel can be replaced by ‘On-Live’ meetings using high speed, high definition
video links.
Each of the industry
examples demonstrate
that there have already
been carbon emission
savings through the use
of ICT networks. In many
cases this has been a side
effect of reducing costs or
improving productivity.
These examples show
considerable scope
to apply the carbon-
opportunities identified
in this report to create
much deeper emission
abatement in these sectors
and also to unlock costs
savings in energy, fuel and
infrastructure.
xiii
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
0.0
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r
t
Saving/Value
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2
-e
Billions dollars
$A per year
Figure iii. Each of the
carbon-opportunites
creates value from
avoided fuel use or
increased energy value,
as well as revenue from
carbon credits created
and other ancillary
services.
Figure iii: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites
Figure ii. Annual
avoided emissions from
each of the identified
carbon-opportunities
(MtCO

-e).
Remote Appliance
Power Management
1.8 MtCO
2
-e
Presence-Based Power
3.0 MtCO
2
-e
De-centralised
Business District
3.1 MtCO
2
-e
Personalised Public
Transport
3.9 MtCO
2
-e
Real-time Freight
Management
2.9 MtCO
2
-e
Increased Renewable Energy
10.1 MtCO
2
-e
‘On-Live’ High Definition
Video Conferencing
2.4 MtCO
2
-e
Figure ii: Breakdown of abatement contribution from seven Carbon-
Opportunities
To stabilise at
450ppm CO
2
-
e, without
overshooting, global
emissions would
need to peak in
the next 10 years
[before 2016] (Stern
2006, p. 193).
The IPCC have
concluded that global
emissions must not
continue to increase
past 2015 if the global
mean temperature
increase is to be
contained between
2.0 and 2.4
o
C above
pre-industrial levels.

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Part 1
Global warming could
shrink the global
economy by 20%,
but taking action
now would cost just
1% of global gross
domestic product

- Stern 2006
Climate Change - The Challenge
In this chapter we explore the basic
rationale for a low carbon society. We
present an overview of climate change
science and mitigation strategies.
The Global Consensus
In this report we assume that Australia,
along with most other countries, is
starting down a path toward a carbon
constrained future.
This starting assumption is founded
on the science behind climate change,
the rapid evolution of public opinion
around the world and the actions
and commitments occurring in the
political domain. There is now a global
consensus that climate change is a
challenge that will have to be addressed
forthwith.
This consensus extends to the business
community which is increasingly
recognising the risks posed by climate
change and seeking the opportunities
created by a carbon constrained society.
Any solution to climate change will
require international agreement,
which has not yet been achieved. In
any international agreement Australia
will likely be a target taker, rather than
a target setter. Unlike the USA, the
EU, China, India or Brazil, as one of
the world’s smaller emitters Australia
is unlikely to play a central role in the
architecture and targets established
in future international agreements.
However, as one of the world’s
highest per capita emitters, Australia
is highly vulnerable to international
binding targets that may lead toward a
convergence in per capita emissions.
For example, Australia’s per person
emissions are approximately 0 times
that of the average Chinese citizen and
the highest in the developed world.
Nevertheless, the societal pressure
for unilateral actions in many
countries means that measures to
reduce emissions are gathering
pace on almost every continent, and
Australia is no different. There is
now bi-partisan political support for
greenhouse gas emissions trading,
energy efficiency standards and the
expansion of renewable energy. All
of these present opportunities for the
telecommunications sector as we shall
explore in this report.
What is the ‘greenhouse effect’?
The atmosphere is semi-transparent
to solar energy, allowing some
sunlight to reach and warm the
Earth’s surface, absorbing the rest
as infrared radiation, and emitting it
back to Earth or out into space. This
radiation budget is adjusted as the
concentration of greenhouse gases
change in the atmosphere.
This natural ‘greenhouse effect’ keeps
the average surface temperature on
Earth at a comfortable 4°C. To get a
sense of its importance, our nearest
neighbour, the Moon has an average
temperature 3°C lower than Earth.
Although the Moon is about the same
distance from the Sun as Earth, it does
not have an atmosphere, and no natural
‘greenhouse effect’ to keep it warm.
The scientific convention
is for global warming
levels to be expressed
relative to pre-industrial
levels, nominally set
as 850. Temperature
increases are different
across the globe, lowest
at the equator and
highest at the poles,
consequently the
scientific convention is
to refer to global average
temperature increases.
Unless otherwise stated
these conventions are
adhered to in this report.

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
The composition of our atmosphere is
crucial for trapping heat to the levels
which Earth’s ecosystems and human
civilisations are now adapted. The
atmospheric composition is 78%
nitrogen, % oxygen, 0.93% argon as
well as some other trace gases. One
of these trace gases is carbon dioxide,
comprising 0.04%.
Almost all (99%) of air is made up of
simple double molecules – oxygen
(O

) and nitrogen (N

) – which neither
emit nor absorb infrared radiation.
Molecules with more than two atoms of
different elements - like water vapour
(H

O), carbon dioxide (CO

), or methane
(CH
4
) – can trap heat by emitting more
infrared radiation back to Earth (Figure
). These are known as the greenhouse
gases.
While carbon is a trace element in the
air, vast amounts are cycled between
the Earth and the atmosphere by
geological and biological processes,
and transferred by plant growth into
the oceans, soils, and forests. Millions
of years in favourable geological
conditions have turned decaying plant
matter into the carbon-rich fossil fuels
we know as oil, coal and gas.
Burning fossil fuels releases carbon
dioxide back into the atmosphere. Here
the carbon dioxide acts as a particularly
effective heat radiator because of its
molecular structure. The amounts in
the atmosphere are so small they are
measured in parts per million (ppm),
but a slight change in CO

concentration
makes a large difference to the heat
balance. The increased CO

adds to the
natural greenhouse effect of the Earth
– and causes the human induced global
warming or ‘enhanced greenhouse
effect’ we now have to address. In
essence the CO

that was taken out of
the atmosphere by plants over hundreds
of millions of years is now being
released back into the atmosphere in a
matter of decades.
The Complexity of Climate Change
The United Nations sums up climate
change science as follows:
“The average temperature of the Earth
has been increasing more than natural
climatic cycles would explain. This
episode of “global warming” is due
to human activity. It began with the
industrial revolution, two centuries
ago, and accelerated over the last 50
years. Fossil fuel burning is mostly
responsible, because it releases
gases (particularly carbon dioxide)
that trap infrared radiation. This
“greenhouse effect” creates a whole
system disturbance, that we call climate
change”. (UNEP 005)
The climate change process and risks
are part of a complex interaction with
human activities and the physical
dynamics that define the global
climate itself. The complexity of these
interactions is explained in Figure .
Over the past century, average global
temperatures have increased by
approximately 0.74°C (Figure 3) and
scientific evidence suggests this will
continue (IPCC WGI 007).
If, as predicted by current IPCC
projection models, there is a doubling
of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the
average global temperature is expected
In essence, the CO
2

that was taken out of
the atmosphere by
plants over hundreds of
millions of years is now
being released back
into the atmosphere in a
matter of decades.
3
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
to rise between 2°C – 4.5°C by 2100,
with extremely serious implications
for the global environment, society
and economy (IPCC 007a; Stern 006;
Houghton 004).
Climate Change in Australia
The past century has seen Australia
experience an average warming of
0.7°C and a significant reduction of
coastal precipitation that is reducing
the water supplies of our urban
settlements and agricultural regions
(Preston & Jones 006). This warming
trend is set to continue with predictions
that relative to 990 levels, average
Australian temperatures could increase
by between 0.4°C to °C by 030 and
between °C to 6°C by 070 (Preston &
Jones 006) (Figure 4).
According to the Australian Greenhouse
Office (AGO), climate change will place
considerable strain on Australia’s
coastal communities including sea
level rise and increased storm surges,
changes to marine and coastal
biodiversity and changes to fisheries
(Voice et al. 006).
Relevant impacts for Australia, based
on a range of research include:
Reduced urban water supplies or
increased costs (CSiRO 2006).

Figure . The diagram
illustrates the process
of warming which is
driven by incoming
solar radiation
which is trapped
by the atmospheric
greenhouse gases.
Figure 1: An overview of the mechanism and scale of the greenhouse
effect
Solar radiation
passes through
the atmosphere
Some solar radiation is
reflected by the atmosphere
and the Earth’s surface
Some solar energy is
absorbed by the
Earth’s surface
Some of the energy
is given out as
infrared radiation
Greenhouse gases
trap and reflect
infrared radiation
back to Earth,
causing the
‘greenhouse effect’
Radiation escapes the
atmosphere into
space
G
R
E
E
N
HOUSE G
A
S
E
S
4
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Figure . The climate
change processes
and risks are part of a
complex interaction
with human activities
and the physical
dynamics that define
the global climate itself
(UNEP/GRID-Arendal
006).
Soucrce: UNEP/GRID Arendal 006
Figure 2: The complexity of interactions that influence climate change and
its impacts
5
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
0.6
- 0.6
- 0.4
- 0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
Year
Temperature
anomaly (
o
C)
Figure 3. There is a
discernable increase
in global temperatures
since 900 as the black
line with multi-year
smoothing shows
(Brohan et al. 006).
Figure 3: The changing global average temperatures since 1850
Rural and agricultural community
economic dislocation (nelson 2006).
increase in extreme weather events
(CSiRO 2006).
Sea level rise and storm surge
impacts on coastal settlements
(Church 2006).
A southerly movement of mosquito-
borne diseases including Ross River
Fever (Lyth 2006).
Disruption of food security (Preston
2006).
Loss of biodiversity including
extinction of endemic species
(Williams 2005).
Reduced ecosystem services
including water quality and
availability; and decreased natural
pollination of crops (Houghton
2004; Pittock 2005; Flannery 2005).







Destabilisation and regional conflict
in the Pacific including mobilisation
of environmental refugees
(Edwards 1999).
What Does ‘Avoiding Dangerous
Climate Change’ Actually Mean?
The latest IPCC report suggests that
atmospheric CO

concentration alone
(i.e. not including other gases) has
increased from pre-industrial levels
of 80 parts per million (ppm) to 380
ppm in 005, which “exceeds by far the
natural range over the last 650,000 years
(80 to 300 ppm) as determined from ice
cores.” (IPCC WGI SPM 007).
The term ‘dangerous’ climate change
was introduced in the 99 United
Nations Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), from which the
Kyoto Protocol was born. It calls for
stabilisation of greenhouse gases to:
“prevent dangerous anthropogenic

6
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
interference with the climate system.…
Such a level should be achieved within a
time frame sufficient:
to allow ecosystems to adapt
naturally to climate change;
to ensure that food production is not
threatened, and;
to enable economic development to
proceed in a sustainable manner”.
(UNFCCC 99)
The UNFCCC and IPCC refer to, but
do not define, ‘dangerous climate
change’. There is a general agreement
that dangerous changes will occur with
warming in the vicinity of
o
C above pre-
industrial levels.
The European Union has formally
resolved that:
“to meet the ultimate objective of



the UNFCCC to prevent dangerous
anthropogenic interference with
the climate system, overall global
temperature increase should not
exceed ºC above pre-industrial levels”
(European Council 004).
Understanding Emission Cuts
The recent IPCC statement on emissions
abatement potential concludes that
temperatures could be stabilised below
.4
o
C provided that emissions stop
increasing by 05 and are then reduced
by between 60-95% by 050

(IPCC
WGIII 007). This is the first time that
scientists and governments, through
the IPCC, have nominated a deadline
beyond which emissions cannot
continue to grow if certain levels of
climate change are to be averted.
Greenhouse gas emissions accumulate
in the global atmosphere and will
therefore have to be managed by
international agreement. However,
Figure 4. The changing
mean temperatures
around Australia based
on modelling by the
CSIRO.
3 1 4 6 0 2 5
Temperature
increase (
o
C)
3 1 4 6 0 2 5
Temperature
increase (
o
C)
2030 2070
Figure 4: Forecast average temperature increases in Australia
Converted from the range 50-85% relative to levels in the year 000, and assuming that global emissions have
increase by approximately 0% between 000 and 007
There is a general
agreement that
dangerous changes
will occur with
warming in the
vicinity of 2
o
C above
pre-industrial
levels.
7
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
emissions cuts will have to be
implemented at a national level.
The latest figures released by the
Australian government (AGO 007b)
indicate that forecast emissions even
‘with measures’ will not see any
stabilisation before 05, nor any
reduction within the foreseeable future
(Figure 5).
National Emissions and Per Capita
Emissions
Greenhouse gas emissions vary
considerably, especially between
developed countries and developing
countries, both at a national level and
per person (Figure 6). Australia has
the highest emissions per capita of any
developed country (OECD) with the
equivalent emissions of 6 tonnes per
person carbon dioxide per year. China
is one of the worlds biggest greenhouse
gas polluters, but this is largely due the
high population. On a per capita basis a
Chinese person is responsible for about
.3 tonnes per year.
Adaptation and Mitigation
Strategies to deal with climate change
generally consist of two elements:
adaptation and mitigation (Pittock 005).
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as
an ‘adjustment in natural or human
systems in response to actual or
expected climatic stimuli or their effects,
which moderates harm or exploits
beneficial opportunities’ (Metz et al.
00, p.708). Mitigation is defined by the
IPCC as ‘an anthropogenic intervention
to reduce the sources or enhance the
sinks of greenhouse gases.’ (Metz et al.
00, p. 76)
Figure 5. Australia
may meet its Kyoto
Target, but government
projections indicate that
emissions will not have
been stabilised (AGO
007a).
Year
1990 2020 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995
850
250
350
450
550
650
750
Emissions
MtCo
2
-e
Business as usual
Kyoto target
1990 levels
Best estimate with the effect of
anticipated government
measures to reduce emissions
Emissions growing at
1.3% per year
Figure 5: Australian current and projected annual net greenhouse gas
emissions
‘WiTH MEASuRES’
The term ‘with measures’
refers to government
initiatives with allocated
budgets, timetables and,
if necessary, supporting
legislation which are used
to adjust projections of
future emissions.
8
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
The connection between adaptation
and mitigation is often overlooked.
Environmental lag time means that
climate change is not only already
underway, but several decades of
increased warming are unavoidable.
Human beings must adapt to current
and future changes that are already
locked in. Mitigation strategies can
only reduce the speed, magnitude and
severity of future impacts and may
seek to ensure that the future climatic
change that occurs is within our capacity
to adapt (Pittock 005). In a summary
for the IPCC advocate that adaptation
and mitigation need to be considered
together in any climate change response
(Banuri et al. 00, p.5).
A Carbon Price
The regulation of pollutants has a long
history in developed countries and there
are many established mechanisms
for control. In some cases pollutants
are banned, in other cases regulation
is used to specify the legal amount
of a pollutant that can be released
into the environment. A more recent
innovation is the use of trading markets
to control emissions, such as those in
the US used to control sulphur dioxide
emissions (which causes acid rain). It
is also possible to introduce pollution
taxes which force up the cost of the
polluting technology to the point where
alternative technologies become viable.
For greenhouse gas emissions, key
mechanisms under development are:
‘emission caps’ which place a legal
limit on the amount that a country
may emit;
carbon taxes which are designed to
place a cost on pollution; and
a.
b.
Figure 6. Though
Australia has
comparatively low
emissions at a national
level, on a per capita
basis its emissions are
amongst the highest in
the world due in part to
high levels of coal use,
fugitive emissions from
fossil fuel extraction,
energy intensive
industries such as
metals and minerals
processing and land
use activity that causes
large amounts carbon to
be unlocked as forests
are cleared (OECD
006).
Figure 6: Variation in national emissions across the world
9
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
emissions trading in which the total
rights to emit greenhouse gases
under a national cap can be bought,
sold and traded.
Emissions Trading
There is now bi-partisan support for
the introduction of emissions trading in
Australia. Under this system a cap will be
placed on the amount of emissions that
can be released across the country, and
the rights to emit will be given out and/or
auctioned. As the cap gradually reduces
over time the market value for the right to
emit will gradually increase. In this way
the emissions trading scheme creates
a ‘price of carbon’ which reciprocally
creates a value for greenhouse gas
abatement.
c. In some cases, it may be possible to
create a tradeable abatement commodity,
often referred to as a ‘carbon credit’. An
existing example of a tradeable carbon
credit in the Australian market is the
‘Renewable Energy Certificate’ which
is regulated by the federal government.
The types of abatement that will be
tradeable will depend on the rules of the
Emissions Trading Scheme which are yet
to be established, however abatement
which is not tradeable will still have
a value consistent with the ‘price of
carbon’. This report uses carbon prices
developed by the CSIRO, ABARE and the
Energy Futures Forum based on several
emission scenarios in Australia (Figure 7).
$A CO
2
-e
2020 2030 2040 2050 2010
0
200
150
100
50
Year
Scenario 2c
Scenario 2b
Scenario 2a
Scenario 1
Scenario 2d
Scenario 3
Figure 7. The CSIRO
recently convened
an Energy Futures
Forum of major energy
industry participants
and stakeholders to
develop long term
scenarios affecting
Australia’s energy
future. The scenarios
were modelled by the
CSIRO and ABARE.
These results are used
as the basis for the three
carbon price points
used herein, namely
$0, $0 and $50 dollars
per tonne CO

-e (CSIRO,
006).
Figure 7: Projections for carbon prices for several emission cut scenarios
modelled by the CSIRO and ABARE
0
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Part 2
The Emissions Signature of
Broadband
Telecommunications is a large user
of energy. The most recent survey of
Australian businesses indicates that
their Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) use is responsible
for about 7.9 MtCO

-e, or about .4%
of national emissions (ACS 007).
Emissions arising from Telstra’s
operations account for about 0.%
of Australia’s total emissions (Telstra
006). While this may seem negligible
in comparison to other sectors, a major
expansion of networks and usage could
lead to significant changes in emissions.
In this section we seek to establish how
significant. We do not consider life-
cycle emissions or embodied energy
(e.g. the energy or materials used
to make a modem), which although
significant are dwarfed by the energy
flows in the ICT sector.
Understanding
Telecommunications Networks
Telecommunication networks and
broadband are best understood by
considering three key elements:
Content – such as emails, music or
videos as well as the applications
and services that are needed to
access this content;
Networks – the systems that transfer
content from one place to another;
and
Devices – such as computers,
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)
and mobile phones.
.
.
3.
Content
All electronic content is comprised of
data. Data is measured in bits– kilobytes
(KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB)
and terabytes (TB). Data requirements
vary widely among different kinds of
media content. For example:
Text-based email contains about 0-
5 KB of information
An SMS contains only .5 KB for a
60 character SMS
A medium-sized novel contains
about 5 MB of information
A song contains about 5 MB of
information
A 3-minute, high-quality music
video clip contains around 60 MB of
information
A movie at DVD quality contains
around 7-0 GB of information for
dual-layer discs
A library contains -30 or more TB of
information
Content data can be stored on devices,
for example the hard drive of a
computer, the memory of an iPod® or
the address book in a mobile phone.
Data can also be stored in a network
or on server, for example much of the
information available on the Internet like
videos on YouTube™ and the photos on
FaceBook™.






Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Information
Communications
Technology appears
to have been
causing significant
decreases in the
energy intensity of
economic activity
across the wider
economy.
networks
Telecommunication networks carry
content from one place to another.
Networks connect landline telephones,
mobile phones and computers. They
also connect consumers to businesses
and businesses to businesses, both in
Australia and overseas.
The performance of networks can
be thought of like the performance
of water pipes. Big pipes carry more
water than small. Transferring data
is like transferring water which need
a network of pipes, and the quality
of the architecture and size of the
pipes will determine the volume and
speed at which data is carried. In a
telecommunications network the size of
pipes or network capacity is known as
‘bandwidth’.
Unlike a water system, data needs to
flow in two directions. The amount
of bandwidth coming “in” (called
“download”) has traditionally been
greater than the amount of bandwidth
going “out” (called “upload”), as
there are more users who want to get
content than create content. However
this is changing with businesses and
consumers starting to “upload” larger
packets of information or data – for
example, large video files (like videos
placed on YouTube™) and e-mail
attachments (like digital photographs)
are now routinely sent out (or
“uploaded”). In this way networks are
evolving as the Internet becomes more
like a two-way highway.
Devices
Devices include computers, modems,
wireless turbo cards, mobile phones,
PDAs – effectively anything that plugs
into a network to receive and send data.
The speed at which content can be
accessed is determined by the amount
of content, network and the devices
using the network.
The capacity of the device is part of
the overall performance of the system,
for example, there may be a lot of
network capacity to handle a digital
file, but unless the device has the
capacity to process the data quickly,
the overall performance will be limited.
For example, if a video conference is
occurring between a mobile phone and
computer, the capacity of the mobile
device and the computer will contribute
to the clarity of the video.
Broadband
Broadband is sufficient data
transmission speed to utilise
applications, services or content
effectively relative to the user’s access
device or capabilities (KPMG 004).
Broadand covers systems running
over fixed connections such as copper,
coaxial cable or fibre optic cables as
well as wireless links such as those that
mobile devices use (e.g. 3G or the Next
G™ wireless network).

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Three Ways to Consider the Issue
Emissions effects from ICT networks are
considered in three ways.
A review of a macro-economic
assessment of the effects of ICT on
national emissions in the USA.
A review of energy demand impacts
from ICT network operation in the
United Kingdom and the secondary
impacts on broadband-based
customer activities.
A review of the status and trends for
energy consumption (and therefore
emissions profile) of relevant
devices.
Macro-economics of iCT from the
uSA
In the USA ICT brought about a partial
decoupling of economic growth from
energy consumption. In order to explain
this interaction we need to consider the
period prior to the major expansion of
ICT in the US.
From 99 to 996, US economic growth
averaged 3.4 % a year while energy
use grew by .4% a year (Romm 00)
- consistent with the opinion that a
growing economy needs ever more
energy. However from 996 to 000,
Romm reports an apparent anomaly
in US energy statistics. The US GDP
growth increased to over 4% a year, but
during the same period, energy demand
only increased by .% a year. The
energy intensity of economic growth
.
.
3.
- energy consumed per dollar of GDP
- decreased by more than half (997 and
998 saw decreases of 3.7% and 3.9%
respectively)

. Except for the oil shocks
of the 970s, this discontinuity in the
connection between growth and energy
was unprecedented in post-war US
economic history.
The critical change that occurred during
this period was the introduction of the
internet, which was being deployed
alongside the PC systems introduced
in the previous part of the decade.
Major economic growth was occurring
online. Expansion of ICT deployment did
require increased energy, in 00, office
ICT equipment across the US used 3% of
total electricity (Roth 00, p. 43).
The conclusion from these macro-
economic studies of broadband energy
issue is: if energy in ICT use was
increasing, yet the energy intensity of
the economy was decreasing, then ICT
appears to have been causing significant
decreases in the energy intensity of
economic activity across the wider
economy.
Power use for ICT has continued to
increase through the broadband
revolution. Analysis in 006 notes an
increase in energy demand from home/
consumer ICT (Roth 006, p. 53-54),
ascribed to PCs and related equipment
being 60% to 00% more than in
previous studies, with most of the
additional demand arising from devices
being left on overnight. This is an issue
we will consider in more detail later in
the report.
It should be noted that weather related factors may have accounted for some of the changes not exceeding
0.5% (Romm 00).
3
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
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Looking forward, while ICT networks
and applications need energy it appears
that they can realise much greater
reductions in energy use across the
wider economy.
The uK Broadband Environmental
Audit
Similar concerns about burgeoning
energy use from broadband application
in the United Kingdom led to British
Telecom (BT) commissioning British
environment group Forum for the Future
to assess the environmental impacts of
broadband (Forum of the Future 004).
The results are summarised in Figure 8.
The Forum found that the top four
negative impacts were climate change,
network energy use, customer energy
use and waste. The authors suggest
that indirect impacts on energy use are
4 to 7 times higher than direct energy
use (as defined in Figure 9). Clearly the
critical issue is the extent to which the
‘secondary’ and ‘tertiary’ effects are
positively or negatively correlated with
broadband.
The BT report claimed that teleworkers
for the British Airports Authority had
saved approximately 00 kilometres
of car travel each week. The report
projected that teleworking could cut
peak-hour travel by between .6%
and 5.4% by 00. The report’s view
is somewhat ambivalent: there is the
“potential for environmental savings”,
but they “can only be realised through
Positive impacts
Negative impacts
Environmental
Social
Economic
Regional Development
Waste
Climate
change
SMEs
Family life & community
Social ties
Health
Education
Productivity
Economic growth
Abuse of the internet
Transport
Products
and services
Network
energy use
Government/citizen
interaction
Work/life balance
Consumer
energy use
Office use
5
4
3
2
1
Scoring
Figure 8. Forum for the
Future concluded that
broadband use would
have negative impacts
on climate change,
consumer energy use,
network energy use and
waste (Forum of the
Future 004).
Figure 8: Environmental impacts of broadband use in the UK
4
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
changes in behaviour and corporate
policy.” It contends that even with
telework and reduced commuting, car
use would continue to grow, presumably
due to other unrelated factors.
The report also notes that telework
could reduce office space demands by
5%, which clearly has commensurate
impacts on energy demands in
commercial workplaces. The critical
observation in the context of this report
is that even the projected direct and
indirect emissions associated with
broadband expansion represent only
a “tiny percentage of UK emissions…
secondary and tertiary impacts are likely
to be much greater, e.g. an increase in
transport intensity is ten times more
significant for CO

emissions than all
primary broadband impacts.”
The overall conclusion was that the
delivery of environmental outcomes
“could swing either way” but that the
key element affecting this swing would
be the associated [customer] behaviour
and corporate policy.
To some extent this conclusion
is in contrast with the US results,
which indicated that a fundamental
dematerialisation of energy
use happened even without an
environmental objective. Since this
report was released, the process of
‘unintended’ dematerialisation has
continued. For example, energy
demand is significantly reduced in the
transition from motor driven physical
storage (e.g. the CD) to chip storage.
Nonetheless, it is clear that coordination
could have a critical role in enabling
an intended outcome regarding
Wider social and
economic changes
resulting
Associated with the ongoing use
and application of broadband
Direct impacts of end-user equipment
use e.g. home electricity use
Production, maintenance and disposal
of equipment
Indirect Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Direct Primary
Figure 9. Forum for
the Future concluded
that the key aspects for
assessing the ‘whole’
impact of networks will
include the secondary
and tertiary impacts
(Forum for the Future
004).
Figure 9: Definition of direct and indirect impacts from broadband usage
5
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
carbon emissions, and a lack of such
an objective could lead to a swing to
negative outcomes.
Status and Trends in underlying
Devices
The energy trajectory of the devices that
underpin broadband is influenced by
incremental and step changes.
Incremental changes are those in which
the same device becomes steadily more
efficient. Often this is achieved by more
expensive technologies being pulled
into the market as economies of scale
are achieved, and this can be aided by
technology standards or targets. Table
shows the evolution in energy demand
between two successive product
specification years and the incremental
changes delivered.
To drive incremental change, the EU
has issued a code of conduct setting out
power consumption targets for a wide
range of broadband equipment under
0 watts per device (Table ) (European
Union 006). As broadband devices
evolve, their specifications show
significant reduction in energy usage
despite increased processing capacity.
Step changes are major shifts which
often accompany a switch in underlying
technology, such as CD to MP3, or tube
to flat screen monitor. Reductions
in energy usage typically follow step
changes.
There is ongoing technology push and
pull in the ICT space. Cisco Systems,
a leading provider of data network
equipment, point out that data routing
equipment (used by organisations such
Equipment
Off On Off Standby On
ADSL/VDSL-modem uSB powered 0 W 1.5 W 0 W 0 W 1.5 W
ADSL/modem (Ports: 1 DSL, 1 Ethernet 10/100, 1
uSB Device, 1.1/2.0 firewall), Cable Modem, PLC
modem
0.3 W 6.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 4.0 W
VDSL-modem (max ports: 1 DSL, 1 Ethernet 10/100,
1 uSB 1.2/2.0 firewall)
0.3 W 8 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 6.0 W
Each additional function of the following: WLAn 802
11h/g, WLAn 802 11a FXO, FXS/VolP, hubswitch for
several ports, DECT, Bluetooth
2.0 W 2.0 W
WLAn access points 0.3 W 6.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 6.0 W
VolP Device 0.3 W 5.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 5.0 W
Small printer server 0.3 W 5.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 5.0 W
Small hubs and switches 0.3 W 5.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 5.0 W
Tier 1:
1.1 - 31.12.2007
Tier 2:
1.1. - 31.12.2008
Table . Power
Consumption Targets
of end use equipment
for networks (European
Union 006 ).
An increase in
transport intensity
is ten times more
significant for
CO
2
emissions
than all primary
broadband impacts.
(Forum of the Future
2004)
6
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
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The most significant
opportunities to
reduce emissions
from networks
is through the
leveraging of
emission reductions
in the wider society
via the use of
network enabled
applications.
as Internet Service Providers) has seen
an increase of data throughput of 33%
in 0 years for the same amount of
power (Cisco 005).
Not only can step changes reduce the
energy intensity of ICT devices, but
they also result in ‘smarter’ devices. In
early 007, Sky (the UK’s largest satellite
broadcaster) released a satellite set-top-
box with automatic functionality to turn
itself off completely, rather than go into
standby mode when not being used.
The Balance of Network Impacts
The key conclusions from a
consideration of the greenhouse gas
impacts of network use are as follows:
The previous research presented
indicates that there is evidence
of a strong link between
telecommunication networks
and a reduction in the intensity of
society-wide/economy-wide energy
use and therefore greenhouse gas
emissions.
The assumption that the use and
extensive growth of ICT networks
gives rise to major increases in
energy consumption is not valid.
The large rise in ICT use in the
US was a major part of economic
growth during a period when
the energy intensity of economic
activity actually decreased.
The trends in new technologies
around energy consumption in
data networks indicate that energy
consumption reductions of 90%
.
.
3.
are possible (see Figure 0) and
are now coming through to the
market. However these ongoing
reductions are occurring at a time
when the volume of use is increasing
significantly.
The most significant impacts
from networks will be in how the
networks are used by business
and residential consumers and
the consequent impacts on their
emissions footprint. These impacts
will be at least an order of magnitude
larger than any direct impacts
from energy related to using ICT
networks.
There is very little evidence that
the ability of networks to leverage
emissions cuts has been deliberately
attempted thus far. Society
wide emissions and abatement
have not been made a central
part of the decision-making for
network outcomes in the global
telecommunications sector. There
have been however significant
attempts to reduce energy
consumption in order to reduce
operation and infrastructure costs
and so emissions reductions have
occurred as an ‘unintended’ but
beneficial side-effect.
There are warnings from some
analysts that without intent and
coordination the positive outcomes
seen thus far could swing the
other way into increased relative
emissions. For example the current
trend towards flat screen monitors
may decrease monitor emissions if
4.
5.
6.
7
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
LCD screen monitors are adopted, or
increase emissions if plasma based
monitors are chosen instead.
One of the major conclusions to
be drawn from reports just a few
years old is the profound inability
to second-guess future technology
change and therefore not to assume
that the future will be based on
the past or present. If technology
developments are guided by
governments or corporations, future
changes in performance and use
are likely to have a lower emission
signature than would otherwise be
the case.
7.
The key conclusion, in the context of
this report, is that although the direct
impacts of broadband are large, they
are dwarfed by the secondary and
tertiary impacts that they stimulate in
the wider society. The most significant
opportunities to reduce emissions from
networks is through the leveraging
of emission reductions in the wider
society via the use of network enabled
applications.
Figure 0. Industry
research into reducing
the energy demand
from ICT use shows
opportunities for
reducing energy
consumption by up to
90% (Integrated Design
003).
Figure 10: Analysis of ICT energy use
Uninterruptible
Power Supply(UPS)
and Other
Lighting
Computing
Heating, Ventilation
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)
0
50
250
100
200
150
300
Current practice Best practices
with current
products
Projected with
advanced
concepts
Energy Usage
(Watts)
8
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Step 1: Review Australian
National Greenhouse Gas
Inventory, identify relevant
sectors, discount less relevant
sectors and identify ‘target’
emission sources.
Step 2. Review current and
emergent network technology
and applications for the sectors
identified.
Step 3: Overlay the results
of steps and , to identify
telecommunication network
opportunities which reduce
carbon emissions and create
financial value for end users.
Part 3
Identifying Carbon-
Opportunities for
Telecommunication networks
The genesis of this project was the
recognition that a movement towards
teleworking should contribute to
reduced greenhouse gas emissions
due to reduced transport use. A
review of the emerging broadband
technology revealed that network-
related innovations may facilitate
further emission reductions. Telstra
commissioned Climate Risk to quantify
the potential of existing and next-
generation networks and applications
for carbon abatement, and the
opportunities for telecommunication
networks to play a role in climate change
mitigation in Australia.
The idea that ICT networks can reduce
greenhouse gas emissions is not new,
but still nascent. Excellent high level
work published internationally has
highlighted several ways in which ICT
may assist emissions abatement (ETNO
006). In this report we have built
upon this research to pragmatically
re-consider the types of opportunities
available, the plausible market uptake of
new technologies and services, the scale
and significance of these opportunities
at a national level and the costs and
benefits to telecommunications
providers and their customers. We also
present several new opportunities to
reduce emissions which are potentially
larger in scale than any opportunities
previously identified, as well as being
internationally applicable
In order to provide a consistent
methodology to identify opportunities
and maximise carbon abatement
potential, Climate Risk adopted the
following process:
Step 1. Identifying Relevant
Sectors
In 005 Australia’s net greenhouse gas
emissions were 559 MtCO

-e, about
.% above emission levels in 990.
Table shows the major emissions by
category. By inspection, broadband can
provide only a limited role in agriculture,
land use, land use change and forestry
(LULUCF), industrial processes and
waste. There may be some relevant
applications, but these are not in
the main target markets typical for
network services. For example an area
where ICT networks could contribute
significantly to these emissions sectors
is through ‘dematerialisation’, i.e.
9
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Table . Australia’s net
greenhouse gases by
sector (AGO 007b).
All energy (combustion & fugitive) 391.0
Sector and subsector CO
2
-e
Stationary energy 279.4
Agriculture 87.9
Transport 80.4
Land use, land use change and forestry 33.7
Fugitive emissions from fuel 31.2
industrial processes 29.5
Waste 17.0
Total net emissions 559.1
ways in which the requirement for new
materials is avoided.
The stationary energy
3
and transport
sectors represent 64% of emissions
(Figure ). These sectors also
experienced the largest growth in
emissions between 990 and 005
(energy grew by 43% and transport by
nearly 30%). They are highly relevant
sectors in the context of this report.
The dominant work in the mitigation of
greenhouse gas emissions from energy
and transport tends to rest on three
pillars:
Decreasing the amount of energy
needed – through efficiency or
changed demand
Increasing the provision of
renewable/zero emission energy
a.
b.
Decarbonising the emissions from
the use of fossil fuels.
Step 2. Reviewing Current and
Emergent Network Technology
This step requires a review of current
and emergent network technology and
appliances.
What can reasonably be expected
in the future is that the push and
pull of demand and supply will drive
up speeds and volumes of network
use, and drive down relative costs.
Consequently the same can be expected
of the applications that these networks
provide.
There are two other relevant trends.
The first is the trend towards distributed
intelligence, where decision-making
occurs at any point within a network.
c.
3 Stationary energy includes emissions from electricity generation, the use of fuels in manufacturing,
construction and commercial sectors, and residential heating. It excludes transport fuels.
0
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
This combination of
smart devices and
netwrok control is a
potentially powerful
tool in energy
management.
Figure . Contribution
to net CO

-e emissions
by sector 005 (AGO
007b, p.3).
Figure 11: Breakdown of Australian energy emissions by sector
Stationary
energy
Transport Fugitive
emissions
Industrial
processes
Agriculture Land use,
land use
change and
forestry
Waste
0
10
20
30
40
50
Percentage
(%)
Sector
Strongest abatement potential
using ICT networks – 64.4% of
total emissions
The second is the process of intelligence
moving into devices. Devices that
were once passive, increasingly have
the capacity for communication and
distributed control. This combination
of smart devices and network control
is a potentially powerful tool in energy
management.
The task of forecasting applications in
terms of energy use is driven by basic
human needs and activities. We can
reasonably expect that whatever the
new technology, people will be wanting
energy for light, heat, cooling and
devices that allow them to communicate
and travel for work and recreation. This
report will focus on broadband solutions
that can assist with addressing the
energy or emissions footprint of these
basic human needs.
Step 3. Major Carbon-
Opportunities for
telecommunication providers:
Overlaying emission sources with
network technologies
Based on steps and we can
conceptualise the overlaps between
emission sources and network
technologies occurring in three distinct
but interrelated areas: the home, the
workplace and the transport of people,
goods and services (Figure ).

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Figure . The carbon
footprint of home and
workplaces are often
separate, but may
overlap for people who
work from home. The
motion of people, goods
and services accounts
for a large proportion of
emissions.
Work Home
Movement in private life e.g.
driving to the shops
Business to business
movement e.g. moving goods
between cities
Movement between home and
work e.g. commuting
Motion
Energy use e.g. electrical appliances
Figure 12: Interdependence of building and transport energy emissions
The home includes all of the activities
that happen inside the home that
use energy or affect energy use. The
workplace includes many of the same
needs and activities, however as noted
above this does not include emissions
related to ‘industrial activity’.
The carbon footprint of homes and
workplaces are often separate, but
may overlap for people who work from
home.
The transport of people, goods and
services accounts for a large proportion
of emissions. Broadband has the
capacity to reduce transport needs
and therefore reduce greenhouse gas
emissions (Figure 3).
To identify specific telecommunications
enabled opportunities which are realistic
and can deliver meaningful greenhouse
gas abatement, the following criteria
were used:
The opportunity is economically
viable;
Each opportunity has the potential
to reduce Australia’s total net
emissions by .5 MtCO

-e.
The telecommunication sector’s
scale and scope can facilitate the full
utilisation of opportunity.
On this basis we see significant
opportunities related to buildings, air
travel, road transport and renewable
energy.
A final group of seven carbon-
opportunities are presented here
4
.
Remote Appliance Power
.
.
3.
.
4 The appendices provide a more detailed explanation of the identification, elimination and consolidation
process and a wider list of the additional greenhouse gas abatement options.

