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11 HayeI and conservafIsm
Infhe veII-InovnposfscrIpf fo T|e Con·ríruríono| Iíberry, enfIfIed
''Why I Am Þof a ConservafIve,´´ HayeI sfafes vhaf he caIIs ''fhe
decIsIve oliecfIon fo any conservafIsm vhIch deserves fo le caIIed
such,´´ vhIch Is ''fhaf ly Ifs very nafure If cannof oller an aIfernafIve
fo fhe dIrecfIon In vhIch ve are movIng    The fug ol var lefveen
conservafIves and progressIves can onIy allecf fhe speed, nof fhe
dIrecfIon, ol confemporary deveIopmenfs.´´ He adds fhaf vhIIe fhe
conservafIve ''generaIIy hoIds mereIy a mIId and moderafe versIon ol
fhe preiudIces ol hIs fIme, fhe IIleraI foday musf more posIfIveIy
oppose some ol fhe lasIc concepfIons vhIch mosf conservafIves
share vIfh fhe socIaIIsfs.´´
Af fhe fIme vhen fhose vords vere pulIIshed :,oc fhey
expressed an undersfandalIe dIsfrusf ol £uropean conservafIve par-
fIes, vhIch seemed unalIe fo oller an aIfernafIve vIsIon fo fhe coIIec-
fIvIsm fhaf had prevaIIed In £urope sInce fhe Second WorId War.
HayeI dedIcafed hIs looI fo ''fhe unInovn cIvIIIsafIon fhaf Is grov-
Ing In AmerIca,´´ and he shoved hIs ImpafIence vIfh fhe oId eIIfes
ol £urope, vhose prIncIpaI concern, In HayeI´s eyes, vas fo rescue
lrom fhe iavs ol fhe socIaIIsf machIne as many ol fheIr prIvIIeges as
fhey couId, luf vho had no adequafe rIvaI nofIon as fo hov ve
shouId le governed. If Is frue fhaf T|e Food ro Ser|dom, pulIIshed
fovard fhe end ol fhe var as a varnIng agaInsf fhe coIIecfIvIsm fhaf
had caused If, had leen excIfedIy endorsed ly conservafIves and
proposed as fheIr lIlIe ly WInsfon ChurchIII. Buf HayeI dId nof
leIIeve fhaf If had reaIIy changed fhe conservafIve agenda, and vas
acufeIy avare, In any case, ol fhe damage fhaf If had done fo hIs ovn
career In £ngIand, vhere fhe Ielf esfalIIshmenf unIfed fo oppose fhIs
confInenfaI oufsIder vho Inev nofhIng ol fhe road fo WIgan pIer.
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SInce fhaf fIme, hovever, If has lecome IncreasIngIy apparenf
fhaf If Is peopIe caIIed conservafIve vho have endorsed fhe argu-
menfs ol fhe Con·ríruríon o| Iíberry, vhIIe fhose vho campaIgn
under fhe ''IIleraI´´ lanner are usuaIIy fhe lIrsf fo espouse fhe egaII-
farIanvaIues and sfafIsf poIIfIcs fhaf HayeI vas affacIIng. AIfhough
If Is frue fhaf IaleIs are Iess sIgnIlIcanf fhan fhe fhIngs fhey sfand lor,
If Is neverfheIess Imporfanf fo recognIze fhaf HayeI´s core argu-
menfs and Ideas leIong fo fhe conservafIve fradIfIon, and fhaf hIs
delence ol lreedomlegIns lrompremIses, and arrIves af concIusIons,
vhIch aIIgn hIm vIfh BurIe agaInsf ¡aIne, de NaIsfre agaInsf SaInf-
SImon, and HegeI agaInsf Narx. In fhIs chapfer, fherelore, I vIII
delend fhe vIev ol HayeI as a maior fheorIsf ol conservafIsm,
vhIIe suggesfIng vays In vhIch hIs phIIosophy Is aIso open fo
crIfIcIsm lrom fhe conservafIve sfandpoInf.
!or HayeI, IIlerfy Is nof fhe anfIfhesIs ol order luf a specIlIc lorm
ol If. He confrasfs fvo IInds ol order: fhe pIannedorder roxí· vhIch
Is dIcfafedlromalove, usuaIIy lya governmenf, and fhe ''sponfaneous
order´´ |o·mo· vhIch arIses lrom leIov, ly fhe lree InferacfIons
ol sovereIgn IndIvIduaIs. The InspIrafIon lor fhIs confrasf Is Adam
SmIfh´s concepfIon ol fhe ''InvIsIlIe hand´´ fhe process fhaf gener-
afes, lrom our myrIad InfenfIonaI acfIons, a dIsfrIlufIon ol veaIfh,
pover, and accounfalIIIfy fhaf Is no parf ol anyone´s InfenfIon. If Is
HayeI´s lIrm leIIel fhaf vhIIe fhere are maIIgn sponfaneous orders,
such as fhe nefvorIs ol corrupfIon fhaf arIse under sfafe lureauc-
racIes sponfaneous orders survIve Il and lecause fhey are lenelIcIaI.
They may requIre correcfIon af fhe margIns, luf fhey are aIso seIl-
correcfIng, sInce fhey adapf fo changIng cIrcumsfances In vays In
vhIch no pIanned order Is capalIe ol doIng. He even compares hIs
accounf ol sponfaneous order fo fhe IarvInIan fheory ol evoIufIon,
maIIng fhe InferesfIng suggesfIon fhaf fhe InevIfalIe coIIapse ol fhe
pIannedeconomyvIII comealouf, IIIefhe exfIncfIonol a specIes, lrom
fhe laIIure fo adapf. Sponfaneous orders, he argues, do nof derIve lroma
rafIonaI pIan, luf fheyare rafIonaI InspIfe ol fhIs, and aIsolecause ol If.
They exhIlIf ''evoIufIonary rafIonaIIfy´´ vhIch consIsfs nof In a pIan
luf a process, vherely IndIvIduaI pIans adapf fo fhe pIans ol ofhers.
HayeI and conservafIsm :c,
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HayeI´s prIncIpaI opponenfs fry fo undermIne fhIs delense ol
sponfaneIfy ly deveIopIng fheorIes ol ''marIef laIIure,´´ many ol
vhIch have fheIr orIgIns In fhe NarxIsf crIfIque ol ''fhe crIsIs
ol capIfaIIsm.´´ If Is fherelore olfen aIIeged fhaf HayeI Is proposIng
fhe marIef as fhe roof ol socIaI order, and so exposIng hImseIl fo fhe
olvIous crIfIcIsm fhaf Iong-sfandIng InsfIfufIons and moraI fIes are
vuIneralIe fo ''marIef erosIon´´ as cheaper, Iess demandIng, or more
excIfIng aIfernafIves appear fo repIace fhem. Hovever, fhe marIef
exIsfs sIde ly sIde and In compefIfIon vIfh ofher sponfaneous orders
In vhIch vaIue Is nof reducIlIe fo prIce. Thus, In voIume : ol Iov,
Iegí·|oríon ond Iíberry, HayeI delends fhe common Iav agaInsf
IegIsIafIon, fhe lIrsf leIng a lorm ol sponfaneous order, fhe second
an affempf fo organIze socIefy accordIng fo an overarchIng pIan. He
delends ordInary moraIIfy agaInsf fhe ''socIaI iusfIce´´ ol fhe socIaI-
Isfs, and recognIzes fhe consfraInfs fhaf ordInary moraIIfy pIaces
upon fhe marIef. HIs affacI on egaIIfarIanIsm Is nof lased on any
delense ol fhe marIef economy luf on fhe leIIel fhaf InequaIIfy Is
fhe sponfaneous oufgrovfh ol peaceluI exchange In every area ol
human Infercourse, and fhaf fhe affempf fo suppress InequaIIfy Is
lofh lound fo laII and aIso lound fo fhreafen fhe coIIecfIve accumu-
IafIon ol socIaIIy useluI InovIedge. And aIfhough he somefImes
IdenfIlIes hImseIl as a ''progressIve,´´ HayeI recognIzes fradIfIon as
anofher lorm ol sponfaneous order, and a reposIfory ol InovIedge
fhaf cannof le confaIned In a sIngIe head.
