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SZT 4433 AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEMS ASSIGNMENT
‘RAMJET ENGINE; CYCLE ANALYSIS
MOHD RAZALI BIN OSMAN AZ 060243
Ramjet is a unique innovation in aviation industries. Many people made mistake in understanding this type of engine. Some of them see this engine as the same with the pulsejet in fact they are significantly different in their way of operate and the task witch are suitable with them. A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a stovepipe jet, or an athodyd, is a form of jet engine using the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air, without a rotary compressor. Ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed and thus cannot move an aircraft from a standstill. They are no moving part in a ramjet much like the valveless pulsejet, but they operate with continuous combustion rather than the series of explosions that give a pulsejet its characteristic noise. In order to work efficiently, ramjet requires a considerable forward direction speed to lunch. This type of engine will work in best way in mach 3 speed but it can operate until mach 6 speed. Ramjet brings lot of advantages especially in the manufacturing of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and rocket. Unfortunately there are two things that work against the ramjet:
1. Operating Speed
unlike pulsejets and jet-turbine engines, the ramjet will not operate unless it is moving through the air at a speed of at least 400 mph. If you attempt to start a ramjet while it's stationary or moving to slowly then it will give little or no thrust -- in fact you'll just get lazy, Smokey flames billowing out both the intake and exhaust. This is because a ramjet relies on heating a fast-moving stream of cold air as it enters the engine and then expelling that air at a higher speed out the back. Unless the engine is moving rapidly through the air there's nothing for the burning fuel to heat.
2. Fuel Consumption
As a general rule of thumb, the fuel-efficiency of an internal combustion engine is related to the compression ratio at which it operates. That is to say -- the more the air/fuel mixture is compressed before it is ignited then the more power you'll get from a given amount of fuel.
a pulsejet runs at a compression ratio of less than 2:1 and ramjets are about the same at low speeds. most car engines operate at compression ratios as high as 11:1. History of ramjet 3 . As a result.Diesel engines have a compression ratio of about 20:1. it's going to have to burn a lot of fuel just to overcome the drag it creates at that speed. What makes it worse is that since the ramjet needs to be operated at very high speed. the ramjet (like the pulsejet) is not a particularly fuelefficient engine.
S. Navy would not allow Fritz Zwicky to publicly discuss his own invention.TIME July 11.S. in a German patent application. made by Glenn Martin. 1955 chronicles Fritz Zwicky's 4 .461.S. U.S. was tested in 1948 and 1949 at Naval Air Station Point Mugu. In an additional patent application he adapted the engine for subsonic speed. Patent 5121670 is for the Ram Accelerator and U. Patent 4722261 is the Extendable Ram Cannon. Unfortunately his attempt to finish up the prototype was failed due to insufficient materials. in May 1928 describing an "air-jet engine" which he described as being suitable for high-altitude supersonic aircraft.797 for the Underwater Jet. After World War I Fonó returned to the subject of jet propulsion. The ramjet Gorgon IVs. The U. Patent 2. The patent was finally granted in 1932 after four years of examination. The ramjet engine itself was designed at the University of Southern California and manufactured by the Marquardt Aircraft Company. The engine was 7 feet long and 20 inches in diameter and was positioned below the missile. The US Navy developed series air-to-air missiles under the name of "Gorgon" using different propulsion mechanisms. a ram jet that performs in a fluid medium. U. The eminent Swiss astrophysicist was research director at Aerojet and holds many patents in jet propulsion.Ramjet was originally invented by a French inventor named René Lorin in 1913. Figure 1 Fono's design Then the innovations of the ramjet begin to move rapidly as the United States involve in the programmes. including ramjet propulsion. a Hungarian inventor named René Lorin study about increasing the range of artillery fire. Then in 1915. Fonó submitted his invention to the Austro-Hungarian Army but the proposal was rejected.