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Figure 3 . A conceptual
framework for
residential, commercial
and transport emissions
and how they may be
abated.
Home Work
Motion
Reduce the transport envelope
Increase shared resources
Reduce workplace emissions
Reduce home emissions
Figure 13: Pathways to reduce building and transport energy emissions
Management – The opportunity
to drive monitoring and control
downstream to the power supply
system in the home and workplace,
while pushing intelligence and
management upstream into the
network as a way of identifying and
then eliminating standby power
wastage.
Presence-Based Power - The ability
of broadband-enabled buildings
and devices to allow a user-focused
energy flow, in which only devices
inside the physical range of
interaction of the user are activated.
De-centralised Business District
- The capacity for broadband
.
3.
enabled homes, suburbs and
regional centres to either remove or
significantly reduce the emissions
of people getting to and from their
place of work.
Personalised Public Transport - The
potential for an integrated network
of transport modes (eg bus, train and
taxis) to provide Personalised Public
Transport. Faster speeds door to
door, high flexibility and lower costs,
are accompanied by significant
opportunities for greenhouse gas
abatement.
Real-time Freight Management - The
potential of broadband-enabled
vehicles and load monitoring to
4.
5.
3
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
reduce unladen (empty) and under-
laden trips.
Increased Renewable Energy - The
potential for extensive broadband
networks to monitor and facilitate
the management of heating,
cooling and other loads. This load
management can be undertaken
by an integrated mobile and fixed
broadband platform and be used
to effectively neutralise the short-
term variability of renewable energy
supplies, turning them into ‘stable
and predictable’ power generation.
‘On-Live’ High Definition Video
Conferencing - The opportunity for
long distance, short duration travel
to be effectively replaced with ‘in
person’ quality online conferencing
that is considerably more cost,
time and energy efficient, with
significantly reduced emissions.
6.
7.
Viability and Implementation
The carbon opportunities identified
in the report have been selected in
part because of the practicality of
their implementation, i.e. that there
are technologies, products, services
or systems that can readily assimilate
the identified innovations and deliver
them to market. In some, but not all
cases, there is assumed to be market
pressure for reduced emissions through
carbon pricing and a premium value for
renewable energy. These assumptions
are plausible given current statements
by political leaders in Australia.
Beyond an initial screening for viability,
this report does not set out a business
strategy or road-map for commercially
realising the carbon-opportunities
identified, and so a detailed analysis of
implementation options and barriers is
not provided or implied.
4
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Climate Risk
Monitors 1%
Mobile phones 11%
Imaging equipment 12%
Modems 21%
Networking 7%
Hospital - other 3%
Retail - other 1%
Sundry - other 5%
Home - other 13%
Other - telephony 18%
Laptops 8%
Figure 4. Energy is
lost while devices are
on standby and also
in converting voltages
between the outlet and
the device ‘conversion
loss’. The chart shows
the relatively high level
of energy waste from
ICT devices (Punchline
Energy 007).
Figure 14: Standby and conversion loss by end-use appliances
Devices on ‘standby’
consume power
even when they
are not being used.
Standby energy
wastage ranges from
4% to 12% of total
consumption.
Carbon-Opportunity 1: Remote
Appliance Power Management
At a Glance
This opportunity reduces wasted
electricity by networking the monitoring
and control of power use in the electrical
systems of homes and workplaces.
Status and Trends
Homes and commercial premises
currently consume approximately
08,000 Gigawatt-hours of electricity
per year (based on ABS 007), creating
roughly 00 million tonnes (assuming
a little under tonne CO

per megawatt
hour) of greenhouse gas emissions,
or about one fifth of the country’s
559.MtCO

–e of emissions (AGO 007b;
CAIT 007).
In homes and offices around the
country, devices on ‘standby’ consume
power even when they are not being
used. Standby energy wastage ranges
from 4%-6% in offices to % of total
consumption in homes (Harrington &
Kleverlaan 00; AGO & ICLI 005).
Currently there are efforts to reduce
the energy consumption of devices on
standby (Energy Efficient Strategies
006), and campaigns to change
behaviour by turning devices off at
the plug to avoid drawing power when
unused. Both approaches require
changes to thousands of different
Part 4
Major Carbon-Opportunities for
Telecommunication Networks
5
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
Networks and remote intelligence can allow a more sophisticated level of
intervention. A small company in Oxfordshire UK has created a single-point
handheld device that allows the user to send a radio frequency signal to switch off
all products (plugged into specially designed socket adapters) that are in standby
mode when they leave the house or go to sleep. The company, ‘Bye Bye Standby’,
states that the device can save large amounts of greenhouse gases through lower
energy consumption, reduce electricity bills and decrease the risk of home fires
(BBSB 007).
5 Calculation is based on .5GWh of standby energy at a delivered price of $00 per MWh (at the lower end of
non-industrial delivered electricity prices in Australia), which gives a total value of $.5 billion
The value of wasted
standby energy may
be over 1 billion
dollars per year.
product types and modifying the
behaviour of millions of people, making
reductions difficult. Standards are
being developed to reduce the energy
consumption of various devices while
they are on standby, however current
trends indicate that by 00 Australian
electricity demand may increase
by as much as 40% (ABARE 005).
Consequently, wasted energy from
devices that are on standby may still
increase.
The Carbon-Business Confluence
Reducing energy use means reducing
greenhouse emissions, which in turn
represents cost savings. The value of
wasted standby energy is of the order of
$A billion per year
5
.
The Telemetry Application
Telecommunication providers have
existing telemetry products that
can be extended to monitoring and
controlling energy distribution networks
in buildings. These products could
move energy management away from
individuals or devices to intelligence in
the communications network.
The distributed management of energy
could occur either inside the building
or anywhere online. In practice, this
could mean combining outlets for power
and broadband into a unified socket or
inserting an intermediate networked
plug/socket such as the one shown
in the breakout box. Both of these
would allow intelligent control from
anywhere on the global broadband
network. For example, charging tools
in a garage; the outlet or switching box
is able to monitor the energy being
drawn and management elsewhere on
the network can tell when the charging
is finished. Rather than leaving the
charging transformers running, the
remote management sends a signal for
the outlet to turn off, halting the flow of
standby power.
The application draws on a broadband-
enabled home or workplace, but also
requires the telecommunications
provider to engage in the home
electrical market and building industry
to deploy appropriate products in new
and refurbished homes or provide
simple retrofit products.
Rather than leaving
the charging
transformers
running, the remote
management sends
a signal for the outlet
to turn off, halting
the flow of standby
power.
6
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Challenges and Barriers
This is an example of shifting from an
incidental to deliberate specification of
network enabled energy management.
The ability to have the necessary
information and control to intercept
standby energy wastage requires
devices that are both networked and
controllable or power supply switches
that are networked and controllable.
Such devices and switches already exist,
however the large scale uptake requires
the ability to retro-fit such switching
at low cost. It also requires applicable
future devices to be suitably networked
and controllable.
7
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
A typical plasma
television uses the
equivalent energy
of an electric heater
even when no-one is
in the room.
Carbon-Opportunity 2 : Presence-
Based Power
At a Glance
Electricity flows in the home and
workplace are currently device-
focussed. Once the appliance is on, it
draws the energy that it demands. If no-
one is in the room to enjoy the lighting or
the air-conditioning, this can be thought
of as ‘orphaned’ energy. Broadband-
enabled buildings and devices allow a
user-focused energy flow (a ‘Presence-
Based Power’), in which only devices
inside the physical range of engagement
of the user are activated. This
innovation could reduce an estimated
5% of energy use currently wasted as
‘orphaned’.
Status and Trends
Homes and commercial premises
currently consume approximately
08,000 Gigawatt-hours of electricity
per year (ABS 007), causing roughly
00 million tonnes (assuming a little
under tonne CO

per megawatt hour)
of greenhouse gas emissions or about
one fifth of the country’s 559. MtCO

–e
of emissions (AGO 007b; CAIT 007).
Devices which are on but unused
(orphaned) are wasting energy in homes
and offices. For example, a typical
plasma television uses the equivalent
energy of an electric heater even when
no-one is in the room. Computers are
on in offices when people have left for a
meeting; lights and air conditioning are
on in rooms or entire floors where no
one is present. Current trends indicate
that by 00 Australian electricity
demand may increase by as much as
50%. Consequently, ‘orphaned’ energy
from devices that are on but unused
can be expected to increase by a similar
amount.
The Carbon-Business Confluence
There is very little work on how
much energy is wasted in ‘orphaned’
appliances. To some extent, this will
vary with the definition of what period
of non-use is applicable. Climate Risk
estimate that, separate from standby
power, about 5% of energy use may be
categorised as ‘orphaned’, extrapolated
from analysis by the larger product
manufacturers in the field.
The Telecommunication Mobile
network Opportunity
Presence-Based Power may be
understood as the aura that lights up
the room when a charismatic person
arrives. The ‘intelligent building’ is
aware as the person moves between
spaces. Devices, lights, heating, TVs or
computers are on when required by the
person, but ‘go to sleep’ after the user
leaves.
The user, identified via their mobile
phone or a key tag, can personally
define an ‘aura’ size - perhaps a metre
radius in the office. Any device inside
that sphere will be active, but a device
outside the person’s designated ‘energy
radius’ will be off until such time as the
person comes back into proximity to the
device. The system can be extended to
8
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Table 3. Breakdown
of emissions from
homes and commercial
buildings based on
Next Energy (006).
Commercial standby
is not included in this
source but is estimated
as 4-8% by the AGO
005.

Category % Category %
Transport 31 Transport -
Appliances 25 Appliances 7
Water heating 16 Water heating 34
Space heating/
cooling
13 Space heating/
cooling
32
Waste 5 Waste 0
Lighting 5 Lighting 27
Standby 5 Standby -
Household emissions Commercial emissions
REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
Presence Based Power techniques have been applied in some parts of the USA
(ThomasNet 006). It uses currently available technology including broadband to
the home and workplace; broadband-enabled appliances, switches and sockets;
radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and telemetry; and motion sensing,
combined with software to predict normal behaviours (people leaving the house in
the morning or going to bed).
Climate Risk
estimate that,
separate from
standby power,
about 15% of
energy use may
be categorised as
‘orphaned’.
include time-based intelligence e.g. to
turn off hot water systems when people
are at work.
The approach eliminates a large
fraction of the energy consumption of
‘orphaned’ appliances without the need
for any behavioural change on the part
of the user and in a way that users can
customise to their own needs without
loss of amenity.
The breakdown of household and
commercial emissions (Table 3) gives
some idea of the target applications
which include space heating/cooling,
appliances, lighting and water heating
(59% of household emissions and 00%
of commercial emissions).

Challenges and Barriers
Critical elements of success include:
The volume of customers
participating,
The range of devices that can be
managed through external signals,
Customer trust in privacy.



9
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
55
30
35
40
45
50
MtCO
2
-e
Year
Figure 5. Trends
in passenger car
emissions over time
(‘with measures’)
showing sustained
increases since 990
(AGO 006a).
Travel to and from
work generates
approximately 2.6%
of Australia’s total
greenhouse gas
emissions.
Figure 15: Australian emissions from passenger car use since 1990
Carbon-Opportunity 3:
De-centralised Business District
At a Glance
Network-enabled homes, suburbs
and regional centres can remove or
significantly reduce the emissions
generated by people travelling to and
from their place of work.
This carbon-opportunity considers
only the reduced greenhouse pollution
arising from reduced or higher
efficiency travel to and from the
workplace. Its does not assume any
reduction of emissions at the workplace
which may simply be transferred to a
different location.
Status and Trends
Australians travel 43.5 billion kilometres
a year commuting to and from their
place of work using private vehicles
(ABS 007, based on 004 data). The
dispersed urban form of Australian
cities means that the average distance
travelled by a worker, to and from work
in a year, is 7,00 kilometres and this
travel generates approximately .6%
of Australia’s total greenhouse gas
emissions (AGO 006a; ABS 007).
Although Climate Risk does not
have direct information on trends
in commuting levels in Australia, an
increasing trend can be inferred via
the general growth in car use. This
coincides with a general increase in the
percentage of travel on public transport.
Figure 5 shows the increasing level of
car use causing close to 8% of national
greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions
from car use have increased by 500,000
tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
(500,000 t CO

–e) per year since 990,
the baseline year for the United Nations
and Kyoto Protocol measurements.
‘WiTH MEASuRES’
The term ‘with measures’
refers to government
initiatives with allocated
budgets, timetables and,
if necessary, supporting
legislation which are used
to adjust projections of
future emissions.
30
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
JEVOnS’ PARADOX
William Stanley Jevons (835-88) was an English
economist and logician who analysed the impacts of
the last Industrial Revolution. In The Coal Question
(865) he maintained that technological efficiency
gains—specifically the more “economical” use of coal in
engines doing mechanical work—actually increased the
overall consumption of coal, iron, and other resources,
rather than “saving” them, as many claimed (Alcott
005, p.9). As this outcome ran counter to Jevons’
intuition, it is known historically as ‘Jevons’ Paradox’.
The Carbon-Business Confluence
There is a direct carbon impact from the
reduced use of vehicles for commuting.
A direct value from reduced time
spent by workers commuting also
accrues either to the company or to the
individual, and can be monetised in
terms of the hourly rate that the person
would otherwise earn for their time.
Australia is experiencing a skills and
labour shortage across many sectors as
a result of continued economic growth
and an aging population. More flexible
hours and locations of work can partly
redress this shortage by enabling new
workers previously excluded by the time
barrier of commuting. The economy
will benefit from the deployment of
such additional resources in any labour-
constrained market.
Reduced time spent commuting may
encourage workers to relocate to
regional centres. This has a secondary
financial benefit to employers and
employees in that it allows people to
settle in places with lower housing
prices than Australia’s major cities.
This improves affordability, reduces
wage pressures and results in more
disposable income.
The Telecommunication network
Opportunity
Telecommunication providers have
many existing products and services
that can reduce the time spent
commuting, or can provide viable
alternatives to physical commuting.
The two solutions considered here are
teleworking and de-centralised working.
We do not include traffic efficiency due
to Jevons’ Paradox.
Telework:
Telework allows people to work from
home or local business centres without
the need to physically commute.
According to the Australian Telework
Advisory Committee (ATAC), telework is
defined as:
“encompassing work arrangements
which take place between a remote
worker and a central business location,
including where these arrangements:
involve a worker located at home,
either as an employer connecting
to a work location, or as a self-
employed worker, connecting to
clients; and
are enabled by ICT, such as a PC and
network connectivity; and
occur within the context of the
Australian economy (e.g. not



3
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Empirical research
suggests that
teleworkers produce
more work per hour
than their work-
based colleagues.
‘off-shoring’ or ‘time-shifting’
arrangements); and
involve full-time, part-time or casual
work; and
occur within the context of an
employment relationship; and
are either formal or informal; and
are voluntary or compulsory.”
(ATAC 006, p.4)
According to ATAC (2006), the benefits
of telework typically include:
increased productivity,
Decreased workplace costs
Flexible work hours (e.g. for the
over-65 age group),
Removal of distance as a barrier to
employment,
increased opportunities for people
with disabilities,
Decreased travel times, costs and
emissions.
A quarter of the 9.5 million people in the
workforce work at least some of their
hours from home (ABS 007). Of the
75,000 people who identify themselves
as ‘working from home’, only about
95,000 are employees, the remainder
being small business owner-managers.
Teleworking creates an important
overlap between the home environment
and the workplace, with consequent
reductions in emissions as outlined
above. Furthermore, empirical research
suggests that teleworkers produce more
work per hour than their work-based
colleagues (ATAC 006).
The De-centralised Workplace:
A variation on teleworking is the ability
of people to work not at home, but










close to home at a ‘telework centre’
or regional centre. This workplace
decentralisation yields considerably
reduced commuting distances, travel
time and transport emissions. For
example, the average commute time in
Sydney is 4.7 hours per week, compared
to .9 hours per week for the rest of
NSW (MIAESR 00). Furthermore, the
lower levels of traffic should increase
vehicle speeds and efficiencies.
Broadband can serve to counteract
these ‘lost hours’ commuting by
enabling people to live and work in
smaller towns, cities or suburbs (with
much lower commuting requirements),
while continuing to work for city-based
national and international employers.
This may involve the use of multi-
occupant business centres, or regional
offices for larger businesses. In other
cases, whole departments can be
moved to regional centres.
All of these changes hinge on the ability
to move large volumes of data, voice
and video between regional centres,
suburbs and cities. The richness of
the experiences will increasingly be
enhanced by higher-end services such
as ‘in person’ quality conferencing
facilities. The economic opportunities to
reinvigorate widely dispersed regional
centres through teleworking and de-
centralised workplaces are obviously
linked to the quality and extent of the
broadband network.
Challenges and Barriers
Some barriers to teleworking and
regional relocation are non-technical.
According to ATAC (006) the main
3
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
East Midlands Electricity (EME), united Kingdom
EME is an electricity distribution firm in the East Midlands, UK. Approximately
50 of its 469 staff at the Pegasus building telework to 5 days per week, resulting
in considerable savings for both the employer and employees. Due to the high
telework uptake, EME reduced its amount of office space, currently at a premium,
saving the company approximately $A70,000
6
per year. The workers save
approximately $A 40 per week and an average of 0 hours each per week in
commuting time. In total, an average of 38,000 km per week was saved by the 50
teleworkers (Hopkins & James 00).
Malta information Technology and Training Services Ltd , Malta
In Malta, an information technology service has utilised a hybrid approach to
telework to maximise the opportunities and overcome challenges associated
with telework. Malta Information Technology and Training Services Ltd (MITTS)
decided on a three-day-telework, two-day-office program with its staff. This way
they have managed to retain skilled working mothers who could not commit to a
full-time office-based working week (ETC 007).
REAL WORLD EXAMPLES
6 Based on GBP = .7 AUD
The average
commute time in
Sydney is 4.7 hours
per week, compared
to 2.9 hours per
week for the rest
of NSW (MIAESR
2002).
barriers to telework implementation are:
The trust-based relationship
between employee and employer,
The monitoring and supervision of
employees,
Insurance,
ICT costs,
Isolation, and
Cultural resistance.






33
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
The transport
sector accounts for
approximately 13.5
percent of annual
net greenhouse
emissions.
Carbon-Opportunity 4:
Personalised Public Transport
At a Glance
Wireless-broadband can facilitate public
transport on demand. Personalised
Public Transport allows the user to
order public transport provided by an
integrated network of multi-occupant
taxis, minibuses, buses and trains,
which starts at the front door (multi-
modal transport). The personal
efficiency of Personalised Public
Transport can exceed that of using the
private car, with faster speeds door-to-
door, greater flexibility and lower costs.
Status and Trends
Australia’s tyranny of distance and
dispersed settlement patterns have
led to a reliance on motor vehicles
(Alexander 000). The transport sector
accounts for approximately 4% of
annual net greenhouse emissions (AGO
007b). Further, it is anticipated that
under a business-as-usual scenario,
private vehicle use and emissions will
continue to increase significantly, with
3% growth between 005 and 00
(AGO 006a).
Private Transport: Since the 950s,
Australia has experienced considerable
growth in private car ownership and
kilometres travelled (ABS 007).
According to the Australian Bureau
of Statistics, the majority of private
transport is used for commuting to and
from work, as well as personal travel
such as school runs and shopping (ABS
007). Three-quarters of Australian
commuters use their car to get to work,
and of these only 4% share the car with
anyone else (ABS 007).
While recent increases in the cost of
fuel have made a minor impact on
private vehicle kilometres travelled,
there continues to be a strong positive
trend in private vehicle use (Figure 5).
The current greenhouse gas emissions
from this sector are expected to grow
from 43 MtCO

–e in 005 to 49 MtCO

–e
in 00, a 39 % increase on 990 levels
(AGO 006a). Researchers identify
that a combination of demand-side
management, supply-side management
and behavioural change is required to
significantly reduce transport emissions
(Cervero 00).
Public Transport: Public transport
use has varied in recent history, and
stabilised to a constant % between
000 and 003 (ABS 007). Although
there has been a recent spike in public
transport use from increased fuel
price (ABS 007), Australia’s dispersed
settlement pattern has limited the viable
public transport services to hub-and-
spoke options, i.e. in and out of the
city with poor intra- and inter-suburb
services. In order to improve public
transport use, there needs to be an
improvement in the ‘personal efficiency’
of public transport options, such as
increased frequency of services and
across-town options (suburb-to-suburb,
rather than suburb-to-city: Mees 000).
Transit Orientated Design: Throughout
Australia there is an increasing trend
towards regional transport planning
that incorporates Transit Oriented
34
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Design (TOD), in which dense mixed-
use activity centres are connected
by frequent transport services
(OUM & SEQROC 005; V.DSE 005).
Low-density sprawling Australian
neighbourhoods do not encourage
the provision of such services to areas
outside the TOD catchment without
incurring significant running costs.
The Carbon-Business Confluence
A range of potential ICT-based solutions
exists to reduce private transport use
and improve vehicle energy efficiencies.
These include facilitating telework
options discussed earlier.
The carbon-business case presented
below is based on the opportunity
to facilitate new or changed services
that improve the personal efficiency
of public transport to the consumer,
exceeding the relative value of personal
car use.
There are other opportunities that
include web-based intelligence to
increase car pooling and therefore
the net efficiency of car use and smart
traffic-flow monitoring (GoLoco 007).
There is a strong business case for an
existing internet company or council to
create a web-based clearing house for
car pooling. This report has not pursued
traffic flow alternatives which could
be improved by network applications,
because improved traffic flow and
efficiency lead to increased levels of
traffic with little or no net greenhouse
emission benefit (Jevon’s Paradox).
The Telecommunications/iT industry
Opportunity
The opportunity identified here is
the application of ICT-facilitated
Personalised Public Transport in high
and medium density urban areas to
allow a reduction in car use in favour of
lower emission travel options.
Personalised Public Transport is the
provision of on-call public transport
vehicles which act as feeders to Transit
Oriented Developments (TODs), using
integrated modes of local mini-buses,
suburb-to-suburb links, high-speed
express buses, trains and multi-
occupant taxi services. The integration
reduces travel and wait-times and
increases the economies of scale for
specialised services such as express
commuter trains and buses, as well as
suburb-to-suburb inter-connection.
The net effect of PPT is:
Increased flexibility for the
customer,
Reduced waiting times for the
customer,
Increasing the use of public
transport within the catchment,
More frequent services,
Higher speed arterial services,
Increased commercial viability of all
transport suppliers.






35
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
REAL WORLD EXAMPLES
Brisbane City Council
Brisbane City Council is currently trialling a limited PPT system which operates
outside the Translink network. Through an agreement with Black and White Cabs
Pty Ltd, maxi cabs travel along a fixed route every 5-30 minutes in five subburbs
to provide commuters easy acces to and from their local train stations, bus
interchanges and shopping centre. The service only runs during peak hour and the
costs the commuter $ for each trip (Brisbane City Council 007).
MobiSoft
Technology already exists for the facilitation of personalised public transport.
MobiSoft, a Finnish software company, has developed software for transport
providers which:
“enables total management of incoming requests, offers real-time map-based
route design as well as scheduling and capacity management, such as making sure
the proper vehicle is sent to the customer. Mobile phone networks are used for fast
and reliable data transfer, meaning that the system can be immediately deployed,
eliminating the need for expensive equipment investments and lengthy delivery
and deployment times.” (MobiSoft 007)
Research is also currently underway to provide personalised public transport using
automated, driverless vehicles. Capoco (007) have developed the Mobilicity
project. Mobilicity is a demand-responsive driverless personalised public transport
system which uses hybrid electric vehicles to act as transport feeders to main trunk
public transport lines and is beginning trials at the Shanghai Expo in 00 and
London Olympic Games in 0.
Challenges and Barriers
The barriers to the uptake of public
transport in general would also be
a barrier to network enabled PPT
and include imbalances in tax and
corporate incentives, traffic access
and prioritisation as well as funding for
major public transport infrastructure.
The premise is that the barriers to
non-car travel are based on personal
efficiency. Currently, even though a
bus trip may be significantly less costly
than car-based commuting and personal
travel, the net time spent waiting and
travelling and the value of that time to
the person reverses the overall cost-
benefit balance in favour of the car.
36
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
9.7 billion
kilometres
25.5 billion
kilometres
Laden vehicles
Unladen vehicles
Figure 6. Fraction
of freight vehicle
kilometres which are
laden and unladen (ABS
007, p. 533).
Figure 16: Annual distances travelled by Australian freight vehicles
Currently the road
freight sector is
responsible for 36
% of the transport
sector’s emissions
and nearly 5% of
Australia’s total
emissions.
Carbon-Opportunity 5:
Real-time Freight Management
At a Glance
Currently one-third of the billions of
kilometres travelled by Australian freight
vehicles are without loads. Network-
enabled vehicles and load monitoring
can create systems that reduce unladen
and under-laden trips.
Status and Trends
Currently the road freight sector is
responsible for 36% of the transport
sector’s emissions and nearly 5% of
Australia’s total emissions (AGO 006a).
In 004 light commercial vehicles, rigid
trucks and articulated trucks travelled
more than 35 billion kilometres moving
goods throughout Australia (ABS 007).
The greenhouse gas emissions
from light commercial vehicles and
articulated trucks is projected to
increase from 3 MtCO

-e in 990 to 3
MtCO

-e in 00 (AGO 006).
Almost a third (8%) of the 9 billion
kilometres travelled involves empty
freight vehicles (Figure 6). During these
times, larger freight vehicles may be
emitting between . and .4 kilograms
of CO

on average for each kilometre
travelled.
The Carbon-Business Confluence
The opportunity considered here is to
target unladen vehicle use in Australia.
Initiatives in overseas markets have
shown that integrated high-speed
communications can be used to create
new freight management systems and
markets that can significantly increase
the average load factor on freight
vehicle.
An increase in the load factor of freight
vehicle use is effectively an energy
efficiency measure which has direct
carbon benefits from the reduced fuel
use. It also represents dollar savings
37
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
Mercedes-Benz FleetBoard, working with Software AG, has recently developed an
internet-based fleet management system whereby information between forwarders
and carriers can be shared in real-time 4 hours a day, seven days a week.
The system allows the freight forwarder to enter information on to a web-based
platform which assigns orders to individual vehicles. The information is sent via SMS
to the vehicle’s in-cab screen, allowing the driver to accept or reject the assignment
based on timing or congestion issues. The end result is that there are less unladen
vehicle trips, saving considerable time and money for both the forwarder and carrier.
Furthermore, all of the information can be stored for future analysis of route planning
(Software AG 007).
Almost a third of the
kilometres travelled
by Australian freight
fleets is wasted on
empty trips.
which could accrue between freight
handlers, third-party freight managers
and the freight customer. Such a
large percentage (8%) of current
and projected unladen kilometres
travelled presents an opportunity for
telecommunications providers and the
freight industry to facilitate considerable
greenhouse gas emission reductions.
There are also non-carbon financial
benefits due to the reduced capital
stock required, reduced vehicle wear,
and reduced on-road costs (such as
taxation).
The Telecommunications/iCT industry
Opportunity
The opportunity we identify here is
the application of ICT-facilitated Real-
time Freight Management, which
goes beyond typical in-house options
undertaken by conventional freight
businesses.
Use of mobile data networks to facilitate
real-time solutions would allow freight
brokers to identify loads, vehicle
locations, destinations and load status
in order to offer freight to empty or
partially laden vehicles. Furthermore,
it is also possible to provide best
route options using GPS technology,
providing the carrier with the shortest
routes for the load pick-up and delivery.
The anticipated cost savings for the
freight carrier would allow freight
brokers (or third-party network
providers) to capture a price for
the service. The service would be
particularly useful for owner-operator
carriers who do not have the capacity
or resources for an integrated
management system.
Many businesses throughout the world
have recognised that unladen freight
vehicles kilometres reduce profitability
and have attempted to manage this cost
in a variety of ways using ICT platforms.
Moreover, as Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) tagging of goods
increases, it is possible that more
precise savings can be utilised.
Challenges and Barriers
The major barriers to the deployment of
such a solution would be the necessary
tagging, monitoring and clearing-house
infrastructure. The system lends itself
to collaboration with a third-party
logistics partner.
38
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Carbon-Opportunity 6 :
Increased Renewable Energy
At a Glance
Deep cuts in Australian emissions will
require a transition to low and zero
emission sources of power supply.
Though plentiful, low-cost renewable
energy sources like wind power are
hampered by intermittency, the minute-
by-minute short-term variability of the
supply. Extensive broadband networks,
combined with intelligent active load
management of heating and cooling
appliances in many buildings, can
be used to effectively neutralise this
variability, turning such renewables
into ‘stable and predictable generation’
and allowing them to contribute a
greater emission-free component of the
electricity supply.
Status and Trends
Australia is endowed with large volumes
of fossil fuels, from oil and gas off the
North-West Shelf, to the vast brown
and black coal reserves in the eastern
Total fossil-fuel use
in power generation
accounts for
approximately 35%
of the country’s
greenhouse gas
emissions.
Figure 7. The ability
of telecommunication
networks to
provide real-time
communication across
the whole electricity
system allows many
appliances in millions
of homes and offices to
be used to balance the
short-term variations
from renewable
energy plants. This is
equivalent to creating a
very large, very widely
distributed, virtual
energy storage battery.
Figure 17: Telecommunications network can reach energy generators,
electricity users and grid managers.
Commercial
Homes
Renewable
energy
Renewable
energy
Virtual energy storage
Telecommunications
network
Electricity network Electricity grid
39
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Figure 8. The
variability of wind
farm energy output in
aggregate decreases
as more wind farms
are added. The multi-
hourly and daily
variations shown here
can be predicted using
weather forecasting
techniques, whereas the
short-term variations
must be accommodated
by other supply sources
on the network (Coates
004).
Capacity %
30 January
2003
3 February
2003
5 February
2003
7 February
2003
9 February
2003
1 February
2003
100
80
60
40
20
South Australia
Victoria
New South Wales
All
Figure 18: Wind energy output from three states and in aggregate
states. In a carbon-constrained world,
these assets may become a liability.
Already large institutional investors
are seeking disclosure of the carbon
liabilities of Australian companies (CDP
007). Some energy companies are
already responding by reducing the
carbon intensity of their generation
portfolio and divesting coal and
purchasing gas and renewable energy
assets (AGL 007). This situation may
become more onerous if some Kyoto-
signatory countries (including those
within the EU, Australia’s largest trading
partner) successfully call for the impost
of carbon-based import tariffs against
non-signatory countries. Approximately
86% of Australia’s electricity is supplied
by coal (AGO 007b), with total fossil-
fuel use in power generation accounting
for approximately 35% of the country’s
greenhouse gas emissions (ABS 007).
Australia also has large sources
of renewable energy including
wind power, biomass energy from
agricultural wastes, solar radiation,
geothermal power and ocean-based
generation. Hydro-electricity can
supply energy on demand. Sources
like biomass or geothermal can supply
relatively constant energy. However,
the most rapidly growing renewable
energy technologies - wind and solar
- harness energy sources which have
some temporal variability. Wind farms
are placed in sites where there are
usually strong and consistent winds,
but there is always intermittency;
weather forecasting technologies are
now applied to predict these variations
(White 005) and multiple wind farms
reduce the overall variations (Figure 8).
Although there are over 6,000
megawatts of wind energy projects
proposed for Australia (enough to power
3 million homes), their implementation
may be constrained by the management
of the variability in output from these
40
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
ECOnnECT (uK) AnD DiSTRiBuTED inTELLiGEnT LOAD COnTROLLERS
Automatic Load Controller
“Many domestic loads can be controlled effectively by our
Automatic Load Controller. This product sheds non-essential
loads when the system is in danger of becoming overloaded.
Electrical appliances which can be switched off for short
periods (user selectable between 8 seconds and 6 minutes)
without affecting their function are most suitable - for
example, washing machines, dishwashers, fridges, freezers,
electric kettles, microwave ovens, irons, electric cookers,
water and space heaters”.
Governing Load Controller
“At times of high availability of renewable energy resource
and low demand, the energy can be usefully deployed instead
of being dumped to a central dump load. Suitable loads, such
as water and space heating can be added”.
4
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
wind farms. For example, although
South Australia already has approvals
for wind farms with a total capacity of
nearly 000 megawatts (Auswind 007),
there have been ongoing pressures to
limit wind power development partly
citing this variability:
“South Australia is rapidly heading
towards being, proportionally, the
second largest producer of wind energy
in the world. …While wind energy has
been, and will continue to be, a welcome
contributor to the State’s electricity
supply, the sheer scale of the proposals
has prompted concerns regarding the
impact that such high levels of wind
generation might have on the reliability,
security and price of electricity in South
Australia… more than 500 MW of wind
generation will result in unacceptable
risks to reliability in the State and
create uncertainty over long term price
trends. These impacts are the result
of two particular characteristics of
wind generation, namely the inherent
variability and inherent uncertainty
associated with wind energy; and
the way it participates in the national
electricity market.” (ESIPC 004)
Failing to harness low-cost clean-
energy sources like wind power because
of concerns about intermittency
represents a barrier to achieving
deep cuts in national greenhouse gas
emissions. Wind and biomass were
identified as amongst the lowest-cost
energy options by the CSIRO-led Energy
Future Forum, which placed a 0% limit
on the penetration into the grid of each
of the intermittent renewables in its
future scenarios (CSIRO 006).
The Carbon-Business Confluence
The commercial viability of this carbon-
opportunity is based on the ability to
manage significant electrical loads
across a large customer base that can be
used to effectively neutralise the short-
term (up to about one hour) variability of
intermittent renewable energy sources.
This would allow more clean energy into
the grid network and also increase the
value of that energy.
Since the grid is not a battery, the
demand for electricity and the supply
of power must be kept in constant
balance by the grid operator. Australia’s
largest grid is managed by the National
Electricity Market Management
Company (NEMMCO). The grid
operator cannot control how people
use energy in their homes, businesses
or industries, and as such, the state
grid companies and energy retailers
regulate the system to achieve the
balance. The electricity market is based
on information about expected demand
(e.g. in 5 minute intervals) at various
nodes. This information is provided for
bids from all potential suppliers. Supply
is dispatched according to least–cost
and environmental constraints. On
the eastern seaboard this is called the
National Electricity Market (NEM).
In some of the more extreme cases, such
as power station units shutting down,
the grid operator may regulate customer
energy supply by cutting supply to a
large industrial loads to avoid residential
blackouts.
An alternative to balancing the energy
4
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
CuRRuMBin ECO-ViLLAGE, GOLD COAST
EcoVision Solutions, a Gold Coast based technology development company, uses
an integrated control and management system which will facilitate cooperative
management of resources in the energy and water supply chain.
As a component of the cooperative framework, EcoVision has produced a home
touchscreen interface which provides consumers with real time feedback of
electricity, potable water, recycled water and gas usage. Greenhouse gases relating
to resource consumption are displayed in graphical form as well as photovoltaic
solar power or other forms of renewable energy generation. Energy use can be
monitored at circuit level (eg lighting separate from general power) or at discrete
appliance level. In conjunction with various in home sensors and timers, an in home
EcoVision controller provides automation features to reduce energy consumption
and phantom loads as well as shed loads in times of network constraint.
All of the data gathered by EcoVision is sent to a central server (usually via the
community network) for use by the Body Corporate, enabling comparison of
performance in different households and benchmarks to be set.
The important aspect of EcoVision is its architecture which facilitates aggregation
of end use data far beyond the local community level. EcoVision enables occupants
to offer demand side capacity back to the utility via the web at times of network
constraint. This would typically include switching of major loads such as air
conditioners, pool pumps and refrigerators which can contribute unnecessarily
to coincident peak demand. As result distribution utilities can derive significant
benefits via reduced outages and extended asset life.
EcoVision is now installing its first 44 systems at the award winning Ecovillage at
Currumbin, a residential subdivision on the Gold Coast.
43
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
supply on an ongoing basis is to manage
the loads (demand-side management).
In this way, a spike in demand of one
megawatt can be matched by either a
corresponding increase in supply of one
megawatt, or a corresponding dip in
demand of one megawatt somewhere
else in the grid - sometimes referred to
as ‘negawatt’ (Lovins 989). There are
many electrical appliances in homes,
offices and other buildings – especially
heating and cooling applications - which
are only mildly time-critical and can
be managed to control loads with no
loss of amenity to the customer. The
conventional means to make these
loads assist with grid management has
focused on providing a price signal to
customers using a ‘smart meter’ that
can show the price of electricity varying
though the day, but this is a slow and
blunt instrument. A faster response
could assist in the management of the
short-term dynamics of renewable
energy. Broadband unlocks the speeds
of response required for such tasks.
The target loads that can be readily
accessed by broadband are the
‘discretionary loads’. These are energy-
consuming devices where the timing
of energy use is less important. For
example, it may be important that the
temperature of a fridge stays between
and 4
o
C, but whether the fridge is on for
one block of 0 minutes or two blocks
of 5 minutes will make no difference
to the fridge owner, but can play an
important part in power management
in the electricity network. The ability
to control when discretionary loads
operate creates a large, distributed load
management tool. It is important to
note that the net energy use will be the
same, but it is the ‘dynamic’ or ‘time
shifting’ which is being harnessed.
The ability to manage discretionary
consumer loads on a large scale
with rapid speed unlocks the ability
to actively manage variability in the
grid in general, but particularly in the
management of the intermittency in
renewable energy supplies.
The Telecommunication networks
Application
The opportunity we identify here is the
application of broadband to the home
and workplace, with broadband-enabled
appliances, switches and sockets which
can be easily installed in buildings.
Typical ‘discretionary loads’ in the home
and workplace include:
Air conditioning,
Electric Heating,
Electric hot water systems or electric
boosted solar hot water,
Refrigerators and freezers,
Devices on charge such as tools,
laptop computers, wireless phones
etc.
Most of these appliances work within
user-defined ranges, such as the
room temperature setting for an air
conditioner. Third-party management
of how the outcome is achieved is
essentially invisible to the resident or





DynAMiC LOAD
MAnAGEMEnT
Some utilities use signals
over the electrical network
to turn domestic hot water
systems on and off. This
assists with their grid
management.
44
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
worker and causes no loss of amenity.
The permission to exercise control could
be assigned as part of the broadband
supply contract and perhaps coupled
with the promotion of third-party supply
of externally controllable appliances
(though this would lend itself to national
standards legislation).
The NEM also has an ‘ancillary services’
market designed to maintain the supply
availability and quality, and the load
management system presented here
may be suitable to bidding into these
markets.
Challenges and Barriers
Critical elements of success include:
The volume of customers with
devices and appliances under
external management,

Customer trust in the management
company to cause no loss of
amenity,
External control of appliances
– some, like hot water systems, can
be controlled at the power outlet;
others, like a fridge, need to be able
to have the cooling turned on and off
separately from internal lighting or
timers,
The uptake of renewable energy
is subject to carbon pricing and
industry development mechanisms.