The AusfrIan delense ol fhe marIef reached Ifs cuImInafIon In fhe
''caIcuIafIon delafe,´´ InIfIafed ly NIses and HayeI In response fo
socIaIIsf proposaIs lor a cenfraIIy pIanned economy. The AusfrIan
response fo fhese proposaIs furns on fhree crucIaI Ideas. !Irsf, eco-
nomIc acfIvIfy depends upon InovIedge ol ofher peopIe´s vanfs,
needs, and resources. SecondIy, fhIs InovIedge Is dIspersed fhrough-
ouf socIefy and Is nof fhe properfy ol any IndIvIduaI. ThIrdIy, In fhe
lree exchange ol goods and servIces, fhe prIce mechanIsm provIdes
access fo fhIs InovIedge nof as a fheorefIcaI sfafemenf, luf as a
sIgnaI fo acfIon. ¡rIces In a lree economy oller fhe soIufIon fo counf-
Iess sImuIfaneous equafIons mappIng IndIvIduaI demand agaInsf
avaIIalIe suppIy. When prIces are lIxed ly a cenfraI aufhorIfy,
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hovever, fhey no Ionger provIde an Index eIfher ol fhe scarcIfy ol a
resource or ol fhe exfenf ol ofhers´ demand lor If. The crucIaI pIece ol
economIc InovIedge, vhIch exIsfs In fhe lree economy as a socIaI
lacf, has leen desfroyed. Hence vhen prIces are lIxed fhe economy
eIfher lreaIs dovn, vIfh queues, gIufs, and shorfages repIacIng fhe
sponfaneous order ol dIsfrIlufIon, or Is repIaced ly a lIacI economy
InvhIch fhIngs exchange af fheIr reaI prIce fhe prIce fhaf peopIe are
prepared fo pay lor fhem.
ThIs resuIf has leenalundanfIy conlIrmed
ly fhe experIence ol socIaIIsf economIes, hovever, fhe argumenf
gIven In supporf ol If Is nof empIrIcaI luf a prIorI. If Is lased on
lroad phIIosophIcaI concepfIons concernIng socIaIIy generafed and
socIaIIy dIspersed InlormafIon.
The Imporfanf poInf In fhe argumenf Is fhaf fhe prIce ol a com-
modIfy conveys reIIalIe economIc InlormafIon onIy Il fhe economy
Is lree. If Is onIy In condIfIons ol lree exchange fhaf fhe ludgefs ol
IndIvIduaI consumers leed Info fhe epIsfemIc process, as one mIghf
caII If, vhIch dIsfIIs In fhe lorm ol prIce fhe coIIecfIve soIufIon fo
fheIr shared economIc prolIem fhe prolIem ol InovIng vhaf fo
produce, and vhaf fo exchange lor If. AII affempfs fo Inferlere vIfh
fhIs process, ly confroIIIng eIfher fhe suppIy or fhe prIce ol a producf,
vIII Iead fo a Ioss ol economIc InovIedge. !or fhaf InovIedge Is nof
confaIned In a pIan, luf onIy In fhe economIc acfIvIfy ol lree agenfs,
as fhey produce, marIef, and exchange fheIr goods accordIng fo fhe
Iavs ol suppIy and demand. The pIanned economy, vhIch ollers a
rafIonaI dIsfrIlufIon In pIace ol fhe ''random´´ dIsfrIlufIon ol fhe
marIef, desfroys fhe InlormafIon on vhIch fhe proper luncfIonIng
ol an economy depends. If fherelore undermInes Ifs ovn InovIedge
lase. If Is a supreme exampIe ol a proiecf fhaf Is supposedIy rafIonaI
vhIIe leIng nof rafIonaI af aII, sInce If depends on InovIedge fhaf Is
avaIIalIe onIy In condIfIons fhaf If desfroys.
Òne coroIIary ol fhIs argumenf Is fhaf economIc InovIedge, ol fhe
IInd confaIned In prIces, IIves In fhe sysfem, Is generafed ly fhe lree
acfIvIfy ol counfIess rafIonaI choosers, and cannof le fransIafed Info
a sef ol proposIfIons or led as premIses Info some prolIem-soIvIng
devIce. As fhe AusfrIans vere possIlIy fhe lIrsf fo reaIIze, economIc
acfIvIfy dIspIays fhe pecuIIar IogIc ol coIIecfIve acfIon, vhen fhe
response ol one person changes fhe InlormafIon lase ol anofher.
Òuf ol fhIs recognIfIon grev fhe scIence ol game fheory, deveIoped
ly von Þeumann and Norgensfern as a lIrsf sfep fovard an
HayeI and conservafIsm :::
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expIanafIon ol marIefs, luf pursued foday as a lranch ol mafhe-
mafIcs vIfhappIIcafIons |and mIsappIIcafIons] In every area ol socIaI
and poIIfIcaI IIle.
HayeI´s epIsfemIc fheory ol fhe marIef does nof cIaIm fhaf fhe
marIef Is fhe onIy lorm ol sponfaneous order, nor fhaf a lree marIef
Is ·u||ícíenr fo produce eIfher economIc coordInafIon or socIaI sfalII-
Ify. The fheory asserfs onIy fhaf fhe prIce mechanIsm generafes and
confaIns InovIedge fhaf Is nece··ory fo economIc coordInafIon.
CoordInafIon can le deleafed ly lusIness cycIes, marIef laIIures,
and exfernaIIfIes, and Is In any case dependenf on ofher lorms ol
sponfaneous order lor Ifs Iong-fermsurvIvaI. Iohn Ò´ÞeIII, delendIng
a mIfIgafed socIaIIsmagaInsf HayeI´s advocacy ol fhe lree economy,
argues fhaf fhe prIce mechanIsm does nof communIcafe aII fhe
InlormafIon necessary fo economIc coordInafIon, and fhaf In any
case InlormafIon Is nof enough.
There are good conservafIve
reasons lor agreeIng vIfh Ò´ÞeIII´s cIaIms, luf fhey are reasons
fhaf HayeI accepfs. The marIef Is heId In pIace ly ofher lorms ol
sponfaneous order, nof aII ol vhIch are fo le undersfood sImpIy as
epIsfemIc devIces, luf some ol vhIch moraI and IegaI fradIfIons, lor
exampIe creafe fhe IInd ol soIIdarIfy fhaf marIefs, Ielf fo fhem-
seIves, vIII erode.
ThIs conservafIve aspecf ol HayeI´s argumenf Is lesf undersfood
fhrough fhe argumenf lor common Iav iusfIce fhaf domInafes voI-
ume : ol Iov, Iegí·|oríon, ond Iíberry. ''To modern man,´´ HayeI
argues, ''fhe leIIel fhaf aII IavgovernIng humanacfIon Is fhe producf
ol IegIsIafIon appears so olvIous fhaf fhe confenfIon fhaf IavIs oIder
fhan Iav-maIIng has aImosf fhe characfer ol a paradox. Yef fhere can
le no doulf fhaf IavexIsfed lor ages lelore If occurred fo manfhaf he
couId maIe or aIfer If.´´
¡eopIe cannof lorm a socIefy and fhen gIve
fhemseIves Iavs, as Rousseau had ImagIned. !or fhe exIsfence ol Iav
Is presupposed In fhe very proiecf ol IIvIng In socIefy or af Ieasf, In a
socIefy ol sfrangers. LavIs reaI, fhough facIf, Iong lelore If Is vrIffen
dovn, and If Is lor fhe iudge fo dIscover fhe Iav ly examInIng socIaI
conlIIcfs and IayIng lare fhe shared assumpfIons fhaf permIf fheIr
resoIufIon. Lav In Ifs nafuraI condIfIon Is fherelore fo le consfrued
on fhe modeI ol fhe common Iav ol £ngIand, vhIch preceded fhe
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IegIsIafIve povers ol ¡arIIamenf, and vhIch lor many cenfurIes
IooIed upon ¡arIIamenf nof as a IegIsIafIve lody luf as anofher
courf ol Iav, vhose luncfIon vas fo resoIve fhe quesfIons fhaf
couId nof le ansvered lrom a sfudy ol exIsfIng precedenfs.