Merkulov designed a ramjet fighter "Samolet D" in 1941. using two DM-2 engines on a modified Polikarpov I-15. Mstislav Keldysh proposed a long-range antipodal bomber. Later. The world's first ramjet powered airplane flight took place in December 1939. In 1940. powered by liquid fuel rocket for take-off and ramjet engines for flight. 1949 issue. similar to the Sänger-Bredt bomber. and was cancelled in 1957. tests were carried out with blocks of pressed coal dust which were not successful due to slow combustion. In 1941 Eugen Sänger of the DFL proposed a ramjet engine with a very high combustion chamber temperature.work in the "Missed Swiss" and the "Underwater Jet" in the March 14. which was never completed. during World War II. 5 . the GIRD-04. To simulate supersonic flight. the Kostikov-302 experimental plane was designed. In 1947. it was fed by air compressed to 200 atmospheres. In 1939. The first engine. carried out a great deal of research into ramjet engines. Yuri Pobedonostsev. He constructed very large ramjet pipes with 500 millimetres (20 in) and 1. in 1936 Hellmuth Walter constructed a test engine powered by natural gas. Stechkin. These shells may have been the first jet powered projectiles to break the speed of sound. the DM-1. The GIRD-08 phosphorus-fuelled ramjet was tested by firing it from artillery cannon. with petrol becoming scarce in Germany due to wartime conditions.A. and was fuelled with hydrogen. This project competed with the R-7 ICBM being developed by Sergei Korolev. That project was cancelled in 1944. In Germany. Merkulov did further ramjet tests using a two-stage rocket. chief of GIRD's 3rd Brigade. Burya. the R-3. Two of his DM-4 engines were installed on the YaK-7PVRD fighter.000 millimetres (39 in) diameter and carried out combustion tests on lorries and on a special test rig on a Dornier Do 17Z at flight speeds of up to 200 m/s (655 ft/s). but powered by ramjet instead of rocket. a theory of supersonic ramjet engines was presented in 1928 by Boris S. In 1954. Merkulov and tested in April 1933. In August of that year. was designed by I. he developed the first ramjet engine for use as an auxiliary motor of an aircraft. NPO Lavochkin and the Keldysh Institute began development of a trisonic ramjet-powered cruise missile. Theoretical work was carried out at BMW and Junkers as well as the DFL. In the Soviet Union.
The expansion of hot gases after fuel injection and combustion accelerates the exhaust air to a velocity higher than that at the inlet and creates positive push. fuel injection system. Figure 2 ramjet engine Ramjets can be classified according to the type of fuel. As being explain in previous chapter. and the booster. A means of pressurising and supplying the fuel to the ram combustor is required which can be complicated and expensive. Aerospatiale-Celerg has designed an LFRJ where the fuel is forced into the injectors by an elastomeric bladder which inflates progressively along the length of the fuel tank. In a liquid fuel ramjet (LFRJ) hydrocarbon fuel (typically) is injected into the combustor ahead of a flame holder which stabilises the flame resulting from the combustion of the fuel with the compressed air from the intake. liquid or solid. which is 6 . Initially the bladder forms a close-fitting sheath around the compressed air bottle from which it is inflated. Basic principle of ramjet The ram jet engine is composed of three major components: a body structure. In order to build a good performing engine all three components must be of proper design because of their close relation and dependence upon each other. a ramjet has no moving parts and achieves compression of intake air by the forward speed of the air vehicle. and a flame stabilization system. Air entering the intake of a supersonic aircraft is slowed by aerodynamic diffusion created by the inlet and diffuser to velocities comparable to those in a turbojet augmenter.
7 . for example Meteor. designs. However. This offers the advantages of elimination of the hazard to launch aircraft from the ejected boost nozzle debris. either in tandem. Sea Dart. This is usually achieved via a separate nozzle which is ejected after booster burnout. or wraparound where multiple boosters are attached alongside the outside of the ramjet e. where the booster is mounted immediately aft of the ramjet. reliability. designs such as Meteor feature nozzleless boosters. simplicity. Due to the higher thrust levels of the booster a different shaped nozzle is required for optimum thrust compared to that required for the lower thrust ramjet sustainers. SA4 Ganef. although this must be traded against the reduction in performance compared with that provided by a dedicated booster nozzle. and reduced mass and cost.mounted lengthwise in the tank. for example SA-6 Gainful. e. and ducted rocket. usually solid-propellant rockets. Integrated designs are complicated by the different nozzle requirements of the boost and ramjet phases of flight. A tandem booster increases the overall length of the system whereas wraparound boosters increase the overall diameter. liquid. The choice of booster arrangement is usually driven by the size of the launch platform. Integrated boosters provide a more efficient packaging option since the booster propellant is cast inside the otherwise empty combustor.g. for example ASMP. Wraparound boosters will usually generate higher drag than a tandem arrangement. The first ramjet powered missiles used external boosters.[ This offers a lower cost approach than a regulated LFRJ requiring a turbo pump and associated hardware to supply the fuel. A ramjet generates no static thrust and needs a booster to achieve a forward velocity high enough for efficient operation of the intake system. This approach has been used on solid.g.