45
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MtCO
2
-e
Year
Figure 9. Trend and
projected domestic
aviation emissions
(AGO 006).
Figure 19: Domestic aviation emissions since 1990
Aviation emissions
which occur at
altitude are some 2.7
times more harmful
in greenhouse terms
than if they were
released at ground
level.
Carbon-Opportunity 7 : ‘On-Live’
High Definition Video Conferencing
At a Glance
Long-distance, short-duration travel can
be effectively replaced with ‘in-person’
quality, online conferencing facilities
that are significantly more efficient in
cost, time, energy and emissions.
Status and Trends
Growth in air travel is increasing
markedly with ongoing cost reductions,
leading to negative environmental and
social impacts. Aeroplanes are slowly
becoming more efficient, but this is
outweighed by increased demand,
and as a result, aviation greenhouse
emissions are rapidly increasing.
Aviation emissions which occur at
altitude are some .7 times more
harmful in greenhouse terms than if they
were released at ground level (Tyndall
006).
According to the Australian Greenhouse
Office, domestic aviation has become
the fastest growing transport sub-
sector. It is projected that its share of
transport sector emissions will increase
from 4.7 % (.9 MtCO

–e) in 005 to 6.8%
(5.9MtCO

–e) by 00 (Figure 9). This is
an increase from 0.5% of Australia’s total
emissions to 0.8% in just 5 years (Figure
9). By 00, emissions from aviation
may easily have doubled since the Kyoto
Protocol baseline year of 990. These
figures may be underestimated given
the plans for ultra-low cost carriers to
enter the market (Tiger Airlines 007).
International research indicates that
between 36% and 63% of short-haul air
travel is for short-term business, the
wide range comes from the different
airports considered in the study (Mason
000).
46
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
Cisco Systems, one developer of telepresence conferencing facilities, has offices
all over the world and a highly mobile workforce. Since adopting the technology
internally, the company has set a worldwide target of reducing its own air travel by
0%. The Australian division of Cisco has already reduced air travel by 6% in less
than one year (Ross 007).
The Carbon-Business Confluence
In the medium to longer term, the high
growth rates of 4% forecast by the
aviation sector (Airservices Australia
006) are likely to be unsustainable,
given fuel supply costs and expected
carbon constraints.
Currently bunker fuels are excluded
from restriction under the Kyoto
Protocol. This is expected to change
in the next commitment period,
foreshadowed by emergent regulation
in the EU (Bows & Anderson 005).
As regulatory risks increase overseas,
this may impact on inbound and
outbound long-haul travel as well as
pricing structures in Australia.
There is a clear disharmony between
the rapid growth of the aviation sector in
Australia and overseas, and the pressure
for carbon constraints.
There is significant potential for carbon
abatement and commercial gain if
telecommunication companies provide
services offering equivalent contact for
some aspects of business and personal
aviation.
Telecommunications network
Opportunity: ‘On-Live’ High
Definition Video-Conferencing
Business air travel can be exceedingly
time inefficient. High-value
executives spend valuable hours
and sometimes days in transit, a
significant waste of human resources
with a direct dollar value to their
companies.
To effectively replace business travel
it is important to recognise that 60%
of communication between people is
non-verbal, being contained in body
language, gesture and expression.
These elements are often lost by
conventional teleconferencing where
the body is not shown, definition is too
low to capture detailed expression, and
latency loses critical gestures.
Technology now available to Australian
businesses has been designed to
address these issues. Such high-end
commercial systems (from Cisco and
HP) have considerable bandwidth
requirements. The potential savings
of time, money and greenhouse gas
emissions will increase the efficiency
of many Australian companies.
AEROPLAnE EFFiCiEnCy
The aviation industry is
seeing new, more efficient,
aircraft enter the market.
The analysis herein
uses a 005 snapshot of
emissions which excludes
new initiatives announced
and launched since this
time, as well as the sectors
growth.
47
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Pay back periods
on investments for
‘virtual-aviation’
suites costing
$A250,000 can be
below 6 months
when both travel
and salary costs are
evaluated.
Consultations by Climate Risk indicate
that, for some businesses, pay back
periods on investments for ‘on-live’
high definition video conference suites
costing $A50,000 can be less than six
months when both travel and salary
costs are evaluated.
Beyond in-house company systems,
pay-for-use services by leading telcos
such as Telstra would unlock a wider
customer base including small and
medium size enterprises (SME). These
would also allow greater participation
in overseas markets by SME businesses
who are typically constrained by modest
travel budgets and the prolonged
absence of key staff.
There is also a role for ‘in person’ quality
technology and bandwidth to offer
an alternative to long-distance, short-
duration travel and provide greater
amenity to the customer outside the
business space.
These services create possibilities
to overcome the health and financial
barriers to air travel, or to meet with
friends and family more frequently than
is feasible with air travel (e.g. someone
in Perth having a catch-up with a sibling
in London once a week). To some extent
these are new applications that may not
reduce current or future aviation use or
emissions. They are therefore excluded
from our carbon abatement calculations.
Challenges and Barriers
The quality of the new ‘in person’
conferencing is sufficiently high to
make ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video
Conferencing more personally efficient
than flying. However some of the appeal
of air travel is not about the travel itself,
but rather secondary benefits, for
example the opportunity to see friends
while away. Consequently, some of
these barriers may be addressed by
configuring the ‘on-live’ alternatives to
provide equivalent secondary benefits.
Photograph courtesy of Cisco Systems
48
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Quantifying the Opportunities
Part 5
Remote Appliance Power
Management
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO

-e.
(AGO 007b).
Total residential and commercial
electricity consumption was 08,000
GWh per year (ABS 004 , ANZSIC
divisions E-H and J-Q).
Estimated losses from standby power in
residential and commercial sectors are
9.3 % (AGO 007b).
Emission intensity of electricity
production is 0.94 tCO

-e per MWh (AGO
006b, p. 3).
The national average price of electricity
to residential and non-residential
customers is estimated herein as 0
cents per kilowatt hour (ESAA 004)
7
.
Assumes broadband-based Remote
Appliance Power Management solutions
are used to reduce standby emissions
by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and
commercial buildings.
7 ESAA 004, Electricity Prices in Australia 003/04. Electricity Supply Association of Australia
Results
(All figures are based on 005 data
without growth)
The total reduction in standby
emissions will be .8 MtCO

-e per
annum.
This emission reduction
represents 0.33% of total net
Australian emissions.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $8 million, $36 million and
$9 million at carbon prices of
$0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO

-e
respectively.
The avoided electricity purchase
through application of Remote
Appliance Power Management is
,700 GWh per year.
The value of the avoided electricity
purchases at 0 cents per KWh is
$70 million per year.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
The carbon-opportunities are based on using either existing ICT networks or
networks that will be rolled-out in due course regardless of any greenhouse
gas benefits. Therefore the energy and emissions related to increased ICT use
are not included within the emissions cost-benefit equations for each carbon-
opportunity, but are instead included within the overall projections of increased
national emissions (Figure 4).
BASELinE yEAR AnD
GROWTH
The Australian
government regularly
publishes a National
Greenhouse Gas
Inventory, the most
recent of which covered
emissions in 005. The
results presented herein
are generally calculated
based on this 005
‘snapshot’. Since national
emissions are growing it
has been assumed that
the relative contribution
of different sectors
remains unchanging and
therefore the abatement
as a percentage of
national emissions
remains constant post
005. However, several
of the energy based
emissions sectors to
which these carbon
opportunities apply are
increasing their relative
proportion of national
emissions. Therefore,
the results presented can
be considered relatively
conservative, and the
actual abatement may be
considerably higher.
49
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
8 ESAA 004, Electricity Prices in Australia 003/04. Electricity Supply Association of Australia
Presence-Based Power
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO

-e
(based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).
Total residential and commercial
electricity consumption was 08,000
GWh per year (ABS 004 , ANZSIC
divisions E-H and J-Q).
Emission intensity of electricity
production is 0.94tCO

-e per MWh (AGO
006b).
The national average price of electricity
to residential and non-residential
customers is estimated as 0 cents per
kilowatt hour (ESAA 004)
8
.
Assumes that ‘orphaned’ energy
consumed by appliances is 5% overall
for residential and commercial energy
consumption .
Assumes network enabled Presence-
Based Power solutions are used to
reduce ‘orphaned’ energy emissions
by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and
commercial buildings.

Results
(All figures are based on 005 data
without growth)
The total reduction in standby
emissions will be .97 MtCO

-e per
annum.
This emission reduction represents
0.53% of total net Australian
emissions.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $9 million, $59 million and
$48 million at carbon prices of
$0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO

-e
respectively.
The avoided electricity purchase is
,700 GWh per year.
The value of the avoided electricity
purchases at 0 cents per KWh is
$69 million per year.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
50
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
De-centralised Business District
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO

-e.
(based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).
Total emissions from private transport
(passenger car) were 43.7 MtCO

-e per
year (AGO 007b).
The fraction of kilometres travelled used
on commuting to and from work is 3%
(ABS 007).
The fraction of jobs that are amenable to
telework is about 65% (ATAC 005c).
The emission intensity of litre of liquid
fuel is approximately .5kGCO

-e per
litre (AGO 006b).
The assumed cost of litre of fuel is
$A.00
9
.
Assumes that emissions for commuting
in non-urban areas or within a suburb,
is half of those of city based commuting
(based on MIAESR 00 and assuming
that for shorter distances non-car
options also become more attractive).
Assumes that broadband-based
telework is taken up by 50% of the
employees who have telework suitable
jobs and on average work one day per
week from home.
Assumes that De-Centralised
Workplaces are used by 0% of
employees who have telework suitable
jobs, and their commuting emissions are
reduced by at least 50%.
9 This figure is high by historical values but low by current prices
Results
(All figures are based on 005 data
without growth and consider reduced
travel emissions only)
Annual reduction in emissions from
telework will be 0.9 MtCO

-e.
This emission reduction from
telework represents 0.6% of total
net Australian emissions.
The total reduction in emissions
from the De-centralised Workplace
will be . MtCO

-e p.a.
This emission reduction from De-
centralised workplaces represents
0.39% of total net Australian
emissions.
The total reduction in emissions
from telework and the De-
Centralised Workplace will be 3.09
MtCO

-e per annum.
This total emission reduction from
telework and the de-centralised
workplace represents 0.55% of total
net Australian emissions.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $3 million, $6 million and
$54 million per year at carbon
prices of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne
CO

-e respectively.
The avoided fuel purchase is .
billion litres per year.
The value of the avoided fuel
purchases at $A per litre is $.
billion per year.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
5
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Personalised Public Transport
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559.MtCO

-e
(based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).
Total emissions from private transport
(cars) are 43.7 MtCO

-e per year (AGO
007).
The emission intensity of litre of liquid
fuel is approximately .5kGCO

-e per
litre (AGO 006b).
The assumed cost of litre of fuel is
$A.00.
The relative emission intensity of public
transport is 90% lower than personal car
travel in the urban environment.
Assumes that wireless broadband-
facilitated Personalised Public Transport
is able to capture 0% of car-based
commuters
0
.
0 Assumes that a variety of vehicle options exist in order to optimise passenger vehicle size e.g. taxi for -3
passengers through to a train for hundreds of passengers. Feeder bus services increase train ridership by
enlarging the catchments significantly (Najafi & Nassar 990).
Results
(All figures are based on 005 data
without growth)
The total reduction in transport
emissions will be 3.93 MtCO

-e per
annum.
This emission reduction represents
0.70% of total net Australian
emissions.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $39 million, $79 million and
$00 million at carbon prices of
$0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO

-e
respectively.
The avoided fuel purchases through
application of PPT is .6 billion litres
per year.
The value of the avoided fuel
purchases at $A per litre is $.6
billion per year.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
5
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Real-time Freight Management
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO

-e.
(based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).
Total emissions from freight transport
are 6 MtCO

-e per year (AGO 007)

.
The fraction of kilometres travelled by
unladen freight vehicles is 8% (ABS
007).
The decrease in fuel use from unladen to
laden is 40% (AGO 006c).
The emission intensity of litre of liquid
fuel is approximately .7kGCO

-e per
litre (AGO 006b).
The assumed cost of litre of fuel is
$A.00.
Assumes that Real-time Freight
Management effectively avoids 5% of
unladen truck kilometres.
Results
(All figures are based on 005 data
without growth)
The total reduction in emissions
from Real-time Freight Management
will be .9 MtCO

-e per annum.
This emission reduction from
Real-time Freight Management
represents 0.5% of total net
Australian emissions.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $9 million, $58 million and
$45 million per year at carbon
prices of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne
CO

-e respectively.
The avoided fuel purchase is .
billion litres per year.
The value of the avoided fuel
purchases at $A per litre is $.
billion per year.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
Freight figures include light commercial vehicles (LCVs), rigid trucks (including non-freight trucks such as fire
engines) and articulated trucks.
53
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Increased Renewable Energy
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO

-e.
(based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).
Total residential and commercial
electricity consumption was 08,000
GWh (ABS 004 , ANZSIC divisions E-H
and J-Q).
Emission intensity of electricity
production 0.94tCO

-e per MWh (AGO
006b, p. 3).
The Nominal capacity factor of
intermittent renewable energy
generation plants is 0.3 (Transition
Institute 004).
The cost of large-scale, grid connected
renewable energy is $80 per MWh
(Transition Institute 004).
Assumes that one-third of homes and
commercial buildings are broadband
enabled and that they have agreed to
have their discretionary (non-time-
sensitive) loads managed by Telstra.
Assumes that on average, 5% of
the total loads across residential and
commercial buildings are discretionary
at any one time.
Assumes that at a minimum,
discretionary power is able to leverage
the same average renewable energy
capacity.
Assumes that the additional value of
Increased Renewable Energy is 0% of
the electricity production cost.
Results
Increased Renewable Energy would
facilitate an additional ,000 GWh
of renewable energy production per
year.
This is equivalent to 4.GW of
additional renewable energy
capacity.
The emission abatement from
avoided fossil fuel use would be 0.
MtCO

-e per year.
This emission reduction represents
.8% of total net Australian
emissions.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $0 million, $0 million
and $304 million at carbon prices
of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO

-e
respectively – however it is assumed
that this is already included in the
renewable energy pricing structure.
The value of renewable energy sales
enabled by Increased Renewable
Energy is $86 million per year.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
6.
54
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
‘On-Live’ High Definition Video
Conferencing
Data and Assumptions
The total annual net greenhouse gas
emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO

-e.
(based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).
Total emissions from domestic aviation
was 5. MtCO

-e per year in 005 (AGO
007b).
Emissions from international aviation
are approximately double that of
domestic emissions (May 004).
The CO

emission per litre of aviation
fuel is 3.kg /litre (Aviation Environment
Federation 007).
The nominal fuel efficiency of air travel
is 0.035 litres per person per kilometre
(IATA 007).
The estimated fraction of short haul
travel due to business use is 45%
(Mason 000).
The assumed cost per kilometre of
business air travel in Australia is 0c per
kilometre

.
Assumes one third of business travellers
could replace a trip with an ‘On-Live’
meeting with high speed, high definition
links.
By way of illustration this would be equivalent to a Melbourne-Sydney trip of about 000km costing $00
including taxes.
Results
(All figures are based on 005 data
without growth)
The total reduction in domestic
aviation emissions will be 0.8
MtCO

-e per annum.
The total reduction in domestic and
international aviation emissions will
be .4 MtCO

per annum.
This direct emission reduction is
equivalent to 0.43% of total net
Australian emissions.
The equivalent emissions reduction
including ‘up-lift’ is 6.5 MtCO

-e per
annum.
The value of the carbon abatement
will be $4 million, $48 million and
$0 million at carbon prices of
$0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO

-e
respectively.
The avoided fuel consumption is 960
million litres of aviation fuel per year.
The avoided spending on air travel
through use of ‘On-Live’ High
Definition Video Conferencing is
$. billion.
.
.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
55
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Figure 0. Annual
avoided emissions from
each of the identified
carbon-opportunities
(MtCO

-e).
Total Impacts of Abatement
Opportunities
The total emissions abatement potential
across all seven initiatives and assuming
no double counting is 7.3 MtCO

-e
per year. This represents 0.49% of total
national emissions based on the latest
National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for
005 (AGO 007b).
Remote Appliance
Power Management
1.8 MtCO
2
-e
Presence-Based Power
3.0 MtCO
2
-e
De-centralised
Business District
3.1 MtCO
2
-e
Personalised Public
Transport
3.9 MtCO
2
-e
Real-time Freight
Management
2.9 MtCO
2
-e
Increased Renewable Energy
10.1 MtCO
2
-e
‘On-Live’ High Definition
Video Conferencing
2.4 MtCO
2
-e
Figure 20: Breakdown of contribution from seven Carbon-Opportunities
56
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Value of Avoided Carbon
The value of the avoided carbon will be
depend on the future price of carbon.
Should Australia adopt a carbon tax
such a price would be fixed. If it adopts
a market based approach to carbon
abatement, as has been announced,
then the value of carbon may vary
according to the depth and timing of
the cuts and the success or otherwise
of various competing abatement
technologies.
P
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p
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r
t
200
150
100
50
0
350
250
300
Carbon@ $20 tCO
2
-e
Carbon@ $50 tCO
2
-e
Carbon@ $10 tCO
2
-e
Carbon Value
(million $A)
Figure . The value of
the carbon abatement
based on carbon prices
of 0, 0 and 50 dollars
AUD per tonne of CO

-e
which is consistent with
the range identified by
the CSIRO and ABARE
research (CSIRO 006).
Figure 21: The value range of avoided carbon emissions
57
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Total Value of the Identified
Opportunities
The total value of the opportunities
identified will be a combination of
avoided fuel use, other avoided costs,
additional value created and the value
of carbon abatement. These have been
estimated in Figure based on the
intermediate price of $A0 per tCO

-e.
Attribution
Although we identify the value of
various energy-saving or energy-
creating measures which are, or can
be, facilitated by telecommunication
networks, it is beyond the scope of this
report to develop a detailed model of
attribution that would indicate with
which party such value would reside.
For example for reduced aviation
use, the value of avoided air travel in
staff time saved, travel expenses and
accommodation expenses, less the
cost of using ‘on-live’ meeting suites,
would rest with the employer. Similarly,
the savings for a household from an
electricity bill would rest with the
householder responsible for paying
the energy bills. In relation to carbon
credits, in some instances it may be
possible for that carbon to be assigned
to a third party to be aggregated and
sold on national or international carbon
markets.
For this report we identify that there are
precedents for companies and other
organisations to undertake emission
reducing activities and to trade the
carbon abatement. We note that the
0.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
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p
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t
Saving/Value
Carbon@ $20 tCO
2
-e
Billions dollars
$A per year
Figure . Each of the
carbon-opportunites
creates value from
avoided fuel use or
increased energy value,
as well as revenue from
carbon credits created
and other ancillary
services.
Figure 22: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites
58
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
carbon and non-carbon value could
attribute to either the conference
provider, the customers, or a third party,
however as we have noted above, it
is beyond the scope of this report to
provide analysis of the likely or possible
attributions.
Regulation
In some cases the carbon-opportunities
may be fully or partially constrained
by regulation, though this an area of
constant flux. This is particularly true of
the renewable energy market which is
underpinned by Federal and State based
‘Renewable Energy Targets’ which
require retailers to procure a certain
fraction of their energy from renewable
sources. There are other market drivers
such as private demand for Green
Energy. There are also changes in the
spot prices in the National Electricity
Market which at time of writing are,
on average, high enough to pay for
wind energy without any additional
assistance, in part due to shortage of
adequate supply (affected by climate
related water shortages in the East).
The opportunities presented in this
report have not been assessed against
regulatory constraints, but it is noted in
each section where such systems are
already being applied which indicates
that they are being used in Australian or
overseas jurisdictions and therefore no
insurmountable regulatory constraints
are anticipated.
Timing
Looking at the roll-out of the
opportunities identified in this report
would require the development of
deployment scenarios which is beyond
the scope of this study. However the
ability of the various opportunities to be
applied in the short term (i.e. deployed
to the levels indicated over a period of
about 5 years) has been considered.
In general this requires avoiding
processes which require expensive
retro-fitting and/or long turn-over
periods. We have also noted that the
deployment of new networks such
as ‘Fibre To The Premises’ provides
unique opportunities to deliver carbon
abatement products and services at the
same time, such as network enabled
plugs or RFID systems.
As an indication only, we estimate
that a plausible development and
demonstration period, followed by
market deployment, would provide an
abatement profile as shown in Figure 3.
The effect on national emissions (with
measures) in shown in Figure 4).
59
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2013 2015 2014 2012
30
0
5
10
15
20
25
35
Year
MtCO
2
-e
Figure 4. Applying
the above roll-
out of abatement
from the carbon-
opportunities results
in an approximate
stabilisation of
emissions before 05.
Figure 3. A plausible
roll-out of the carbon-
opportunities would
include product
development time
and a gradual build up
of deployment in the
market.
Figure 23: Plausible emissions abatement from Carbon-Opportunities
Figure 24: Possible effect of Carbon-Opportunities on national emissions
Year
1990 2020 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995
850
250
350
450
550
650
750
Emissions
MtCo
2
-e
Business as usual
Best estimate with effect of
anticipated government
measures to reduce emissions
1990 levels
Kyoto target
CR-Telecommunication
Networks Scenario
60
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Part 6
Beyond Carbon Neutral
This report goes significantly beyond
‘holding the line’ goals of corporate
carbon neutrality and carbon. Instead
it sets out a suite of opportunities
that would allow telecommunications
providers to play a leadership role in
decarbonising the Australian economy
and equipping the nation to prosper in
a carbon constrained future. All of the
strategies and opportunities are based
on avoiding the release of fossil carbon
into the atmosphere; they are not based
on off-setting emissions.
Seven options are proposed to build on
existing and next-generation networks.
The realisation of opportunities
outlined in this report would result in
telecommunications providers assisting
Australian businesses and households
achieving total greenhouse gas
reductions equivalent to approximately
4.9% of Australia’s total national
emissions. Some of the opportunities
identified in the consumer space can
be achieved using existing network
services and others are contingent on
the roll-out of fibre to the node (FTTN)
broadband infrastructure. Overall
the initiatives identified in this report
present the opportunity for one of the
single largest reductions in Australia’s
carbon footprint by an Australian
corporation.
Companies seeking to maximise
their carbon emission reduction
could leverage the existing and next-
generation networks already built by
Telstra.
The Climate Challenge
The latest statement from the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC 007) indicates the next
ten years are critical in meeting the
challenges posed by climate change.
For the first time, scientists and
governments are now agreed that global
emissions must be stabilised by 05
if climate change is to be effectively
addressed. Similarly the global
economic Stern Review concluded that
“to stabilise at 450ppm
ii
CO

-e, without
overshooting, global emissions would
need to peak in the next 0 years“ (Stern
006, p. 93). Reducing greenhouse
emissions requires major commitments
from both the public and private sectors
as well as the government.
In 005 Australia’s net annual emissions
totalled 559 mega-tonnes of CO

equivalent (MtCO

-e) from all activities,
which equates to .4% of the global
total. In the short term, it appears that
Australia will stay close to its Kyoto
Protocol target of no more than an 8%
increase above 990 emission levels
(AGO 007b). However, the underlying
trend is that Australian emissions will
increase at about .3% per year.
The use of fossil-fuels in stationary-
energy
iii
and transport applications
is the nation’s major source of
emissions. The trend is not declining
or stabilising, but continuing to grow
significantly. If deep cuts in emissions
are to be achieved, emissions from the
energy sector are Australia’s greatest
greenhouse challenge.
Conclusions
6
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Telecommunication’s Significance
in Climate Change Mitigation
Telecommunication operators are a
major conduit for new technology and
infrastructure. Australia has the only
national wireless broadband network in
the world.
The scale and scope of the
telecommunication sector’s operations
unlock the ability to aggregate multiple
distributed initiatives to achieve
nationally significant emissions
savings. The anticipated greenhouse
emission constraints coincide with the
government’s plans for next-generation
networks, which provides synergies for
new emission reduction opportunities.
This report identifies seven carbon-
opportunities appropriate for Australian
businesses and households, which
have the potential for viable carbon
abatement using existing and next-
generation networks. These carbon-
opportunities have relevance for
energy consumption in buildings, road
transport, renewable energy production
and aviation.
Table 4. Summary of
emissions abatement
from carbon-
opportunities
Total 27.3 4.88
Carbon-Opportunity (in order of size) MtCO
2
-e saving Percentage of
national emissions
increased Renewable Energy 10.1 1.81
Personalised Public Transport 3.9 0.70
De-centralised Business District 3.1 0.55
Presence-Based Power 3.0 0.53
Real-time Freight Management 2.9 0.52
‘On-Live’ High Definition Video
Conferencing
2.4 0.43
Remote Appliance Power Management 1.8 0.33
6
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Key Findings
This report provides an analysis
of the opportunities for Australian
society to achieve nationally
significant greenhouse gas
abatement using telecommunication
networks.
The report identifies that the scale
and scope of telecommunication
network services and users provide
a unique opportunity to harness
economies of scale to achieve
meaningful emission reductions.
Many of the carbon-opportunities
identified lead to energy and other
cost savings for commercial and
residential customers, and in some
cases will enable the on-selling
of newly created carbon credits
i

and electricity management
commodities.
The estimated abatement
opportunity calculated herein is
almost 5% (4.9) of Australia’s total
national emissions, making the use
of telecommunication networks one
of the most significant opportunities
to reduce the national carbon
footprint.
.
.
3.
4.
The estimated energy and travel
cost savings are approximately
$6.6 billion per year, and value of
the carbon credits created may
be between $70 million and $.
billion subject to the future price of
carbon.
Some of these carbon-opportunities
can be realised immediately; others
are contingent on the roll-out of
a national fibre optic network
to residential and commercial
consumers.
In combination with other measures
being implemented by Government,
a deployment of the carbon-
opportunities in the period 008
to 04 would have the additional
effect of stabilising national
emissions in the period up to 04 in
keeping with the findings of the IPCC
and the Stern Review, as shown in
Figure 5.
5.
6.
7.
63
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
0.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
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Saving/Value
Carbon@ $20 tCO
2
-e
Billions dollars
$A per year
Figure 6. Each of the
carbon-opportunites
creates value from
avoided fuel use or
increased energy value,
as well as revenue from
carbon credits created
and other ancillary
services.
Figure 26: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites
Figure 5. If the seven
carbon-opportunities
identified in the report
were deployed, over
the period 008 - 04,
the effect would be a
stabilisation of national
emissions in the period
0 - 04.
Figure 25: Combined effect of telecommunication networks Carbon-
Opportunities
Year
1990 2020 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995
850
250
350
450
550
650
750
Emissions
MtCo
2
-e
Business as usual
Best estimate with effect of
anticipated government
measures to reduce emissions
1990 levels
Kyoto target
CR-Telecommunication
Networks Scenario
64
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Climate Risk
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Abatement – A reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions (also see mitigation)
Adaptation -The Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines
adaptation as an ‘adjustment in natural or
human systems in response to actual or
expected climatic stimuli or their effects,
which moderates harm or exploits beneficial
opportunities’ (Metz et al. 00, p.708).
Anthropogenic – The result of human
activities.
ATM – Assynchronus Transfer Mode.
ANSI and CCITT communications protocol
allowing different types of information e.g.
voice, data, video to share the one network
and interface. Based around a system of
separating bytes and reassembling at
delivery for optimal use of network.
Base-load – Normally refers to a power
station that runs constantly (4 hours per
day, 7 days per week) regardless of energy
demand. Due to their slow start up and shut
sown times it is more cost effective for them
to remain on.
Baud – Data rate in bits per second. Falling
out of use as a term.
Broadband – The term originally applied
to internet networks when they were faster
than 64 kbit/s and always connected.
Different commentators apply different
data speed thresholds for the beginning
of Broadband e.g. 64, 8, 56 Kbit/s or
beyond , Mbit/s. The term Broadband has
morphed into a description of wide, fast,
transparent connectivity and interfacing for
a variety of devices and applications.
Business as Usual – Refers to the
emissions trajectory associated with
undertaking activities without any measures
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often
greenhouse gas mitigation policies are
compared to “business as usual” to show
the potential impact of the policy.
Capacity – Maximum rated power of
a power station, usually measured in
megawatts.
Capacity Factor – The percentage of
yearly energy generated as a fraction of its
maximum possible rated output.
Carbon Credits - When pollution levels are
capped, in some schemes, it may be possible
to trade greenhouse gas pollution rights
referred to as ‘carbon credits’. Currently
NSW has a greenhouse gas emissions
trading scheme, the Federal Government
has announced plans to introduce a national
scheme in 0 and there are also voluntary
abatement markets.
CERN - Organisation Européenne
pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European
Organization for Nuclear Research) particle
physics laboratory based just outside of
Geneva
CO

– Carbon dioxide, which is one of the
primary anthropogenic greenhouse gases
CO

-e - Carbon dioxide equivalent. The net
effect greenhouse gas emissions is often
presented as carbon dioxide equivalent
which is a conversion to the global warming
Glossary
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potential of carbon dioxide over a 00 year
period. For example, the global warming
potential for a tonne of methane is times
that of a tonne of carbon dioxide.
Dial Up – An Internet connection where the
modem dials into an analog phone line using
standard telephone dialing protocols.
Emissions Intensity – The emissions
generated per unit of input or output.
Fibre – Refers to Optical Fibre, invented and
refined in the 60’s and 70’s, and able to carry
analog and digital data as modulated light
offering extremely high bandwidths at long
distances. Fibre can have a variety of optical
communications interfaces applied and it
comes as either Multi-mode or Single- mode
with the physical advantages of being light
and flexible for installation.
Fossil Fuel – A non-renewable source
of energy formed from decayed organic
matter millions of years ago. The most
predominant fossil fuels are coal, oil and
gas.
FTTx – Fibre-to-the-‘x’ where ‘x’ is a node,
premises, segment e.g. FTTP, FTTN etc.
Fugitive Emissions – The emissions which
come from the mining, transportation and
storage of fossil fuels (but does not include
the emissions from fossil fuel combustion).
GDP – Gross Domestic Product – the
economic value of a country’s annual
production of goods and services.
Geosequestration – Refers to the capture
and geological (underground) storage of CO

emissions.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) – Gases in the
atmosphere that adsorb and emit infrared
radiation, which subsequently lead to global
warming. Most common anthropogenic
greenhouse gases are (CO

), Methane (CH
4
),
Ozone (O
3
), Nitrous Oxide (N

O) and Sulfur
Hexafluoride (SF
6
).
HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access is a mobile telephone protocol
allowing high speed data transmission and
is used in Telstra’s Next G
TM
network
IP – Intelligent processing within a network.
Network layer protocol in TCP/IP offering a
connectionless or packetised service
ICT – Information Communications
Technology
ITU – International Telecommunications
Union i.e. coordinates standards for
telecommunication networks and operations
around the world with signatories from
participating countries.
Latency – The delay through a network or
process that can be caused by distance such
as over satellite or through dealing with
information such as reassembling bytes in
an ATM network or decompressing video.
Mitigation- The Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC) defines as ‘an
anthropogenic intervention to reduce the
sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse
gases’ (Metz et al. 00, p. 76).
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Modem – Device for modulating data and
signals over a network according to the
interfacing protocols required by the devices
on the network. Theer are different types
of modems for different networks, whether
phone or cable TV networks etc.
MPEG – (Moving Picture Experts Group)
Protocol for moving compressed video
and audio down data networks either as
broadcast/satellite or along wires/fibre. So
far there are MPEG. .5, , and 4 referring
to different rates and processing outcomes
(e.g. there was an MPEG 3 specified for
HDTV but it was never used).
MPLS – Multi Protocol Label Switching is a
method for carrying IP over ATM. Favoured
because it allows customer traffic to be less
expensively introduced into backbones
without needing an intermediate service.
MRET – Mandatory Renewable Energy
Target
Mt- Mega-tonnes. One mega tonne is one
million tonnes. Greenhouse gas emissions
are often displayed in mega-tonnes carbon
dioxide equivalent per annum (MtCO

-e/yr)
(see MtCO

-e).
MtCO

-e - Mega-tonnes carbon dioxide
equivalent (MtCO

-e) is the internationally
recognised measure used to compare the
emissions from the various greenhouse
gases. This measure factors in differences
in global warming potential and converts
them to a carbon-dioxide equivalent. For
example, the global warming potential for a
tonne of methane over 00 years is times
that of a tonne of carbon dioxide.
NEM – The National Electricity Market. The
NEM is a wholesale market for electricity
supply which delivers electricity to market
customers in all states and territories, except
for Western Australia and the Northern
Territory, through the interconnected
transmissions and distribution network.
NEMCO - The National Electricity Market
Management Company Limited administers
the National Energy Market (see NEM).
Network –The term for communications
systems and originally meant the physical
cable of a phone network or a data network.
With the growth of ATM and wireless has
widened to include how signals are dealt
with on a physical network but not referred
to the electrical characteristics of that
network plus the devices on the network.
Also no longer limited to wires but includes
mobile and wireless systems.
NGNs – Next Generation Networks where
the physical and electrical characteristics
of the network are not paramount so much
as the active way in which information
is processed and dealt with across the
network. With NGNs this means intelligence
is built into the network making it
transparent to a wide range of devices and
applications with application’s architecture
plugged into the network.
Orphaned Energy / Appliance - an
appliance which is using energy even though
no user is present is refered to as orphaned.
Peaking Plant – Normally refers to power
stations which run at peak times to meet
short term peaks in electricity demand.
Photovoltaic Cell – A renewable energy
technology which converts sunlight into
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electrical energy.
Point-To-Point – When two sites or nodes in
a telecommunications system are connected
together by a physical cable or wireless
system.
Power - Energy transferred per unit of
time. Electrical power is usually measured
in watts (W), kilowatts (kW) and megawatt
(MW). An appliance drawing 000 Watts (
kW) for hour is said to have used kilowatt
hour ( kWh) of electricity.
QoS – Quality of service. Has set definitions
including network availability as well as
quality of usage.
Renewable Energy - Energy which comes
from natural processes and which are
replenished in human time frames or cannot
be exhausted (sources of renewable energy
include wind, biomass, solar radiation,
geothermal energy, wave and tidal power).
Solar Power - (see photovoltaic cell)
SONET- Synchronous Optical Network
implemented over fibre as a ring so if a
fibre stops working traffic can be rerouted
without interruption. Data rates from 5.84
Mbit/s through to 9.953 Gbit/s.
Switch – The large-scale device for
switching phone and data from their sources
to their destinations via the network.
TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
ensuring data is delivered to the application
layer in proper sequence without errors,
missing data or duplication.
Telco – shortened version of
telecommunications company or carrier.
Telepresence – Enhanced Video, audio
and information conferencing with the aim
of minimising the perception limitations of
present electronic communication such as
video conferencing compared with face-
to-face meetings. As well as using better
sytems such as HDTV it involves designing
in ‘soft’ issues such as lighting, sound
placement etc.
Teleworking – Using Broadband facilities
to enable working away from the office
whether at home or on the road.
Twisted Pair – Two wires ‘twisted’ together
in a certain pattern to minimise electrical
interference and connected as an electrical
circuit for carrying phone or data as a point-
to-point connection from the house to the
telephone exchange.
VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol. Makes
use of Broadband to repackage voice as data
routed using IP. Used for placing computer
to computer calls or for entire business
networks.
Wind Farms – A collection of wind turbines
which connect to common substation to
feed into the main electrical grid.
Wind Turbine – A renewable energy
technology that converts air currents into
mechanical energy which is then used to
generate electrical energy.
Wireless – Refers to mobile phone
networks or any public network that uses
radio. Also can refer to local area networks
or LANs that are distributed using inhouse
wireless systems.
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With Measures – Describes an emissions
trajectory with greenhouse gas mitigation
measures and generally shows the deviation
from the business-as-usual projection.
xDSL – x Digital Subscriber Line, a family
of high bandwidth telecommunications
services consisting of ADSL, HDSL,
SDSL, IDSL. ADSL (Asymetric) and SDSL
(Symetric) have been focussed on because
of the opportunity to provide broadband to
the premises over existing twisted pair in
addition to phone service.
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Appendix 1
Industry Example: Broadband and
Urban Development - Genesis,
Coomera
introduction
Genesis Coomera, by award winning
developer, Heritage Pacific, was Telstra’s
first Smart Community connected
with Fibre To The Premises (FTTP),
providing a high-speed optical fibre
cable to each of the proposed 700
residential buildings. It is located 3km
from the Coomera Town Centre which
is identified as a Major Activity Centre
in the South East Queensland Regional
Plan (Gold Coast City Council 007).
The development is occurring in one
of Australia’s fastest growing regions
and as such measures to reduce the
environmental impact are important to
curbing national emissions.
The Genesis development is exploring
new boundaries in urban development
in several ways. This innovation has
been recognised through a number of
awards for its design and construction.
Some of the key elements include:
Water recycling and environmental
flows which can be remotely
monitored and controlled
Genesis residents have access
to shared central services for
recreation, business and education,
including an office suite with full
high-speed broadband connectivity


Some homes feature full
automation of lighting, security and
entertainment with a Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone for
video conferencing
Smart wiring and automation
provide a range of monitoring and
control functions in the homes.
Environmental controls such as
temperature and air quality, light and
shade can all be regulated;
Energy saving has been an
important design consideration with
much of the automation optimised
to maximise energy savings with
minimal user interaction.
In order to consider how broadband can
facilitate reduced carbon emissions in
a community like Genesis Coomera, it
is relevant to consider the geographical
and social context with which the
community is being established.
Coomera, Gold Coast and South East
Queensland
Rated as one of the world’s most
biodiverse areas, rapid growth is placing
resource pressure on the region (Gold
Coast City Council 005). The rapid
urbanisation of the Gold Coast has
contributed to some suburban areas
suffering social isolation and a lack of
public facilities and transport (Gold
Coast City Council 005). Environmental
pressure is growing with climate
change and urbanisation increasing
vulnerability within the region.
The region is predominantly rural with a



Appendicies
74
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low population. The Pacific Motorway is
the major public transport route. There
are two train stations in the area with
less frequent services than the regional
average. Currently high dependence on
the private car for transport needs has
heightened the economic vulnerability
of residents (Dodson and Sipe 006).
Upper Coomera is an area with high
levels of disadvantage and no public
transport service. The State government
is planning to centre most development
around Coomera in proximity to rail
transport running north-south parallel
to the Pacific Highway.
How Can Broadband Assist with
the Carbon Footprint of Genesis?
Smart Development reduces
environmental impacts
Genesis residents will have access to
an epicentre for recreation, business
and education. Synergy, a $3 million
investment for exclusive use by Genesis
residents, provides an epicentre with
recreation, business and education
facilities. There is an office suite and
social centre including a cinema on site
with full connectivity. Water recycling
and environmental flows can be
remotely monitored and controlled if
required.
Transport
In a climate sensitive, carbon
constrained world, increased fuel prices
are likely to place considerable strain
on the cost of living. The increase in
transport costs will have repercussions
for communities heavily dependent
upon private cars for commuting and
personal activities. Any carbon tax,
cap or trade mechanism is also likely to
increase costs for urbanised and rural
communities whose travel is based
predominately around the car.
Given that Genesis is evolving within an
area with relatively high unemployment,
there is strong indication that its
residents will work outside the area,
possibly for businesses in Brisbane.
Without the provision of effective
alternatives, the presence of a major
motorway nearby will draw residents to
car based commuting.
Home Appliance Efficiency
Genesis is a community with a high level
of appliance energy consumption. This
high degree of automation could lead to
significant increases in energy demand
above those of the less ‘smart’ home.
Conversely, this automation may be
used to leverage energy management
and therefore reverse and reduce
energy demand.
Smart Homes reduce heating and
cooling demands
A proportion of homes have been
automated and connected to high-
speed broadband. These feature
full automation of lighting, security
and entertainment with a Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone for video
conferencing. Smart wiring allows
for a range of automation in these
homes. Environmental controls such as
temperature and air quality, light and
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shade can be regulated to allow blinds
to come down during sunny periods
and louvres to open to let in afternoon
breezes.
Automated window opening and closing
maximises energy savings with minimal
user interaction.
Telstra Smart Community brought
together via the web
All homes also share a domain (@
myhome.genesis.coomera.com.au).
There is significant potential to develop
collaborative relationships i.e. car-
pooling or online purchasing, in addition
to practical issues pertaining to the site.
Local universities offer online courses
and delivery of education via the web.
Smart Technology
Telstra have connected a product called
Telstra Velocity
TM
which is FTTP which
at present offers 8 - 0 mbps, multiple
phone lines and television services on
one fibre cable. This delivers ultra high
quality connections and the use of many
applications rarely found in CBD offices.
This high-speed broadband connection
facilitates the uptake of full-time or
partial telework. At Genesis, of the 85
% of residents connected to Telstra
Velocity
TM
, all request that dedicated
office facilities be built at their home
(Harrison 007a). Profiling provided by
Genesis suggests that many residents
employed in Brisbane are working from
home at least one day per week. One
resident has been able to move a high
technology sound production business
to his home. The uptake of teleworking
at the development has the potential
to save a considerable amount of
greenhouse gas emissions.
The projected savings for residents who
are employed in the Brisbane area can
be estimated as follows:
Teleworking one day per week saves
96kms per week per person. This is
equal to 9,00kms per year (46 weeks x
96kms per year).
Assuming a typical Australian car emits
60g CO

-e per kilometre then 780 kg of
CO

-e per year would be saved.
If 300 of the adult residents in the
planned development worked from
home one day per week then 5 tonnes
of CO

-e would be saved per year (based
on travel to Brisbane).
Ancillary benefits include time, cost
savings, reduced traffic congestion and
air pollution.
Potential for increased Emission
Reductions
Personalised Public Transport
By utilising Telstra Fibre to the Premises
(FTTP) at the Genesis development there
is potential for deeper greenhouse gas
abatement than provided by teleworking
alone. The Genesis development is
located 3km from a soon to be ‘Major
Activity Centre’ which includes a large
public transport node on the main rail
line to Brisbane.
As discussed earlier in this report, one
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of the major barriers to the uptake of
rail and other public transport use is the
absence of feeder networks for those
outside the walking catchment of the
stations. Personalised Public Transport
(PPT) present significant greenhouse
gas reduction potential for the Genesis
development. The on-call services PPT
could provide would allow residents to
easily access the Coomera transport
node for commuting throughout South
East Queensland, as well as providing
access to shops and employment
opportunities available in the town
centre. The facilitation of feeders
services such as PPT would also free up
land use space in the town centre that
would otherwise be used as a park-n-
ride.
Remote Appliance Power
Management
A high percentage of the 700 homes at
the Genesis development have high-
speed broadband and can be engaged
in the the Remote Appliance Power
Management carbon-opportunity. As
each Australian home each loses more
than % of its electricity to appliances
on standby, considerable emission
reductions and dollar savings could be
made.
Quantifying the Savings for PPT
Assumptions:
00 residents replace personal car
use for PPT for commuting alone to
Brisbane in a car.
Average distance travelled driven
per day to and from work to Brisbane
is 96 kilometres
Number of days worked a year is 00
CO

-e emissions per kilometre is
63g
a.
b.
c.
d.
Figure 7. The Genesis
Development at
Coomera, Gold Coast
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Emissions savings:
= (a x b x c x d)
= 3,000 kgs CO

-e per year saved
Assume petrol is $ per litre results in
$.7 million in combined savings (after
$65 per person, per week spent on
public transport is removed).
Quantifying the Savings for Remote
Appliance Power Management
Assumptions:
700 homes when complete
Average household energy use 6.6
MWh per annum (ABS 004)
Standby percentage .6% (AGO &
ICLEI 005)
900 kg of CO

-e per MWh (CAIT 005)
Emissions savings:
= (a x b x c x d)
= 504,000kg GHG emissions saved.
Total emissions savings potential is
3,000 kg (using PPT) plus 504,5
kg (using Remote Appliance Power
Management) = 86,5 kg per annum.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Barriers to implementation
In order to realise emissions reductions
using PPT at Genesis, government
support to increase the functionality
of public transport in the region will
be necessary. This would include high
frequency rail services from Coomera to
Brisbane to ensure public transport is a
viable option.
Conclusion
The Genesis development is well
equipped to provide best practice
systems to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions through the use of FTTP and
consequent high quality teleworking
options. Herein it is envisaged that
by utilising two of the proposed
options in this report (PPT and Remote
Appliance Power Management) deeper
greenhouse gas emission cuts are
possible.
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Appendix 2
Industry Example: Next
generation networks, Carbon and
Education - Catholic Education
Parramatta
“broadband is changing the
way pupils learn and construct
their work, changing the ways
teachers organise lessons and
co-operate with colleagues,
and changing the way schools
administer their courses.”
(Underwood et al. 005, p.6)
Catholic Education Parramatta (CEP)
The Diocese of Parramatta is located in
one of the fastest growing areas of New
South Wales. The diocese is west of
Sydney and reaches from Dundas Valley,
west to Katoomba, south to Luddenham
and north to Richmond.
There are 76 Catholic schools in
the Parramatta diocese of which 54
are primary and are secondary.
Approximately 4000 staff attend
to the total student population of
4,600 students. There are also six
congregational (independent Catholic)
schools in the diocese with the most
recent, St Mark’s Catholic College,
opening at Stanhope Gardens in
February 007.
Carbon Emission Abatement in
Schools
Using technology to save emissions
in schools offers a great opportunity
to expose students to new ways of
managing their emission profile. They
can then carry this into the workplace
and home.
Significant energy and carbon emission
savings could be realised via two of
the opportunities identified earlier in
this report; Remote Appliance Power
Management and Increased Renewable
Energy.
A ‘Typical’ School
Each of Catholic Education Parramatta’s
schools are different. In order to
consider this industry example it is
useful to create an hypothetical ‘typical’
school.
Our case-study school has ,000
pupils and just fewer than 00
members of staff.
The class occupancy is about 5
children per class and this includes
smaller classes for specialist
subjects.
The school has 40 classrooms
equipped with air conditioning for
cooling in the summer and heating
for the winter, using an average of
3.7MWh of energy per classroom per
year over the year
3
. By comparison
a typical home uses about 6.MWh
per year.