HayeI says many frue and InferesfIng fhIngs alouf common Iav
iusfIce, poInfIng ouf fhaf vrIffen Iav and sovereIgn IegIsIafIon are
Iafecomers fo human socIefy, and fhaf lofh open fhe vay fo aluses
vhIch, In fhe common Iav, are usuaIIy seIl-correcfIng.
The dIsfInc-
fIon lefveenIavand IegIsIafIon has leenfacIfIy recognIzed Inmany
£uropean Ianguages dírírro versus |egge, droír versus |oí, Fec|r
versus Ce·erz, jro´vo versus zo´|on, and so on. InferesfIngIy enough,
hovever, If has no such cIear marIer In £ngIIsh, even fhough£ngIIsh
Iav Is nearIy unIque In preservIng common Iav procedure. The
IegIsIafor sees Iav as a human arfIlacf, creafed lor a purpose, and
may endeavor fo use Iav nof mereIy fo recfIly IniusfIces luf aIso fo
lrIng alouf a nevsocIaI order, InconlormIfy vIfhsome IdeaI or pIan.
There Is nofhIng fo prevenf such a IegIsIafor lrom passIng Iavs fhaf
lIy In fhe lace ol iusfIce, ly granfIng prIvIIeges, conlIscafIng assefs,
and exfInguIshIng deserfs In fhe Inferesfs ol some personaI or poIIf-
IcaI agenda. Òne sIgn ol fhIs Is fhe adopfIon ol ''socIaI iusfIce´´ In fhe
pIace ol pIaIn iusfIce, as fhe goaI ol Iav. !or HayeI, iusfIce Is an
affrIlufe ol human conducf, and fhe affempf Inherenf In fhe con-
cepf ol ''socIaI´´ iusfIce fo appIy fhe concepf fo a sfafe ol allaIrs,
vIfhouf any relerence fo fhe human acfIons fhaf produced If, does
vIoIence fo our undersfandIng ol responsIlIIIfy and choIce. The goaI
ol fhe common IavIs nof socIaI engIneerIng luf iusfIce In fhe proper
sense ol fhe ferm, nameIy fhe punIshmenf or recfIlIcafIon ol uniusf
acfIons. The iudge, examInIng fhe specIlIc case, affempfs fo lInd fhe
ruIe fhaf vIII seffIe If. AccordIng fo HayeI, such a ruIe Is parf ol a
nefvorIol alsfracf ruIes, aII ol vhIchare ImpIIcIfIy counfeduponly
fhose vho engage In lree fransacfIons. The iudge rIghfIy fhInIs ol
hImseIl as dIscoverIng fhe Iav, lor fhe reason fhaf fhere vouId le no
case foiudge hadfhe exIsfence ol fhe reIevanf Iavnof leenImpIIcIfIy
assumed ly fhe parfIes.
HayeI´s fheory ol Iav, vhIch Is IaId ouf vIfh consIderalIe erudI-
fIon, has severaI dIsfIncf parfs. !or exampIe, fhere Is fhe nofIon ol Iav
as ImpIIcIf In human Infercourse, and dIscovered In fhe acf ol iudg-
menf. There Is fhe Idea ol Iav as alsfracf ruIe. There Is fhe fheory
fhaf fhe alsfracf ruIes dIscovered ly fhe mefhods ol common Iav
HayeI and conservafIsm ::+
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iudgmenf are fhe frue ruIes ol iusfIce. And fhere Is fhe crIfIcIsm ol
modern sfyIes ol IegIsIafIon, vhIch see Iav as a poIIcy-enlorcIng
rafher fhan iusfIce-endorsIng devIce. CIearIy fhese Ideas are Inde-
pendenf ol one anofher, fhough fhey aII connecf fo an underIyIng
concepfIonol Iavas anessenfIaIIy negafIve InsfIfufIon, concerned fo
prevenf and recfIly vrongdoIng rafher fhan fo luIId some nev lorm
ol socIaI order.
Infhe £ngIIshsysfemIf Is cerfaInIyfrue fhaf fhe IavIs dIscovered,
rafher fhan Invenfed, ly fhe iudge.
If Is frue foo fhaf fhe Iav Is
lormuIafed as a ruIe fhe ruIe In Fy|ond· v. í|erc|er, lor exampIe,
vhIch feIIs us fhaf ''fhe person vho lor hIs ovn purposes lrIngs on
hIs Iands and coIIecfs and Ieeps fhere anyfhIng IIIeIy fo do mIschIel
Il If escapes, musf Ieep If In af hIs perII, and, Il he does nof do so, Is
prIma lacIe ansveralIe lor aII fhe damage vhIch Is fhe nafuraI con-
sequence ol Ifs escape.´´ Buf If Is aIso frue fhaf a iudge may lInd lor
one ol fhe parfIes, vIfhouf lormuIafIng expIIcIfIy fhe ruIe fhaf ius-
fIlIes hIs iudgmenf: If may le a maffer ol confroversy vhaf fhe rorío
decídendí Is, ol a case fhaf aII agree fo have leen rIghfIy decIded. To
poInf fo fhIs InferesfIng lacf Is nof fo crIfIcIze HayeI´s fheory, luf on
fhe confrary fo provIde lurfher supporf lor fhe Idea fhaf fhe IavexIsfs
prIor fo Ifs iudIcIaI defermInafIon, and fhaf fhe leIIel fhaf fhIs Is so
lofh guIdes fhe iudge and IImIfs hIs amlIfIons. You cannof use fhe
common Iav procedures fo change fhe nafure ol socIefy, fo redIs-
frIlufe properfy fhaf Is iusfIy heId, fo vIoIafe ordInary undersfand-
Ings, or fo upsef IongsfandIng expecfafIons and nafuraI reIafIons ol
frusf. !or fhe common Iav Is fhe vorIIng ouf ol fhe ruIes aIready
ImpIIcIf In fhose fhIngs. If Is a nefvorI voven ly an InvIsIlIe hand.
Alsfracf ruIes, as HayeI caIIs fhem, govern conducf vIfhouf specIly-
Ing some Independenf end fo le achIeved ly If. In a vay If Is unlor-
funafe fhaf HayeI chooses fhe ferm''alsfracf´´ In fhIs confexf, sInce
If creafes fhe erroneous ImpressIon fhaf fhe common IavIs a sysfem
ol deducfIveIy reIafed norms, vhIch can le expressed In ferms fhaf
maIe no relerence fo fhe hIsfory and allecfIons ol a gIven human
communIfy. AgaInsf fhaf a conservafIve |af Ieasf a conservafIve ol
my persuasIon] vouId urge fhaf fhe common Iav Is, In confrasf fo
fhe cIvIIIan sysfem, essenfIaIIy concrere. Ifs uIfImafe aufhorIfIes are
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emledded In fhe hIsfory and experIence ol a human communIfy, and
aIfhough If aIms fo unIversaIIze Ifs iudgmenfs, and so fo achIeve fhe
alsfracf |orm ol Iav, If Is InseparalIe lrom a gIven conrenr, vhIch
derIves lrom conlIIcfs vIfhIn a shared hIsforIcaI experIence. The
dIsfIncfIon here Is, fo le sure, a dIsfIncfIon ol emphasIs, luf If con-
necfs vIfh a lroader and deeper oliecfIon fo HayeI´s mefhod fo
vhIch I refurn leIov.