Further diffusion is then required to get the air velocity down to a suitable level for the combustor. An efficient intake will recover much of the free stream stagnation pressure. Diffuser 3.Ramjet design 4 main parts of the Ramjet component are as follows: 1. Combustor 4. which is used to support the combustion and expansion process in the nozzle. Figure 3 inlet action at different airspeed 8 . Inlet 2. Nozzle Inlet Ramjets will push out the very high dynamic pressure within the air approaching the intake lip. Most ramjets operate at supersonic flight speeds and use one or more conical (or oblique) shock waves. terminated by a strong normal shock. to slow down the airflow to a subsonic velocity at the exit of the intake.
The Inlet is divergent. Figure 4 diffuser 9 . The ratio of diffuser entrance area to diffuser exit area varies from three to four for most subsonic ram jet designs. The larger the diffuser entrance area the greater the thrust. The latter configuration is used in most commercial ram jet designs because its shorter length offers less drag (resistance to movement through the atmosphere). to provide a constant inlet speed of Mach 0. but as the air will choke at the inlet. The length of the diffuser depends upon the designer's choice of one of two probable configurations. This would also work at slightly supersonic speeds.5. A hollow cone frustum is the easier of the two configurations to fabricate but is longer in length than the other configuration which consists of a hollow cone frustum with a curved insert. this is inefficient. Diffuser The amount of thrust or push desired from the ram jet engine at a given speed determines the size of the diffuser entrance area. The most widely used value being three and one-half.Subsonic ramjets don't need such a sophisticated inlet since the airflow is already subsonic and a simple hole is usually used.
Other flame stabilization techniques make use of flame holders. since it accelerates exhaust flow to produce thrust. In a normal ramjet. For a ramjet operating at a subsonic flight Mach number. Over fuelling the combustor can cause the normal shock within a supersonic intake system to be pushed forward beyond the intake lip. acceleration is typically achieved via a convergentdivergent nozzle. for a range of flight speeds/altitudes. which vary in design from combustor cans to simple flat plates. has its entrance diameter equal to the diameter of the combustion chamber. so sheltered combustion zones are produced by using flame holders that stop the flames from blowing out. Ram accelerator A ram accelerator is a gun that utilizes ramjet compression to accelerate a projectile to extremely high speeds.Combustor The combustion chamber is merely a hollow cylinder with a diameter equal to that of the diffuser exit diameter. which implies a combustor exit stagnation temperature of the order of 2400 K for kerosene. air is 10 . resulting in a substantial drop in engine airflow and net thrust. during turns. Normally the combustor must be capable of operating over a wide range of throttle settings. which is located downstream from the combustion chamber. Since there is no downstream turbine. Usually a sheltered pilot region enables combustion to continue when the vehicle intake undergoes high yaw/pitch. For a supersonic flight Mach number. a ramjet combustor can safely operate at stoichiometric fuel: air ratios. Nozzle The propelling nozzle is a critical part of a ramjet design. The exit nozzle. The airflow through the jet engine is usually quite high. exhaust flow is accelerated through a converging nozzle. It does this by burning a fuel with the air at essentially constant pressure. As with other jet engines the combustor's job is to create hot air. to shelter the flame and improve fuel mixing. Nozzle exit diameter is dependent upon combustion chamber temperature and can be determined mathematically. Its length is usually determined by trial and error.