The annual energy
saving of this server
consolidation is 1.4
megawatt hours and
a carbon reduction
of approximately 140
tonnes of greenhouse
gas emissions per year.
3 Assuming 50 square meters per class room, 0.5KW of power used per square metre (SEDO 004) when in
use, 3 months heating in summer, 3 months cooling in summer for 5 hours per day.
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The school has standby loads
including computers, laptops on
charge and musical equipment. It
also has electrical hot water heating
on 4 hours a day, seven days a
week. Standby power consumption
is typical of that in the residential
sector.
The average energy consumption
in this typical school is 335KWh per
person (pupils and teachers) per year
(QDOE 006) which equates to a total of
370MWh per year.
Remote Appliance Power
Management in Schools
In line with commercial and residential
sectors, a significant proportion of
energy in Australian schools is wasted
on standby power. Remote Appliance
Power Management would allow all
appliances to be switched off by the
school caretaker at the end of the school
• day or during holiday periods. The
intelligent networked control switch
would enable the caretaker to selectively
turn on areas for after hours use.
If we assume that the schools have
energy wastage similar to residential
standby, the opportunity exists to
provide for simple standby reduction
through centralised online control
of either outlets or network enabled
intermediate sockets (an adaptor
between the socket and the device plug
which can be used without the need to
retro fit the outlet).
Assuming 50 square meters per class
room, 0.5KW of power used per
square metre (SEDO 004) when in use,
3 months heating in summer, 3 months
cooling in summer for 5 hours per day.
All standby power across the school
Broadband technology has the potential to revolutionise the Australian
education sector. The always-on nature of broadband connections allows
school students to use the internet as an everyday research tool in the
classroom more easily. High bandwidth enhances the effectiveness of existing
distance learning programs by enabling video conferencing on the desktop.
Access to sufficient bandwidth allows researchers in Australia’s higher education
institutions to participate in international collaborative research projects and
broadband allows tertiary students to access high quality course materials from
campuses across the country and around the world.
(Broadband in Schools, NOIE Canberra August 00)
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could be terminated from 5pm to 8am
each school day and over the weekends,
reducing the number of hours in which
standby devices could draw power
by 73%. Assuming an average % of
energy is standby, the savings would
equate to 3.MWh of energy per school
(enough to power 5 homes a year) and
saving over $3,00 per year on the
school electricity bill.
increased Renewable Energy
Heating and cooling facilities in the
school present an opportunity to use
these loads for Increased Renewable
Energy during the working hours of the
school (assuming these loads are they
are all off outside these hours).
The amount of power used in heating
and cooling classrooms during the
relevant summer and winter months
would be approximately 50kW, which
is enough ‘discretionary’ load to marry
with a 750 kilowatt wind turbine with a
5% capacity factor. Across the total CEP
school population of 4,000 students,
this would be enough discretionary
load to partner with a substantial 30
megawatt wind farm - approximately
double the amount of wind energy
currently operating in NSW.
Conclusion
This example illustrates a significant
opportunity to reduce the emission
footprint of any school through
the application of several of the
opportunities identified in this report to
heating, cooling and energy loads.
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Appendix 3
Industry Example: Telstra - Change
Through Leadership
introduction
This report identifies the opportunity for
Telstra to act as a catalyst for reductions
in national emissions which go beyond
the direct scope of Telstra operations.
This chapter explores Telstra’s
environmental stewardship to date and
identifies opportunities to use Next IP™
for further emission reductions.
introduction to Telstra
Telstra’s history dates back to the
foundation of the Commonwealth
in 90 when the Commonwealth
Government established the
Postmaster-General’s Department
to manage all domestic telephone,
telegraph and postal services.
Telstra, as Australia’s largest
telecommunications provider, serves
Australian customers via fixed line
(including data, broadband, IP and
cable), wireless (GSM, 00MHz, CDMA
and Next G
TM
) and satellite networks.
In addition, it operates a number of
international services. In total Telstra
provides nearly 0 million fixed line
services and over 9. million mobile
services.
Current Emissions
14

Telstra has approximately 36,000 full-
time equivalent (FTE) employees in
its Australian workforce and operates
Australia’s largest vehicle fleet of
over 7,000 vehicles (including salary
sacrifice vehicles). The organisation’s
physical footprint covers 4,500
commercial properties with nearly
33,000 cabinet facilities.
As a builder, operator and maintainer
of telecommunications infrastructure,
Telstra’s main emissions - 89% of the
total - come from energy use in network
operations including data centres and
offices (Telstra 006). Telstra is one of
the largest occupiers of commercial
property in Australia with over 0,000
sites nationally. The scale and scope
of Telstra’s operations and assets
present significant energy management
challenges. For example, the CDMA
network when retired will reduce energy
requirements while the roll-out of next
generation networks is likely to increase
consumption.
Other emission sources include Land
Use, Land Use Change and Forestry
(LULCF) which could be both negative
through clearing of easements or
positive through replanting. Staff travel
is extensive with over 4 million road
kilometres travelled in the financial year
005/06.
Current iCT based abatement
strategies
Telstra recognises and tracks its
greenhouse gas emissions on a yearly
basis. Telstra to date has saved 5,4
4 The data and information contained within this study is sourced from publicly available documents and
from information provided by senior management. The principal source document, the Telstra Corporate
Responsibility Report 006, is written in accordance with GRI G3 standards however the information
reported has not been verified by Climate Risk and no assurance is given as to its completeness or
materiality.
8
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
tonnes of CO

equivalent emissions
(Figure 9) (Telstra 006). Telstra has
a range of greenhouse gas reduction
programs, some of which include ICT
based strategies:
Fleet management: In addition to
increasing the use of low emission fuels
for its 7,000 fleet vehicles, Telstra has
a partnership with Greenfleet to off-set
vehicle emissions, through tree planting
to absorb the equivalent emissions. It
should be recognised however that
the long term security of these carbon
‘sinks’ is the subject of some debate due
to the climate impacts of increased bush
fire and reduced precipitation.
Telstra is also utilising information
technology to enable fuel efficient
travel patterns. Telstra has installed
GPS in more than 4,500 or 7% of its
vehicles, and is committed to increase
this to achieve a 5% reduction in
fuel consumption while increasing
productivity by 5% (Telstra 006).
Decreased waste paper use: During
005/06, 47% of waste was recycled,
an increase from 3% in 004/05. This
translates to more than half a tonne per
employee across Telstra. Online billing
has proved popular with its customers
with over 85,000 opting for this option
last year. Telstra has more than 50 of
its major vendors using electronic based
processes for transactions.
Renewable energy: Telstra is the nation’s
largest solar power operator. In 005/06
the company operated 0,450 solar
powered sites including exchanges,
radio terminals, small repeater stations
and payphones (Harrison 007b).
Future Opportunities
Quantifying the Savings from Telework
As Telstra employs approximately
1 600 000
Year
800 000
1 200 000
400 000
2 000 000
2004-05 2003-04 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2005-06
Tonnes
CO
2
Figure 8. Telstra’s
annual CO

emissions
(excluding aviation ,
logistics and LULUCF)
(Telstra 006).
Figure 28: Telstra’s annual CO
2
emissions
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Climate Risk
36,000 FTE people in Australia there is
considerable opportunity to facilitate
increased emissions abatement through
actively encouraging telework, either
from home or regional Telstra hubs (as
shown in section .).
If an additional 5% of the workforce
worked from home or from a regional
Telstra hub, approximately ,000 tonnes
of transport related carbon dioxide
emissions could be saved per annum.
Assuming the transport patterns of
Telstra workers reflect the national
average, 5,000 drive alone to and from
work. If 5% converted to using public
transport, approximately 4,000 tonnes
of CO

emissions could be saved per
annum.
Quantifying Savings in Building
Emissions
Telstra has a large number of staff and
a large number of buildings throughout
the country providing considerable
scope to reduce the waste of ‘standby’
and ‘orphaned’ energy in the workplace.
Telstra’s current building based
emissions are responsible for
approximately 80,000 tCO

per year.
This could be reduced by 0% overall
by deploying Remote Appliance Power
Management and Presence-Based
Power, delivering overall emissions
abatement of about 36,000 tCO

per
year.
Conclusion
Telstra is aware of its responsibility
to the environment and has already
saved over 5,000 tonnes of CO

-e
emissions through a range of initiatives.
The commissioning of this report
demonstrates leadership in facilitating
emission reductions across the wider
community. There is a significant
opportunity to demonstrate in house
many of the opportunities outlined in
this report.
2004-05 2003-04 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2005-06
Year
40 000
0
200 000
120 000
160 000
80 000
Tonnes
CO
2
Cumulative energy savings
(from previous years)
New energy savings
(for current year)
Waste
Fleet
Figure 9. Telstra’s
cumulative avoided
CO

emissions (Telstra
006).
Figure 29: Telstra’s cumulative avoided emissions
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Appendix 4
Industry Example: The Health
Sector, Climate Change and
Telecommunication Networks
“The institutions of healthcare
have enormous power to do
good or harm to the natural
environment and to increase or
diminish carbon emissions”
(Coote 006, p. 344).
The Double Exposure of the Health
Sector to Climate Change.
The health sector is recognised as
being at the front line of climate
change impacts, responding to issues
including extreme weather impacts
and disease migration. The World
Health Organisation “estimates that
the warming and precipitation trends
due to anthropogenic climate change
of the past 30 years already claim over
50,000 lives annually. Many prevalent
human diseases are linked to climate
fluctuations, from cardiovascular
mortality and respiratory illnesses due
to heatwaves, to altered transmission
of infectious diseases and malnutrition
from crop failures.” (Patz et al. 005)
Direct health impacts are only one
component of the health sector. Indirect
impacts of climate change may include
the effects on the integrity of energy and
water infrastructure supporting health
and productivity of the wider economy.
Further, it has been suggested that
these secondary and tertiary impacts
will be of the most significance to the
health sector, “In the longer term, and
with considerable variation between
populations because of geography and
vulnerability, the indirect impacts may
well have greater magnitude than the
more direct impacts” (Epstein 999;
McMichael et al. 996).
There is a proven relationship between
climate and health as more impacts
mean more health sector activity
which in turn leads to more emissions.
For example, the southerly spread of
tropical disease carriers in Australia
increases the number of patients, some
of whom will need air transfers, with
consequent increases in greenhouse
gas emissions. This interdependency
illustrates that health care provision
is both a source of greenhouse
gas emissions and bears the brunt
of impacts from climate change.
Nevertheless, there are opportunities for
the sector to decarbonise its footprint
and to increase its resilience to climate
change impacts.
using networks to Address 21st
Century Health Challenges
Despite the direct and indirect
consequences of climate change
for human health becoming better
researched and understood, there is
relatively little planning within the health
sector to consider the infrastructure
requirements needed for adaptation to
climate change.
Healthcare comprises a complex
mix of institutions, structures and
individuals. These structures generate
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varying temporal and spatial challenges
that ICT networks can help address.
From medical professionals and
administrators to patients and insurance
companies, this sector has wide-ranging
information and communication needs.
Existing or emergent applications
enabled by ICT networks which are
relevant to the health sector include:
The exchange of patient records and
data;
Monitoring of patients in aftercare
and vital care situations;
Transfer of images radiographs,
ultrasound, CAT/MRI scans;
Teleconsultation;
Online health information and
clinical support;
High quality interactive video for
remote care;
E-Learning, training and testing;
Medical Research and collaborative
team working; and
Retention and recruitment of staff in
rural practices.
All of these examples reduce travel
requirements and therefore emissions.
The following examples highlight
several emerging eHealth solutions
enabled by ICT network technologies in
regional and remote areas.









e-Health
“e-health is an emerging field
in the intersection of medical
informatics, public health and
business, referring to health
services and information
delivered or enhanced through
the Internet and related
technologies…commitment
for networked, global thinking,
to improve health care locally,
regionally, and worldwide
by using information and
communication technology.”
(Eysenbach 003)
Strong technological leadership and
good infrastructure has led to the
emergence of a global e-Health industry.
In Europe the industry is estimated
to be worth 0 billion Euro. Telstra
has pioneered a number of e-Health
applications in Australia and is further
developing the use of internationally
significant applications in critical care
using ICT networks.
The Virtual Critical Care Unit (ViCCU
TM
)
developed by the CSIRO, is a specialist
teleconferencing and remote diagnostic
facility. Combined with the Telstra’s
Next IP™ services, it enables specialists
in metropolitan hospitals diagnose
and treat patients in remote hospitals,
improving the standard of patient care
in regional areas. This obviates the risk
and transport costs, and allows patients
to be cared for in their own community.
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According to the CSIRO the key benefits
of ViCCU
TM
include:
Regional delivery of expert advice
often faster than via helicopter
transport;
Improved patient recovery, in their
own community environment,
supported by specialists;
Recruitment and retention benefits
for rural health professionals;
Addressing health equity challenges
in rural or regional areas;
Multi-disciplinary intervention; and
Reduced costs and risk to the
medical system through avoided
movement of patients.
Within the context of climate change
mitigation, such applications are
reducing the need for long distance
road and air travel by practitioners,
patients and carers, and the associated
greenhouse gas emissions.
Within the context of adapting to the
physical impacts of climate change, this
type of initiative increases the resilience
of rural communities to events that
may require critical care and provides a
model for other services which can be
moved online.
Regional Health Care
“Only 4.9% of University of
Queensland medical graduates






from 1990 to 2004 are currently
working in rural and remote
Queensland.”
(White 006)
In many of Australia’s rural areas,
there is a dire lack of specialist care.
Recruitment of rural practitioners is
difficult due to isolation of staff, reduced
revenues due to patient numbers and a
lack of general resources. Rural patients
may require round trips of many
hundreds of kilometres for specialist
diagnosis. There are considerable travel
costs and subsequent emissions created
by patients and family for treatment and
aftercare support.
Transfer of patient care accountability
back to GPs can reduce travel, but this
requires providing specialist support
to doctors, support which may only be
available at a state or national level.
A successful example of how broadband
networks are being applied to bring
need and expertise together and avoid
long distance, high emission travel by
patients and/or medical staff is in the
field of dermatology.
Tele-Derm is an online diagnosis
tool available to doctors throughout
Australia. Using Tele-Derm, GPs are
able to access online dermatological
case studies, education opportunities,
recommended links and discussion
forums.
Tele-Derm also allows rural doctors
anywhere in Australia to electronically
submit specific cases for assessment.
These cases are available as case
87
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
studies for all GPs enrolled in Tele-Derm.
Since it began, Tele-Derm has been used
extensively by the medical community:
It currently has over 450 people
enrolled;
In a typical month, Tele-Derm
has over 000 hits from over 70
individual doctors;
Approximately 00 interactive, self-
paced cases are now available for
doctors to work through; and
Tele-Derm has assisted with over
00 individual cases.
Rural and remote communities
benefit from rapid access to expert
advice through initiatives such as
Tele-Derm. Currently based on ISDN,
next generation networks will provide
better visual definition and faster
communication services. As such
they can form the basis for expansion
to other types of diagnostics and
treatment. The reduced travel by
patients and doctors will directly equate
to reduced emissions.
Remote Health
“We desperately want IT
training on-site for nurses, in
plain English, which covers
problem solving, confidence,
problems of isolation”, says one
bush nurse.
Grampians Health Region eLearning
Feasibility Study 006




Loddon Mallee Health Alliance
Loddon Mallee Health Alliance (LMHA)
is a governance entity that represents
the ICT interests of 6 hospitals and
65 health agencies located at 60 sites
throughout the Loddon Mallee Region
(LMHA 007).
The Loddon Mallee region covers 5% of
Victoria’s land mass over which LMHA
has implemented high-speed broadband
services. The LMHA network is a secure,
high-speed Wide Area Network (WAN),
utilising Telstra IP infrastructure. The
network has been designed to provide
fast, reliable and secure connectivity to
the internet, other health agencies and
government. It has also been designed
to perform at a service availability of
99.8%. Unlike other networks, access
to the LMHA network is : contention
which means that access availability
and speed is not determined by the
number of users trying to connect at any
particular time. It allows connectivity to
centralised resources and applications,
as well as advanced voice, video and
data services.
The geography and dispersion of
patients across a wide area mean that
some nurses are driving 800km for a
single patient visit. As a result of the
first 3 month trial of video conferencing,
the network is on target to save some
75,000kms per year equivalent to 45.5
tonnes CO

-e.
88
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Future Opportunities
Quantifying Savings: Reduced Air Travel
Emissions
The use of ‘On-Live’ High Definition
Video Conferencing, as identified in this
report, has an application to remote
diagnostics for rural and regional
Australia. This is a natural extension of
the static image based diagnostics used
by Tele-Derm, to detailed video based
diagnostics which can be undertaken in
real-time.
In order to quantify the potential value of
such applications, a nominal patient is
considered:
The patient requires specialist
diagnosis which is only available
in a major city.
The patient is 400km from the
city and chooses to use air travel
(for distances of 300km or less
people may prefer to drive).
The overall efficiency of short
distance air travel in smaller
aircraft is significantly less than
that of intercity travel and is
assumed to be 0.05 litres per
passenger per kilometre.
The patient has to travel three
times; once for diagnosis,
once for a stay with treatment
and once for a follow up
consultation.
Road transport and other
emissions related to the trip are
neglected.





The person is accompanied by
a family member for each of the
trips.
Based on these assumptions:
The total air travel involved for
the patient and family member is
4,800kms.
The total amount of fuel used is
40 litres.
The total amount of greenhouse
pollution caused is 0.77 tonnes
CO

-e per patient.
Conclusion
Healthcare is at the front line of climate
change risk and adaptation in Australia
and these pressures can be expected
to intensify. There is a role for ICT
networks to overcome the tyranny
of distance and the relative shortage
of skills at a regional level by sharing
limited human resources through online
services. The double benefit is that
overcoming the need to move people
between healthcare centres will also
reduce emissions associated with rural
health care provision in Australia.

.
.
3.
89
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
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9
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
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94
Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk
Climate Risk Pty Limited (Australia)
Level , 36 Lauderdale Avenue
Fairlight, NSW 094
Tel: +6 8003 454
Brisbane: +6 7 30 453
www.climaterisk.net
Climate Risk Europe Limited
London: + 44 0 844 450
Manchester: + 44 6 73 474
Climate Risk

Climate Risk Pty Limited (Australia) Level , 36 Lauderdale Avenue Fairlight, NSW 094 Tel: Brisbane: + 6  8003 454 + 6 7 30 453

www.climaterisk.net Climate Risk Europe Limited Manchester: + 44 6 73 474 This report was prepared by: Dr Karl Mallon BSc PhD karl@climaterisk.com.au Gareth Johnston GC. Sust CSAP gareth@climaterisk.com.au Donovan Burton B.Env.Plan (Hons) donovan@climaterisk.com.au Jeremy Cavanagh B.Eng Design and layout by Bethan Burton BSc bethan@climaterisk.com.au Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future: Telecommunications-based Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Version 1.0

ISBN: 978-0-9804343-0-9

Disclaimer Climate Risk provides professional services in relation to climate change risks and opportunities. Our technical and professional staff endeavour to work to international best practice standards using experienced scientists, sector specialists and associated experts. This document is intended to stimulate ideas and generate discussion amongst business government and society about the role telecommunications can play in reducing carbon emissions. While the information contained is drawn from reputable sources in the public domain, Climate Risk cannot take responsibility for errors or inaccuracies within original source material. This report does not consider individual investment requirements or the particular needs of individuals, corporations or others and as such the report should not be relied upon as the basis for specific commercial decisions. Telstra and Climate Risk support a constructive dialogue about the ideas and concepts contained herein. Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk 

Climate Risk Team
Dr Karl Mallon
Dr Karl Mallon is director of Science and Systems at Climate Risk Pty Ltd. He is a first class honours graduate in physics from the United Kingdom and holds a doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Melbourne. He has been the recipient of research scholarships from the British Council and European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN). Karl has worked in the field of climate change and energy since 99 and is the editor and co-author of ‘Renewable Energy Policy and Politics: A Handbook for Decision Making’ published by Earthscan (London). He has worked as a technology and energy policy analyst for various international government and non-government organisations. Karl was a member of the CSIRO’s Energy Futures Forum which reported in 006, as well as a director of the Australian Wind Energy Association between 003 and 005.

Gareth Johnston
Gareth Johnston is director of Corporate and Government Risk at Climate Risk Pty Ltd. Post graduate qualified in sustainability, with a background in land management and infrastructure development, Gareth focuses on emergent opportunities for Climate Risk clients. As founding CEO of a CSIRO energy technology company and executive director of an Australian management consulting company, Gareth has consulted to the largest Australian, European and Japanese utilities. His development work has given him exposure to local, state and federal governments across Europe and Australasia.

Donovan Burton
Donovan Burton is a Senior Associate with Climate Risk. Donovan heads Climate Risk’s Planning and Local Government section where he works closely with local government and industry to help develop climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. He has a degree in Environmental Planning and achieved a first class honours for his thesis on local climate change mitigation. Donovan is also a PhD candidate at Griffith University and has recently been announced as a Wentworth Scholar. Donovan’s recent research is on local scale adaptation where he is developing tools to quantify the impacts of climate change on human settlements.

Jeremy Cavanagh
Jeremy Cavanagh has a degree in electrical engineering from University Technology Sydney and postgraduate qualifications in sustainability. With over 0 years international telecommunications experience he has provided technical operations management for terrestrial and satellite service operators including AUSSAT and France Telecom. Jeremy is a recognised analyst of media technology innovation and has been published in DTV(US), TVB Europe and BEN (AUST). Jeremy provides technical planning and execution expertise which is used by international broadcasters including CNN, CBS, ITN, ITV and Channel 7. His work in telecommunications and broadcasting has been recognised internationally and he has shared in three US Emmy awards for technical excellence.

Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future
Climate Risk

i

He is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Energy and a member of the International Association for Energy Economics. He was awarded the Centenary Medal for services to the environment. Latin America. Greg was also seconded to the Prime Minister’s Policy Unit at 0 Downing Street in 988 as Special Adviser on Energy and Transport. He is the author of a book on Australian energy policy. We would also like to acknowledge the expert advice from Peter Best and Corin Millais and the support from Ruth Tedder and Nicole Hercus. Dr Hugh Saddler Dr Saddler has a degree in science from Adelaide University and a PhD from Cambridge University. the USA. Greg is also Chair of the Sustainable Energy Authority of Victoria and a Member of the CSIRO Sector Advisory Council to the Natural Resource Management and Environment Sector. Between 99 and 995 he was a member of the Board of the ACT Electricity and Water Authority. Canada. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk ii . Papua New Guinea and Middle East. Greg took up his current position as CEO WWFAustralia in October 004. Ireland. Heritage Pacific staff Natalie Philp. Bianca Duncan and Stephen Harrison. Australia. and of the ACT Environment Advisory Committee. Towards a High-Bandwidth. During the middle of his career. ‘Energy in Australia’ and over 50 scientific papers. appointed by the Australian Greenhouse Office. and is recognised as one of Australia’s leading experts in this field. Greg’s work in oil research and exploration included work in the United Kingdom.Peer Reviewers Greg Bourne Greg Bourne is chief executive of WWF Australia and a member of the National Advisory Committee for Environment Business Australia. of the ABS Environmental Statistics Advisory Group. Acknowledgements Climate Risk acknowledges the support of the following: Telstra staff especially Cassandra Scott and Virginia Harrison. China. He is currently a member of the Experts Group on Emissions Trading. monographs and articles on energy technology and environmental policy. Greg was formerly Regional President of BP Australasia. Brazil. Catholic Education Parramatta: Loddon Mallee Health Alliance. In 995 he was a member of the Expert Selection Panel for the 995 Special Round of the Cooperative Research Centres Program (renewable energy technologies). part of a career in the oil and gas industry spanning over 5 years. In 998 he was appointed an Adjunct Professor at Murdoch University.

we hope. Climate Risk. lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how we can work together to achieve the benefits of a high bandwidth. enterprises and communities. Time is of the essence as we find innovative solutions to reducing carbon emissions. insights and ideas with us and with each other through forums. Philip M.and more so than improving the delivery of health care. This dialogue will. and Telstra are committed to raising the level of public discourse and to capture and share learning that can result.Foreword The 007 Lowy Institute Poll found that tackling climate change is as important to Australians as improving standards in education .D Group Managing Director Public Policy & Communications Towards a High-Bandwidth. Ph. This report is not the last word on telecommunications and carbon emissions. the media and private discussions. Indeed a key finding is that many of the telecommunication solutions for living and working in a future carbon-constrained world can actually lead to cost savings for business and the consumer. in the workplace and in ways we connect people. The analysis presented in this report finds that the telecommunications sector is uniquely placed to provide important services that can yield nationally significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. We are delighted to offer this study into the marketplace of ideas and we invite you to share your reactions. the authors of the report. ensuring economic growth and fighting international terrorism. but one of the first. We welcome a robust public dialogue around the ideas presented in the report – including critiques by national and international specialists who may provide more detailed insights and more refined ideas. There is scant information in the public domain that quantifies the opportunities presented by telecommunications to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report does. This Report is a first attempt at a nationwide quantification of the carbon savings and financial benefits resulting from using telecommunications networks to conserve energy and increase clean energy use at home. low carbon society. Burgess. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk iii .

Contents Executive Summary Part 1 Climate Change . Major Carbon-Opportunities for telecommunication providers: Overlaying emission sources with network technologies Viability and Implementation 18 18 18 19 20 23 Part 4 Major Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication Networks Carbon-Opportunity 1: Remote Appliance Power Management Carbon-Opportunity 2: Presence-Based Power Carbon-Opportunity 3: De-centralised Business District Carbon-Opportunity 4: Personalised Public Transport Carbon-Opportunity 5: Real-time Freight Management Carbon-Opportunity 6: Increased Renewable Energy Carbon-Opportunity 7: ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 24 24 24 27 29 33 36 38 45 Part 5 Quantifying the Opportunities Remote Appliance Power Management Presence-Based Power De-centralised Business District Personalised Public Transport Real-time Freight Management 48 48 48 49 50 51 52 Towards a High-Bandwidth. Identifying Relevant Sectors Step 2. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk iv . Reviewing Current and Emergent Network Technology Step 3.The Challenge The Global Consensus What is the ‘greenhouse effect’? The Complexity of Climate Change What Does ‘Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change’ Actually Mean? Understanding Emission Cuts National Emissions and Per Capita Emissions Adaptation and Mitigation A Carbon Price Emissions Trading vi -xiii 1 1 1 1 2 5 6 7 7 8 9 Part 2 The Emissions Signature of Broadband Understanding Telecommunications Networks The Balance of Network Impacts 10 10 10 16 Part 3 Identifying Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication networks Step 1.

Increased Renewable Energy ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing Total Impacts of Abatement Opportunities Value of Avoided Carbon Total Value of the Identified Opportunities Attribution Regulation Timing 53 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 Part 6 Conclusions Beyond Carbon Neutral The Climate Challenge Telecommunication’s Significance in Climate Change Mitigation 60 60 60 60 61 Part 7 References Glossary Appendix 1 Industry Example: Broadband and Urban Development . Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk v .Catholic Education Parramatta Appendix 3 Industry Example: Telstra . Coomera 64 64 68 73 78 Appendix 2 Industry Example: Next generation networks. Carbon and Education . Climate Change and Telecommunication Networks Appendix 5: Summary of Sectors and Applications Considered with Action 89 Towards a High-Bandwidth.Genesis.Change Through Leadership 81 84 Appendix 4 Industry Example: The Health Sector.

The opportunities outlined in this report result in total greenhouse gas reductions equivalent to approximately 4. 7. others are contingent on the roll-out of a national fibre optic network to residential and commercial consumers. Towards a High-Bandwidth. The scale and scope of the telecommunication sector’s operations unlock the ability to aggregate multiple distributed initiatives to achieve nationally significant emissions savings. 3. Many of the carbon-opportunities identified lead to energy and other cost savings for commercial and residential customers. and in some cases will enable the on-selling of newly created carbon creditsi and electricity management commodities. and value of the carbon credits created may be between $70 million and $. 6. This report provides an analysis of the opportunities for Australian society to achieve nationally significant greenhouse gas abatement using telecommunication networks. In combination with other measures being implemented by Government. or avoidance of. as shown in Figure i. They do not include the use of offset mechanism to reduce emissions. Some of these carbonopportunities can be realised immediately. 5. greenhouse gas emissions. billion subject to the future price of carbon.6 billion per year. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk vi . in some schemes. a deployment of the carbon-opportunities in the period 008 to 04 would have the additional effect of stabilising national emissions in the period up to 04 in keeping with the findings of the IPCC and the Stern Review. i When pollution levels are capped. Currently NSW has a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. The estimated energy and travel cost savings are approximately $6. CARBOnOPPORTuniTiES Throughout this document carbon-opportunities is used as a short hand for ‘carbon dioxide emission abatement opportunities’ which include an activity that provides real and measurable reductions in.9% of Australia’s total national emissions. the Federal Government has announced plans to introduce a national scheme in 0 and there are also voluntary abatement markets. it may be possible to trade greenhouse gas pollution rights referred to as ‘carbon credits’. . The estimated abatement opportunity calculated herein is almost 5% (4.Executive Summary Key Findings . making the use of telecommunication networks one of the most significant opportunities to reduce the national carbon footprint. The report identifies that the scale and scope of telecommunication network services and users provide a unique opportunity to harness economies of scale to achieve meaningful emission reductions.9) of Australia’s total national emissions. 4.

250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Table i: Summary of emissions abatement from Carbon-Opportunities Carbon-Opportunity (in order of size) increased Renewable Energy Personalised Public Transport De-centralised Business District Presence-Based Power Real-time Freight Management ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing Remote Appliance Power Management Total MtCO2-e saving 10.81 0. Graph is a modification based on AGO 007a. over the period 008 .53 0. For example.1 3.43 0.04. the global warming potential for a tonne of methane over 00 years is  times that of a tonne of carbon dioxide. Emissions MtCo2 -e 550 1990 levels 450 QuAnTiFyinG 350 EMiSSiOnS: MtCO2-e Mega-tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO-e) is the internationally recognised measure used to compare the emissions from the various greenhouse gases.1 3. If the seven carbon-opportunities identified in the report were deployed.55 0.9 2.52 0.04. This measure factors in differences in global warming potential and converts them to a carbondioxide equivalent.33 4.0 2. the effect would be a stabilisation of national emissions in the period 0 .88 Table i.9 3. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk vii .70 0.Figure i: Combined effect of telecommunication networks CarbonOpportunities 850 750 Business as usual Best estimate with effect of anticipated government measures to reduce emissions Kyoto target CR-Telecommunication Networks Scenario 650 Figure i. Summary of emissions abatement from carbonopportunities Towards a High-Bandwidth.4 1.8 27.3 Percentage of national emissions 1.

Beyond Carbon Neutral
This report goes significantly beyond ‘holding the line’ goals of corporate carbon neutrality and carbon. Instead it sets out a suite of opportunities that would allow telecommunications providers to play a leadership role in decarbonising the Australian economy and equipping the nation to prosper in a carbon constrained future. All of the strategies and opportunities are based on avoiding the release of fossil carbon into the atmosphere; they are not based on off-setting emissions. Seven options are proposed to build on existing and next-generation networks. The realisation of opportunities outlined in this report would result in telecommunications providers assisting Australian businesses and households achieving total greenhouse gas reductions equivalent to approximately 4.9% of Australia’s total national emissions. Some of the opportunities identified in the consumer space can be achieved using existing network services and others are contingent on the roll-out of fibre to the node (FTTN) broadband infrastructure. Overall the initiatives identified in this report present the opportunity for one of the single largest reductions in Australia’s carbon footprint by an Australian corporation. Companies seeking to maximise their carbon emission reduction could leverage the existing and nextgeneration networks already built by Telstra.

The Climate Challenge
The latest statement from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 007) indicates the next ten years are critical in meeting the challenges posed by climate change. For the first time, scientists and governments are now agreed that global emissions must be stabilised by 05 if climate change is to be effectively addressed. Similarly the global economic Stern Review concluded that “to stabilise at 450ppmii CO-e, without overshooting, global emissions would need to peak in the next 0 years“ (Stern 006, p. 93). Reducing greenhouse emissions requires major commitments from both the public and private sectors as well as the government. In 005 Australia’s net annual emissions totalled 559 mega-tonnes of CO equivalent (MtCO-e) from all activities, which equates to .4% of the global total. In the short term, it appears that Australia will stay close to its Kyoto Protocol target of no more than an 8% increase above 990 emission levels (AGO 007b). However, the underlying trend is that Australian emissions will increase at about .3% per year. The use of fossil-fuels in stationaryenergyiii and transport applications is the nation’s major source of emissions. The trend is not declining or stabilising, but continuing to grow significantly. If deep cuts in emissions are to be achieved, emissions from the energy sector are Australia’s greatest greenhouse challenge.

THE KyOTO PROTOCOL AnD AuSTRALiA’S TARGET The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The main objective of the protocol is the “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol requires industrial nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5 per cent below 990 levels by 0. Australia received a 08% target above 990 levels.

GREEnHOuSE GASES (GHG) Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic (man made), that contribute to increasing the global mean temperature of the earth. Greenhouse gases including water vapour (HO), carbon dioxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH4), and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. There are a number of entirely human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances.

ii

Associated with a 50% chance of exceeding oC warming above pre-industrial levels.

iii Stationary energy includes emissions from electricity generation, the use of fuels in manufacturing, construction and commercial sectors, and residential heating. It excludes transport fuels.

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Telecommunication’s Significance in Climate Change Mitigation
Telecommunication operators are a major conduit for new technology and infrastructure. Australia has the only national wireless broadband network in the world. The scale and scope of the telecommunication sector’s operations unlock the ability to aggregate multiple distributed initiatives to achieve nationally significant emissions savings. The anticipated greenhouse emission constraints coincide with the government’s plans for next-generation networks, which provides synergies for new emission reduction opportunities. This report identifies seven carbonopportunities appropriate for Australian businesses and households, which have the potential for viable carbon abatement using existing and nextgeneration networks. These carbonopportunities have relevance for energy consumption in buildings, road transport, renewable energy production and aviation.