The Imporfanf confrasf lor HayeI Is nof fhaf lefveen fhe alsfracf
and fhe concrefe, luf fhaf lefveen fhe alsfracf and fhe InsfrumenfaI.
And hIs fargef here Is lofh IegaI posIfIvIsm, In fhe lorms delended
ly Benfham, AusfIn, and KeIsen, and fhe IegIsIafIve sysfems fhaf
have derIved lrom If.
!or fhe posIfIvIsfs, Iav Is nof dIscovered luf
made, and made lor a purpose: hence fhey dIsmIss fhe common Iav
as ''iudge-made´´ Iav, ImpIyIng fhaf Ifs lorce and vaIIdIfy are nof
ImpIIcIf In Ifs orIgIns luf dependenf on fhe IegIsIafIve decIsIon fo
enlorce If. Hovever, vhen fhe £ngIIsh ¡arIIamenf lIrsf legan fo furn
IfseIl Info a IegIsIafIve InsfIfufIon If regarded Iav as an Independenf
andpreexIsfIng sysfem, fovhIchIf vas addIng nevruIes ly fhe same
process ol dIscovery and adiusfmenf fhaf vas exempIIlIed ly fhe
courfs. The aIm vas fo provIde remedIes fo fhe vIcfIms ol IniusfIce,
and fo emphasIze fhe vIII ol fhe sovereIgn fo enlorce and uphoId fhe
Iav. Lav vas an Independenf domaIn, vhIch appoInfed fhe sover-
eIgn and sfood over hImIn iudgmenf. LegIsIafIon vas regarded as Iav
onIy Il If derIved lrom and harmonIzed vIfh fhe fhIng rIghfIy so
caIIed, vhIch vas fhe lody ol precedenfs dIscovered In fhe courfs.
Such vas expIIcIfIy saId ly Lord ChIel IusfIce CoIe, and reallIrmed
ly BIacIsfone In hIs commenfarIes. And such vas assumed ly fhe
£ngIIsh Courf ol Chancery, fhrough vhIch appeaIs vere made fo fhe
sovereIgn vhen fhe exIsfIng IegaI record seemed fo provIde no rem-
edy. Indeed, fhe exIsfence ol equIfy, and Ifs alIIIfy even foday fo
quaIIly and margInaIIze fhe decIsIons ol ¡arIIamenf, fesfIlIes fo fhe
deep commIfmenf ol £ngIIsh iurIsdIcfIon fo fhe HayeIIan vIev ol
Iav as a sysfem ol negafIve sIde consfraInfs.
The IegaI posIfIvIsfs reversed fhe oId order ol fhIngs. !or fhem a
ruIe lecomes Iav onIy Il If Is announced or conlIrmed as such ly fhe
IegIsIafure. !or HayeI, fhIs fheory Is lofh mIsfaIen and pernIcIous.
If conluses fhe alsfracf ruIes ol a IegaI sysfemvIfh fhe InsfrumenfaI
ruIes ol a socIaI engIneer. If dIvorces Iav lrom fhe underIyIng
concepfIon fhaf ol iusfIce and fhe recfIlIcafIon ol IniusfIce on
HayeI and conservafIsm ::s
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vhIch If depends lor Ifs aufhorIfy and Ifs sense. And If pIaces In fhe
hands ol fhe IegIsIafure an IndelInIfe aufhorIzafIon fo Issue com-
mands In every sphere ol socIaI IIle, and fo compeI generaI oledIence
fo fhem. HIfherfo fhe iudge had leen guardIanol fhe Iav, and fhe Iav
had leen fhe shIeId fhaf profecfed fhe suliecf lrom fhe arlIfrary
mIsuse ol pover ly compeIIIng fhe sovereIgn fo provIde remedIes
lor IniusfIce. The approprIafIon ol Iav ly fhe IegIsIafure vas af fhe
same fIme an exproprIafIon ol fhe iudIcIaI pover. And fhaf Is vhaf
fhe posIfIvIsfs sef ouf fo iusfIly. Hence ''fhe evII ol posIfIvIsmIs fhaf
If made fhe guardIans ol fhe Iav unalIe fo resIsf fhe advance ol
arlIfrary governmenf.´´
HayeI sav fhe rIse ol posIfIvIsm as fhe
frIumph ol an anfI-IIleraI vIev ol sovereIgnfy fhe vIev fhaf he
assocIafed vIfh Holles, accordIng fo vhIch sovereIgnfy Is exercIsed
ly a lody fhaf sfands alove fhe Iav, Insfead ol leIng an affrIlufe
vesfed In fhe Iav IfseIl, arIsIng ly an ''InvIsIlIe hand´´ lrom fhe lree
fransacfIons ol IndIvIduaIs.
HayeI´s affacI on posIfIvIsm and fhe IegIsIafIve order shouId nof
le undersfood mereIy as a lurfher argumenf agaInsf fhe socIaIIsf
sfafe. AIfhough HayeI vas deepIy opposed fo fhe Idea ol usIng fhe
Iav fo enlorce socIaIIsf redIsfrIlufIon, fhIs vas In parf lecause he
vas opposed fo usIng fhe Iav fo enlorce ony IInd ol socIaI order,
ofher fhan fhe one aIready ImpIIcIf In fhe Iav´s dIscoveralIe ruIes.
The Iav couId le so used, ol course, luf onIy ly ceasIng fo le an
exercIse ol iusfIce and so ceasIng fo le Iav jrojremenr díre.
Noreover, fhe InsfrumenfaI use ol Iav occurs In an epIsfemoIogIcaI
vacuum a vacuum creafed ly IfseIl. By desfroyIng fhe lase ol fhe
Iav In alsfracf ruIes ol iusfIce, InsfrumenfaIIsm renders fhe use ol
fhe Iav proloundIy unpredIcfalIe. Whafever fhe goaI, le If socIaI
equaIIfy, economIc progress, fhe desfrucfIon ol reIIgIon, or fhe eIIm-
InafIon ol some ''enemy vIfhIn,´´ fhIs goaI vIII le luIlIIIed onIy
ly accIdenf, and as an unloreseealIe consequence ol acfIons fhaf
desfroy fhe alIIIfy eIfher fo predIcf or rafIonaIIy fo Infend If.
SomefImes, If Is frue, HayeI vrIfes as fhough Iav has a purpose,
and he quofes vIfh approvaI Hume´s vIev fhaf, vhIIe IndIvIduaI
Iavs and iudgmenfs cannof le evaIuafed In ferms ol fheIr consequen-
ces, fhe Iavas a vhoIe serves a lenelIcIaI luncfIon.
Buf fhIs fhoughf
shouId le undersfood as an anfhropoIogIsf mIghf undersfand If. Lav
has a socIaI luncfIon, luf If Is nof ly appeaI fo fhIs luncfIon fhaf Iavs
or fhe iudgmenfs fhaf lIov lrom fhem are iusfIlIed. !or fhe luncfIon
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can le luIlIIIed onIy ly fhose vho freaf Iavs as ínrrín·íco||y vaIId,
and open fo neIfher correcfIon nor iusfIlIcafIon lromfhe consequen-
fIaIIsf sfandpoInf.