while still delivering a strong constant acceleration to the projectile. to achieve orbit. such as those designed in Project HARP. Its main competitors are rail guns and coil guns. In a typical ram accelerator design. compressed into a small location. Due to wind resistance. As such. far longer barrels are possible. causing compression between the projectile and the barrel's walls. Ram accelerators have been proposed as a cheap method to get payloads into space. Each section is filled with a different fuel-air mixture chosen so that later sections have higher speeds of sound. it is ignited behind it. eventually reaching amounts trivial enough that a longer barrel is no longer justified. This leads to constant pressure being put both on the gun and the projectile itself. In a normal gun. In a ram accelerator. 11 . Consequently. As the ram compresses the mixture. maximum pressure is exerted at the time of the initial charge detonation. The barrel contains a fuel-air mixture. With a ram accelerator. The gun must be capable of withstanding the pressure of all of the gas from the reaction. the projectile still may need to utilize embedded rockets. As the projectile moves further down the barrel.compressed for combustion between a spike-shaped ram and an outer casing. the ram can be maintained at optimal speeds of mach 3–5 (relative to the mixture that it travels through) during its entire acceleration period. the explosion is at all times maintained directly behind the projectile. thin membranes designed to be easily punctured by the ram wall off sections of the barrel. the amount of acceleration upon the projectile decreases. The chief advantage of a ram accelerator over a conventional gun is its scalability. a similar shaped ram is fired (often from a conventional gun) into the accelerator barrel.
there may be additional entropy losses associated with the mixing of the fuel and the 12 . For an ideal. isentropic compression a vertical line on the T-s diagram describes the process. there is a terminal normal shock in the inlet that brings the flow to subsonic conditions at the burner. For supersonic combustion ramjets (scramjets) there is no normal shock and the inlet shock losses associated with the normal shock are avoided. and this sets a limit on the use of ramjets. The nonisentropic effects are the result of shock waves in the inlet. As the flow slows. For the ramjet. the losses through this shock eventually decrease the level of pressure that can be achieved in the burner. we begin with free stream conditions at station 0. For scramjets. As speed increases. The combustion process in the burner occurs at constant pressure from station 3 to station 5. Ramjet engine cycle On this chapter we discuss the Brayton Thermodynamic Cycle which is used in ramjets and scramjets. the compression is isentropic and the static temperature is also increased as shown by the dashed lines on the plot. In reality. The figure shows a T-s diagram of the Brayton cycle. Using the turbine engine station numbering system. Ideally. the compression is not isentropic and the compression process line leans to the right because of the increase in entropy of the flow. The temperature increase depends on the type of fuel used and the fuel-air ratio. some of the energy associated with the aircraft velocity increases the static pressure of the air and the flow is compressed. In cruising flight. the inlet slows the air stream to compress it to station 2 conditions.
the nozzle brings the flow isentropically back to free stream pressure from station 5 to station 8. Ideally. The area under the T-s diagram is proportional to the useful work and thrust generated by the engine. Following combustion.air. the hot exhaust is then passed through the nozzle. Since ramjets and scramjets often use converging-diverging nozzle designs. Figure 5 T-s diagram that shows the cycle 13 . there is often a mismatch between the external flow pressure and the free stream.
take some work out of the air and use it to drive the compressor.Previously we have studied the engine by using the T-s diagram. c .c Constant pressure fuel combustion (idealized as constant pressure heat addition).b Adiabatic. and • • 14 . Here is the simple consequences/process of ramjet engine cycle referring to the P-v diagram. b . quasi-static (or reversible) expansion in the turbine and exhaust nozzle. quasi-static (or reversible) compression in the inlet and compressor. Figure 6 P-v diagram that shows the cycle • a . with which we 1.d Adiabatic.
In practice. for example.2. Figure 4 shows the alternative. real Brayton cycles take one of two forms. Figure 7 open-cycle 15 . or to turn a generator for electrical power generation. Closed cycles are used. take the remaining work out and use it to accelerate fluid for jet propulsion. a closed cycle. This is the way a jet propulsion cycle works. where the working fluid enters and then exits the device.a Cool the air at constant pressure back to its initial condition. which recirculates the working fluid. in space power generation. Figure 3 shows an ``open'' cycle. • d .
and any cycle returns the system to its starting state.. the first law gives (writing the equation in terms of a unit mass). and the thermal efficiency of the cycle.and . The net work done is therefore Where q1.and back to .. We thus need to evaluate the heat transferred in processes . For a constant pressure. the heat absorbed. q2 are defined as heat received by the system (q1 is negative). quasi-static process the heat exchange per unit mass is 16 . Tracing the path shown around the cycle from .. Here is zero because is a function of state.Figure 8 closed-cycle Work and efficiency The objective now is to find the work done.