Secondly, devices and appliances which are on, but not being unused, may also waste large amounts of electricity (estimated herein as 5%), we refer to this as ‘orphaned’ energy. We have identified two relevant commercial opportunities:

The underlying trend is that Australian emissions are forecast to increase at about 1.3% per year.

Carbon-Opportunity: Remote Appliance Power Management
Broadband can provide both the monitoring and control of electrical networks down to the electric switch box or even plug socket and in addition facilitate analysis and management elsewhere on the network. Standby switching can be centralised to allow electricity to be halted to devices on standby, such as a phone that has finished charging, a TV that has not been used for an hour, or a hot water system which is on, even though no one is in the house. While this is not appropriate for all devices, it is applicable to many. Annual Saving: The estimated emissions saving of Remote Appliance Power Managementiv is .8 MtCO-e, or 0.33% of total national emissions. The financial value of the avoided electricity spending is $70 million and the value of the carbon credits would be in the range of $8 million to $9 million.
nATiOnAL EMiSSiOnS AnD PER CAPiTA EMiSSiOnS Greenhouse gas emissions vary considerably, especially between developed countries and developing countries, both at a national level and per person. Australia has the highest emissions per capita of any developed country (OECD) with the equivalent emissions of 6 tonnes per person carbon dioxide per year. China is one of the worlds biggest greenhouse gas polluters, but this is largely due the high population. On a per capita basis a Chinese person is responsible for about .5 tonnes per year.

Buildings
Today electricity consumption in homes and the workplace accounts for one fifth of total national emissions (ABS 007, AGO 007b); in both locations there are two significant sources of energy wastage. Firstly, standby power, in which numerous appliances that appear to be ‘off’ are still consuming energy, typically this accounts for over % of electricity use in an average home.

Carbon-Opportunity: PresenceBased Power
It is very common for any energy consuming devices to be left on even though the user may not be present.

With Presence-Based Power the supply of energy follows the person, not the appliance.

iv Assumes broadband-based Remote Appliance Power Management solutions are used to reduce standby emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings.

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However, the supply of energy can be made dependent on the presence of a person. For example, most office meeting rooms remain air-conditioned while no one is using them and computers stay on when the person is at lunch. Significant reductions in energy consumption can be achieved if devices are deactivated when people walk away, and turned back on when the person returns. This ‘Presence-Based Power’ can use a person’s mobile phone or company identification tag to register their presence meaning the supply of energy is linked to the presence of the person, not just the appliance. Annual Saving: The estimated emissions saving of Presence-Based Power v is 3.0 MtCO-e, or 0.53% of total national emissions. The financial value of the avoided electricity spending is $70 million and the value of the carbon credits would be in the range $9 million to $50 million.

of national emissions. Overall, freight vehicles are empty for 8% of the kilometres travelled (ABS 005). For all of these emissions we have identified three commercially-viable opportunities:

THE VALuE OF CARBOn Greenhouse gas emissions trading will be operational in Australia by 0. This will create a cost for the right to emit greenhouse gas pollution. Reciprocally it will create a value for greenhouse gas abatement. The value of greenhouse gas abatement will depend on the cuts in emissions specified by the government and will be set by the market. In this report we use a range of possible carbon prices from $0 to $50 per tonne of carbon dioxide based on analysis by the CSIRO and ABARE.

Carbon-Opportunity: Decentralised Business District
Broadband-enabled homes, suburbs and regional centres can either remove or significantly reduce the emissions generated by people travelling to and from work. At one end of the spectrum, people would be working from home one day a week or more; at the other end, people would be working in suburban or regional centres where minor commuting is involved. In the latter case, people would continue to enjoy employment in a national or international company with no career disadvantage. A hybrid is the telework business centre, open to staff from many different businesses and placed in locations close to where people live but able to offer all of the amenities of a large office. Annual Saving: The estimated emissions saving of De-centralised Business Districtsvii, from reduced travel emissions only, is 3. MtCO-e or 0.55% of total national emissions. The financial value of the avoided fuel spending is $. billion and the value of the carbon credits would be in the range $30 million to $50 million.

Transport
Today road transport produces nearly 70 MtCO–e of emissions per year, around 4% of total national emissionsvi. Three quarters of Australians drive to work; of these only 4% share a car (ABS 005). Though significant attention has focused on making traffic flows more efficient, this often only increases traffic volumes. Meaningful emissions abatement requires the provision of more compelling alternatives to car use. Major emissions also result from the movement of freight totalling about 5%
v

Assumes network enabled Presence-Based Power solutions are used to reduce ‘orphaned’ energy emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings.

vi Much of this is caused by the sheer size of the nation. Other continentalised nations, such as the US and Canada, also have comparatively high transport-linked emissions. This may also affect vehicle type and choice. vii Assumes that De-Centralised Workplaces are used by 0% of employees who have telework suitable jobs, and their commuting emissions are reduced by at least 50%.

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produce constantly varying amounts of energy. Personalised Public Transport can greatly increase the catchment of other public transport options.Carbon-Opportunity: Personalised Public Transport Wireless-broadband can facilitate public transport on demand.9 MtCO-e per annum. Despite being plentiful. However deep cuts in Australian emissions will require a transition to low and zero emission sources of power supply. US states and developing countries like India and China have established very high targets for renewable energy. or underladen. cooling and other appliances in buildings and homes across Australia.7% of total national emissions. This in turn would enable renewables to contribute an increased component of the electricity supply. turning such renewables into ‘stable and predictable generation’. with faster speeds door-to-door. viii Assumes that wireless broadband-facilitated Personalised Public Transport is able to capture 0% of car-based commuters and assumes that the relative emission intensity of public transport is 90% lower than personal car travel in the urban environment. Annual Saving: The estimated emissions saving through Personalised Public Transport viii is 3. Annual Saving: The estimated emissions saving of Real-time Freight Managementix is . REnEWABLE EnERGy COnSTRAinTS Europe. The report identifies a means by which next generation networks can dismantle barriers to renewable energy uptake. Renewable Energy Today Australia’s energy supply is dominated by fossil fuels.6 billion and the value of the carbon credits would be in the range $39 million to $00 million. Consolidating this information allows more freight to be assigned to unladen. greater flexibility and lower costs. Some of the most successful renewable energy sources. vehicles. The financial value of the avoided fuel spending is $.000 gigawatt hours of electricity per year to come from renewables. The financial value of the avoided fuel spending is $. Personalised Public Transport allows the user to order public transport provided by an integrated network of multi-occupant taxis. or 0. Properly managing this variation can limit the amount of renewable energy which can be installed in certain locations or increase the value of such energy. like wind power.5% of total national emissions.generation networks can dismantle such barriers to renewable energy uptake. minibuses. buses and trains. This can be used to create ‘virtual’ energy storage to effectively neutralise aspects of short-term variability. Realtime Freight Management creates an integrated clearing house for multiple suppliers of freight services.9 MtCO-e per annum. this has in part prompted restriction of new wind farm development in South Australia and has been used in the advocacy of higher-cost nuclear generation. Carbon-Opportunity: Real-time Freight Management Wireless-broadband allows freight and freight vehicles to be monitored in real time. which starts at the front door. Carbon-Opportunity: increased Renewable Energy Australia’s extensive broadband networks allow a link to be made between renewable energy supplies and active load management of heating. such as bus and rail. The report identifies a means by which next. billion and the value of the carbon credits would be in the range $9 million to $50 million. The personal efficiency of Personalised Public Transport can exceed that of using the private car. Towards a High-Bandwidth. resulting in significant opportunities for greenhouse gas abatement. or 0. lowcost renewable energy sources like wind power are hampered by the variability of the supply. The Australian government has recently announced a target for about 30. Further. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk xi . ix Assumes that Real-time Freight Management effectively avoids 5% of unladen truck kilometres.

Excluding up-lift. time. xi Assumes /3 of business air travel can be replaced by ‘On-Live’ meetings using high speed. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk .8% of total national emissions. high definition video links. Health: Information Communications Technology (ICT) networks in regional and rural health services Because aviation emissions occur at altitude the warming effect is approximately 2. online conferencing that is significantly more efficient in cost. To illustrate the opportunities and barriers in achieving the carbon cuts from the use of Telstra’s existing and next-generation networks. Real World and Industry Examples For each of the carbon-opportunities identified above. to 6. Aviation Aviation emissions are amongst the fastest growing in the energy sector.7 times higher. Yet because aviation emissions occur at altitude the warming effect is as much as . Domestic aviation alone produces 5.5MtCO-e per annum when the increased warming effect of aviation emissions at altitude or ‘up-lift’ is included). Housing: The Genesis residential housing development in South East Queensland .43% of total national emissions. billion and the value of the carbon credits are in the range $4 million to $0 million. xii Towards a High-Bandwidth. Business: Telstra which has approximately 36. In many cases this has been a side effect of reducing costs or improving productivity. short-duration travel can be effectively replaced with ‘inperson’ high-definition. though this could be considerably higher. The financial value of the avoided spending on air travel is $. million tonnes of CO per year and international aviation using fuels procured in Australia give rise to approximately twice these emissions. These examples show considerable scope to apply the carbonopportunities identified in this report to create much deeper emission abatement in these sectors and also to unlock costs savings in energy. high fidelity. fuel and infrastructure. 5% of the total loads across residential and commercial buildings are discretionary at any one time. four industry perspectives have been presented: .7 times higher.000 full-time equivalent employees in Australia 4.4 MtCO-e per annum through direct fuel use reduction (equivalent x Each of the industry examples demonstrate that there have already been carbon emission savings through the use of ICT networks. Carbon-Opportunity: ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing Long-distance. the avoided emissions are equivalent to 0. Assumes that one-third of homes and commercial buildings are broadband enabled and that they have agreed to have their discretionary (non-time-sensitive) loads managed by Telstra. Education: Catholic Education Parramatta which administers 7 schools 3. The financial value of the avoided fuel spending is $86 million and the value of the carbon credits would be in the range $00 million to $300 million. MtCO-e or . Based on international studies about 50% of short haul air travel may be for business (Mason 000). Annual Saving: The emissions saving of ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencingxi services in avoided domestic and international air travel is . energy and emissions.Annual Saving: The emissions abatement from using Increased Renewable Energy x is at least 0. the report provides international examples of current applications of the required technology or systems. Assumes that on average.

193).8 MtCO2-e Figure ii. p. Real-time Freight Management 2. as well as revenue from carbon credits created and other ancillary services.9 MtCO2-e Personalised Public Transport 3.1 MtCO2-e The IPCC have concluded that global emissions must not continue to increase past 2015 if the global mean temperature increase is to be contained between 2. Increased Renewable Energy 10.0 0. global emissions would need to peak in the next 10 years [before 2016] (Stern 2006. 1. without overshooting.0 To stabilise at 450ppm CO2e.5 Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e Saving/Value 2. Each of the carbon-opportunites creates value from avoided fuel use or increased energy value.4oC above pre-industrial levels.1 MtCO2-e Presence-Based Power 3.0 and 2.0 Billions dollars $A per year 1.5 0.9 MtCO2-e Figure iii: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites 2.0 MtCO2-e De-centralised Business District 3. xiii Towards a High-Bandwidth.Figure ii: Breakdown of abatement contribution from seven CarbonOpportunities ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 2. Annual avoided emissions from each of the identified carbon-opportunities (MtCO-e).4 MtCO2-e Remote Appliance Power Management 1.5 Figure iii. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk ‘O n- Li v Vi e’ H de ig o h Co D e Pe nfe fin r it rs on enc ion in al g is ed Tr P an u s bl Bu De.por ic t si ce ne nt ss ra lis D is ed tr Re ic al t -t M im an e ag Fre em ig Pr en ht es t en ce In -B cr Po ase ea w d se er d Re ne w En ab Po Rem er le w o gy er te M A an pp ag lia em nc en e t .

Temperature increases are different across the globe.The Challenge In this chapter we explore the basic rationale for a low carbon society. the societal pressure for unilateral actions in many countries means that measures to reduce emissions are gathering pace on almost every continent. All of these present opportunities for the telecommunications sector as we shall explore in this report. Any solution to climate change will require international agreement. as one of the world’s smaller emitters Australia is unlikely to play a central role in the architecture and targets established in future international agreements. absorbing the rest as infrared radiation. This starting assumption is founded on the science behind climate change. To get a sense of its importance. and Australia is no different. However. and emitting it back to Earth or out into space. India or Brazil. consequently the scientific convention is to refer to global average temperature increases. our nearest neighbour. energy efficiency standards and the expansion of renewable energy. In any international agreement Australia will likely be a target taker. Unless otherwise stated these conventions are adhered to in this report. along with most other countries. which has not yet been achieved. lowest at the equator and highest at the poles.Stern 2006 What is the ‘greenhouse effect’? The atmosphere is semi-transparent to solar energy. the EU. and no natural ‘greenhouse effect’ to keep it warm. as one of the world’s highest per capita emitters. Australia is highly vulnerable to international Global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%. rather than a target setter. binding targets that may lead toward a convergence in per capita emissions. The Global Consensus In this report we assume that Australia. Towards a High-Bandwidth. This radiation budget is adjusted as the concentration of greenhouse gases change in the atmosphere. Unlike the USA. nominally set as 850. allowing some sunlight to reach and warm the Earth’s surface. Although the Moon is about the same distance from the Sun as Earth. This consensus extends to the business community which is increasingly recognising the risks posed by climate change and seeking the opportunities created by a carbon constrained society. China. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk  . For example. This natural ‘greenhouse effect’ keeps the average surface temperature on Earth at a comfortable 4°C. but taking action now would cost just 1% of global gross domestic product .Part 1 Climate Change . it does not have an atmosphere. There is now a global consensus that climate change is a challenge that will have to be addressed forthwith. is starting down a path toward a carbon constrained future. There is now bi-partisan political support for greenhouse gas emissions trading. the rapid evolution of public opinion around the world and the actions and commitments occurring in the political domain. We present an overview of climate change science and mitigation strategies. Australia’s per person emissions are approximately 0 times that of the average Chinese citizen and the highest in the developed world. The scientific convention is for global warming levels to be expressed relative to pre-industrial levels. Nevertheless. the Moon has an average temperature 3°C lower than Earth.

The composition of our atmosphere is crucial for trapping heat to the levels which Earth’s ecosystems and human civilisations are now adapted. The atmospheric composition is 78% nitrogen, % oxygen, 0.93% argon as well as some other trace gases. One of these trace gases is carbon dioxide, comprising 0.04%. Almost all (99%) of air is made up of simple double molecules – oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) – which neither emit nor absorb infrared radiation. Molecules with more than two atoms of different elements - like water vapour (HO), carbon dioxide (CO), or methane (CH4) – can trap heat by emitting more infrared radiation back to Earth (Figure ). These are known as the greenhouse gases. While carbon is a trace element in the air, vast amounts are cycled between the Earth and the atmosphere by geological and biological processes, and transferred by plant growth into the oceans, soils, and forests. Millions of years in favourable geological conditions have turned decaying plant matter into the carbon-rich fossil fuels we know as oil, coal and gas. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Here the carbon dioxide acts as a particularly effective heat radiator because of its molecular structure. The amounts in the atmosphere are so small they are measured in parts per million (ppm), but a slight change in CO concentration makes a large difference to the heat balance. The increased CO adds to the natural greenhouse effect of the Earth – and causes the human induced global

warming or ‘enhanced greenhouse effect’ we now have to address. In essence the CO that was taken out of the atmosphere by plants over hundreds of millions of years is now being released back into the atmosphere in a matter of decades.

The Complexity of Climate Change
The United Nations sums up climate change science as follows: “The average temperature of the Earth has been increasing more than natural climatic cycles would explain. This episode of “global warming” is due to human activity. It began with the industrial revolution, two centuries ago, and accelerated over the last 50 years. Fossil fuel burning is mostly responsible, because it releases gases (particularly carbon dioxide) that trap infrared radiation. This “greenhouse effect” creates a whole system disturbance, that we call climate change”. (UNEP 005) The climate change process and risks are part of a complex interaction with human activities and the physical dynamics that define the global climate itself. The complexity of these interactions is explained in Figure . Over the past century, average global temperatures have increased by approximately 0.74°C (Figure 3) and scientific evidence suggests this will continue (IPCC WGI 007). If, as predicted by current IPCC projection models, there is a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the average global temperature is expected

In essence, the CO2 that was taken out of the atmosphere by plants over hundreds of millions of years is now being released back into the atmosphere in a matter of decades.

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Figure 1: An overview of the mechanism and scale of the greenhouse
effect
Figure . The diagram illustrates the process of warming which is driven by incoming solar radiation which is trapped by the atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Some solar radiation is reflected by the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface

Radiation escapes the atmosphere into space

Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere

GREENHOUSE GASES
Some solar energy is absorbed by the Earth’s surface Some of the energy is given out as infrared radiation Greenhouse gases trap and reflect infrared radiation back to Earth, causing the ‘greenhouse effect’

to rise between 2°C – 4.5°C by 2100, with extremely serious implications for the global environment, society and economy (IPCC 007a; Stern 006; Houghton 004).

by between 0.4°C to °C by 030 and between °C to 6°C by 070 (Preston & Jones 006) (Figure 4). According to the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO), climate change will place considerable strain on Australia’s coastal communities including sea level rise and increased storm surges, changes to marine and coastal biodiversity and changes to fisheries (Voice et al. 006). Relevant impacts for Australia, based on a range of research include: • Reduced urban water supplies or increased costs (CSiRO 2006).

Climate Change in Australia
The past century has seen Australia experience an average warming of 0.7°C and a significant reduction of coastal precipitation that is reducing the water supplies of our urban settlements and agricultural regions (Preston & Jones 006). This warming trend is set to continue with predictions that relative to 990 levels, average Australian temperatures could increase

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Figure 2: The complexity of interactions that influence climate change and
its impacts

Figure . The climate change processes and risks are part of a complex interaction with human activities and the physical dynamics that define the global climate itself (UNEP/GRID-Arendal 006).

Soucrce: UNEP/GRID Arendal 006

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4 . • What Does ‘Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change’ Actually Mean? The latest IPCC report suggests that atmospheric CO concentration alone (i. 006).6 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year • Rural and agricultural community economic dislocation (nelson 2006). Sea level rise and storm surge impacts on coastal settlements (Church 2006).2 . Disruption of food security (Preston 2006).000 years (80 to 300 ppm) as determined from ice cores. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 5 . 0. from which the Kyoto Protocol was born. not including other gases) has increased from pre-industrial levels of 80 parts per million (ppm) to 380 ppm in 005. Flannery 2005). The term ‘dangerous’ climate change was introduced in the 99 United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).e. It calls for stabilisation of greenhouse gases to: “prevent dangerous anthropogenic • • • • Towards a High-Bandwidth. There is a discernable increase in global temperatures since 900 as the black line with multi-year smoothing shows (Brohan et al.” (IPCC WGI SPM 007). A southerly movement of mosquitoborne diseases including Ross River Fever (Lyth 2006). • • Destabilisation and regional conflict in the Pacific including mobilisation of environmental refugees (Edwards 1999).Figure 3: The changing global average temperatures since 1850 0.6 Figure 3. Pittock 2005. which “exceeds by far the natural range over the last 650. and decreased natural pollination of crops (Houghton 2004. increase in extreme weather events (CSiRO 2006). Reduced ecosystem services including water quality and availability.0 . Loss of biodiversity including extinction of endemic species (Williams 2005).0.0.2 0.0.4 Temperature anomaly (oC) 0.

and. have nominated a deadline beyond which emissions cannot continue to grow if certain levels of climate change are to be averted. There is a general agreement that dangerous changes will occur with warming in the vicinity of oC above preindustrial levels. and assuming that global emissions have increase by approximately 0% between 000 and 007 Towards a High-Bandwidth. 2070 2030 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Temperature increase (oC) Temperature increase (oC) interference with the climate system. through the IPCC. The European Union has formally resolved that: “to meet the ultimate objective of There is a general agreement that dangerous changes will occur with warming in the vicinity of 2oC above pre-industrial levels. However. the UNFCCC to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.  Converted from the range 50-85% relative to levels in the year 000. to ensure that food production is not threatened. This is the first time that scientists and governments. • (UNFCCC 99) The UNFCCC and IPCC refer to.… Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient: • to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner”. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 6 . • Understanding Emission Cuts The recent IPCC statement on emissions abatement potential concludes that temperatures could be stabilised below . overall global temperature increase should not exceed ºC above pre-industrial levels” (European Council 004). The changing mean temperatures around Australia based on modelling by the CSIRO. ‘dangerous climate change’. Greenhouse gas emissions accumulate in the global atmosphere and will therefore have to be managed by international agreement.4 oC provided that emissions stop increasing by 05 and are then reduced by between 60-95% by 050 (IPCC WGIII 007). but do not define.Figure 4: Forecast average temperature increases in Australia Figure 4.

gas polluters. especially between developed countries and developing countries.emissions cuts will have to be implemented at a national level.3 tonnes per year. 00. p. 76) National Emissions and Per Capita Emissions Greenhouse gas emissions vary considerably. China is one of the worlds biggest greenhouse Figure 5: Australian current and projected annual net greenhouse gas emissions 850 Business as usual Best estimate with the effect of anticipated government measures to reduce emissions Kyoto target 750 Figure 5. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as an ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects. Australia has the highest emissions per capita of any developed country (OECD) with the equivalent emissions of 6 tonnes per person carbon dioxide per year.708). both at a national level and per person (Figure 6). Australia may meet its Kyoto Target. 00. timetables and. supporting legislation which are used to adjust projections of future emissions. p.’ (Metz et al. The latest figures released by the Australian government (AGO 007b) indicate that forecast emissions even ‘with measures’ will not see any stabilisation before 05. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies to deal with climate change generally consist of two elements: adaptation and mitigation (Pittock 005). nor any reduction within the foreseeable future (Figure 5).3% per year 1990 levels 550 ‘WiTH MEASuRES’ The term ‘with measures’ refers to government initiatives with allocated budgets. 450 350 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Towards a High-Bandwidth. Mitigation is defined by the IPCC as ‘an anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 7 . On a per capita basis a Chinese person is responsible for about . but government projections indicate that emissions will not have been stabilised (AGO 007a). which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’ (Metz et al. if necessary. but this is largely due the high population. 650 Emissions MtCo2-e Emissions growing at 1.

and A Carbon Price The regulation of pollutants has a long history in developed countries and there are many established mechanisms Towards a High-Bandwidth. for control. Mitigation strategies can only reduce the speed. In some cases pollutants are banned. such as those in the US used to control sulphur dioxide emissions (which causes acid rain). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 8 . on a per capita basis its emissions are amongst the highest in the world due in part to high levels of coal use. carbon taxes which are designed to place a cost on pollution. p. b. For greenhouse gas emissions. A more recent innovation is the use of trading markets to control emissions. Human beings must adapt to current and future changes that are already locked in. It is also possible to introduce pollution taxes which force up the cost of the polluting technology to the point where alternative technologies become viable. In a summary for the IPCC advocate that adaptation and mitigation need to be considered together in any climate change response (Banuri et al. Environmental lag time means that climate change is not only already underway. but several decades of increased warming are unavoidable. Though Australia has comparatively low emissions at a national level. in other cases regulation is used to specify the legal amount of a pollutant that can be released into the environment.5). fugitive emissions from fossil fuel extraction. ‘emission caps’ which place a legal limit on the amount that a country may emit. 00. energy intensive industries such as metals and minerals processing and land use activity that causes large amounts carbon to be unlocked as forests are cleared (OECD 006). magnitude and severity of future impacts and may seek to ensure that the future climatic change that occurs is within our capacity to adapt (Pittock 005). key mechanisms under development are: a. The connection between adaptation and mitigation is often overlooked.Figure 6: Variation in national emissions across the world Figure 6.

Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 9 . In some cases. In this way the emissions trading scheme creates a ‘price of carbon’ which reciprocally creates a value for greenhouse gas abatement. As the cap gradually reduces over time the market value for the right to emit will gradually increase. Under this system a cap will be placed on the amount of emissions that can be released across the country. it may be possible to create a tradeable abatement commodity. however abatement which is not tradeable will still have a value consistent with the ‘price of carbon’. $0 and $50 dollars per tonne CO-e (CSIRO. Emissions Trading There is now bi-partisan support for the introduction of emissions trading in Australia. Year Towards a High-Bandwidth. This report uses carbon prices developed by the CSIRO. sold and traded. Figure 7: Projections for carbon prices for several emission cut scenarios modelled by the CSIRO and ABARE 200 Scenario 3 Scenario 2d Scenario 2c Scenario 2b Scenario 2a Scenario 1 150 $A CO2-e 100 50 0 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Figure 7. The scenarios were modelled by the CSIRO and ABARE. The types of abatement that will be tradeable will depend on the rules of the Emissions Trading Scheme which are yet to be established. An existing example of a tradeable carbon credit in the Australian market is the ‘Renewable Energy Certificate’ which is regulated by the federal government. 006). ABARE and the Energy Futures Forum based on several emission scenarios in Australia (Figure 7). and the rights to emit will be given out and/or auctioned. often referred to as a ‘carbon credit’. emissions trading in which the total rights to emit greenhouse gases under a national cap can be bought.c. namely $0. These results are used as the basis for the three carbon price points used herein. The CSIRO recently convened an Energy Futures Forum of major energy industry participants and stakeholders to develop long term scenarios affecting Australia’s energy future.

for example the hard drive of a computer.5 KB for a 60 character SMS A medium-sized novel contains about 5 MB of information A song contains about 5 MB of information A 3-minute. . Content All electronic content is comprised of data. for example much of the information available on the Internet like videos on YouTube™ and the photos on FaceBook™. Data can also be stored in a network or on server. or about . music or videos as well as the applications and services that are needed to access this content. a major expansion of networks and usage could lead to significant changes in emissions. gigabytes (GB) and terabytes (TB).4% of national emissions (ACS 007). Emissions arising from Telstra’s operations account for about 0. Data requirements vary widely among different kinds of media content. Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and mobile phones.% of Australia’s total emissions (Telstra 006). Content – such as emails. and 3. For example: • Text-based email contains about 05 KB of information An SMS contains only . In this section we seek to establish how significant. Data is measured in bits– kilobytes (KB).Part 2 The Emissions Signature of Broadband Telecommunications is a large user of energy. The most recent survey of Australian businesses indicates that their Information and Communications Technology (ICT) use is responsible for about 7. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 0 . While this may seem negligible in comparison to other sectors. • Content data can be stored on devices. high-quality music video clip contains around 60 MB of information A movie at DVD quality contains around 7-0 GB of information for dual-layer discs A library contains -30 or more TB of information • • • • • Understanding Telecommunications Networks Telecommunication networks and broadband are best understood by considering three key elements: . Towards a High-Bandwidth.9 MtCO-e. Networks – the systems that transfer content from one place to another. the memory of an iPod® or the address book in a mobile phone. We do not consider lifecycle emissions or embodied energy (e.g. megabytes (MB). which although significant are dwarfed by the energy flows in the ICT sector. Devices – such as computers. the energy or materials used to make a modem).

there may be a lot of network capacity to handle a digital file. network and the devices using the network. Big pipes carry more water than small. For example. Broadband Broadband is sufficient data transmission speed to utilise applications. large video files (like videos placed on YouTube™) and e-mail attachments (like digital photographs) are now routinely sent out (or “uploaded”). services or content effectively relative to the user’s access device or capabilities (KPMG 004). modems. the capacity of the mobile device and the computer will contribute to the clarity of the video. data needs to flow in two directions. wireless turbo cards. In a telecommunications network the size of pipes or network capacity is known as ‘bandwidth’. and the quality of the architecture and size of the pipes will determine the volume and speed at which data is carried. They also connect consumers to businesses and businesses to businesses. Networks connect landline telephones. The capacity of the device is part of the overall performance of the system.g. Unlike a water system. PDAs – effectively anything that plugs into a network to receive and send data. coaxial cable or fibre optic cables as well as wireless links such as those that mobile devices use (e. Transferring data is like transferring water which need a network of pipes. However this is changing with businesses and consumers starting to “upload” larger packets of information or data – for example. Information Communications Technology appears to have been causing significant decreases in the energy intensity of economic activity across the wider economy. but unless the device has the capacity to process the data quickly. The speed at which content can be accessed is determined by the amount of content. 3G or the Next G™ wireless network). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk  .networks Telecommunication networks carry content from one place to another. for example. mobile phones and computers. Broadand covers systems running over fixed connections such as copper. as there are more users who want to get content than create content. mobile phones. The performance of networks can be thought of like the performance of water pipes. Devices Devices include computers. if a video conference is occurring between a mobile phone and computer. The amount of bandwidth coming “in” (called “download”) has traditionally been greater than the amount of bandwidth going “out” (called “upload”). In this way networks are evolving as the Internet becomes more like a two-way highway. both in Australia and overseas. Towards a High-Bandwidth. the overall performance will be limited.

9% respectively). Towards a High-Bandwidth. which was being deployed alongside the PC systems introduced in the previous part of the decade. 3. . yet the energy intensity of the economy was decreasing.4% a year (Romm 00) . Romm reports an apparent anomaly in US energy statistics. 53-54).4 % a year while energy use grew by . A review of a macro-economic assessment of the effects of ICT on national emissions in the USA. The conclusion from these macroeconomic studies of broadband energy issue is: if energy in ICT use was increasing. then ICT appears to have been causing significant decreases in the energy intensity of economic activity across the wider economy. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk  .Three Ways to Consider the Issue Emissions effects from ICT networks are considered in three ways.5% (Romm 00).7% and 3. with most of the additional demand arising from devices being left on overnight.consistent with the opinion that a growing economy needs ever more energy.% a year. . US economic growth averaged 3. From 99 to 996. Macro-economics of iCT from the uSA In the USA ICT brought about a partial decoupling of economic growth from energy consumption. p. However from 996 to 000. Analysis in 006 notes an increase in energy demand from home/ consumer ICT (Roth 006. In order to explain this interaction we need to consider the period prior to the major expansion of ICT in the US. but during the same period. The US GDP growth increased to over 4% a year. ascribed to PCs and related equipment being 60% to 00% more than in previous studies. Except for the oil shocks of the 970s.energy consumed per dollar of GDP . p. This is an issue we will consider in more detail later in the report. The critical change that occurred during this period was the introduction of the internet. Major economic growth was occurring online. this discontinuity in the connection between growth and energy was unprecedented in post-war US economic history. Expansion of ICT deployment did require increased energy. office ICT equipment across the US used 3% of total electricity (Roth 00. 43). .decreased by more than half (997 and 998 saw decreases of 3. energy demand only increased by . in 00. Power use for ICT has continued to increase through the broadband revolution. A review of energy demand impacts from ICT network operation in the United Kingdom and the secondary impacts on broadband-based customer activities. The energy intensity of economic growth  It should be noted that weather related factors may have accounted for some of the changes not exceeding 0. A review of the status and trends for energy consumption (and therefore emissions profile) of relevant devices.

The report’s view is somewhat ambivalent: there is the “potential for environmental savings”.Looking forward. The authors suggest that indirect impacts on energy use are 4 to 7 times higher than direct energy use (as defined in Figure 9). The uK Broadband Environmental Audit Similar concerns about burgeoning energy use from broadband application in the United Kingdom led to British Telecom (BT) commissioning British environment group Forum for the Future to assess the environmental impacts of broadband (Forum of the Future 004). consumer energy use. network energy use. customer energy use and waste.4% by 00. Clearly the critical issue is the extent to which the ‘secondary’ and ‘tertiary’ effects are positively or negatively correlated with broadband. The Forum found that the top four negative impacts were climate change. network energy use and waste (Forum of the Future 004). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 3 . The BT report claimed that teleworkers for the British Airports Authority had saved approximately 00 kilometres of car travel each week. Products and services Health Social ties Family life & community Social Towards a High-Bandwidth.6% and 5. but they “can only be realised through Figure 8: Environmental impacts of broadband use in the UK Environmental Office use Scoring Transport Climate change SMEs Regional Development Waste Economic 5 4 3 2 1 Network energy use Government/citizen interaction Positive impacts Negative impacts Work/life balance Abuse of the internet Education Consumer energy use Productivity Economic growth Figure 8. The report projected that teleworking could cut peak-hour travel by between . while ICT networks and applications need energy it appears that they can realise much greater reductions in energy use across the wider economy. The results are summarised in Figure 8. Forum for the Future concluded that broadband use would have negative impacts on climate change.

the CD) to chip storage.” The overall conclusion was that the delivery of environmental outcomes “could swing either way” but that the key element affecting this swing would be the associated [customer] behaviour and corporate policy. e.” It contends that even with telework and reduced commuting. which clearly has commensurate impacts on energy demands in commercial workplaces. Forum for the Future concluded that the key aspects for assessing the ‘whole’ impact of networks will include the secondary and tertiary impacts (Forum for the Future 004). the process of ‘unintended’ dematerialisation has continued. Nonetheless. an increase in transport intensity is ten times more significant for CO emissions than all primary broadband impacts. presumably due to other unrelated factors. For example. The critical observation in the context of this report is that even the projected direct and indirect emissions associated with broadband expansion represent only a “tiny percentage of UK emissions… secondary and tertiary impacts are likely to be much greater. maintenance and disposal of equipment Direct impacts of end-user equipment use e. car use would continue to grow.g. Since this report was released.Figure 9: Definition of direct and indirect impacts from broadband usage Direct Primary Production.g. Indirect Primary Secondary Associated with the ongoing use and application of broadband Tertiary Wider social and economic changes resulting changes in behaviour and corporate policy. it is clear that coordination could have a critical role in enabling an intended outcome regarding Towards a High-Bandwidth. home electricity use Figure 9.g. The report also notes that telework could reduce office space demands by 5%. which indicated that a fundamental dematerialisation of energy use happened even without an environmental objective. energy demand is significantly reduced in the transition from motor driven physical storage (e. To some extent this conclusion is in contrast with the US results. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 4 .

0 W On 1.0 W 2.0 W Table .0 W Towards a High-Bandwidth.1.31. WLAn 802 11a FXO.0 W 2. 8W 0. There is ongoing technology push and pull in the ICT space. Reductions in energy usage typically follow step changes. . or tube to flat screen monitor.0 W 5. the EU has issued a code of conduct setting out power consumption targets for a wide range of broadband equipment under 0 watts per device (Table ) (European Union 006). hubswitch for several ports. their specifications show significant reduction in energy usage despite increased processing capacity. Bluetooth WLAn access points VolP Device Small printer server Small hubs and switches 0.0 W 5. 1 uSB 1.3 W 2. point out that data routing equipment (used by organisations such An increase in transport intensity is ten times more significant for CO2 emissions than all primary broadband impacts. (Forum of the Future 2004) Equipment Tier 1: 1. As broadband devices evolve.3 W 0. 1.0 W 6. FXS/VolP.2007 Tier 2: 1.12.0 W 2.3 W 0.3 W 0W 0.2008 Off ADSL/VDSL-modem uSB powered ADSL/modem (Ports: 1 DSL. DECT.0 W 6. Step changes are major shifts which often accompany a switch in underlying technology.3 W 0.0 firewall).5 W 4.2/2.3 W 0.0 W 2. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 5 . such as CD to MP3.3 W 2.3 W 0.0 W 0. Cable Modem. 1 Ethernet 10/100. Power Consumption Targets of end use equipment for networks (European Union 006 ).1 . Often this is achieved by more expensive technologies being pulled into the market as economies of scale are achieved. 1 Ethernet 10/100.0 W 5.carbon emissions.0 W 6.3 W 0. and this can be aided by technology standards or targets. Table  shows the evolution in energy demand between two successive product specification years and the incremental changes delivered.12. Incremental changes are those in which the same device becomes steadily more efficient. a leading provider of data network equipment. 1 uSB Device.1/2.0 W 5.3 W 0. To drive incremental change.3 W Standby 0W 2.0 W 2. PLC modem VDSL-modem (max ports: 1 DSL.0 W 5.5 W 6. and a lack of such an objective could lead to a swing to negative outcomes.31.0 firewall) Each additional function of the following: WLAn 802 11h/g.0 W Off 0W 0. Cisco Systems. Status and Trends in underlying Devices The energy trajectory of the devices that underpin broadband is influenced by incremental and step changes.0 W 5.3 W On 1.

For example the current trend towards flat screen monitors may decrease monitor emissions if The most significant opportunities to reduce emissions from networks is through the leveraging of emission reductions in the wider society via the use of network enabled applications. There is very little evidence that the ability of networks to leverage emissions cuts has been deliberately attempted thus far. 4. However these ongoing reductions are occurring at a time when the volume of use is increasing significantly. The large rise in ICT use in the US was a major part of economic growth during a period when the energy intensity of economic activity actually decreased. These impacts will be at least an order of magnitude larger than any direct impacts from energy related to using ICT networks. Not only can step changes reduce the energy intensity of ICT devices. 6. 3. Towards a High-Bandwidth. There are warnings from some analysts that without intent and coordination the positive outcomes seen thus far could swing the other way into increased relative emissions. The previous research presented indicates that there is evidence of a strong link between telecommunication networks and a reduction in the intensity of society-wide/economy-wide energy use and therefore greenhouse gas emissions. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 6 . Sky (the UK’s largest satellite broadcaster) released a satellite set-topbox with automatic functionality to turn itself off completely. Society wide emissions and abatement have not been made a central part of the decision-making for network outcomes in the global telecommunications sector. The most significant impacts from networks will be in how the networks are used by business and residential consumers and the consequent impacts on their emissions footprint. but they also result in ‘smarter’ devices. rather than go into standby mode when not being used. The trends in new technologies around energy consumption in data networks indicate that energy consumption reductions of 90% 5. The assumption that the use and extensive growth of ICT networks gives rise to major increases in energy consumption is not valid. There have been however significant attempts to reduce energy consumption in order to reduce operation and infrastructure costs and so emissions reductions have occurred as an ‘unintended’ but beneficial side-effect. In early 007. The Balance of Network Impacts The key conclusions from a consideration of the greenhouse gas impacts of network use are as follows: .as Internet Service Providers) has seen an increase of data throughput of 33% in 0 years for the same amount of power (Cisco 005). are possible (see Figure 0) and are now coming through to the market. .

they are dwarfed by the secondary and tertiary impacts that they stimulate in the wider society. If technology developments are guided by governments or corporations. future changes in performance and use are likely to have a lower emission signature than would otherwise be the case. Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Computing Figure 0. One of the major conclusions to be drawn from reports just a few years old is the profound inability to second-guess future technology change and therefore not to assume that the future will be based on the past or present. in the context of this report. Energy Usage (Watts) 200 150 100 50 0 Current practice Best practices with current products Projected with advanced concepts Towards a High-Bandwidth. 7. The most significant opportunities to reduce emissions from networks is through the leveraging of emission reductions in the wider society via the use of network enabled applications. or increase emissions if plasma based monitors are chosen instead. The key conclusion. Figure 10: Analysis of ICT energy use 300 250 Uninterruptible Power Supply(UPS) and Other Lighting Heating.LCD screen monitors are adopted. Industry research into reducing the energy demand from ICT use shows opportunities for reducing energy consumption by up to 90% (Integrated Design 003). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 7 . is that although the direct impacts of broadband are large.