HayeI´s argumenf pIcIs up fhoughfs fhaf lorm fhe core vIsIon ol
a cerfaIn IInd ol very £ngIIsh conservafIsm. As HayeI lrequenfIy
olserves In fhe loofnofes fo Iov, Iegí·|oríon, ond Iíberry, Cerman
iurIsprudence In fhe nInefeenfh and fvenfIefh cenfurIes had nof
aIvays made room lor fhaf £ngIIsh vIsIon. Òne resuIf ol fhIs couId
le seen In CarI SchmIff´s lrIghfenIng fheory ol sovereIgnfy |he Is
sovereIgn vho ''decIdes on fhe excepfIon,´´ I.e. vho faIes pover In
emergencIes, In parfIcuIar fhose emergencIes creafed ly hImseIl].
can aIso le lound In fhe vIev ol Cerman iurIsfs In fhe fhIrfIes, such
as C. Radlruch, fhaf fhe sovereIgn pover can maIe any Iav If
pIeases, so Iong as If Is consIsfenf In enlorcIng If. ThIs posIfIvIsf
vIev vas endorsed ly BrIfIsh socIaIIsfs, In ferms lorroved lrom
veII-meanIng and nof-so-veII-meanIng Cerman iurIsfs. Thus
HaroId LasII, sulsequenfIy fo lecome HayeI´s arch-enemy af
fhe London SchooI ol £conomIcs, couId vrIfe In :,+¡ fhaf ''fhe
HIfIerIfe Sfafe, equaIIy vIfh fhaf ol BrIfaIn and !rance, Is a
Fec|r··roor In fhe sense fhaf dIcfaforIaI pover has leen franslerred
fo fhe !u¨ hrer ly IegaI order.´´

Òl course, nof aII Cermans af every
epoch have endorsed fhe posIfIvIsf fheory HayeI expIIcIfIy
exempfs Kanf lrom fhe charge, and fo fhaf IIIusfrIous exampIe ve
shouId add HegeI, Schopenhauer, and CIerIe, fhe fhIrd ol vhom
goes unmenfIoned ly HayeI, perhaps lecause hIs Deur·c|e·
Ceno··en·c|o|r·rec|r faIes foo lIrma sfep Infhe conservafIve dIrec-
fIon fhaf I foo shaII faIe af fhe end ol fhIs chapfer.
The exfended argumenf alouf Iavand ruIes Is ly no means secure
lromcrIfIcIsm. Þor, as fhe vorI ol RonaId IvorIIn shovs, does fhe
fheory ol iudIcIaI dIscovery necessarIIy Iead In a conservafIve dIrec-
fIon, or necessarIIy creafe a dIvIde lefveen fhe pursuIf ol common
Iav iusfIce and fhe pursuIf ol pulIIc poIIcy.
Buf HayeI´s argumenf
Is a four de lorce ol erudIfIon and ImagInafIon, and enfIreIy rescues
hIm lrom fhe charge fhaf he vas mereIy an economIc IIleraI,
concerned fo repIace aII lorms ol order vIfh fhaf ol fhe lree marIef.
If adds concrefIon and depfh fo ÒaIeshoff´s ceIelrafed dIsfIncfIon
HayeI and conservafIsm ::¬
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lefveen cIvII and enferprIse assocIafIon,

and shovs fhe InfrInsIc
connecfIonlefveencIvII assocIafIonandfhe ruIe ol Iav. !urfhermore,
If has an InferesfIng and hIghIy conservafIve coroIIary, vhIch Is
onIy occasIonaIIy gIven ly HayeI vIfh fhe cIarIfy fhaf If deserves.
Alsfracf ruIes, as HayeI caIIs fhem, are nof parf ol a pIan ol acfIon,
luf arIse lrom fhe enferprIse ol socIaI cooperafIon over fIme. They
are fhe paramefers vIfhIn vhIch fhe cooperafIon ol sfrangers fo
fheIr mufuaI advanfage lecomes possIlIe. As vIfh fhe marIef, fhe
lenelIf fhaf fhey conler Is In parf epIsfemIc: fhey provIde InovIedge
fhaf has sfood fhe fesf ol fIme, ly permIffIng fhe resoIufIon ol con-
lIIcfs and fhe reesfalIIshmenf ol socIaI equIIIlrIum In fhe lace ol
IocaI dIsfurlances. By loIIovIng fhese ruIes ve equIp ourseIves vIfh
pracfIcaI InovIedge fhaf vIII le especIaIIy useluI vhen venfurIng
lorfh Info fhe unloreseealIe nameIy, InovIedge hov fo conducf
ourseIves fovard ofhers, so as fo secure fheIr cooperafIon In advanc-
Ing our aIms.
To puf fhe poInf In anofher vay, fhe Iav condenses Info IfseIl fhe
lruIfs ol a Iong hIsfory ol human experIence: If provIdes InovIedge
fhaf can le neIfher confaIned In a lormuIa nor conlIned fo a sIngIe
human head, luf vhIch Is dIspersed across fIme, In fhe hIsforIcaI
experIence ol an evoIvIng communIfy. Iusf as prIces In a marIef
condense Info fhemseIves InlormafIon fhaf Is ofhervIse dIspersed
fhroughouf confemporary socIefy, so do Iavs condense InlormafIon
fhaf Is dIspersed over a socIefy´s pasf.

!romfhIs fhoughf If Is a smaII
sfepfo reconsfrucfIng BurIe´s ceIelrafed delence ol cusfom, fradIfIon,
and ''preiudIce´´ agaInsf fhe ''rafIonaIIsm´´ ol fhe !rench revoIufIon-
arIes. To puf BurIe´s poInf In a modern IdIom somevhaf removed
lrom hIs ovn maiesfIc perIods: fhe InovIedge fhaf ve need In fhe
unloreseealIe cIrcumsfances ol humanIIle Is neIfher derIved lromnor
confaIned In fhe experIence ol a sIngIe person, nor can If le deduced
a prIorI lrom unIversaI Iavs. ThIs InovIedge Is lequeafhed fo us ly
cusfoms, InsfIfufIons, and halIfs ol fhoughf fhaf have shaped fhem-
seIves over generafIons, fhroughfhe frIaIs anderrors ol peopIe manyol
vhom have perIshed In fhe course ol acquIrIng If.
!or a confemporaryconservafIve, fhe mosf proloundaspecf ol HayeI´s
exfended epIsfemoIogIcaI argumenf Is fhe aIIgnmenf lefveen fhe
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delense ol fhe marIef and fhe delense ol fradIfIon. Indeed, as £dvard
!eser has argued, fhe delence ol fradIfIon, cusfom, and commonsense
moraIIfy couId veII consfIfufe fhe mosf Imporfanf aspecf ol HayeI´s
socIaI and poIIfIcaI fhoughf.
HayeI´s fheory ol evoIufIonary rafIon-
aIIfy shovs hov fradIfIons and cusfoms |fhose surroundIng sexuaI
reIafIons, lor exampIe] mIghf le reasonalIe soIufIons fo compIex
socIaI prolIems, even vhen, and especIaIIy vhen, no cIear rafIonaI
grounds can le provIded fo fhe IndIvIduaI lor oleyIng fhem. These
cusfoms have leen seIecfed ly fhe ''InvIsIlIe hand´´ ol socIaI repro-
ducfIon, and socIefIes fhaf reiecf fhem vIII soon enfer fhe condIfIon
ol ''maIadapfafIon,´´ vhIch Is fhe normaI preIude fo exfIncfIon.
ImpIIcIf In HayeI Is fhe fhoughf fhaf lree exchange and endurIng
cusfoms are fo le iusfIlIed In exacfIy fhe same ferms. Bofh are
IndIspensalIe dIsfIIIafIons ol socIaIIy necessary InovIedge, fhe one
operafIng synchronousIy, fhe ofher dIachronIcaIIy, In order fo lrIng
fhe experIences ol IndelInIfeIy many ofhers fo lear on fhe decIsIon
faIen ly me, here, nov. HayeI emphasIzes fhe lree marIef as parf ol
a vIder sponfaneous order lounded In fhe lree exchange ol goods,
Ideas, and Inferesfs fhe ''game ol cafaIIaxy´´ as he caIIs If.