for the heat addition from the combustor. or. so Therefore Td/Tc = Ta/Tb. Using this relation in the expression for thermal efficiency. Td/Ta = Tc/Tb. The heat rejected is. We know that points and are on a constant pressure process as are points b and c. (1) yields an expression for the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle: (2) 17 . we need to examine the relationships between the different temperatures. and Pa=Pd Pb=Pc. The other two legs of the cycle are adiabatic and reversible. The net work per unit mass is given by The thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle can now be expressed in terms of the temperatures: (1) To proceed further.We can see this by writing the first law in terms of enthalpy or by remembering the definition of cp. The heat exchange can be expressed in terms of enthalpy differences between the relevant states. similarly. finally. Treating the working fluid as a perfect gas with constant specific heats. Eq.
M0. Tb/Ta = TR.The temperature ratio across the compressor. as follows: and so 18 . which is the parameter commonly used: The ramjet thermodynamic cycle efficiency can be written in terms of flight Mach number. In terms of compressor temperature ratio. and using the relation for an adiabatic reversible process we can write the efficiency in terms of the compressor (and cycle) pressure ratio.
000 pounds of thrust in the A version and 14.000 pounds thrust in the B version. where they are boosted to operating speeds by a rocket engine. These include the British MBDA Meteor air-to-air missile and the Russian-Indian BrahMos supersonic cruise missile.S.Ramjet propulsion is used in the British Bloodhound (no longer in service) and Sea Dart surface-to-air missiles. Here is the list of current missile that inspired by the ramjet technology: • Air to air missiles o MBDA Meteor (development) o Vympel RVV-AE-PD R77M (AA12 Adder. A number of missile projects currently under development use ramjet engines to achieve better fuel efficiency (and thus longer range) at supersonic speeds than a rocket-driven approach. used two body pylons underneath the wings each housing a Marquardt ramjet engine capable of producing 10. development) o Kentron ? 19 . The Bomarc served as part of the North American Defense System between 1959 and 1972. Application Missile They are found almost exclusively in missiles. or by being attached to another aircraft (typically a fighter). The Bomarc missile in the U.
simultaneously heating the liquid hydrogen. or "supersonic combustion ramjet" are similar to Ramjets in that they rely on 20 . The liquid hydrogen fuel is pumped through a heat exchanger in the air-intake. and cooling the incoming air.• Air to surface missiles o EADS/AMM ASMP ASMP-A (development) o Radouga Kh41 Moskit o Zvezda Kh31P (AS17 Krypton) Antiship missiles o Machinostroenie 3K55 Yakhont (SSN26) o Radouga 3M80/82 Moskit (SSN22 Sunburn) o CPMEC C301 (coast to ship) o Hsiung Feng 3 • • Surface to air missiles o MBDA Bloodhound Mk2 Sea Dart Aircraft A variant of the pure ramjet is the 'combined cycle' engine. It uses liquid hydrogen fuel in a fairly exotic single-fan arrangement. it's then combusted in the combustion chamber. This cooling of the incoming air is critical in achieving a reasonable efficiency. turning it in a very high pressure gas. The hydrogen then continues through a second heat exchanger positions after the combustion section. An example of this is the Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) which operates as a conventional turbojet at subsonic speeds and a fan assisted ramjet at speeds below Mach 6. This gas is then passed through the tips of the fan providing driving power to the fan at sub-sonic speeds. intended to overcome the limitations of the pure ramjet. The ATREX engine developed in Japan is an experimental implementation of this concept. After mixing with the air. Scramjets. Ramjets always slow the incoming air to subsonic speeds. where the hot exhaust is used to further heat the hydrogen.