Telstra commissioned Climate Risk to quantify the potential of existing and nextgeneration networks and applications for carbon abatement. The idea that ICT networks can reduce greenhouse gas emissions is not new. discount less relevant sectors and identify ‘target’ emission sources. industrial processes and waste. Step 3: Overlay the results of steps  and . We also present several new opportunities to reduce emissions which are potentially larger in scale than any opportunities previously identified. about . Excellent high level work published internationally has highlighted several ways in which ICT may assist emissions abatement (ETNO 006). but still nascent. to identify telecommunication network opportunities which reduce carbon emissions and create financial value for end users. the scale and significance of these opportunities at a national level and the costs and benefits to telecommunications providers and their customers. Identifying Relevant Sectors In 005 Australia’s net greenhouse gas emissions were 559 MtCO-e. identify relevant sectors. Table  shows the major emissions by category. land use. broadband can provide only a limited role in agriculture. Step 2. land use change and forestry (LULUCF). By inspection. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 8 . Towards a High-Bandwidth. but these are not in the main target markets typical for network services. and the opportunities for telecommunication networks to play a role in climate change mitigation in Australia.Part 3 Identifying CarbonOpportunities for Telecommunication networks The genesis of this project was the recognition that a movement towards teleworking should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas emissions due to reduced transport use. There may be some relevant applications. the plausible market uptake of new technologies and services. i. A review of the emerging broadband technology revealed that networkrelated innovations may facilitate further emission reductions. Climate Risk adopted the following process: Step 1: Review Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. For example an area where ICT networks could contribute significantly to these emissions sectors is through ‘dematerialisation’. Review current and emergent network technology and applications for the sectors identified. as well as being internationally applicable In order to provide a consistent methodology to identify opportunities and maximise carbon abatement potential. Step 1.e. In this report we have built upon this research to pragmatically re-consider the types of opportunities available.% above emission levels in 990.

4 33. Consequently the same can be expected of the applications that these networks provide. The stationary energy3 and transport sectors represent 64% of emissions (Figure ). the use of fuels in manufacturing. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 9 . There are two other relevant trends. where decision-making occurs at any point within a network.0 559. Towards a High-Bandwidth. It excludes transport fuels.9 80.5 17.1 391. and drive down relative costs. ways in which the requirement for new materials is avoided. Decreasing the amount of energy needed – through efficiency or changed demand b. land use change and forestry Fugitive emissions from fuel industrial processes Waste Total net emissions All energy (combustion & fugitive) CO2-e 279. The dominant work in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from energy and transport tends to rest on three pillars: a. They are highly relevant sectors in the context of this report.7 31. These sectors also experienced the largest growth in emissions between 990 and 005 (energy grew by 43% and transport by nearly 30%). What can reasonably be expected in the future is that the push and pull of demand and supply will drive up speeds and volumes of network use.4 87. construction and commercial sectors. Australia’s net greenhouse gases by sector (AGO 007b). and residential heating. 3 Stationary energy includes emissions from electricity generation. Reviewing Current and Emergent Network Technology This step requires a review of current and emergent network technology and appliances.0 Table . Decarbonising the emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The first is the trend towards distributed intelligence.Sector and subsector Stationary energy Agriculture Transport Land use. Step 2. Increasing the provision of renewable/zero emission energy c.2 29.

Towards a High-Bandwidth. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 0 . cooling and devices that allow them to communicate and travel for work and recreation.3). p. Step 3. heat. Contribution to net CO-e emissions by sector 005 (AGO 007b. We can reasonably expect that whatever the new technology.4% of total emissions Percentage (%) 30 20 This combination of smart devices and netwrok control is a potentially powerful tool in energy management.Figure 11: Breakdown of Australian energy emissions by sector Figure . 10 0 Stationary energy Agriculture Transport Land use. goods and services (Figure ). This report will focus on broadband solutions that can assist with addressing the energy or emissions footprint of these basic human needs. increasingly have the capacity for communication and distributed control. This combination of smart devices and network control is a potentially powerful tool in energy management. The task of forecasting applications in terms of energy use is driven by basic human needs and activities. Fugitive land use emissions change and forestry Industrial processes Waste Sector The second is the process of intelligence moving into devices. Major CarbonOpportunities for telecommunication providers: Overlaying emission sources with network technologies Based on steps  and  we can conceptualise the overlaps between emission sources and network technologies occurring in three distinct but interrelated areas: the home. 50 40 Strongest abatement potential using ICT networks – 64. people will be wanting energy for light. Devices that were once passive. the workplace and the transport of people.

g. Broadband has the capacity to reduce transport needs and therefore reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Figure 3). . The carbon footprint of home and workplaces are often separate. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk  . elimination and consolidation process and a wider list of the additional greenhouse gas abatement options. Remote Appliance Power 4 The appendices provide a more detailed explanation of the identification.g. however as noted above this does not include emissions related to ‘industrial activity’. but may overlap for people who work from home. The carbon footprint of homes and workplaces are often separate. air travel.Figure 12: Interdependence of building and transport energy emissions Movement between home and work e. electrical appliances Movement in private life e.g. . Home Work Energy use e.5 MtCO-e. On this basis we see significant opportunities related to buildings. The telecommunication sector’s scale and scope can facilitate the full utilisation of opportunity. the following criteria were used: . The transport of people. The opportunity is economically viable. The motion of people. Each opportunity has the potential to reduce Australia’s total net emissions by . moving goods between cities Motion The home includes all of the activities that happen inside the home that use energy or affect energy use.g. To identify specific telecommunications enabled opportunities which are realistic and can deliver meaningful greenhouse gas abatement. The workplace includes many of the same needs and activities. goods and services accounts for a large proportion of emissions. Towards a High-Bandwidth. commuting Figure . road transport and renewable energy. A final group of seven carbonopportunities are presented here4. but may overlap for people who work from home. 3. driving to the shops Business to business movement e. goods and services accounts for a large proportion of emissions.

The ability of broadband-enabled buildings and devices to allow a user-focused energy flow.Figure 13: Pathways to reduce building and transport energy emissions Figure 3 . while pushing intelligence and management upstream into the network as a way of identifying and then eliminating standby power wastage. Faster speeds door to door. De-centralised Business District . Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk  . in which only devices inside the physical range of interaction of the user are activated. commercial and transport emissions and how they may be abated. 3. Presence-Based Power . train and taxis) to provide Personalised Public Transport.The capacity for broadband enabled homes.The potential for an integrated network of transport modes (eg bus. 4. A conceptual framework for residential. Personalised Public Transport . . Real-time Freight Management . Home Work Reduce the transport envelope Motion Increase shared resources Reduce workplace emissions Reduce home emissions Management – The opportunity to drive monitoring and control downstream to the power supply system in the home and workplace. 5.The potential of broadband-enabled vehicles and load monitoring to Towards a High-Bandwidth. high flexibility and lower costs. suburbs and regional centres to either remove or significantly reduce the emissions of people getting to and from their place of work. are accompanied by significant opportunities for greenhouse gas abatement.

that there are technologies. i. In some. Towards a High-Bandwidth. but not all cases. This load management can be undertaken by an integrated mobile and fixed broadband platform and be used to effectively neutralise the shortterm variability of renewable energy supplies. Beyond an initial screening for viability. products.e. 6.The potential for extensive broadband networks to monitor and facilitate the management of heating. short duration travel to be effectively replaced with ‘in person’ quality online conferencing that is considerably more cost. turning them into ‘stable and predictable’ power generation. there is assumed to be market pressure for reduced emissions through carbon pricing and a premium value for renewable energy. cooling and other loads. ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing . Viability and Implementation The carbon opportunities identified in the report have been selected in part because of the practicality of their implementation.reduce unladen (empty) and underladen trips. Increased Renewable Energy . this report does not set out a business strategy or road-map for commercially realising the carbon-opportunities identified. time and energy efficient.The opportunity for long distance. 7. with significantly reduced emissions. and so a detailed analysis of implementation options and barriers is not provided or implied. services or systems that can readily assimilate the identified innovations and deliver them to market. These assumptions are plausible given current statements by political leaders in Australia. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 3 .

MtCO –e of emissions (AGO 007b. Currently there are efforts to reduce the energy consumption of devices on standby (Energy Efficient Strategies 006). Status and Trends Homes and commercial premises currently consume approximately 08.000 Gigawatt-hours of electricity per year (based on ABS 007). Energy is lost while devices are on standby and also in converting voltages between the outlet and the device ‘conversion loss’.other 1% Networking 7% Hospital . Standby energy wastage ranges from 4% to 12% of total consumption. The chart shows the relatively high level of energy waste from ICT devices (Punchline Energy 007).other 5% Retail . and campaigns to change behaviour by turning devices off at the plug to avoid drawing power when unused. or about one fifth of the country’s Devices on ‘standby’ consume power even when they are not being used. creating roughly 00 million tonnes (assuming a little under  tonne CO per megawatt hour) of greenhouse gas emissions.other 3% Towards a High-Bandwidth. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 4 . Home . In homes and offices around the country.telephony 18% Imaging equipment 12% Figure 4. CAIT 007). Both approaches require changes to thousands of different 559.Part 4 Major Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication Networks Carbon-Opportunity 1: Remote Appliance Power Management At a Glance This opportunity reduces wasted electricity by networking the monitoring and control of power use in the electrical systems of homes and workplaces.other 13% Modems 21% Sundry . Figure 14: Standby and conversion loss by end-use appliances Laptops 8% Monitors 1% Mobile phones 11% Other . devices on ‘standby’ consume power even when they are not being used. AGO & ICLI 005). Standby energy wastage ranges from 4%-6% in offices to % of total consumption in homes (Harrington & Kleverlaan 00.

5 Calculation is based on . Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 5 . halting the flow of standby power. reduce electricity bills and decrease the risk of home fires (BBSB 007). the remote management sends a signal for the outlet to turn off. but also requires the telecommunications provider to engage in the home electrical market and building industry to deploy appropriate products in new and refurbished homes or provide simple retrofit products. The Carbon-Business Confluence Reducing energy use means reducing greenhouse emissions. The distributed management of energy could occur either inside the building or anywhere online. Consequently. charging tools in a garage. however current trends indicate that by 00 Australian electricity demand may increase by as much as 40% (ABARE 005). Both of these would allow intelligent control from anywhere on the global broadband network. wasted energy from devices that are on standby may still increase. this could mean combining outlets for power and broadband into a unified socket or inserting an intermediate networked plug/socket such as the one shown in the breakout box. making reductions difficult. ‘Bye Bye Standby’. Rather than leaving the charging transformers running. The value of wasted standby energy is of the order of $A billion per year5. For example. which in turn represents cost savings. Standards are being developed to reduce the energy consumption of various devices while they are on standby. A small company in Oxfordshire UK has created a single-point handheld device that allows the user to send a radio frequency signal to switch off all products (plugged into specially designed socket adapters) that are in standby mode when they leave the house or go to sleep. the outlet or switching box is able to monitor the energy being drawn and management elsewhere on the network can tell when the charging is finished. These products could move energy management away from individuals or devices to intelligence in the communications network. The application draws on a broadbandenabled home or workplace.5 billion Towards a High-Bandwidth. halting the flow of standby power. REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Networks and remote intelligence can allow a more sophisticated level of intervention. The company. The Telemetry Application Telecommunication providers have existing telemetry products that can be extended to monitoring and controlling energy distribution networks in buildings. In practice.5GWh of standby energy at a delivered price of $00 per MWh (at the lower end of non-industrial delivered electricity prices in Australia).product types and modifying the behaviour of millions of people. which gives a total value of $. Rather than leaving the charging transformers running. states that the device can save large amounts of greenhouse gases through lower energy consumption. The value of wasted standby energy may be over 1 billion dollars per year. the remote management sends a signal for the outlet to turn off.

however the large scale uptake requires the ability to retro-fit such switching at low cost. Towards a High-Bandwidth. It also requires applicable future devices to be suitably networked and controllable.Challenges and Barriers This is an example of shifting from an incidental to deliberate specification of network enabled energy management. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 6 . Such devices and switches already exist. The ability to have the necessary information and control to intercept standby energy wastage requires devices that are both networked and controllable or power supply switches that are networked and controllable.

Climate Risk estimate that. The ‘intelligent building’ is aware as the person moves between spaces. The Carbon-Business Confluence There is very little work on how much energy is wasted in ‘orphaned’ appliances. The user. heating. Consequently.Carbon-Opportunity 2 : PresenceBased Power At a Glance Electricity flows in the home and workplace are currently devicefocussed.perhaps a  metre radius in the office. Any device inside that sphere will be active. it draws the energy that it demands. this will vary with the definition of what period of non-use is applicable. Devices. TVs or computers are on when required by the person. causing roughly 00 million tonnes (assuming a little under  tonne CO per megawatt hour) of greenhouse gas emissions or about one fifth of the country’s 559. To some extent. The Telecommunication Mobile network Opportunity Presence-Based Power may be understood as the aura that lights up the room when a charismatic person arrives. Status and Trends Homes and commercial premises currently consume approximately 08. identified via their mobile phone or a key tag. For example. about 5% of energy use may be categorised as ‘orphaned’. Once the appliance is on. separate from standby power. Computers are on in offices when people have left for a meeting. The system can be extended to A typical plasma television uses the equivalent energy of an electric heater even when no-one is in the room. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 7 .000 Gigawatt-hours of electricity per year (ABS 007). a typical plasma television uses the equivalent energy of an electric heater even when no-one is in the room. This innovation could reduce an estimated 5% of energy use currently wasted as ‘orphaned’. but ‘go to sleep’ after the user leaves. Towards a High-Bandwidth. lights. CAIT 007). Broadbandenabled buildings and devices allow a user-focused energy flow (a ‘PresenceBased Power’). lights and air conditioning are on in rooms or entire floors where no one is present. extrapolated from analysis by the larger product manufacturers in the field. in which only devices inside the physical range of engagement of the user are activated. this can be thought of as ‘orphaned’ energy. can personally define an ‘aura’ size . ‘orphaned’ energy from devices that are on but unused can be expected to increase by a similar amount. Devices which are on but unused (orphaned) are wasting energy in homes and offices. If noone is in the room to enjoy the lighting or the air-conditioning. Current trends indicate that by 00 Australian electricity demand may increase by as much as 50%. but a device outside the person’s designated ‘energy radius’ will be off until such time as the person comes back into proximity to the device. MtCO –e of emissions (AGO 007b.

combined with software to predict normal behaviours (people leaving the house in the morning or going to bed). Climate Risk estimate that. broadband-enabled appliances. Breakdown of emissions from homes and commercial buildings based on Next Energy (006). The approach eliminates a large fraction of the energy consumption of ‘orphaned’ appliances without the need for any behavioural change on the part of the user and in a way that users can customise to their own needs without loss of amenity. The breakdown of household and commercial emissions (Table 3) gives some idea of the target applications which include space heating/cooling. radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and telemetry. It uses currently available technology including broadband to the home and workplace. Customer trust in privacy. Commercial standby is not included in this source but is estimated as 4-8% by the AGO 005. include time-based intelligence e.Household emissions Category Transport Appliances Water heating Space heating/ cooling Waste Lighting Standby % 31 25 16 13 5 5 5 Commercial emissions Category Transport Appliances Water heating Space heating/ cooling Waste Lighting Standby % 7 34 32 0 27 - Table 3. The range of devices that can be managed through external signals. switches and sockets.g. about 15% of energy use may be categorised as ‘orphaned’. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 8 . lighting and water heating (59% of household emissions and 00% of commercial emissions). appliances. to turn off hot water systems when people are at work. and motion sensing. Challenges and Barriers Critical elements of success include: • The volume of customers participating. separate from standby power. • • REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Presence Based Power techniques have been applied in some parts of the USA (ThomasNet 006). Towards a High-Bandwidth.

suburbs and regional centres can remove or significantly reduce the emissions generated by people travelling to and from their place of work. Emissions from car use have increased by 500. Status and Trends Australians travel 43. Although Climate Risk does not have direct information on trends in commuting levels in Australia. This carbon-opportunity considers only the reduced greenhouse pollution arising from reduced or higher efficiency travel to and from the workplace. if necessary. MtCO2-e 45 ‘WiTH MEASuRES’ 40 35 30 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year The term ‘with measures’ refers to government initiatives with allocated budgets. the baseline year for the United Nations and Kyoto Protocol measurements. Trends in passenger car emissions over time (‘with measures’) showing sustained increases since 990 (AGO 006a). The dispersed urban form of Australian cities means that the average distance travelled by a worker. Towards a High-Bandwidth.Carbon-Opportunity 3: De-centralised Business District At a Glance Network-enabled homes. based on 004 data). an increasing trend can be inferred via the general growth in car use. is 7. Figure 5 shows the increasing level of car use causing close to 8% of national greenhouse gas emissions. This coincides with a general increase in the percentage of travel on public transport.000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (500.00 kilometres and this travel generates approximately . to and from work in a year. Travel to and from work generates approximately 2. timetables and. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 9 .000 t CO –e) per year since 990.5 billion kilometres a year commuting to and from their place of work using private vehicles (ABS 007. Figure 15: Australian emissions from passenger car use since 1990 55 50 Figure 5. ABS 007). Its does not assume any reduction of emissions at the workplace which may simply be transferred to a different location.6% of Australia’s total greenhouse gas emissions (AGO 006a.6% of Australia’s total greenhouse gas emissions. supporting legislation which are used to adjust projections of future emissions.

either as an employer connecting to a work location. telework is defined as: “encompassing work arrangements which take place between a remote worker and a central business location.The Carbon-Business Confluence JEVOnS’ PARADOX There is a direct carbon impact from the reduced use of vehicles for commuting. it is known historically as ‘Jevons’ Paradox’. teleworking and de-centralised working. iron. This improves affordability. The Telecommunication network Opportunity Telecommunication providers have many existing products and services that can reduce the time spent commuting. In The Coal Question (865) he maintained that technological efficiency gains—specifically the more “economical” use of coal in engines doing mechanical work—actually increased the overall consumption of coal. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 30 . Telework: Telework allows people to work from home or local business centres without the need to physically commute.9). p. and are enabled by ICT. such as a PC and network connectivity. A direct value from reduced time spent by workers commuting also accrues either to the company or to the individual. connecting to clients. According to the Australian Telework Advisory Committee (ATAC). We do not include traffic efficiency due to Jevons’ Paradox. reduces wage pressures and results in more disposable income. including where these arrangements: • • • involve a worker located at home. and other resources. and occur within the context of the Australian economy (e. or can provide viable alternatives to physical commuting. The economy will benefit from the deployment of such additional resources in any labourconstrained market. not Towards a High-Bandwidth. The two solutions considered here are William Stanley Jevons (835-88) was an English economist and logician who analysed the impacts of the last Industrial Revolution.g. Reduced time spent commuting may encourage workers to relocate to regional centres. Australia is experiencing a skills and labour shortage across many sectors as a result of continued economic growth and an aging population. and can be monetised in terms of the hourly rate that the person would otherwise earn for their time. rather than “saving” them. This has a secondary financial benefit to employers and employees in that it allows people to settle in places with lower housing prices than Australia’s major cities. as many claimed (Alcott 005. or as a selfemployed worker. As this outcome ran counter to Jevons’ intuition. More flexible hours and locations of work can partly redress this shortage by enabling new workers previously excluded by the time barrier of commuting.

part-time or casual work. p.000 are employees. compared to . All of these changes hinge on the ability to move large volumes of data. According to ATAC (006) the main Towards a High-Bandwidth. close to home at a ‘telework centre’ or regional centre. Challenges and Barriers Empirical research suggests that teleworkers produce more work per hour than their workbased colleagues. while continuing to work for city-based national and international employers. The De-centralised Workplace: A variation on teleworking is the ability of people to work not at home. In other cases. A quarter of the 9. travel time and transport emissions. and are either formal or informal. This may involve the use of multioccupant business centres.7 hours per week. Furthermore. for the over-65 age group). empirical research suggests that teleworkers produce more work per hour than their work-based colleagues (ATAC 006). whole departments can be moved to regional centres. costs and emissions.” (ATAC 006. the benefits of telework typically include: • • • • • • increased productivity. and occur within the context of an employment relationship. The richness of the experiences will increasingly be enhanced by higher-end services such as ‘in person’ quality conferencing facilities.4) According to ATAC (2006). Teleworking creates an important overlap between the home environment and the workplace.000 people who identify themselves as ‘working from home’. the average commute time in Sydney is 4.g. or regional offices for larger businesses. For example. Decreased travel times. voice and video between regional centres. Broadband can serve to counteract these ‘lost hours’ commuting by enabling people to live and work in smaller towns. suburbs and cities. This workplace decentralisation yields considerably reduced commuting distances. but Some barriers to teleworking and regional relocation are non-technical. the remainder being small business owner-managers. the lower levels of traffic should increase vehicle speeds and efficiencies.9 hours per week for the rest of NSW (MIAESR 00). The economic opportunities to reinvigorate widely dispersed regional centres through teleworking and decentralised workplaces are obviously linked to the quality and extent of the broadband network. only about 95. Removal of distance as a barrier to employment. and are voluntary or compulsory. with consequent reductions in emissions as outlined above. cities or suburbs (with much lower commuting requirements).5 million people in the workforce work at least some of their hours from home (ABS 007).• • • • ‘off-shoring’ or ‘time-shifting’ arrangements). increased opportunities for people with disabilities. Furthermore. and involve full-time. Decreased workplace costs Flexible work hours (e. Of the 75. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 3 .

Due to the high telework uptake. currently at a premium. an information technology service has utilised a hybrid approach to telework to maximise the opportunities and overcome challenges associated with telework. saving the company approximately $A70. united Kingdom EME is an electricity distribution firm in the East Midlands.REAL WORLD EXAMPLES East Midlands Electricity (EME). and Cultural resistance. This way they have managed to retain skilled working mothers who could not commit to a full-time office-based working week (ETC 007). The workers save approximately $A 40 per week and an average of 0 hours each per week in commuting time.0006 per year. resulting in considerable savings for both the employer and employees. ICT costs. two-day-office program with its staff. The average commute time in Sydney is 4. Isolation.7 AUD barriers to telework implementation are: • • • • • • The trust-based relationship between employee and employer. Malta In Malta. Malta information Technology and Training Services Ltd . Towards a High-Bandwidth.7 hours per week. Malta Information Technology and Training Services Ltd (MITTS) decided on a three-day-telework. compared to 2. In total.9 hours per week for the rest of NSW (MIAESR 2002). EME reduced its amount of office space. 6 Based on  GBP = .000 km per week was saved by the 50 teleworkers (Hopkins & James 00). UK. Insurance. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 3 . an average of 38. Approximately 50 of its 469 staff at the Pegasus building telework  to 5 days per week. The monitoring and supervision of employees.

Australia has experienced considerable growth in private car ownership and kilometres travelled (ABS 007). which starts at the front door (multimodal transport). supply-side management and behavioural change is required to significantly reduce transport emissions (Cervero 00).5 percent of annual net greenhouse emissions.and inter-suburb services. The transport sector accounts for approximately 4% of annual net greenhouse emissions (AGO 007b). a 39 % increase on 990 levels (AGO 006a). Australia’s dispersed settlement pattern has limited the viable public transport services to hub-andspoke options. Three-quarters of Australian commuters use their car to get to work. buses and trains. Researchers identify that a combination of demand-side management. with faster speeds door-todoor. Public Transport: Public transport use has varied in recent history. i. private vehicle use and emissions will continue to increase significantly. Although there has been a recent spike in public transport use from increased fuel price (ABS 007). there continues to be a strong positive trend in private vehicle use (Figure 5). The personal efficiency of Personalised Public Transport can exceed that of using the private car. In order to improve public transport use.Opportunity 4: Personalised Public Transport At a Glance Wireless-broadband can facilitate public transport on demand. the majority of private transport is used for commuting to and from work. minibuses. The current greenhouse gas emissions from this sector are expected to grow from 43 MtCO–e in 005 to 49 MtCO–e in 00. there needs to be an improvement in the ‘personal efficiency’ of public transport options. rather than suburb-to-city: Mees 000). Towards a High-Bandwidth. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. greater flexibility and lower costs. such as increased frequency of services and across-town options (suburb-to-suburb. in and out of the city with poor intra.e.Carbon. with 3% growth between 005 and 00 (AGO 006a). Personalised Public Transport allows the user to order public transport provided by an integrated network of multi-occupant taxis. Private Transport: Since the 950s. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 33 . it is anticipated that under a business-as-usual scenario. and stabilised to a constant % between 000 and 003 (ABS 007). Status and Trends Australia’s tyranny of distance and dispersed settlement patterns have led to a reliance on motor vehicles (Alexander 000). While recent increases in the cost of fuel have made a minor impact on private vehicle kilometres travelled. Transit Orientated Design: Throughout Australia there is an increasing trend towards regional transport planning that incorporates Transit Oriented The transport sector accounts for approximately 13. Further. and of these only 4% share the car with anyone else (ABS 007). as well as personal travel such as school runs and shopping (ABS 007).

Reduced waiting times for the customer. There is a strong business case for an existing internet company or council to create a web-based clearing house for car pooling. More frequent services. in which dense mixeduse activity centres are connected by frequent transport services (OUM & SEQROC 005.DSE 005). The net effect of PPT is: • Increased flexibility for the customer. • • • • • Towards a High-Bandwidth. exceeding the relative value of personal car use. Higher speed arterial services. trains and multioccupant taxi services. Increasing the use of public transport within the catchment. The carbon-business case presented below is based on the opportunity to facilitate new or changed services that improve the personal efficiency of public transport to the consumer. Personalised Public Transport is the provision of on-call public transport vehicles which act as feeders to Transit Oriented Developments (TODs). high-speed express buses. as well as suburb-to-suburb inter-connection. V. Low-density sprawling Australian neighbourhoods do not encourage the provision of such services to areas outside the TOD catchment without incurring significant running costs. These include facilitating telework options discussed earlier. The integration reduces travel and wait-times and increases the economies of scale for specialised services such as express commuter trains and buses. The Telecommunications/iT industry Opportunity The opportunity identified here is the application of ICT-facilitated Personalised Public Transport in high and medium density urban areas to allow a reduction in car use in favour of lower emission travel options. Increased commercial viability of all transport suppliers. This report has not pursued traffic flow alternatives which could be improved by network applications. There are other opportunities that include web-based intelligence to increase car pooling and therefore the net efficiency of car use and smart traffic-flow monitoring (GoLoco 007). using integrated modes of local mini-buses. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 34 .Design (TOD). suburb-to-suburb links. because improved traffic flow and efficiency lead to increased levels of traffic with little or no net greenhouse emission benefit (Jevon’s Paradox). The Carbon-Business Confluence A range of potential ICT-based solutions exists to reduce private transport use and improve vehicle energy efficiencies.

Towards a High-Bandwidth. eliminating the need for expensive equipment investments and lengthy delivery and deployment times. bus interchanges and shopping centre. offers real-time map-based route design as well as scheduling and capacity management. the net time spent waiting and travelling and the value of that time to the person reverses the overall costbenefit balance in favour of the car.” (MobiSoft 007) Research is also currently underway to provide personalised public transport using automated. Mobile phone networks are used for fast and reliable data transfer. The premise is that the barriers to non-car travel are based on personal efficiency. driverless vehicles. traffic access and prioritisation as well as funding for major public transport infrastructure. Through an agreement with Black and White Cabs Pty Ltd. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 35 . Mobilicity is a demand-responsive driverless personalised public transport system which uses hybrid electric vehicles to act as transport feeders to main trunk public transport lines and is beginning trials at the Shanghai Expo in 00 and London Olympic Games in 0. Capoco (007) have developed the Mobilicity project. MobiSoft Technology already exists for the facilitation of personalised public transport. maxi cabs travel along a fixed route every 5-30 minutes in five subburbs to provide commuters easy acces to and from their local train stations. meaning that the system can be immediately deployed. The service only runs during peak hour and the costs the commuter $ for each trip (Brisbane City Council 007).Challenges and Barriers The barriers to the uptake of public transport in general would also be a barrier to network enabled PPT and include imbalances in tax and corporate incentives. MobiSoft. REAL WORLD EXAMPLES Brisbane City Council Brisbane City Council is currently trialling a limited PPT system which operates outside the Translink network. has developed software for transport providers which: “enables total management of incoming requests. Currently. even though a bus trip may be significantly less costly than car-based commuting and personal travel. a Finnish software company. such as making sure the proper vehicle is sent to the customer.

4 kilograms of CO on average for each kilometre travelled. The Carbon-Business Confluence The opportunity considered here is to target unladen vehicle use in Australia. p. Figure 16: Annual distances travelled by Australian freight vehicles Figure 6. Laden vehicles Unladen vehicles 9.7 billion kilometres 25. Status and Trends Currently the road freight sector is responsible for 36% of the transport sector’s emissions and nearly 5% of Australia’s total emissions (AGO 006a). larger freight vehicles may be emitting between . Fraction of freight vehicle kilometres which are laden and unladen (ABS 007. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 36 . Networkenabled vehicles and load monitoring can create systems that reduce unladen and under-laden trips. During these times. rigid trucks and articulated trucks travelled more than 35 billion kilometres moving goods throughout Australia (ABS 007). and .Carbon-Opportunity 5: Real-time Freight Management At a Glance Currently one-third of the billions of kilometres travelled by Australian freight vehicles are without loads. 533). Initiatives in overseas markets have shown that integrated high-speed communications can be used to create new freight management systems and markets that can significantly increase the average load factor on freight vehicle. Almost a third (8%) of the 9 billion kilometres travelled involves empty freight vehicles (Figure 6). In 004 light commercial vehicles. An increase in the load factor of freight vehicle use is effectively an energy efficiency measure which has direct carbon benefits from the reduced fuel use.5 billion kilometres Towards a High-Bandwidth. It also represents dollar savings Currently the road freight sector is responsible for 36 % of the transport sector’s emissions and nearly 5% of Australia’s total emissions. The greenhouse gas emissions from light commercial vehicles and articulated trucks is projected to increase from 3 MtCO-e in 990 to 3 MtCO-e in 00 (AGO 006).

vehicle locations. Almost a third of the kilometres travelled by Australian freight fleets is wasted on empty trips. monitoring and clearing-house infrastructure.which could accrue between freight handlers. as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging of goods increases. seven days a week. The Telecommunications/iCT industry Opportunity The opportunity we identify here is the application of ICT-facilitated Realtime Freight Management. which goes beyond typical in-house options undertaken by conventional freight businesses. Such a large percentage (8%) of current and projected unladen kilometres travelled presents an opportunity for telecommunications providers and the freight industry to facilitate considerable greenhouse gas emission reductions. The system lends itself to collaboration with a third-party logistics partner. The anticipated cost savings for the freight carrier would allow freight brokers (or third-party network providers) to capture a price for the service. REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Mercedes-Benz FleetBoard. The end result is that there are less unladen vehicle trips. reduced vehicle wear. Challenges and Barriers The major barriers to the deployment of such a solution would be the necessary tagging. Furthermore. Furthermore. it is possible that more precise savings can be utilised. saving considerable time and money for both the forwarder and carrier. working with Software AG. has recently developed an internet-based fleet management system whereby information between forwarders and carriers can be shared in real-time 4 hours a day. Many businesses throughout the world have recognised that unladen freight vehicles kilometres reduce profitability and have attempted to manage this cost in a variety of ways using ICT platforms. allowing the driver to accept or reject the assignment based on timing or congestion issues. destinations and load status in order to offer freight to empty or partially laden vehicles. all of the information can be stored for future analysis of route planning (Software AG 007). Use of mobile data networks to facilitate real-time solutions would allow freight brokers to identify loads. and reduced on-road costs (such as taxation). The system allows the freight forwarder to enter information on to a web-based platform which assigns orders to individual vehicles. Moreover. The service would be particularly useful for owner-operator carriers who do not have the capacity or resources for an integrated management system. Towards a High-Bandwidth. it is also possible to provide best route options using GPS technology. providing the carrier with the shortest routes for the load pick-up and delivery. third-party freight managers and the freight customer. There are also non-carbon financial benefits due to the reduced capital stock required. The information is sent via SMS to the vehicle’s in-cab screen. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 37 .

The ability of telecommunication networks to provide real-time communication across the whole electricity system allows many appliances in millions of homes and offices to be used to balance the short-term variations from renewable energy plants. Figure 17: Telecommunications network can reach energy generators. turning such renewables into ‘stable and predictable generation’ and allowing them to contribute a greater emission-free component of the electricity supply. from oil and gas off the North-West Shelf. virtual energy storage battery.Carbon-Opportunity 6 : Increased Renewable Energy At a Glance Deep cuts in Australian emissions will require a transition to low and zero emission sources of power supply. can be used to effectively neutralise this variability. This is equivalent to creating a very large. Status and Trends Australia is endowed with large volumes of fossil fuels. low-cost renewable energy sources like wind power are hampered by intermittency. to the vast brown and black coal reserves in the eastern Total fossil-fuel use in power generation accounts for approximately 35% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. very widely distributed. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 38 . Virtual energy storage Renewable energy Homes Figure 7. Extensive broadband networks. the minuteby-minute short-term variability of the supply. Though plentiful. Electricity network Electricity grid Renewable energy Telecommunications network Commercial Towards a High-Bandwidth. combined with intelligent active load management of heating and cooling appliances in many buildings. electricity users and grid managers.

000 megawatts of wind energy projects proposed for Australia (enough to power 3 million homes). with total fossilfuel use in power generation accounting for approximately 35% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (ABS 007). Sources like biomass or geothermal can supply relatively constant energy. these assets may become a liability. whereas the short-term variations must be accommodated by other supply sources on the network (Coates 004). The variability of wind farm energy output in aggregate decreases as more wind farms are added. In a carbon-constrained world. Wind farms are placed in sites where there are usually strong and consistent winds. Already large institutional investors are seeking disclosure of the carbon liabilities of Australian companies (CDP 007).states. 30 January 2003 1 February 2003 3 February 2003 5 February 2003 7 February 2003 9 February 2003 Towards a High-Bandwidth. Some energy companies are already responding by reducing the carbon intensity of their generation portfolio and divesting coal and purchasing gas and renewable energy assets (AGL 007). the most rapidly growing renewable energy technologies . This situation may become more onerous if some Kyotosignatory countries (including those within the EU. weather forecasting technologies are now applied to predict these variations (White 005) and multiple wind farms reduce the overall variations (Figure 8). Australia also has large sources of renewable energy including wind power. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 39 . However. their implementation may be constrained by the management of the variability in output from these Figure 18: Wind energy output from three states and in aggregate 100 South Australia Victoria New South Wales All 80 60 Capacity % 40 20 Figure 8.wind and solar . but there is always intermittency. Approximately 86% of Australia’s electricity is supplied by coal (AGO 007b). Although there are over 6. The multihourly and daily variations shown here can be predicted using weather forecasting techniques. solar radiation.harness energy sources which have some temporal variability. Hydro-electricity can supply energy on demand. Australia’s largest trading partner) successfully call for the impost of carbon-based import tariffs against non-signatory countries. biomass energy from agricultural wastes. geothermal power and ocean-based generation.

irons. This product sheds non-essential loads when the system is in danger of becoming overloaded. washing machines. Suitable loads. microwave ovens. water and space heaters”. fridges.ECOnnECT (uK) AnD DiSTRiBuTED inTELLiGEnT LOAD COnTROLLERS Automatic Load Controller “Many domestic loads can be controlled effectively by our Automatic Load Controller. such as water and space heating can be added”. electric kettles.for example. the energy can be usefully deployed instead of being dumped to a central dump load. dishwashers. Governing Load Controller “At times of high availability of renewable energy resource and low demand. freezers. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 40 . Electrical appliances which can be switched off for short periods (user selectable between 8 seconds and 6 minutes) without affecting their function are most suitable . electric cookers. Towards a High-Bandwidth.