Buf fhIs
game Is pIayed over fIme, and fo adapf a fhoughf ol BurIe´s fhe
dead and fhe unlorn are aIso pIayers, vho maIe fheIr presence
Inovn fhrough fradIfIons, InsfIfufIons, and Iavs. Those vho leIIeve
fhaf socIaI order demands consfraInfs on fhe marIef are rIghf. Buf
In a frue sponfaneous order fhe consfraInfs are aIready fhere, In fhe
lorm ol cusfoms, Iavs, and moraIs. Il fhose good fhIngs decay, fhen
fhere Is no vay, accordIng fo HayeI, fhaf IegIsIafIon can repIace
fhem. !or fhey arIse sponfaneousIy or nof af aII, and fhe ImposIfIon
ol IegIsIafIve edIcfs lor fhe ''good socIefy´´ desfroys vhaf remaIns ol
fhe accumuIafed vIsdom fhaf maIes such a socIefy possIlIe. If Is
nof surprIsIng, fherelore, Il BrIfIsh conservafIve fhInIers nofalIy
Hume, SmIfh, BurIe, and ÒaIeshoff have fended fo see no fensIon
lefveen a delense ol fhe lree marIef and a fradIfIonaIIsf vIsIon ol
socIaI order. !or fhey have puf fheIr laIfh In fhe sponfaneous IImIfs
pIaced on fhe marIef ly fhe moraI consensus ol fhe communIfy.
Nayle fhaf consensus Is nov lreaIIng dovn. Buf fhe lreaIdovn Is
In parf fhe resuIf ol sfafe Inferlerence, and cerfaInIy unIIIeIy fo le
cured ly If.
If Is af fhIs poInf, hovever, fhaf conservafIves may vIsh fo enfer
a nofe ol caufIon. AIfhough HayeI may le rIghf In leIIevIng fhaf fhe
HayeI and conservafIsm ::,
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lree marIef and fradIfIonaI moraIIfy are lofh lorms ol sponfaneous
order and lofh fo le iusfIlIed epIsfemIcaIIy, If does nof loIIov fhaf
fhe fvo vIII nof conlIIcf. SocIaIIsfs are nof aIone In poInfIng fo fhe
corrosIve ellecfs ol marIefs on fhe lorms ol human seffIemenf, or In
emphasIzIng fhe confrasf lefveen fhIngs vIfh a vaIue and fhIngs
vIfh a prIce. Indeed, many ol fhe fradIfIons fo vhIch conservafIves
are mosf affached can le undersfood |lrom fhe poInf ol vIev ol
HayeI´s evoIufIonary rafIonaIIfy] as devIces lor rescuIng human IIle
lrom fhe marIef. TradIfIonaI sexuaI moraIIfy, lor exampIe, vhIch
InsIsfs on fhe sancfIfy ol fhe human person, fhe sacramenfaI charac-
fer ol marrIage, and fhe sInluIness ol sex oufsIde fhe vovol Iove, Is
seen lrom fhe HayeIIan perspecfIve a vay ol faIIng sex oll fhe
marIef, ol relusIng If fhe sfafus ol a commodIfy and rIng-lencIng If
agaInsf fhe corrosIve vorId ol confracf and exchange. ThIs pracfIce
has an evIdenf socIaI luncfIon, luf If Is a luncfIon fhaf can le luI-
lIIIed onIy Il peopIe see sex as a reaIm ol InfrInsIc vaIues and sexuaI
prohIlIfIons as alsoIufe commands. In aII socIefIes reIIgIon, vhIch
emerges sponfaneousIy, Is connecfed fo such Ideas ol InfrInsIc vaIue
and alsoIufe command. To puf fhe maffer succIncfIy, fhaf Is sacred
vhIch does nof have a prIce.
If loIIovs fhaf fhe ''game ol cafaIIaxy´´ does nof provIde a compIefe
accounf ol poIIfIcs, nor does If resoIve fhe quesfIon ol hov and fo
vhaf exfenf fhe sfafe mIghf choose foInferlere Infhe marIef Inorder
fo gIve fhe advanfage fo some ofher and pofenfIaIIy conlIIcfIng lorm
ol sponfaneous order. ThIs quesfIon delInes fhe poInf vhere conser-
vafIsm and socIaIIsm meef and aIso fhe nafure ol fhe conlIIcf
lefveen fhem.
HayeI´s roufIne dIsmIssaI ol ''socIaI iusfIce´´ has lofh an economIc
and a phIIosophIcaI loundafIon and, aIfhough In Iafer vrIfIngs he
somefImes relers |even approvIngIy] fo fhe vorI ol RavIs, If Is cIear
fhaf hIs accounf ol iusfIce Is enfIreIyIncompafIlIe vIfhfhaf expounded
In A T|eory o| |u·ríce. There Is, lor HayeI, no such fhIng as a
iusf dIsfrIlufIon, conceIved IndependenfIy ol fhe deIIlerafe choIces
fhaf lrIng If alouf. If Is human acfIons fhaf are iusf or uniusf, and
iusf acfIons, reIferafed over fIme, vIII produce, ly an InvIsIlIe
hand, anunequaI socIaI order.
Affempfs forecfIlyfhIs lyIegIsIafIon
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vIII InvarIalIy InvoIve IniusfIce, vhefher ly exproprIafIng peopIe
vIfhouf fheIr consenf, or ly lorcIng peopIe fo do vhaf fhey ofhervIse
vouId nof do vIfh fheIr fIme, alIIIfIes, or energy. And such affempfs
are doomed fo laIIure, sInce |fo refurn fo fhe roof concepfIon] fhey
InevIfalIy desfroy fhe InlormafIon fhaf fhey vIII need lor fheIr ovn
Noreover, HayeI adds In Iafer vrIfIngs, fhere Is somefhIng vrong
vIfh fhe very vord ''socIaI,´´ affached IIIe a manfra fo ofhervIse
desIralIe fhIngs: socIaI iusfIce, socIaI marIef, socIaI moraIIfy, socIaI
conscIence, socIaI IIleraIIsm. HayeI descrIles If as a ''veaseI vord,´´
one fhaf sucIs fhe meanIng lromvhafever fermIf Is affached fo, ''as
a veaseI sucIs eggs.´´
Words fo vhIch fhIs parasIfe affaches IfseIl
are furned lromfheIr relerenfIaI purpose, and made fo perlorma fasI
fhaf Is fhe opposIfe ol fhe one lor vhIch fhey vere desIgned. In fhe
name ol socIaI iusfIce any amounf ol IniusfIce can le InlIIcfed, In fhe
name ol fhe socIaI marIef fhe marIef IfseIl can le desfroyed, and so
on. And fhe vord ''socIaI,´´ used In fhIs vay, does nof mereIy desfroy
Ifs successor If desfroys IfseIl. If no Ionger relers fo socIefy, fhaf
lenIgn and sponfaneous lyproducf ol human sympafhy, luf fo fhe
sfafe, vhIch acfs In fhe name ol socIefy luf fo socIefy´s defrImenf.
SocIaI iusfIce means sfafe confroI, fhe socIaI marIef means sfafe
dIsforfIon, and socIaI moraIIfy means fhe chIIIIng purIfanIcaI edIcfs
vIfh vhIch socIaIIsfs lar fhe vay fo success.