transport. scramjet-powered vehicles do not carry oxygen onboard for fuelling the engine. such lighter vehicles could bring heavier payloads into space or carry payloads of the same weight much more efficiently. The combined X21 . and even production. the aircraft was accelerated to high speed with a Pegasus rocket launched from a converted B-52 Stratofortress bomber. there are: • • • Boeing X-43 D-21 Tagboard Lockheed X-7 Boeng X-43 The aircraft was created to develop and test an exotic type of engine called a supersonic-combustion ramjet. The engine of the X-43A was primarily fuelled with hydrogen. Unlike rockets. so rockets or other jet engines are required to initially boost scramjet-powered aircraft to this base velocity. The X-43A's developers designed the aircraft's airframe to positively affect propulsion. Removing the need to carry oxygen significantly reduces the vehicle's size and weight. the front body is a part of the intake airflow. while the aft section functions as a nozzle. further X-43 versions were planned to use more commonly available hydrocarbon fuels instead.the ram effect for compression. Scramjets only operate at hypersonic speeds in the range of Mach 6 or higher. However. In the successful test. just as it affects aerodynamics: in this design. or "scramjet. There are several aircraft that using the ramjet as its engine. In the future. but the air goes through the entire jet at supersonic speeds. because hydrogen poses certain difficulties in storage." an engine variation where external combustion takes place within air that is flowing at supersonic speeds. In the case of the X-43A. about two pounds (or roughly one kilogram) of the fuel was used.
the HyShot flew in descending powered flight in 2002. The engines in the X-43A test vehicles were specifically designed for a certain speed range. it was powered by a single Marquardt RJ43-MA-11 ramjet. The X-43A's successful second flight made it the fastest free flying air-breathing aircraft in the world. including titanium construction. though it was preceded by an Australian HyShot as the first operating scramjet engine flight. While still attached to its launching missile. Its double-delta wing was similar to the A-12's outer wing design. Figure 9 Boeing X-43 D-21 Tagboard The Q-12 design was finalized in October 1963. An air-launched vehicle. and used key technology from the A-12 project.43A/Pegasus vehicle was referred to as the "stack" by the program's team members. The first two X43A aircraft were intended for flight at approximately Mach 7. only able to compress and ignite the fuel-air mixture when the incoming airflow is moving as expected. while the third was to fly at approximately Mach 10. Figure 10 D-21 Tagboat 22 .
Upon completion of a mission. The aircraft was to be hydrogen fuelled and powered by air breathing engines from takeoff to orbital velocities of approximately Mach 25. at which point the primary ramjet/scramjet engines took over to power the vehicle up to high hypersonic flight speeds. A maximum speed of 2.The objective of another scramjet initiative. its descent slowed by parachute. The booster ignited after launch and propelled the vehicle to a speed of 1.625 km/h). The X-7 eventually returned to Earth. A sophisticated "low-speed accelerator system" was to power the vehicle up to a flight speed of approximately Mach 3. It was carried aloft by a B-29 or B-50 Superfortress carrier aircraft. and the under slung ramjet took over from that point. A rocket was to be available to provide the final thrust increment required for orbital insertion and for the re-entry burn. be capable of rapid turnaround.000 mph (3.250 km/h) was attained. A total of 130 X-7 flights were conducted from April 1951 to July 1960. the airplane-like qualities of the X-30 were to enable the vehicle to be powered on approach and. upon landing. 23 .Lockheed X-7 The Lockheed X-7 (dubbed the "Flying Stove Pipe") was an unmanned test bed for ramjet engines and missile guidance technology. was the development of two X-30 aircraft capable of single stage-to-orbit (SSTO) flight as well as horizontal takeoff and landing from conventional runways. The booster was then jettisoned. the National Aerospace Plane program. Besides this type of engine was also invented to bring up craft to space. setting a record for fastest air-breathing aircraft.000 mph (1.
cancelled in 1965 . ISL) Ramjet propelled shell Nuclear ramjet : PLUTO US program (nuclear reactor TORY II C). but beyond the present technical possibilities 24 . NLR.Some Unconventional Applications of Ramjet • • • Ramjet propelled rotor Integrated ramjet in wing RAMAC (RAM ACcelerator) : launching of a small mass at a very high speed from a tube (NASA. concept revisited in the USA ? MHD ramjet : AJAX/NEVA project (Leninetz) o • • • a fascinating concept.
html 2. https://www.aiaa. Scramjet and PDE an introduction.seventh edition Websites 1.com 25 . References Books and journals Ramjet.grc.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/rampart. http://www. https://www. Paul Kuentzmann et Francois Flenpin Rocket Propulsion elements.sciencedirect.org 3.nasa.
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