Since the grid is not a battery. the grid operator may regulate customer energy supply by cutting supply to a large industrial loads to avoid residential blackouts. and the way it participates in the national electricity market.wind farms. the second largest producer of wind energy in the world. Wind and biomass were identified as amongst the lowest-cost energy options by the CSIRO-led Energy Future Forum. such as power station units shutting down. which placed a 0% limit on the penetration into the grid of each of the intermittent renewables in its future scenarios (CSIRO 006). For example. a welcome contributor to the State’s electricity supply. security and price of electricity in South Australia… more than 500 MW of wind generation will result in unacceptable risks to reliability in the State and create uncertainty over long term price trends. Australia’s largest grid is managed by the National Electricity Market Management Company (NEMMCO). namely the inherent variability and inherent uncertainty associated with wind energy. the sheer scale of the proposals has prompted concerns regarding the impact that such high levels of wind generation might have on the reliability. although South Australia already has approvals for  wind farms with a total capacity of nearly 000 megawatts (Auswind 007).” (ESIPC 004) Failing to harness low-cost cleanenergy sources like wind power because of concerns about intermittency represents a barrier to achieving deep cuts in national greenhouse gas emissions. On the eastern seaboard this is called the National Electricity Market (NEM). This would allow more clean energy into the grid network and also increase the value of that energy. This information is provided for bids from all potential suppliers. The grid operator cannot control how people use energy in their homes. in 5 minute intervals) at various nodes. The electricity market is based on information about expected demand (e. there have been ongoing pressures to limit wind power development partly citing this variability: “South Australia is rapidly heading towards being. and will continue to be. and as such. proportionally. These impacts are the result of two particular characteristics of wind generation. the state grid companies and energy retailers regulate the system to achieve the balance. An alternative to balancing the energy Towards a High-Bandwidth. Supply is dispatched according to least–cost and environmental constraints. In some of the more extreme cases. businesses or industries. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 4 . …While wind energy has been.g. The Carbon-Business Confluence The commercial viability of this carbonopportunity is based on the ability to manage significant electrical loads across a large customer base that can be used to effectively neutralise the shortterm (up to about one hour) variability of intermittent renewable energy sources. the demand for electricity and the supply of power must be kept in constant balance by the grid operator.

pool pumps and refrigerators which can contribute unnecessarily to coincident peak demand. a residential subdivision on the Gold Coast. Towards a High-Bandwidth. EcoVision is now installing its first 44 systems at the award winning Ecovillage at Currumbin. a Gold Coast based technology development company. In conjunction with various in home sensors and timers. uses an integrated control and management system which will facilitate cooperative management of resources in the energy and water supply chain. potable water. Energy use can be monitored at circuit level (eg lighting separate from general power) or at discrete appliance level. an in home EcoVision controller provides automation features to reduce energy consumption and phantom loads as well as shed loads in times of network constraint. EcoVision enables occupants to offer demand side capacity back to the utility via the web at times of network constraint. Greenhouse gases relating to resource consumption are displayed in graphical form as well as photovoltaic solar power or other forms of renewable energy generation. enabling comparison of performance in different households and benchmarks to be set. As result distribution utilities can derive significant benefits via reduced outages and extended asset life. GOLD COAST EcoVision Solutions. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 4 . As a component of the cooperative framework. EcoVision has produced a home touchscreen interface which provides consumers with real time feedback of electricity. All of the data gathered by EcoVision is sent to a central server (usually via the community network) for use by the Body Corporate. This would typically include switching of major loads such as air conditioners. recycled water and gas usage. The important aspect of EcoVision is its architecture which facilitates aggregation of end use data far beyond the local community level.CuRRuMBin ECO-ViLLAGE.

with broadband-enabled appliances. a spike in demand of one megawatt can be matched by either a corresponding increase in supply of one megawatt. This assists with their grid management. A faster response could assist in the management of the short-term dynamics of renewable energy. but particularly in the management of the intermittency in renewable energy supplies. offices and other buildings – especially heating and cooling applications . Devices on charge such as tools. The conventional means to make these loads assist with grid management has focused on providing a price signal to customers using a ‘smart meter’ that can show the price of electricity varying though the day. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 43 . • • Most of these appliances work within user-defined ranges. such as the room temperature setting for an air conditioner. There are many electrical appliances in homes. Refrigerators and freezers. Third-party management of how the outcome is achieved is essentially invisible to the resident or Towards a High-Bandwidth. Electric hot water systems or electric boosted solar hot water. but it is the ‘dynamic’ or ‘time shifting’ which is being harnessed.supply on an ongoing basis is to manage the loads (demand-side management). The Telecommunication networks Application The opportunity we identify here is the application of broadband to the home and workplace. The ability to manage discretionary consumer loads on a large scale with rapid speed unlocks the ability to actively manage variability in the grid in general. For example. It is important to note that the net energy use will be the same. The target loads that can be readily accessed by broadband are the ‘discretionary loads’. The ability to control when discretionary loads operate creates a large. Broadband unlocks the speeds of response required for such tasks. Electric Heating. distributed load management tool. but can play an important part in power management in the electricity network. or a corresponding dip in demand of one megawatt somewhere else in the grid . These are energyconsuming devices where the timing of energy use is less important. it may be important that the temperature of a fridge stays between  and 4 oC. wireless phones etc. but whether the fridge is on for one block of 0 minutes or two blocks of 5 minutes will make no difference to the fridge owner. switches and sockets which can be easily installed in buildings.which are only mildly time-critical and can be managed to control loads with no loss of amenity to the customer.sometimes referred to as ‘negawatt’ (Lovins 989). In this way. DynAMiC LOAD MAnAGEMEnT Some utilities use signals over the electrical network to turn domestic hot water systems on and off. but this is a slow and blunt instrument. laptop computers. Typical ‘discretionary loads’ in the home and workplace include: • • • Air conditioning.

need to be able to have the cooling turned on and off separately from internal lighting or timers. • Customer trust in the management company to cause no loss of amenity. The NEM also has an ‘ancillary services’ market designed to maintain the supply availability and quality.worker and causes no loss of amenity. like hot water systems. others. External control of appliances – some. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 44 . can be controlled at the power outlet. The uptake of renewable energy is subject to carbon pricing and industry development mechanisms. • • Towards a High-Bandwidth. and the load management system presented here may be suitable to bidding into these markets. The permission to exercise control could be assigned as part of the broadband supply contract and perhaps coupled with the promotion of third-party supply of externally controllable appliances (though this would lend itself to national standards legislation). like a fridge. Challenges and Barriers Critical elements of success include: • The volume of customers with devices and appliances under external management.

leading to negative environmental and social impacts. emissions from aviation may easily have doubled since the Kyoto Protocol baseline year of 990.9 MtCO–e) in 005 to 6.7 % (.5% of Australia’s total emissions to 0. These figures may be underestimated given the plans for ultra-low cost carriers to enter the market (Tiger Airlines 007). the wide range comes from the different airports considered in the study (Mason 000). By 00. domestic aviation has become the fastest growing transport subsector. time. Figure 19: Domestic aviation emissions since 1990 Figure 9. and as a result. This is an increase from 0.7 times more harmful in greenhouse terms than if they were released at ground level. aviation greenhouse emissions are rapidly increasing.8% (5. Trend and projected domestic aviation emissions (AGO 006). Aviation emissions which occur at altitude are some . Aeroplanes are slowly becoming more efficient. short-duration travel can be effectively replaced with ‘in-person’ quality.Carbon-Opportunity 7 : ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing At a Glance Long-distance.9MtCO–e) by 00 (Figure 9). According to the Australian Greenhouse Office.7 times more harmful in greenhouse terms than if they were released at ground level (Tyndall 006). Aviation emissions which occur at altitude are some 2. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 45 .8% in just 5 years (Figure 9). Status and Trends Growth in air travel is increasing markedly with ongoing cost reductions. online conferencing facilities that are significantly more efficient in cost. MtCO2-e 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Towards a High-Bandwidth. International research indicates that between 36% and 63% of short-haul air travel is for short-term business. but this is outweighed by increased demand. It is projected that its share of transport sector emissions will increase from 4. energy and emissions.

this may impact on inbound and outbound long-haul travel as well as pricing structures in Australia. being contained in body language. There is a clear disharmony between the rapid growth of the aviation sector in Australia and overseas. a significant waste of human resources with a direct dollar value to their companies. The potential savings of time. has offices all over the world and a highly mobile workforce. more efficient. High-value executives spend valuable hours and sometimes days in transit. REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Cisco Systems. Such high-end commercial systems (from Cisco and HP) have considerable bandwidth requirements. and the pressure for carbon constraints. one developer of telepresence conferencing facilities. aircraft enter the market. To effectively replace business travel it is important to recognise that 60% of communication between people is non-verbal. the company has set a worldwide target of reducing its own air travel by 0%. There is significant potential for carbon abatement and commercial gain if telecommunication companies provide services offering equivalent contact for some aspects of business and personal aviation. Currently bunker fuels are excluded from restriction under the Kyoto Protocol. The analysis herein uses a 005 snapshot of emissions which excludes new initiatives announced and launched since this time. AEROPLAnE EFFiCiEnCy The aviation industry is seeing new. Technology now available to Australian businesses has been designed to address these issues. money and greenhouse gas emissions will increase the efficiency of many Australian companies. and latency loses critical gestures. definition is too low to capture detailed expression. As regulatory risks increase overseas.The Carbon-Business Confluence In the medium to longer term. Towards a High-Bandwidth. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 46 . foreshadowed by emergent regulation in the EU (Bows & Anderson 005). given fuel supply costs and expected carbon constraints. The Australian division of Cisco has already reduced air travel by 6% in less than one year (Ross 007). the high growth rates of 4% forecast by the aviation sector (Airservices Australia 006) are likely to be unsustainable. gesture and expression. This is expected to change in the next commitment period. Since adopting the technology internally. as well as the sectors growth. Telecommunications network Opportunity: ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video-Conferencing Business air travel can be exceedingly time inefficient. These elements are often lost by conventional teleconferencing where the body is not shown.

000 can be less than six months when both travel and salary costs are evaluated. Challenges and Barriers The quality of the new ‘in person’ conferencing is sufficiently high to make ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing more personally efficient than flying. shortduration travel and provide greater amenity to the customer outside the business space. However some of the appeal of air travel is not about the travel itself. These services create possibilities to overcome the health and financial barriers to air travel. They are therefore excluded from our carbon abatement calculations.Consultations by Climate Risk indicate that. but rather secondary benefits. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 47 . someone in Perth having a catch-up with a sibling in London once a week). for example the opportunity to see friends while away. or to meet with friends and family more frequently than is feasible with air travel (e. some of these barriers may be addressed by configuring the ‘on-live’ alternatives to provide equivalent secondary benefits. Beyond in-house company systems. Photograph courtesy of Cisco Systems Towards a High-Bandwidth. Pay back periods on investments for ‘virtual-aviation’ suites costing $A250. for some businesses. pay-for-use services by leading telcos such as Telstra would unlock a wider customer base including small and medium size enterprises (SME). These would also allow greater participation in overseas markets by SME businesses who are typically constrained by modest travel budgets and the prolonged absence of key staff. There is also a role for ‘in person’ quality technology and bandwidth to offer an alternative to long-distance.000 can be below 6 months when both travel and salary costs are evaluated. To some extent these are new applications that may not reduce current or future aviation use or emissions. Consequently. pay back periods on investments for ‘on-live’ high definition video conference suites costing $A50.g.

.000 GWh per year (ABS 004 . the most recent of which covered emissions in 005.Part 5 Quantifying the Opportunities The carbon-opportunities are based on using either existing ICT networks or networks that will be rolled-out in due course regardless of any greenhouse gas benefits. Assumes broadband-based Remote Appliance Power Management solutions are used to reduce standby emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings. 3). and the actual abatement may be considerably higher. several of the energy based emissions sectors to which these carbon opportunities apply are increasing their relative proportion of national emissions. Estimated losses from standby power in residential and commercial sectors are 9. 3. 4. p. Emission intensity of electricity production is 0. The results presented herein are generally calculated based on this 005 ‘snapshot’. The national average price of electricity to residential and non-residential customers is estimated herein as 0 cents per kilowatt hour (ESAA 004)7 . Total residential and commercial electricity consumption was 08. Therefore.700 GWh per year. This emission reduction represents 0. but are instead included within the overall projections of increased national emissions (Figure 4).33% of total net Australian emissions. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 48 . the results presented can be considered relatively conservative. 7 ESAA 004. Therefore the energy and emissions related to increased ICT use are not included within the emissions cost-benefit equations for each carbonopportunity. Results (All figures are based on 005 data without growth) . ANZSIC divisions E-H and J-Q). Electricity Prices in Australia 003/04. MtCO-e. However. The avoided electricity purchase through application of Remote Appliance Power Management is . (AGO 007b). Since national emissions are growing it has been assumed that the relative contribution of different sectors remains unchanging and therefore the abatement as a percentage of national emissions remains constant post 005.94 tCO-e per MWh (AGO 006b. 5. The value of the avoided electricity purchases at 0 cents per KWh is $70 million per year. The total reduction in standby emissions will be . $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively.8 MtCO-e per annum. Remote Appliance Power Management Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559. BASELinE yEAR AnD GROWTH The Australian government regularly publishes a National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. The value of the carbon abatement will be $8 million. $36 million and $9 million at carbon prices of $0. Electricity Supply Association of Australia Towards a High-Bandwidth.3 % (AGO 007b).

Electricity Prices in Australia 003/04.Presence-Based Power Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559. Emission intensity of electricity production is 0. The national average price of electricity to residential and non-residential customers is estimated as 0 cents per kilowatt hour (ESAA 004)8 . 3. ANZSIC divisions E-H and J-Q). MtCO-e (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). Assumes that ‘orphaned’ energy consumed by appliances is 5% overall for residential and commercial energy consumption . $59 million and $48 million at carbon prices of $0. The total reduction in standby emissions will be . Assumes network enabled PresenceBased Power solutions are used to reduce ‘orphaned’ energy emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 49 . The avoided electricity purchase is . This emission reduction represents 0. .700 GWh per year. Results (All figures are based on 005 data without growth) .97 MtCO-e per annum.53% of total net Australian emissions. 4. The value of the avoided electricity purchases at 0 cents per KWh is $69 million per year. 8 ESAA 004.94tCO-e per MWh (AGO 006b). Total residential and commercial electricity consumption was 08.000 GWh per year (ABS 004 . $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. The value of the carbon abatement will be $9 million. 5. Electricity Supply Association of Australia Towards a High-Bandwidth.

7 MtCO-e per year (AGO 007b). MtCO-e. 4. 8. 9.9 MtCO-e. The assumed cost of  litre of fuel is $A. .09 MtCO-e per annum. The avoided fuel purchase is . This emission reduction from telework represents 0. This total emission reduction from telework and the de-centralised workplace represents 0. Total emissions from private transport (passenger car) were 43. 6. 3. 5. MtCO-e p. The fraction of kilometres travelled used on commuting to and from work is 3% (ABS 007). billion per year. billion litres per year. 7. The value of the avoided fuel purchases at $A per litre is $. The emission intensity of  litre of liquid fuel is approximately . The total reduction in emissions from the De-centralised Workplace will be .6% of total net Australian emissions. is half of those of city based commuting (based on MIAESR 00 and assuming that for shorter distances non-car options also become more attractive). This emission reduction from Decentralised workplaces represents 0. Assumes that broadband-based telework is taken up by 50% of the employees who have telework suitable jobs and on average work one day per week from home. Annual reduction in emissions from telework will be 0.a. (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).De-centralised Business District Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559. Assumes that De-Centralised Workplaces are used by 0% of employees who have telework suitable jobs.55% of total net Australian emissions. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 50 .39% of total net Australian emissions. and their commuting emissions are reduced by at least 50%. Assumes that emissions for commuting in non-urban areas or within a suburb. $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. The fraction of jobs that are amenable to telework is about 65% (ATAC 005c). The total reduction in emissions from telework and the DeCentralised Workplace will be 3. $6 million and $54 million per year at carbon prices of $0.009. The value of the carbon abatement will be $3 million. 9 This figure is high by historical values but low by current prices Towards a High-Bandwidth. Results (All figures are based on 005 data without growth and consider reduced travel emissions only) .5kGCO-e per litre (AGO 006b).

$0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. The total reduction in transport emissions will be 3.7 MtCO-e per year (AGO 007).70% of total net Australian emissions. .93 MtCO-e per annum. 4.6 billion per year. The relative emission intensity of public transport is 90% lower than personal car travel in the urban environment. Results (All figures are based on 005 data without growth) . $79 million and $00 million at carbon prices of $0. taxi for -3 passengers through to a train for hundreds of passengers. Feeder bus services increase train ridership by enlarging the catchments significantly (Najafi & Nassar 990). The avoided fuel purchases through application of PPT is . The assumed cost of  litre of fuel is $A. 3.6 billion litres per year.g. The value of the carbon abatement will be $39 million.MtCO-e (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 5 . Assumes that wireless broadbandfacilitated Personalised Public Transport is able to capture 0% of car-based commuters0. The value of the avoided fuel purchases at $A per litre is $.5kGCO-e per litre (AGO 006b).00. 0 Assumes that a variety of vehicle options exist in order to optimise passenger vehicle size e.Personalised Public Transport Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559. 5. This emission reduction represents 0. The emission intensity of  litre of liquid fuel is approximately . Towards a High-Bandwidth. Total emissions from private transport (cars) are 43.

 billion per year. .00.5% of total net Australian emissions. 3. Total emissions from freight transport are 6 MtCO-e per year (AGO 007) . (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). The value of the avoided fuel purchases at $A per litre is $. billion litres per year. The value of the carbon abatement will be $9 million. The decrease in fuel use from unladen to laden is 40% (AGO 006c). MtCO-e. $58 million and $45 million per year at carbon prices of $0. Results (All figures are based on 005 data without growth) .9 MtCO-e per annum. The assumed cost of  litre of fuel is $A. The avoided fuel purchase is . Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 5 . 4. 5. rigid trucks (including non-freight trucks such as fire engines) and articulated trucks. This emission reduction from Real-time Freight Management represents 0. $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. The total reduction in emissions from Real-time Freight Management will be . Towards a High-Bandwidth. The emission intensity of  litre of liquid fuel is approximately . Assumes that Real-time Freight Management effectively avoids 5% of unladen truck kilometres. The fraction of kilometres travelled by unladen freight vehicles is 8% (ABS 007).Real-time Freight Management Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559.7kGCO-e per litre (AGO 006b).  Freight figures include light commercial vehicles (LCVs).

The emission abatement from avoided fossil fuel use would be 0. MtCO-e. Assumes that on average. Increased Renewable Energy would facilitate an additional . ANZSIC divisions E-H and J-Q). The Nominal capacity factor of intermittent renewable energy generation plants is 0. Assumes that at a minimum. 6.Increased Renewable Energy Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559. This emission reduction represents . 5. This is equivalent to 4. The value of the carbon abatement will be $0 million. $0 million and $304 million at carbon prices of $0. The cost of large-scale.000 GWh of renewable energy production per year. (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b).3 (Transition Institute 004).000 GWh (ABS 004 . 3). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 53 . 3. . Towards a High-Bandwidth.8% of total net Australian emissions.94tCO-e per MWh (AGO 006b. The value of renewable energy sales enabled by Increased Renewable Energy is $86 million per year. p. Total residential and commercial electricity consumption was 08. discretionary power is able to leverage the same average renewable energy capacity. grid connected renewable energy is $80 per MWh (Transition Institute 004). MtCO-e per year. $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively – however it is assumed that this is already included in the renewable energy pricing structure. Results . Assumes that one-third of homes and commercial buildings are broadband enabled and that they have agreed to have their discretionary (non-timesensitive) loads managed by Telstra.GW of additional renewable energy capacity. Assumes that the additional value of Increased Renewable Energy is 0% of the electricity production cost. Emission intensity of electricity production 0. 4. 5% of the total loads across residential and commercial buildings are discretionary at any one time.

The value of the carbon abatement will be $4 million. 4. Total emissions from domestic aviation was 5. 3. 6.035 litres per person per kilometre (IATA 007).‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing Data and Assumptions The total annual net greenhouse gas emissions for Australia is 559.43% of total net Australian emissions. The assumed cost per kilometre of business air travel in Australia is 0c per kilometre. The equivalent emissions reduction including ‘up-lift’ is 6.5 MtCO-e per annum. $48 million and $0 million at carbon prices of $0. (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). Assumes one third of business travellers could replace a trip with an ‘On-Live’ meeting with high speed. 7. $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. high definition links. The CO emission per litre of aviation fuel is 3.4 MtCO per annum.  By way of illustration this would be equivalent to a Melbourne-Sydney trip of about 000km costing $00 including taxes. The total reduction in domestic aviation emissions will be 0.kg /litre (Aviation Environment Federation 007). Emissions from international aviation are approximately double that of domestic emissions (May 004). The avoided fuel consumption is 960 million litres of aviation fuel per year. MtCO-e per year in 005 (AGO 007b). . Results (All figures are based on 005 data without growth) . MtCO-e.8 MtCO-e per annum. The nominal fuel efficiency of air travel is 0. The estimated fraction of short haul travel due to business use is 45% (Mason 000). 5. This direct emission reduction is equivalent to 0. The avoided spending on air travel through use of ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing is $. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 54 . The total reduction in domestic and international aviation emissions will be . billion. Towards a High-Bandwidth.

1 MtCO2-e Real-time Freight Management 2.Total Impacts of Abatement Opportunities The total emissions abatement potential across all seven initiatives and assuming no double counting is 7. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 55 .49% of total national emissions based on the latest National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 005 (AGO 007b).4 MtCO2-e Remote Appliance Power Management 1.3 MtCO-e per year.8 MtCO2-e Figure 0.1 MtCO2-e Presence-Based Power 3. This represents 0. Increased Renewable Energy 10.9 MtCO2-e Towards a High-Bandwidth.0 MtCO2-e De-centralised Business District 3.9 MtCO2-e Personalised Public Transport 3. Figure 20: Breakdown of contribution from seven Carbon-Opportunities ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 2. Annual avoided emissions from each of the identified carbon-opportunities (MtCO-e).

Figure 21: The value range of avoided carbon emissions 350 300 250 Carbon@ $10 tCO2-e Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e Carbon@ $50 tCO2-e Figure . If it adopts a market based approach to carbon abatement. Carbon Value (million $A) 200 150 100 50 0 al M tim an e ag Fre em ig en ht t Pr es en ce -B ‘O Po ase nw d Li er v Vi e’ H de ig o h Co D nf efi er nit en io Re ci n m ng ot e A pp l M ian an ce ag Po em w en er t cr ea s is e Tr d P an u sp bli or c t D Bu esi ce ne nt ss ra D lise is tr d ic t Re ne w En ab er le gy ed on al In Pe rs Re Towards a High-Bandwidth. then the value of carbon may vary according to the depth and timing of the cuts and the success or otherwise of various competing abatement technologies. as has been announced. Should Australia adopt a carbon tax such a price would be fixed. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 56 .Value of Avoided Carbon The value of the avoided carbon will be depend on the future price of carbon. The value of the carbon abatement based on carbon prices of 0. 0 and 50 dollars AUD per tonne of CO-e which is consistent with the range identified by the CSIRO and ABARE research (CSIRO 006).

1. it is beyond the scope of this report to develop a detailed model of attribution that would indicate with which party such value would reside.0 Billions dollars $A per year 1.5 Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e Saving/Value 2. additional value created and the value of carbon abatement.por ic t ce si ne nt ss ra D lise is tr d Re ic al t -t im M an e ag Fre em ig Pr en ht es t en ce In -B cr Po ase ea w d se er d Re ne w En ab Po Rem er le w o gy er te M A an pp ag lia em nc en e t n- Towards a High-Bandwidth. as well as revenue from carbon credits created and other ancillary services. or can be. the savings for a household from an electricity bill would rest with the householder responsible for paying the energy bills. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 57 . These have been estimated in Figure  based on the intermediate price of $A0 per tCO-e.5 Figure . other avoided costs. Attribution Although we identify the value of various energy-saving or energycreating measures which are. Each of the carbon-opportunites creates value from avoided fuel use or increased energy value. would rest with the employer. the value of avoided air travel in staff time saved. Similarly. For this report we identify that there are precedents for companies and other organisations to undertake emission reducing activities and to trade the carbon abatement.0 0.Total Value of the Identified Opportunities The total value of the opportunities identified will be a combination of avoided fuel use. less the cost of using ‘on-live’ meeting suites. facilitated by telecommunication networks.5 0. travel expenses and accommodation expenses. For example for reduced aviation use. in some instances it may be possible for that carbon to be assigned to a third party to be aggregated and sold on national or international carbon markets. We note that the Figure 22: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites 2.0 ‘O Li v V i e’ H de ig o h Co D e Pe nfe fin re iti rs nc on on in al g is e Tr d P an u s bl Bu De. In relation to carbon credits.

However the ability of the various opportunities to be applied in the short term (i.e. There are other market drivers such as private demand for Green Energy. The opportunities presented in this report have not been assessed against regulatory constraints. however as we have noted above. The effect on national emissions (with measures) in shown in Figure 4). Timing Looking at the roll-out of the opportunities identified in this report would require the development of deployment scenarios which is beyond the scope of this study. the customers. This is particularly true of the renewable energy market which is underpinned by Federal and State based ‘Renewable Energy Targets’ which require retailers to procure a certain fraction of their energy from renewable sources. As an indication only. but it is noted in each section where such systems are already being applied which indicates that they are being used in Australian or Towards a High-Bandwidth. would provide an abatement profile as shown in Figure 3. In general this requires avoiding processes which require expensive retro-fitting and/or long turn-over periods.carbon and non-carbon value could attribute to either the conference provider. though this an area of constant flux. overseas jurisdictions and therefore no insurmountable regulatory constraints are anticipated. We have also noted that the deployment of new networks such as ‘Fibre To The Premises’ provides unique opportunities to deliver carbon abatement products and services at the same time. we estimate that a plausible development and demonstration period. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 58 . in part due to shortage of adequate supply (affected by climate related water shortages in the East). such as network enabled plugs or RFID systems. There are also changes in the spot prices in the National Electricity Market which at time of writing are. it is beyond the scope of this report to provide analysis of the likely or possible attributions. on average. deployed to the levels indicated over a period of about 5 years) has been considered. high enough to pay for wind energy without any additional assistance. or a third party. followed by market deployment. Regulation In some cases the carbon-opportunities may be fully or partially constrained by regulation.

850 750 Business as usual Best estimate with effect of anticipated government measures to reduce emissions Kyoto target CR-Telecommunication Networks Scenario 650 Emissions MtCo2 -e 550 1990 levels 450 350 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Towards a High-Bandwidth.Figure 23: Plausible emissions abatement from Carbon-Opportunities 35 30 Figure 3. Applying the above rollout of abatement from the carbonopportunities results in an approximate stabilisation of emissions before 05. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 59 . A plausible roll-out of the carbonopportunities would include product development time and a gradual build up of deployment in the market. 25 MtCO2-e 20 15 10 5 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Figure 24: Possible effect of Carbon-Opportunities on national emissions Figure 4.

Similarly the global economic Stern Review concluded that “to stabilise at 450ppmii CO-e. The use of fossil-fuels in stationaryenergyiii and transport applications is the nation’s major source of emissions. p. However. scientists and governments are now agreed that global emissions must be stabilised by 05 if climate change is to be effectively addressed. In the short term. global emissions would need to peak in the next 0 years“ (Stern 006.Part 6 Conclusions Beyond Carbon Neutral This report goes significantly beyond ‘holding the line’ goals of corporate carbon neutrality and carbon. the underlying trend is that Australian emissions will increase at about . Some of the opportunities identified in the consumer space can be achieved using existing network services and others are contingent on the roll-out of fibre to the node (FTTN) broadband infrastructure. For the first time. If deep cuts in emissions are to be achieved. they are not based on off-setting emissions. Towards a High-Bandwidth. The realisation of opportunities outlined in this report would result in telecommunications providers assisting Australian businesses and households achieving total greenhouse gas reductions equivalent to approximately 4. Instead it sets out a suite of opportunities that would allow telecommunications providers to play a leadership role in decarbonising the Australian economy and equipping the nation to prosper in a carbon constrained future. Companies seeking to maximise their carbon emission reduction could leverage the existing and nextgeneration networks already built by Telstra. it appears that Australia will stay close to its Kyoto Protocol target of no more than an 8% increase above 990 emission levels (AGO 007b). 93).3% per year. Seven options are proposed to build on existing and next-generation networks. The Climate Challenge The latest statement from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 007) indicates the next ten years are critical in meeting the challenges posed by climate change.9% of Australia’s total national emissions. In 005 Australia’s net annual emissions totalled 559 mega-tonnes of CO equivalent (MtCO-e) from all activities.4% of the global total. which equates to . but continuing to grow significantly. without overshooting. emissions from the energy sector are Australia’s greatest greenhouse challenge. The trend is not declining or stabilising. Reducing greenhouse emissions requires major commitments from both the public and private sectors as well as the government. All of the strategies and opportunities are based on avoiding the release of fossil carbon into the atmosphere. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 60 . Overall the initiatives identified in this report present the opportunity for one of the single largest reductions in Australia’s carbon footprint by an Australian corporation.

55 0.9 2. The scale and scope of the telecommunication sector’s operations unlock the ability to aggregate multiple distributed initiatives to achieve nationally significant emissions savings.88 Table 4.Telecommunication’s Significance in Climate Change Mitigation Telecommunication operators are a major conduit for new technology and infrastructure. This report identifies seven carbonopportunities appropriate for Australian businesses and households.3 Percentage of national emissions 1. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 6 .70 0.4 1. The anticipated greenhouse emission constraints coincide with the government’s plans for next-generation networks. Summary of emissions abatement from carbonopportunities Towards a High-Bandwidth.1 3.81 0.0 2. which provides synergies for new emission reduction opportunities.43 0. renewable energy production and aviation. Carbon-Opportunity (in order of size) increased Renewable Energy Personalised Public Transport De-centralised Business District Presence-Based Power Real-time Freight Management ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing Remote Appliance Power Management Total MtCO2-e saving 10. Australia has the only national wireless broadband network in the world. which have the potential for viable carbon abatement using existing and nextgeneration networks. road transport.8 27.9 3.33 4.1 3.52 0.53 0. These carbonopportunities have relevance for energy consumption in buildings.

In combination with other measures being implemented by Government. 6. others are contingent on the roll-out of a national fibre optic network to residential and commercial consumers. as shown in Figure 5. Towards a High-Bandwidth. and in some cases will enable the on-selling of newly created carbon creditsi and electricity management commodities.6 billion per year. billion subject to the future price of carbon. and value of the carbon credits created may be between $70 million and $. The estimated energy and travel cost savings are approximately $6. a deployment of the carbonopportunities in the period 008 to 04 would have the additional effect of stabilising national emissions in the period up to 04 in keeping with the findings of the IPCC and the Stern Review. Some of these carbon-opportunities can be realised immediately. making the use of telecommunication networks one of the most significant opportunities to reduce the national carbon footprint. The report identifies that the scale and scope of telecommunication network services and users provide a unique opportunity to harness economies of scale to achieve meaningful emission reductions. 3. This report provides an analysis of the opportunities for Australian society to achieve nationally significant greenhouse gas abatement using telecommunication networks. The estimated abatement opportunity calculated herein is almost 5% (4.9) of Australia’s total national emissions. 5. . 4. Many of the carbon-opportunities identified lead to energy and other cost savings for commercial and residential customers. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 6 . 7.Key Findings .

0 0. If the seven carbon-opportunities identified in the report were deployed.por ic t si ce ne nt ss ra lis D is ed tr Re ic al t -t M im an e ag Fre em ig Pr en ht es t en ce In -B cr Po ase ea w d se er d Re ne w En ab Po Rem er le w o gy er te M A an pp ag lia em nc en e t Towards a High-Bandwidth. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 63 .04.0 Billions dollars $A per year 1.5 Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e Saving/Value 2. the effect would be a stabilisation of national emissions in the period 0 . 1.Figure 25: Combined effect of telecommunication networks CarbonOpportunities 850 750 Business as usual Best estimate with effect of anticipated government measures to reduce emissions Kyoto target CR-Telecommunication Networks Scenario Figure 5.04.5 0. 650 Emissions MtCo2 -e 550 1990 levels 450 350 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Figure 26: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites 2.0 ‘O n- Li v V i e’ H de ig o h Co D e Pe nfe fin r it rs on enc ion in al g is ed Tr P an u s bl Bu De. Each of the carbon-opportunites creates value from avoided fuel use or increased energy value. as well as revenue from carbon credits created and other ancillary services.5 Figure 6. over the period 008 .

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Organisation Européenne Baud – Data rate in bits per second. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 68 .708). which is one of the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gases CO-e . a power station.  Mbit/s. Different commentators apply different data speed thresholds for the beginning of Broadband e.Carbon dioxide equivalent. The term Broadband has morphed into a description of wide. The net effect greenhouse gas emissions is often presented as carbon dioxide equivalent which is a conversion to the global warming Towards a High-Bandwidth. usually measured in megawatts. voice. 8. Due to their slow start up and shut sown times it is more cost effective for them to remain on. 64. transparent connectivity and interfacing for CO – Carbon dioxide. the Federal Government has announced plans to introduce a national scheme in 0 and there are also voluntary abatement markets. ATM – Assynchronus Transfer Mode. data. Based around a system of separating bytes and reassembling at delivery for optimal use of network. Base-load – Normally refers to a power station that runs constantly (4 hours per day.g.Glossary Abatement – A reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (also see mitigation) a variety of devices and applications. CERN . ANSI and CCITT communications protocol allowing different types of information e. which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’ (Metz et al. video to share the one network and interface. emissions trajectory associated with undertaking activities without any measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Falling out of use as a term. Currently NSW has a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme.g. 56 Kbit/s or beyond . Business as Usual – Refers to the Adaptation -The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as an ‘adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects. in some schemes.When pollution levels are capped. p. Capacity Factor – The percentage of yearly energy generated as a fraction of its maximum possible rated output. pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) particle physics laboratory based just outside of Geneva Broadband – The term originally applied to internet networks when they were faster than 64 kbit/s and always connected. fast. Carbon Credits . it may be possible to trade greenhouse gas pollution rights referred to as ‘carbon credits’. Often greenhouse gas mitigation policies are compared to “business as usual” to show the potential impact of the policy. 7 days per week) regardless of energy demand. 00. Capacity – Maximum rated power of Anthropogenic – The result of human activities.

premises. Mitigation. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) – Gases in the atmosphere that adsorb and emit infrared radiation. Dial Up – An Internet connection where the modem dials into an analog phone line using standard telephone dialing protocols. on Climate Change (IPCC) defines as ‘an anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases’ (Metz et al.g. which subsequently lead to global warming. For example. HSDPA . Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 69 . Most common anthropogenic greenhouse gases are (CO). and able to carry analog and digital data as modulated light offering extremely high bandwidths at long distances. p. FTTx – Fibre-to-the-‘x’ where ‘x’ is a node. Network layer protocol in TCP/IP offering a connectionless or packetised service ICT – Information Communications Technology Fossil Fuel – A non-renewable source of energy formed from decayed organic matter millions of years ago. The most predominant fossil fuels are coal. ITU – International Telecommunications Union i. Fugitive Emissions – The emissions which come from the mining.potential of carbon dioxide over a 00 year period. Fibre can have a variety of optical communications interfaces applied and it comes as either Multi-mode or Single.mode with the physical advantages of being light and flexible for installation. 76). Geosequestration – Refers to the capture Towards a High-Bandwidth. segment e. Emissions Intensity – The emissions generated per unit of input or output. Access is a mobile telephone protocol allowing high speed data transmission and is used in Telstra’s Next GTM network IP – Intelligent processing within a network. 00. oil and gas. coordinates standards for telecommunication networks and operations around the world with signatories from participating countries. the global warming potential for a tonne of methane is  times that of a tonne of carbon dioxide.e. FTTP. invented and refined in the 60’s and 70’s. FTTN etc.The Intergovernmental Panel GDP – Gross Domestic Product – the economic value of a country’s annual production of goods and services. Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). and geological (underground) storage of CO emissions.High-Speed Downlink Packet Fibre – Refers to Optical Fibre. transportation and storage of fossil fuels (but does not include the emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Ozone (O3). Methane (CH4). Latency – The delay through a network or process that can be caused by distance such as over satellite or through dealing with information such as reassembling bytes in an ATM network or decompressing video.

The technology which converts sunlight into Towards a High-Bandwidth.The National Electricity Market Management Company Limited administers the National Energy Market (see NEM). Peaking Plant – Normally refers to power stations which run at peak times to meet short term peaks in electricity demand. through the interconnected transmissions and distribution network. Favoured because it allows customer traffic to be less expensively introduced into backbones without needing an intermediate service. NEM is a wholesale market for electricity supply which delivers electricity to market customers in all states and territories. Orphaned Energy / Appliance . MPLS – Multi Protocol Label Switching is a method for carrying IP over ATM. With the growth of ATM and wireless has widened to include how signals are dealt with on a physical network but not referred to the electrical characteristics of that network plus the devices on the network. whether phone or cable TV networks etc. One mega tonne is one million tonnes. Mt. and 4 referring to different rates and processing outcomes (e. NEMCO .Mega-tonnes. except for Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Also no longer limited to wires but includes mobile and wireless systems. there was an MPEG 3 specified for HDTV but it was never used). With NGNs this means intelligence is built into the network making it transparent to a wide range of devices and applications with application’s architecture plugged into the network. This measure factors in differences in global warming potential and converts them to a carbon-dioxide equivalent. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 70 . .Mega-tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO-e) is the internationally recognised measure used to compare the emissions from the various greenhouse gases.g. Network –The term for communications systems and originally meant the physical cable of a phone network or a data network.5.an appliance which is using energy even though no user is present is refered to as orphaned. MRET – Mandatory Renewable Energy Target NGNs – Next Generation Networks where the physical and electrical characteristics of the network are not paramount so much as the active way in which information is processed and dealt with across the network. MtCO-e . Photovoltaic Cell – A renewable energy NEM – The National Electricity Market. Greenhouse gas emissions are often displayed in mega-tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent per annum (MtCO-e/yr) (see MtCO-e). MPEG – (Moving Picture Experts Group) Protocol for moving compressed video and audio down data networks either as broadcast/satellite or along wires/fibre. So far there are MPEG.Modem – Device for modulating data and signals over a network according to the interfacing protocols required by the devices on the network. . For example. Theer are different types of modems for different networks. the global warming potential for a tonne of methane over 00 years is  times that of a tonne of carbon dioxide.

953 Gbit/s. Wireless – Refers to mobile phone networks or any public network that uses radio. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 7 . biomass. Data rates from 5.(see photovoltaic cell) SONET. QoS – Quality of service. sound placement etc. Wind Farms – A collection of wind turbines which connect to common substation to feed into the main electrical grid.Energy transferred per unit of time. Electrical power is usually measured in watts (W). Switch – The large-scale device for switching phone and data from their sources to their destinations via the network.Energy which comes from natural processes and which are replenished in human time frames or cannot be exhausted (sources of renewable energy include wind. Telco – shortened version of Towards a High-Bandwidth. Has set definitions including network availability as well as quality of usage. Wind Turbine – A renewable energy technology that converts air currents into mechanical energy which is then used to generate electrical energy. Renewable Energy . Used for placing computer to computer calls or for entire business networks. Solar Power . wave and tidal power). telecommunications company or carrier. Also can refer to local area networks or LANs that are distributed using inhouse wireless systems.84 Mbit/s through to 9. geothermal energy. VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol. missing data or duplication. Twisted Pair – Two wires ‘twisted’ together in a certain pattern to minimise electrical interference and connected as an electrical circuit for carrying phone or data as a pointto-point connection from the house to the telephone exchange. Teleworking – Using Broadband facilities to enable working away from the office whether at home or on the road. As well as using better sytems such as HDTV it involves designing in ‘soft’ issues such as lighting. Point-To-Point – When two sites or nodes in a telecommunications system are connected together by a physical cable or wireless system. An appliance drawing 000 Watts ( kW) for  hour is said to have used  kilowatt hour ( kWh) of electricity. Power .electrical energy. Telepresence – Enhanced Video. kilowatts (kW) and megawatt (MW).Synchronous Optical Network implemented over fibre as a ring so if a fibre stops working traffic can be rerouted without interruption. TCP – Transmission Control Protocol ensuring data is delivered to the application layer in proper sequence without errors. audio and information conferencing with the aim of minimising the perception limitations of present electronic communication such as video conferencing compared with faceto-face meetings. Makes use of Broadband to repackage voice as data routed using IP. solar radiation.

HDSL. Towards a High-Bandwidth. ADSL (Asymetric) and SDSL (Symetric) have been focussed on because of the opportunity to provide broadband to the premises over existing twisted pair in addition to phone service. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 7 . IDSL. a family of high bandwidth telecommunications services consisting of ADSL. xDSL – x Digital Subscriber Line. SDSL.With Measures – Describes an emissions trajectory with greenhouse gas mitigation measures and generally shows the deviation from the business-as-usual projection.