In fhIs and reIafed vays HayeI exfended hIs affacI on socIaIIsm
lrom fhe narrov ferrIfory ol fhe orIgInaI ''caIcuIafIon delafe´´ fo fhe
reaIm ol phIIosophy and cuIfure. HayeI came cIose fo ÒrveII In
seeIng fhaf sfafe socIaIIsm goes hand In hand vIfh fhe corrupfIon
ol Ianguage. Nuch ol fhe dIllIcuIfy fhe AusfrIan economIsfs had
encounfered In maIIng fhemseIves heard In modern £urope arose
lrom fhe lacf fhaf fhey vere usIng vords vIfh fheIr normaI mean-
Ings, and vIfhouf fhe IdeoIogIcaI commIfmenfs fhaf had leen
InsfIIIed ly fheIr sysfemafIc mIsuse. Buf fhIs lrIngs me fo a prolIem
fhaf HayeI lrequenfIy addressed, luf fo vhIch he never lound a
safIslacfory ansver: nameIy, vhaf expIaIns fhe frIumph ol socIaIIsm
In hIs day, and ol Ifs more IIleraI derIvafIves In ours¹ HayeI vas
avare ol fhe olvIous lacf fhaf fhe vaIIdIfy ol an argumenf does nof
guaranfee Ifs vIdespread accepfance, and vas lond ol quofIng
Hume´s remarI fhaf ''fhough men le much governed ly Inferesf,
yef even Inferesf IfseIl, and aII human allaIrs, are enfIreIy governed
HayeI and conservafIsm :::
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ly ojíníon.´´
IIllIcuIf frufhs, such as fhose presenfed ly fhe
AusfrIan delense ol fhe marIef or fhe BurIean delense ol cusfom,
are unIIIeIy fo InlIuence evenfs vhenmore emofIonaIIy safIslyIng or
exhIIarafIng laIsehoods compefe vIfh fhem.
In an arfIcIe lIrsf pulIIshed In fhe Iníver·íry o| C|ícogo Iov
Fevíev In :,¡,,

HayeI addressed fhe prolIem ol ''The InfeIIecfuaIs
and SocIaIIsm,´´ and made fhe loIIovIng suggesfIon. !Irsf fhere Is a
dIsfIncfIon, ol recenf provenance, lefveen fhe schoIar and fhe InfeI-
IecfuaI. The schoIar Is Inferesfed In InovIedge lor Ifs ovn saIe, and Is
olfen masfer ol some narrov, oufvardIy unexcIfIng, and In any case
pulIIcIyInconspIcuous lIeId. The InfeIIecfuaI Is a ''second-hand deaIer
InIdeas´´ Inferesfed InexerfIng hIs mInd Infhe pulIIc sphere, vhovIII
le nafuraIIy dravn fo fhose fheorIes and Ideas fhaf maIe fhInIIng
fhe avenue fo acfIon. He vIII le prey fo vIsIonary and ufopIan con-
cepfIons, and dravn fo fhose fheorIes fhaf gIve fo fhe InfeIIecfuaIs a
specIaI roIe In fhe redempfIon ol manIInd. HayeI poInfs ouf fhaf no
socIaIIsf ever Ioses credIlIIIfy vIfh hIs leIIovs ly fhe ImpracfIcaIIfy or
exfravagance ol hIs Ideas, vhIIe IIleraIs |InHayeI´s sense ol fhe ferm],
vho are dependenf on fhe good vIII ol exIsfIng InsfIfufIons and have
no ufopIanlormuIa lor fheIr Improvemenf, vIII InsfanfIy damnfhem-
seIves ly an ImpracfIcaI suggesfIon. He aIso nofes fhe prevaIence ol
peopIe ''vho have undeservedIy achIeved a popuIar repufafIon as greaf
scIenfIsfs soIeIy lecause fhey hoId vhaf fhe InfeIIecfuaIs regard
as 'progressIve´ vIevs,´´ addIng, ''I have yef fo come across a sIngIe
Insfance vhere such a scIenfIlIc pseudo-repufafIonhas leenlesfoved
lor poIIfIcaI reasons ona schoIar ol moreconservafIve IeanIngs.´´ Infhe
compefIfIon lor InlIuence, fherelore, IIleraIs |In HayeI´s sense] and
conservafIves are consfanfIy eIImInafedvhIIe socIaIIsfs advance lrom
sfrengfh fo sfrengfh. And lecause InfeIIecfuaIs ellecfIveIy sef fhe
ferms ol poIIfIcaI delafe, lofh InsIde and oufsIde fhe unIversIfIes,
fhey are alIe fo maIe If seem as Il aII dIspufes are InfernaI fo fhe
socIaIIsf program.
Nuch ol vhaf HayeI says In fhIs loId and InferesfIng essay Is
undenIalIy frue. Hovever, he laIIs fo gIve anadequafe expIanafIonol
fhe crucIaI Ifem ol socIaIIsf docfrIne, vhIch Is fhe commIfmenf fo
socIaI equaIIfy. ThIs commIfmenf has shovn an alIIIfy fo survIve
quIfe ouf ol proporfIon fo Ifs InfrInsIc pIausIlIIIfy, and oufIasfs aII
fhe fheorIes fhaf have rIsen and laIIen In fhe affempf fo encIose If In
an argumenf. Indeed, fhe fheorIes ol socIaIIsm sfand fo fhe leIIel In
Cambridge CollecIiohs Ohlihe © Cambridge UhiversiIy Press, 200
socIaI equaIIfy rafher as fheoIogy sfands fo fhe leIIel In Cod. They
are ex jo·r |ocro affempfs fo gIve a rafIonaI loundafIon fo a dogma
fhaf vIII survIve every rafIonaI affempf fo relufe If. £quaIIfy Is, lor
fhe socIaIIsf InfeIIecfuaI, a maffer ol laIfh, and HayeI has no reaI
expIanafIon as fo vhy fhIs laIfh shouId have arIsen or vhy If shouId
have affracfed fo IfseIl such an ardenf prIesfhood. He hImseIl Is a
leIIever In equaIIfy lelore fhe Iav, and recognIzes fhaf fhIs Is a
consequence ol fhe IndIvIduaIIsm fhaf Is fhe maior premIse ol hIs
fhInIIng. Buf he reiecfs mosf ofher lorms ol equaIIfy as eIfher unol-
faInalIe or undesIralIe Inferlerences, af lesf, In fhe nafuraI vorI-
Ing ol fhe sponfaneous order. Noreover, he adds, ''equaIIfy ol fhe
generaI ruIes ol Iav and conducf    Is fhe onIy IInd ol equaIIfy
conducIve fo IIlerfy and fhe onIy equaIIfy vhIch ve can secure
vIfhouf desfroyIng IIlerfy.´´
In T|e Con·ríruríon o| Iíberry HayeI shovs hImseIl fo le a mas-
ferIy, Il uncommonIy Iong-vInded, exponenf ol fhe prIncIpIes ol
cIassIcaI IIleraIIsm. He rIghfIy sees fhaf IIlerfy does nof requIre,
luf on fhe confrary Is fhreafened ly, maiorIfy choIce, and fhaf fhe
prImary fasI lor fhe cIassIcaI IIleraI fhInIer Is fo devIse a consfIfu-
fIon fhaf vIII lofh permIf fhe ellecfIve exercIse ol poIIfIcaI pover,
and aIso IImIf fhe areas In vhIch If can le asserfed, so fhaf socIefy
canlIourIsh accordIng fo Ifs Innafe and ''sponfaneous´´ prIncIpIes. Òn
fhe HayeIIan vIev, If Is onIy vIfhIn fhe sponfaneous order ol cIvII
socIefy fhaf fhe InlormafIon needed ly fhe sfafe can le generafed.
Noreover, he leIIeves, even democrafs musf accepf fhIs frufh, and
fherelore cooperafe InsearchIng lor a consfIfufIon fhaf vIII resIsf fhe
pressures fo conlormIfy fhaf arIse vhen foo much respecf Is paId fo
maiorIfy opInIon. ''The IdeaI ol democracy resfs on fhe leIIel fhaf fhe
vIev vhIch vIII dIrecf governmenf emerges lrom an Independenf
and sponfaneous process. If requIres, fherelore, fhe exIsfence ol a
Iarge sphere Independenf ol maiorIfy confroI In vhIch fhe opInIons ol
fhe IndIvIduaIs are lormed.´´
The prolIemlor aII IIleraI fhInIers Is confaIned In fhose remarIs.