Appendicies Appendix 1 Industry Example: Broadband and Urban Development . It is located 3km from the Coomera Town Centre which is identified as a Major Activity Centre in the South East Queensland Regional Plan (Gold Coast City Council 007). including an office suite with full high-speed broadband connectivity • In order to consider how broadband can facilitate reduced carbon emissions in a community like Genesis Coomera. Coomera. security and entertainment with a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone for video conferencing Smart wiring and automation provide a range of monitoring and control functions in the homes. Some of the key elements include: • Water recycling and environmental flows which can be remotely monitored and controlled Genesis residents have access to shared central services for recreation.Genesis. The Genesis development is exploring new boundaries in urban development in several ways. was Telstra’s first Smart Community connected with Fibre To The Premises (FTTP). Environmental pressure is growing with climate change and urbanisation increasing vulnerability within the region. light and shade can all be regulated. by award winning developer. The development is occurring in one of Australia’s fastest growing regions and as such measures to reduce the environmental impact are important to curbing national emissions. The region is predominantly rural with a • Towards a High-Bandwidth. it is relevant to consider the geographical and social context with which the community is being established. The rapid urbanisation of the Gold Coast has contributed to some suburban areas suffering social isolation and a lack of public facilities and transport (Gold Coast City Council 005). Coomera • • Some homes feature full automation of lighting. providing a high-speed optical fibre cable to each of the proposed 700 residential buildings. rapid growth is placing resource pressure on the region (Gold Coast City Council 005). Heritage Pacific. business and education. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 73 . introduction Genesis Coomera. Energy saving has been an important design consideration with much of the automation optimised to maximise energy savings with minimal user interaction. This innovation has been recognised through a number of awards for its design and construction. Environmental controls such as temperature and air quality. Gold Coast and South East Queensland Rated as one of the world’s most biodiverse areas.

light and Transport In a climate sensitive. Currently high dependence on the private car for transport needs has heightened the economic vulnerability of residents (Dodson and Sipe 006). How Can Broadband Assist with the Carbon Footprint of Genesis? Smart Development reduces environmental impacts Genesis residents will have access to an epicentre for recreation. possibly for businesses in Brisbane. Water recycling and environmental flows can be remotely monitored and controlled if required. Synergy. This high degree of automation could lead to significant increases in energy demand above those of the less ‘smart’ home. carbon constrained world. The increase in transport costs will have repercussions Towards a High-Bandwidth. There are two train stations in the area with less frequent services than the regional average. provides an epicentre with recreation. Upper Coomera is an area with high levels of disadvantage and no public transport service. Environmental controls such as temperature and air quality. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 74 . Any carbon tax. Without the provision of effective alternatives. this automation may be used to leverage energy management and therefore reverse and reduce energy demand. Given that Genesis is evolving within an area with relatively high unemployment. Smart wiring allows for a range of automation in these homes. the presence of a major motorway nearby will draw residents to car based commuting. Smart Homes reduce heating and cooling demands A proportion of homes have been automated and connected to highspeed broadband. increased fuel prices are likely to place considerable strain on the cost of living. These feature full automation of lighting.low population. business and education. cap or trade mechanism is also likely to increase costs for urbanised and rural communities whose travel is based predominately around the car. business and education facilities. there is strong indication that its residents will work outside the area. Conversely. The Pacific Motorway is the major public transport route. security and entertainment with a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone for video conferencing. a $3 million investment for exclusive use by Genesis residents. There is an office suite and social centre including a cinema on site with full connectivity. The State government is planning to centre most development around Coomera in proximity to rail transport running north-south parallel to the Pacific Highway. Home Appliance Efficiency Genesis is a community with a high level of appliance energy consumption. for communities heavily dependent upon private cars for commuting and personal activities.

Assuming a typical Australian car emits 60g CO-e per kilometre then 780 kg of CO-e per year would be saved.0 mbps. Smart Technology Telstra have connected a product called Telstra VelocityTM which is FTTP which at present offers 8 . all request that dedicated office facilities be built at their home (Harrison 007a).00kms per year (46 weeks x 96kms per year). As discussed earlier in this report.com. This is equal to 9. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 75 .e. multiple phone lines and television services on one fibre cable. The Genesis development is located 3km from a soon to be ‘Major Activity Centre’ which includes a large public transport node on the main rail line to Brisbane. one Towards a High-Bandwidth. There is significant potential to develop collaborative relationships i. The uptake of teleworking Potential for increased Emission Reductions Personalised Public Transport By utilising Telstra Fibre to the Premises (FTTP) at the Genesis development there is potential for deeper greenhouse gas abatement than provided by teleworking alone. The projected savings for residents who are employed in the Brisbane area can be estimated as follows: Teleworking one day per week saves 96kms per week per person. Automated window opening and closing maximises energy savings with minimal user interaction. This high-speed broadband connection facilitates the uptake of full-time or partial telework. At Genesis. One resident has been able to move a high technology sound production business to his home. Telstra Smart Community brought together via the web All homes also share a domain (@ myhome. This delivers ultra high quality connections and the use of many applications rarely found in CBD offices. of the 85 % of residents connected to Telstra VelocityTM . Ancillary benefits include time.au).genesis. in addition to practical issues pertaining to the site.coomera. Local universities offer online courses and delivery of education via the web. If 300 of the adult residents in the planned development worked from home one day per week then 5 tonnes of CO-e would be saved per year (based on travel to Brisbane). at the development has the potential to save a considerable amount of greenhouse gas emissions.shade can be regulated to allow blinds to come down during sunny periods and louvres to open to let in afternoon breezes. carpooling or online purchasing. cost savings. reduced traffic congestion and air pollution. Profiling provided by Genesis suggests that many residents employed in Brisbane are working from home at least one day per week.

The Genesis Development at Coomera. considerable emission reductions and dollar savings could be made. Personalised Public Transport (PPT) present significant greenhouse gas reduction potential for the Genesis development.Figure 7. CO-e emissions per kilometre is 63g Towards a High-Bandwidth. speed broadband and can be engaged in the the Remote Appliance Power Management carbon-opportunity. Gold Coast of the major barriers to the uptake of rail and other public transport use is the absence of feeder networks for those outside the walking catchment of the stations. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 76 . Number of days worked a year is 00 Remote Appliance Power Management A high percentage of the 700 homes at the Genesis development have high- d. Average distance travelled driven per day to and from work to Brisbane is 96 kilometres c. As each Australian home each loses more than % of its electricity to appliances on standby. b. 00 residents replace personal car use for PPT for commuting alone to Brisbane in a car. The facilitation of feeders services such as PPT would also free up land use space in the town centre that would otherwise be used as a park-nride. Quantifying the Savings for PPT Assumptions: a. as well as providing access to shops and employment opportunities available in the town centre. The on-call services PPT could provide would allow residents to easily access the Coomera transport node for commuting throughout South East Queensland.

Towards a High-Bandwidth. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 77 .Emissions savings: = (a x b x c x d) = 3.000kg GHG emissions saved.5 kg (using Remote Appliance Power Management) = 86. 900 kg of CO-e per MWh (CAIT 005) Emissions savings: = (a x b x c x d) = 504. government support to increase the functionality of public transport in the region will be necessary.6 MWh per annum (ABS 004) c. per week spent on public transport is removed). This would include high frequency rail services from Coomera to Brisbane to ensure public transport is a viable option. Conclusion Quantifying the Savings for Remote Appliance Power Management Assumptions: a.000 kgs CO-e per year saved Assume petrol is $ per litre results in $. d.7 million in combined savings (after $65 per person.5 kg per annum. Standby percentage . 700 homes when complete b. Average household energy use 6.6% (AGO & ICLEI 005) The Genesis development is well equipped to provide best practice systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the use of FTTP and consequent high quality teleworking options.000 kg (using PPT) plus 504. Barriers to implementation In order to realise emissions reductions using PPT at Genesis. Herein it is envisaged that by utilising two of the proposed options in this report (PPT and Remote Appliance Power Management) deeper greenhouse gas emission cuts are possible. Total emissions savings potential is 3.

600 students.” (Underwood et al. Catholic Education Parramatta (CEP) The Diocese of Parramatta is located in one of the fastest growing areas of New South Wales. 0. • Our case-study school has . and changing the way schools administer their courses. Approximately 4000 staff attend to the total student population of 4. opening at Stanhope Gardens in February 007. using an average of 3.7MWh of energy per classroom per year over the year3.000 pupils and just fewer than 00 members of staff.5KW of power used per square metre (SEDO 004) when in use.Catholic Education Parramatta Carbon Emission Abatement in Schools Using technology to save emissions in schools offers a great opportunity to expose students to new ways of managing their emission profile.6) The annual energy saving of this server consolidation is 1. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk . changing the ways teachers organise lessons and co-operate with colleagues. Remote Appliance Power Management and Increased Renewable Energy. By comparison a typical home uses about 6. The diocese is west of Sydney and reaches from Dundas Valley.Appendix 2 Industry Example: Next generation networks. south to Luddenham and north to Richmond. Significant energy and carbon emission savings could be realised via two of the opportunities identified earlier in this report. “broadband is changing the way pupils learn and construct their work. They can then carry this into the workplace and home. • • 3 Assuming 50 square meters per class room. In order to consider this industry example it is useful to create an hypothetical ‘typical’ school. There are 76 Catholic schools in the Parramatta diocese of which 54 are primary and  are secondary.MWh per year. St Mark’s Catholic College. 005. west to Katoomba. There are also six congregational (independent Catholic) schools in the diocese with the most recent. p. 3 months cooling in summer for 5 hours per day. A ‘Typical’ School Each of Catholic Education Parramatta’s schools are different.4 megawatt hours and a carbon reduction of approximately 140 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per year. 3 months heating in summer. The school has 40 classrooms equipped with air conditioning for cooling in the summer and heating for the winter. The class occupancy is about 5 children per class and this includes smaller classes for specialist subjects. 78 Towards a High-Bandwidth. Carbon and Education .

5KW of power used per square metre (SEDO 004) when in use. NOIE Canberra August 00) • The school has standby loads including computers. a significant proportion of energy in Australian schools is wasted on standby power. It also has electrical hot water heating on 4 hours a day. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 79 . laptops on charge and musical equipment. Remote Appliance Power Management in Schools In line with commercial and residential sectors. seven days a week. (Broadband in Schools. Access to sufficient bandwidth allows researchers in Australia’s higher education institutions to participate in international collaborative research projects and broadband allows tertiary students to access high quality course materials from campuses across the country and around the world. All standby power across the school Towards a High-Bandwidth.Broadband technology has the potential to revolutionise the Australian education sector. 0. day or during holiday periods. High bandwidth enhances the effectiveness of existing distance learning programs by enabling video conferencing on the desktop. The intelligent networked control switch would enable the caretaker to selectively turn on areas for after hours use. Assuming 50 square meters per class room. 3 months heating in summer. Standby power consumption is typical of that in the residential sector. The average energy consumption in this typical school is 335KWh per person (pupils and teachers) per year (QDOE 006) which equates to a total of 370MWh per year. Remote Appliance Power Management would allow all appliances to be switched off by the school caretaker at the end of the school If we assume that the schools have energy wastage similar to residential standby. 3 months cooling in summer for 5 hours per day. The always-on nature of broadband connections allows school students to use the internet as an everyday research tool in the classroom more easily. the opportunity exists to provide for simple standby reduction through centralised online control of either outlets or network enabled intermediate sockets (an adaptor between the socket and the device plug which can be used without the need to retro fit the outlet).

the savings would equate to 3. Assuming an average % of energy is standby.could be terminated from 5pm to 8am each school day and over the weekends. reducing the number of hours in which standby devices could draw power by 73%. increased Renewable Energy Heating and cooling facilities in the school present an opportunity to use these loads for Increased Renewable Energy during the working hours of the school (assuming these loads are they are all off outside these hours).000 students. which is enough ‘discretionary’ load to marry with a 750 kilowatt wind turbine with a 5% capacity factor. Towards a High-Bandwidth. cooling and energy loads. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 80 . this would be enough discretionary load to partner with a substantial 30 megawatt wind farm . The amount of power used in heating and cooling classrooms during the relevant summer and winter months Conclusion This example illustrates a significant opportunity to reduce the emission footprint of any school through the application of several of the opportunities identified in this report to heating.approximately double the amount of wind energy currently operating in NSW. Across the total CEP school population of 4.MWh of energy per school (enough to power 5 homes a year) and saving over $3.00 per year on the school electricity bill. would be approximately 50kW.

The scale and scope of Telstra’s operations and assets present significant energy management challenges. broadband. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 8 . Land Use Change and Forestry (LULCF) which could be both negative through clearing of easements or positive through replanting. The principal source document.000 vehicles (including salary sacrifice vehicles). CDMA and Next GTM) and satellite networks. Telstra to date has saved 5. In addition. Staff travel is extensive with over 4 million road kilometres travelled in the financial year 005/06. The organisation’s physical footprint covers 4. Current iCT based abatement strategies Telstra recognises and tracks its greenhouse gas emissions on a yearly basis.000 sites nationally. IP and cable). serves Australian customers via fixed line (including data.4 4 The data and information contained within this study is sourced from publicly available documents and from information provided by senior management.500 commercial properties with nearly 33. wireless (GSM. Telstra’s main emissions . For example. Telstra. million mobile services. the CDMA network when retired will reduce energy requirements while the roll-out of next generation networks is likely to increase consumption. as Australia’s largest telecommunications provider. it operates a number of international services. Current Emissions14 Telstra has approximately 36.Change Through Leadership introduction This report identifies the opportunity for Telstra to act as a catalyst for reductions in national emissions which go beyond the direct scope of Telstra operations. Towards a High-Bandwidth. In total Telstra provides nearly 0 million fixed line services and over 9.000 cabinet facilities. telegraph and postal services. As a builder. introduction to Telstra Telstra’s history dates back to the foundation of the Commonwealth in 90 when the Commonwealth Government established the Postmaster-General’s Department to manage all domestic telephone. This chapter explores Telstra’s environmental stewardship to date and identifies opportunities to use Next IP™ for further emission reductions. 00MHz.Appendix 3 Industry Example: Telstra . operator and maintainer of telecommunications infrastructure.89% of the total .000 fulltime equivalent (FTE) employees in its Australian workforce and operates Australia’s largest vehicle fleet of over 7. Telstra is one of the largest occupiers of commercial property in Australia with over 0. Other emission sources include Land Use. the Telstra Corporate Responsibility Report 006.come from energy use in network operations including data centres and offices (Telstra 006). is written in accordance with GRI G3 standards however the information reported has not been verified by Climate Risk and no assurance is given as to its completeness or materiality.

450 solar powered sites including exchanges. Telstra has installed GPS in more than 4. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 8 . 1 600 000 Tonnes CO2 1 200 000 800 000 400 000 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Year tonnes of CO equivalent emissions (Figure 9) (Telstra 006). Online billing has proved popular with its customers with over 85. radio terminals. It should be recognised however that the long term security of these carbon ‘sinks’ is the subject of some debate due to the climate impacts of increased bush fire and reduced precipitation. an increase from 3% in 004/05. small repeater stations and payphones (Harrison 007b). Renewable energy: Telstra is the nation’s largest solar power operator. Future Opportunities Quantifying the Savings from Telework As Telstra employs approximately Towards a High-Bandwidth. In 005/06 the company operated 0.Figure 28: Telstra’s annual CO2 emissions 2 000 000 Figure 8. Telstra has a range of greenhouse gas reduction programs. Telstra’s annual CO emissions (excluding aviation . logistics and LULUCF) (Telstra 006). some of which include ICT based strategies: Fleet management: In addition to increasing the use of low emission fuels for its 7. through tree planting to absorb the equivalent emissions. This translates to more than half a tonne per employee across Telstra. and is committed to increase this to achieve a 5% reduction in fuel consumption while increasing productivity by 5% (Telstra 006).000 opting for this option last year. Telstra is also utilising information technology to enable fuel efficient travel patterns.000 fleet vehicles. Decreased waste paper use: During 005/06. Telstra has a partnership with Greenfleet to off-set vehicle emissions.500 or 7% of its vehicles. Telstra has more than 50 of its major vendors using electronic based processes for transactions. 47% of waste was recycled.

Assuming the transport patterns of Telstra workers reflect the national average. The commissioning of this report demonstrates leadership in facilitating emission reductions across the wider community.Figure 29: Telstra’s cumulative avoided emissions 200 000 Fleet Waste Figure 9. Telstra’s cumulative avoided CO emissions (Telstra 006). 5.000 tonnes of transport related carbon dioxide emissions could be saved per annum. approximately .). 160 000 New energy savings (for current year) Cumulative energy savings (from previous years) Tonnes CO2 120 000 80 000 40 000 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Year 36. Conclusion Telstra is aware of its responsibility to the environment and has already saved over 5. If 5% converted to using public transport.000 FTE people in Australia there is considerable opportunity to facilitate increased emissions abatement through actively encouraging telework. Telstra’s current building based emissions are responsible for approximately 80. delivering overall emissions abatement of about 36. approximately 4.000 tCO per year. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 83 .000 drive alone to and from work. Quantifying Savings in Building Emissions Telstra has a large number of staff and a large number of buildings throughout the country providing considerable Towards a High-Bandwidth.000 tonnes of CO emissions could be saved per annum. scope to reduce the waste of ‘standby’ and ‘orphaned’ energy in the workplace. either from home or regional Telstra hubs (as shown in section . This could be reduced by 0% overall by deploying Remote Appliance Power Management and Presence-Based Power. If an additional 5% of the workforce worked from home or from a regional Telstra hub.000 tonnes of CO-e emissions through a range of initiatives. There is a significant opportunity to demonstrate in house many of the opportunities outlined in this report.000 tCO per year.

The Double Exposure of the Health Sector to Climate Change. “In the longer term. the indirect impacts may well have greater magnitude than the more direct impacts” (Epstein 999. The health sector is recognised as being at the front line of climate change impacts. Nevertheless. it has been suggested that these secondary and tertiary impacts using networks to Address 21st Century Health Challenges Despite the direct and indirect consequences of climate change for human health becoming better researched and understood. some of whom will need air transfers. This interdependency illustrates that health care provision is both a source of greenhouse gas emissions and bears the brunt of impacts from climate change.000 lives annually. 344). with consequent increases in greenhouse gas emissions. Climate Change and Telecommunication Networks “The institutions of healthcare have enormous power to do good or harm to the natural environment and to increase or diminish carbon emissions” (Coote 006. responding to issues including extreme weather impacts and disease migration. and with considerable variation between populations because of geography and vulnerability. there are opportunities for the sector to decarbonise its footprint and to increase its resilience to climate change impacts.” (Patz et al. from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves. These structures generate Towards a High-Bandwidth. p. there is relatively little planning within the health sector to consider the infrastructure requirements needed for adaptation to climate change. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations. Healthcare comprises a complex mix of institutions. For example. Further. Indirect impacts of climate change may include the effects on the integrity of energy and water infrastructure supporting health and productivity of the wider economy. 005) Direct health impacts are only one component of the health sector. McMichael et al.Appendix 4 Industry Example: The Health Sector. will be of the most significance to the health sector. the southerly spread of tropical disease carriers in Australia increases the number of patients. 996). There is a proven relationship between climate and health as more impacts mean more health sector activity which in turn leads to more emissions. The World Health Organisation “estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30 years already claim over 50. structures and individuals. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 84 . to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures.

Telstra has pioneered a number of e-Health applications in Australia and is further developing the use of internationally significant applications in critical care using ICT networks. global thinking. Existing or emergent applications enabled by ICT networks which are relevant to the health sector include: • The exchange of patient records and data. This obviates the risk and transport costs. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 85 . improving the standard of patient care in regional areas. CAT/MRI scans. and allows patients to be cared for in their own community. From medical professionals and administrators to patients and insurance companies. In Europe the industry is estimated to be worth 0 billion Euro. and Retention and recruitment of staff in rural practices. referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies…commitment for networked. E-Learning. The following examples highlight several emerging eHealth solutions enabled by ICT network technologies in regional and remote areas. Medical Research and collaborative team working.” (Eysenbach 003) Strong technological leadership and good infrastructure has led to the emergence of a global e-Health industry. e-Health • • “e-health is an emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics. ultrasound. public health and business. • • • • • • All of these examples reduce travel requirements and therefore emissions. Teleconsultation. training and testing. and worldwide by using information and communication technology. The Virtual Critical Care Unit (ViCCUTM) developed by the CSIRO. regionally. Monitoring of patients in aftercare and vital care situations.varying temporal and spatial challenges that ICT networks can help address. Towards a High-Bandwidth. Transfer of images radiographs. High quality interactive video for remote care. is a specialist teleconferencing and remote diagnostic facility. this sector has wide-ranging information and communication needs. to improve health care locally. Combined with the Telstra’s Next IP™ services. Online health information and clinical support. it enables specialists in metropolitan hospitals diagnose and treat patients in remote hospitals.

high emission travel by patients and/or medical staff is in the field of dermatology. Regional Health Care “Only 4. GPs are able to access online dermatological case studies. from 1990 to 2004 are currently working in rural and remote Queensland. Multi-disciplinary intervention. There are considerable travel costs and subsequent emissions created by patients and family for treatment and aftercare support. reduced revenues due to patient numbers and a lack of general resources. support which may only be available at a state or national level. Rural patients may require round trips of many hundreds of kilometres for specialist diagnosis. this type of initiative increases the resilience of rural communities to events that may require critical care and provides a model for other services which can be moved online. recommended links and discussion forums. Transfer of patient care accountability back to GPs can reduce travel. Tele-Derm is an online diagnosis tool available to doctors throughout Australia. Within the context of adapting to the physical impacts of climate change. education opportunities. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 86 . These cases are available as case • • • • • Within the context of climate change mitigation. Recruitment of rural practitioners is difficult due to isolation of staff. patients and carers.” (White 006) In many of Australia’s rural areas. but this requires providing specialist support to doctors.9% of University of Queensland medical graduates Towards a High-Bandwidth. supported by specialists. and Reduced costs and risk to the medical system through avoided movement of patients. Tele-Derm also allows rural doctors anywhere in Australia to electronically submit specific cases for assessment. Improved patient recovery.According to the CSIRO the key benefits of ViCCUTM include: • Regional delivery of expert advice often faster than via helicopter transport. such applications are reducing the need for long distance road and air travel by practitioners. and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Recruitment and retention benefits for rural health professionals. Using Tele-Derm. in their own community environment. Addressing health equity challenges in rural or regional areas. there is a dire lack of specialist care. A successful example of how broadband networks are being applied to bring need and expertise together and avoid long distance.

It allows connectivity to centralised resources and applications. Loddon Mallee Health Alliance Loddon Mallee Health Alliance (LMHA) is a governance entity that represents the ICT interests of 6 hospitals and 65 health agencies located at 60 sites throughout the Loddon Mallee Region (LMHA 007). in plain English. The Loddon Mallee region covers 5% of Victoria’s land mass over which LMHA has implemented high-speed broadband services. The geography and dispersion of patients across a wide area mean that some nurses are driving 800km for a single patient visit. other health agencies and government. next generation networks will provide better visual definition and faster communication services. As such they can form the basis for expansion to other types of diagnostics and treatment.studies for all GPs enrolled in Tele-Derm. Tele-Derm has over 000 hits from over 70 individual doctors. Remote Health “We desperately want IT training on-site for nurses. Approximately 00 interactive. In a typical month. Currently based on ISDN.8%. Grampians Health Region eLearning Feasibility Study 006 Towards a High-Bandwidth. the network is on target to save some 75. video and data services. confidence. Unlike other networks. It has also been designed to perform at a service availability of 99. Tele-Derm has been used extensively by the medical community: • It currently has over 450 people enrolled. The LMHA network is a secure. selfpaced cases are now available for doctors to work through.5 tonnes CO-e. • • • Rural and remote communities benefit from rapid access to expert advice through initiatives such as Tele-Derm. problems of isolation”. as well as advanced voice. reliable and secure connectivity to the internet. As a result of the first 3 month trial of video conferencing. which covers problem solving. Since it began.000kms per year equivalent to 45. says one bush nurse. The reduced travel by patients and doctors will directly equate to reduced emissions. high-speed Wide Area Network (WAN). Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 87 . The network has been designed to provide fast. access to the LMHA network is : contention which means that access availability and speed is not determined by the number of users trying to connect at any particular time. utilising Telstra IP infrastructure. and Tele-Derm has assisted with over 00 individual cases.

77 tonnes CO-e per patient. Conclusion Healthcare is at the front line of climate change risk and adaptation in Australia and these pressures can be expected to intensify. In order to quantify the potential value of such applications. to detailed video based diagnostics which can be undertaken in real-time. Based on these assumptions: . The overall efficiency of short distance air travel in smaller aircraft is significantly less than that of intercity travel and is assumed to be 0.05 litres per passenger per kilometre. 3. • • • • Towards a High-Bandwidth. The total amount of greenhouse pollution caused is 0.800kms. Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk 88 . The total amount of fuel used is 40 litres.Future Opportunities Quantifying Savings: Reduced Air Travel Emissions The use of ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing. . The patient has to travel three times. Road transport and other emissions related to the trip are neglected. once for diagnosis. as identified in this report. • The person is accompanied by a family member for each of the trips. There is a role for ICT networks to overcome the tyranny of distance and the relative shortage of skills at a regional level by sharing limited human resources through online services. The patient is 400km from the city and chooses to use air travel (for distances of 300km or less people may prefer to drive). once for a stay with treatment and once for a follow up consultation. This is a natural extension of the static image based diagnostics used by Tele-Derm. The total air travel involved for the patient and family member is 4. has an application to remote diagnostics for rural and regional Australia. The double benefit is that overcoming the need to move people between healthcare centres will also reduce emissions associated with rural health care provision in Australia. a nominal patient is considered: • The patient requires specialist diagnosis which is only available in a major city.

Not taken forward because of risk of transfer of emissions and also office space costs will tend to determine use of space efficiency. so the emissions savings have only been transferred. hot water.g. network. 89 . . However. Home efficiency Reduced energy use. Various research limits renewables at 0-30% of mix due to intermittency (eg CSIRO Energy Futures Forum). On line storage solutions. Workplace/building efficiency Reduced energy consumption using intelligent communicating devices and third party control. Where there are multiple devices running at less than capacity there is the opportunity to consolidate and reduce the number of devices.Appendix 5: Summary of Sectors and Applications Considered with Action Characteristics 0% of electricity in the home is wasted in standby energy. hotdesks. Wider application would be to move material online into fewer data centres. However. desktop. RFID tagging and telemetry. Monitoring and evaluation tools for users to overcome trust barriers. Taken forward in the case studies only (education example). Stationary energy. Estimated that even more is wasted in appliances that are on but not being used. Load factors Reducing multiplicity of devices and energy/resource use through increasing the utilisation of any given device or service e. fugitive Towards a High-Bandwidth. networked appliances or switches. Stationary energy. RFID tagging and telemetry. e. Also appliances that are on but not being used. fugitive Stationary energy. If human productivity is increased. then less people required for given job. systems reactive to climatic conditions or external signals.g. Stationary energy. shared meeting rooms. and infrastructure efficiency using intelligent communicating devices and third party control. trends toward increased and mobile storage and number of devices which limits opportunities for consolidation. Renewable energy penetration Increased uptake of intermittent renewable energy sources (e. Commercial buildings use about 0% of national emissions. and therefore less associated consumption. external controls to obviate standby consumption. Separate into ‘remote appliance power management’ and ‘presence based power’. Develop as specific carbon opportunity. essentially reverting PCs back to terminal function. e. laptop. wind) through dynamic load management of multiple devices in multiple homes. emissions and waste. fugitive. networked appliances or switches. waste . their energy use and the end waste. charging. Climate Risk Area of interest Possible method for GHG reductions Emissions sector Possible applications Action Separate into ‘remote appliance power management’ and ‘presence based power’. Could include wired or unwired appliances which have automated control already eg fridges. Stationary energy. servers in many company offices replaced by single servers hosting multiple company data sets. Productivity Not taken forward for several reasons. Ability to work while in motion or without returning to hub. Low-Carbon Future Up to 4-6% of electricity in the office is wasted in standby energy. Virtual networks with compatible devices (phone. Over 90% of electricity comes from coal fired power stations at high emission intensity. Probably housed with same companies or locations. offices.g. transport. but more network movement of say data to increase load factor of devices and allow redundant devices to be closed down. waste High speed (fibre) broadband in home and workplace. though this will tend to be desk based rather than room based. Looking at optimised use of space through management that may be facilitated by networks. external controls to obviate standby consumption. systems reactive to climatic conditions or external signals. buildings and communities. Office Utilisation Reduced embedded and operational energy through increased load factor of floor space.g. Broadband. fugitive. Reducing growth or even absolute demand through greater efficiency therefore has pro rata effect on emissions provided they are not simply relocated. Waste No additional devices being used. ‘increased renewable energy’. must recognise that economy will expand to use the additional (human) resource created and therefore consumption may expand with increased productivity. Stationary energy. Looks at major change in data management and device usage trends. much of the research overlaps with telework which implies that the reduced office space has been shifted to peoples homes or cars. storage). fugitive Broadband. Therefore requires applications that allow real time load management without affecting customer. Combine household and commercial. Combine household and commercial. It involves behavioural changes which are hard to measure accurately. distributed intelligence. distributed intelligence. aircon. Requires that loads are dynamically adjusted to match renewable energy output over appropriate period. There is good reason to suggest that released resource is reallocated elsewhere in the economy Increased productive output per person for the same or reduced resource use. office equipment volumes which take up space.

Transport Broad range of on-line application and services largely delivered by internet More than 70% of people drive alone to and from work each day. Waste. downloading film rather than driving to video shop. Taken forward as ‘personalised public transport’ where it is semi-combined with commuting. E-materialisation. and cargos. Next generation can pick up weaknesses. Work air travel Private sector emissions from travel. bunker fuels The long distance.g. shopping or taking kids to school. and for which more new items would have to be purchased.Climate Risk Area of interest /3 of all kilometres travelled by freight carriers in Australia are unladen. Transport Opportunities are in reducing the need for car travel and/or providing better alternatives for work eg by being able to work at home or close to home. Low-Carbon Future Upsurge in global consumption is consistent with increased wealth and numbers of people. Personal Car Travel Reduced need for car use for personal purposes e. Thus focus is on the personal and work life and movement in between rather than on vehicles or traffic as traffic tends to fill space available. Major component of transport emissions. E. often poor public transport options are cited as a significant contributing factor. Trends are for increased car travel. Current technologies are not getting cut though. all with common technology platform for tracking and dispatch.especially aviation. Towards a High-Bandwidth. Taken forward as ‘on-live high definition video conferencing’ in conjunction with personal. Thus focus is on the personal and work life and movement in between rather than on vehicles or traffic as traffic tends to fill space available. Moving some of this consumption out of the physical into the virtual can reduce total carbon footprint of the consumption. energy and transport and therefore carbon for creation or movement of goods. Car use uses over 0% of national emissions. Also requires multiple participant companies from large trucking companies through to couriers and taxis.g. Stationary energy. getting software online rather than from shop or by post.e. Decision made not to take lifecycle approach forward due to complexity and dominance of the other impacts. Transport. Could fully remove the need for some consumption or increase use of existing items. can be reduced through use of ‘presencing’ technology . especially aviation. 90 . About 40% of air travel is for business creating . To take this forward requires moving into area of carbon content or carbon debt of multiple items and services. Taken forward as ‘Real time freight management’ Possible method for GHG reductions Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Freight and Fleet Efficiency Reduce the emission intensity of freight movements. Commuting Decreasing the emissions associated with commuting through reduced need to commute and increased uptake of higher efficiency options. Domestic and long haul (even though the long haul isn’t part of Kyoto inventory). Transport Use of RFID and telemetry to track vehicles. eBay provides a recycling service by bringing buyers and sellers together for items that would have lower value or become redundant.g. e. short duration trips have lowest amenity where ‘conferencing’ or ‘presencing’ alternatives may be an equivalent or improvement.million tonnes of CO per year. i. Taken forward as ‘Decentralised business district’ and ‘personalised public transport’. Anything that reduces need for car travel reduces emissions. several suppliers of tele-presence suites. Transport Opportunities are in reducing the need for car travel and/or providing better alternatives. De-materialisation Reduced use of resources. life-cycle analysis.

Using Telco shops as conduit for low emission products. Recycling rates are extremely low in Australia in part because of lack of pure streams and also because of limited processing. market and transport the product. Recycling / re use Increase the uptake of recycling and re use to reduce the amount of waste and resources required for new products. Not taken forward as beyond the scope of this report which does not include life cycle assessments. as very diverse. 9 . ‘Love miles’ take people long distances for short periods because of no satisfactory alternatives. Also interesting to look at use of ICT networks by second hand goods traders. short duration trips have lowest amenity where ‘conferencing’ or ‘presencing’ alternatives may be an equivalent or improvement. There is a certain degree of path dependency which makes behavioural change a challenge. bunker fuels The long distance. training of use of lower impact activities eg in schools. which would need special application of solutions.g. short duration trips that can be replaced with ‘presencing’ alternatives. in principle this could be one of the larges abatement areas.5million tonnes of CO per year.it is human behaviour that leads to anthropogenic GHG emissions. Eg rather than selling products. ICT also allows companied like eBay to provide highend recycling of products which reduce demand for primary supply. And there is the influence the telco can have on the purchasing behaviour of the customers and therefore supply chains and recycling of the products. Waste. or cafe style ‘catch-up’ suites. Transport. Behavioural change Consumption reduction. Not taken forward. Transport. these can be rented. Potentially a significant item if life-cycles are assessed in future analysis. eg from desk-top. Eg rather than selling products. Towards a High-Bandwidth. And there is the influence the telco can have on the purchasing behaviour of the customers and therefore supply chains and recycling of the products. All Products contain embodied energy which are often externalities and not accounted for in the end price. Waste. create. eg telepresence wedding suites. Industrial processes There are the direct products used for and sold by telcos. telecommuting. Not taken forward as beyond the scope of this report which does not include life cycle assessments. Products Products used from suppliers who have a commitment to reducing GHG emissions. awareness of impacts of activities. store. Low-Carbon Future Ultimately . recovered and recycled. Taken forward as ‘on-live high definition video conferencing’ in conjunction with work air travel Possible method for GHG reductions Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Personal Air travel Reduce emissions from person long distance. Potentially a significant item if life-cycles are assessed in future analysis. Behavioural change training can be delivered through various platforms. recovered and recycled. This also provides an opportunity for increased/controlled turn-over to capture efficiency gains. Stationary energy. examination between wants and needs. several suppliers of tele-presence suites. Next generation can pick up weaknesses. This of course also stems from market pull for recycled products. school computer lounge. acceptance of alternative options e. These include energy used to extract resources. phone. Industrial processes There are the direct products used for and sold by telcos.Climate Risk Area of interest Aviation in Australia produces 5. Current technologies are not getting cut though. these can be rented. Probably reinforced by being across all applications and devices. Note that needs will be different in this case. personal long haul short duration trips tend to be for special events. This also provides an opportunity for increased/ controlled turn-over to capture efficiency gains. However. long term and hard to measure accurately. only purchase products made from recycled goods or that have a certain accreditation.

Shopping Shopping is one example of the many personal reasons for car use. Affected by efficiency and urban form. Low-Carbon Future Poorly managed stock can result in wasted energy. Waste. traffic speed controls can be facilitated by telemetry and integrated management using ICT networks and technology. intelligent devices. The use of ICT networks to optimise movement of personal goods seems to have abatement opportunity. Possible method for GHG reductions Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Education Education sector has some services that could be supplied through ICT networks. There could be some dematerialisation too. Transport Congestion control.Climate Risk Area of interest On-line education services are growing for delivery at home or in the class-room. Actual shift of distribution from the purchaser to the supplier has been wrapped into ‘real time freight management’ though this would be a special case which is not fully explored in that application. Waste Any application that either reduces waste or increases the recovery of products or energy from waste is likely to reduce overall emissions. Waste Shipping emissions are covered under bunker fuels but these are outside Kyoto accounting and also wrapped into aviation bunker fuels. Waste in Australia causes in 7MtCO-e of emissions through decomposition of organic matter into methane. There are however questions about whether more traffic comes to fill the space created. Applications to reduce waste would be in general reduction of product use. Reduced need for freight through dematerialisation/e-materialisation will also affect shipping. Low cost tagging or monitoring could be used to increased recovery or material intensity of waste streams for recycling. 9 . Niche application taken forward only in the education case study. and therefore reduced transport and stationary related GHG emissions. in the transportation of goods. Stock and Asset tracking Real-time asset tracking allows for dynamic management or moving and fixed assets. urban form. There is also the opportunity for increases freight efficiency being applied to international shipping. Transport. Taken forward in ‘Personalised Public Transport’ and ‘de-centralised Business District’ . and ultimately GHG. Optimised freight efficiency applications will have some relevance to shipping as per trucking above. Traffic management Smart traffic management tracking can enable reduced idle time . RFID. eg though avoided production and transportation of training materials. Stationary energy. stationary energy This captures much of the monitoring based efficiency improvement discussed under various applications. Research shows no strong market ready applications beyond what is being used already without a major change in the waste management systems already in place. Stationary energy. Bunker fuels Transport emissions have grown by more that 3% since 990. Eg organic wastes need to be focused into areas where landfill gas can be harnessed. Shipping Applications that lead to reduced demand for goods into or out of Australia would reduce requirement for freight shipping. Includes telemetry. but this is smaller niche. There may be some rationale for increased waste monitoring and therefore value with monitoring and tagging. Freight efficiency applications taken forward in “real-time freight management’ which can be extended to international shipping in principle. not society wide. bunker fuels The impacts in emissions will occur if ICT based education leads to reduction in travel or energy use in general. remote monitoring and management. ‘De-centralised business district’ with emphasis on localisation of activities. Likely to be focused on higher education where travel is most significant. Eg on-line ordering with super market undertaking local distribution.and subsequent transport related GHG emissions. waste. Transport By reducing the number of necessary visits to shops there is the potential to reduce transport related GHG emissions. Therefore focus must be on increasing utility of public transport and avoiding need for travel. Taken forward under ‘real time freight management’ and also under ‘presence based power’ Towards a High-Bandwidth. lights for public transport. There is the ability for telecos to change their own waste levels. rather than lots of cars making individual visits. see products and recycling above and on increased waste recovery. Not taken forward. Waste. However this does not include the embodied energy which is lost. Traffic efficiency measures for cars have not been taken forward because of questionable benefits. transport.

therefore less tree use. GPS in devices can provide detailed information about crop performance. Fugitive ICT networks can provide enhanced monitoring of fugitive emissions and pick up unknown fugitive emissions eg in gas pipeline leaks or concentration of coal seam methane levels. Industrial. so added value would be uncertain. or even in increasing the value of carbon sinks through monitoring. Major role appears to be in low cost monitoring across industrial sector under emissions trading scheme or similar. Land Use. This information can also lead to more efficient capture and use of fugitive emissions. Land clearing rates have dropped substantially in Australia. 93 . Not taken forward as other technologies are already available and being used in this sector to deliver efficiency gains. There could be role for ICT networks for monitoring and compliance. LULUCF Agriculture Agriculture ICT applications would have to impact agricultural emissions from cropping to animal rearing.000 individual enterprises which with land use makes up 5% of national emissions. Not taken forward as this is primarily a monitoring application with weak additionality in terms of reducing emissions. stationary energy. so far. Towards a High-Bandwidth. Possible method for GHG reductions Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Fugitive emissions Monitoring of emissions. Livestock is % of national emissions (67Mt) and cropping is 9(Mt). Land Use Change and Forestry ICT impacts on land use change in Australia would need to focus on land clearing mainly. wood paper. fertilizers placement. Though this is a very large emission sector globally. The paper production industry is international and overlays with issues of old growth versus plantation. Telemetry technology. transport. However much land clearing is for farming. which makes carbon budgeting more difficult. Not taken forward as an abatement opportunity as the additionality is weak. optimising responses. Low-Carbon Future Agricultural emissions come from 40. Industrial Mining. fugitive Multiplicity of activities in the industrial sector. ICT can impact by reducing the demand for industrial products or increasing the efficiency of production. chemicals and other manufacturing are responsible for over 00Mt of CO emissions per year. Monitoring issues are very unclear. water availability and soil content. However the large uncertainties in this sector could mean that these services have a very significant value. Metals processing is dominant high emissions industrial sector. There could be an argument that dematerialisation means that materials could go on line or through ICT networks. Former is dealt with under products and recycling above. Eg people get news through phone rather than newspapers.Climate Risk Area of interest Fugitive emissions are ‘side effect’ emissions from extracting fossil fuels and responsible for about 5% of national emissions. Latter may be a new application especially in the monitoring of environmental performance for compliance or even for regulation of carbon trading products between industries. but still cause nearly 50Mt of emissions per year. the additionality issues mean that it has not been taken forward.

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