Whaf hoIds fhe ''Iarge sphere´´ ol ''sponfaneous´´ processes fogefher,
and hov does If delend IfseIl agaInsf lragmenfafIon¹ CIassIcaI IIler-
aIs have fended fo loIIov LocIe In arguIng lor a socIefy lounded In a
HayeI and conservafIsm ::+
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socIaI confracf. Hovever, confracf does nof creafe fhe lond ol socI-
efy, luf depends upon If. WIfhouf memlershIp fhere Is no mofIve fo
oley fhe confracf, rafher fhan fo prefend fo oley If In order fo reap
fhe advanfages ol ofher peopIe´s oledIence. If Is fhIs lond ol memler-
shIp fhaf conservafIves have fradIfIonaIIy soughf fo delIne and
delend, leIIevIng IIleraI IndIvIduaIIsm fo le a pofenfIaI fhreaf fo If.
ReIafIons seen In confracfuaI ferms are suliecf fo fhe consfanf ero-
sIon ol seIl-Inferesf, fhose lased In memlershIp are lorfIlIed ly frIaIs
and ly fhe Iove ol neIghlor and home.
HayeI does nof exacfIy Ignore fhIs prolIem, vhIch had leen
lroughf fo fhe lore ly Hume, lofh In hIs crIfIcIsm ol fhe socIaI
confracf and In hIs fheory ol iusfIce as an ''arfIlIcIaI´´ vIrfue. Indeed,
HayeI´s approach heIps fo maIe fhe Humean oliecfIon fo fhe socIaI
confracf fheory more precIse. The socIaI confracf Is supposed fo
expIaIn vhaf If Is lor a socIefy fo le lounded on fhe consenf ol Ifs
memlers. If does so ly envIsagIng a socIaI order fhaf Is fhe oliecf ol a
sIngIe acf ol coIIecfIve consenf, rafher fhan fhe lyproducf ol myrIad
consensuaI fransacfIons. If Is an affempf, as one mIghf puf If, fo
consfrue fhe InvIsIlIe hand as a vIsIlIe handshaIe. Buf HayeI´s
approach conceaIs vhaf Is reaIIy af sfaIe In fhe Humean |and one
mIghf add HegeIIan] oliecfIons fo socIaI confracf fheory. HayeI
legIns lrom fhe assumpfIon ol ''mefhodoIogIcaI IndIvIduaIIsm,´´ as
Ioseph Schumpefer caIIed If: fhe assumpfIon fhaf lacfs alouf coIIec-
fIves are fo le expIaIned In ferms ol IndIvIduaI pIans. I don´f say fhaf
fhIs assumpfIon Is erroneous, or fhaf If does nof have an Imporfanf
roIe In fhe search lor genuIne expIanafIons, as opposed fo enchanfIng
descrIpfIons, In fhe socIaI scIences. Buf If causes fhose vho adopf If
fo overIooI fhe many vays In vhIch IndIvIduaI pIans depend
upon coIIecfIve sfafes ol mInd. HayeI Is suspIcIous ol fhe HegeIIan
lashIon In Cerman socIaI fhInIIng, vhIch affrIlufes fo fhe Vo||, fhe
Cemeín·c|o|r, and fhe sfafe a IInd ol IdenfIfy alove and leyond
fheIr consfIfuenf memlers. As a resuIf he does nof gIve sullIcIenf
veIghf fo fhe frufh fhaf, hovever vIIIIng peopIe may le fo IIve vIfh
fheIr neIghlors on ferms ol lree assocIafIon under a ruIe ol Iav, fhey
vIII aIvays maIe, and vIII aIvays need fo maIe, a dIsfIncfIon
lefveen fhe frue neIghlor and fhe InferIoper.
HayeI vrIfes fhaf ''a group ol men lecome a socIefy nof ly gIvIng
fhemseIves Iavs luf ly oleyIng fhe same ruIes ol conducf.´´

fhaf sfafes neIfher a necessary nor a sullIcIenf condIfIon ol socIaI
Cambridge CollecIiohs Ohlihe © Cambridge UhiversiIy Press, 200
memlershIp. The ruIes ol conducf fhaf prevaII In BrIfaIn are lor fhe
mosf parf loIIoved In !rance. And fhere are socIefIes such as fhe
IfaIIan In vhIch fhe ruIes change lrom fovn fo fovn and season fo
season. Whaf maIes BrIfaIn, !rance, and IfaIy Info fhree separafe
socIefIes Is fhe emergence In each ol fhem ol a poIIfIcaIIy pregnanf
lIrsf person pIuraI. The BrIfIsh, fhe !rench, and fhe IfaIIans aII
recognIze a dIsfIncfIon lefveen fhose fo vhom fhey are lound ly
hIsfory, ferrIfory, Ianguage, and aIIegIance and fhose agaInsf vhom
fhey mIghf one day have fo delend fhemseIves. ÒnIy vhen fhIs sense
ol memlershIp Is In pIace are peopIe dIsposed fo sulmIf fo a common
ruIe ol Iav and vIIIIng fo pIace confracfuaI olIIgafIons fo sfrangers
alove frIlaI and lamIIy fIes.
If Is frue fhaf memlershIp Is a lorm ol sponfaneous order. Buf If
Is radIcaIIy dIllerenf lrom, and olfen In conlIIcf vIfh, fhe sponfaneous
orders sfudIed ly HayeI. If comes fo us vIfh ImperafIve lorce. !or
some If has a reIIgIous meanIng, lor ofhers If speaIs ol home, neIgh-
lorhood, Ianguage, and Iandscape. Where fhe experIence ol memler-
shIp Is alsenf socIefy lragmenfs Info lamIIIes, gangs, and cIans, as In
AlrIca foday. And fhere Is no Insfance ol a cafaIIacfIc order In fhe
modern vorId fhaf does nof depend upon nafIonaI IoyaIfy a IoyaIfy
fhaf may very veII le fhreafened ly foo greaf anemphasIs on fhe lree
and sovereIgn IndIvIduaI.
ÞovconservafIves vIII, I hope, agree vIfh HayeI´s delense ol fhe
cafaIIacfIc order. They vIII supporf fhe lree economy, fhe ruIe ol Iav,
and fhe precedence ol fradIfIon and cusfom over sfafe confroI.
Hovever, fhey may le more concerned fhan HayeI vas fo empha-
sIze fhe fensIons fhaf arIse lefveen fhese severaI sponfaneous
orders, and fhe lrequenf need lor a sfandpoInf alove and leyond
fhem lrom vhIch fheIr rIvaI cIaIms can le lroIered. Noreover, If Is
characferIsfIc ol conservafIsm fo suggesf fhaf lree exchange and fhe
ruIe ol Iav requIre a sense ol fogefherness fhaf fhey fhemseIves do
nof generafe. WhIIe fradIfIon, fhe marIef, and ''alsfracf´´ ruIes are aII
rafIonaI soIufIons fo prolIems ol socIaI coordInafIon, and mayle
even unIque avenues fo socIaIIy necessary InovIedge, fhe same Is
nof frue ol fhe lond ol memlershIp. ThIs Is nof a soIufIon fo a
coordInafIon prolIem, luf fhe condIfIon lrom vhIch lofh prolIem
and soIufIon arIse. The aIfernafIve fo memlershIp Is fhe HollesIan
socIaI confracf, vhIch creafes a sovereIgn alove and leyond fhe
socIaI order, a soIufIon fhaf HayeI expressIy and rIghfIy reiecfs, nof
HayeI and conservafIsm ::s
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Ieasf lecause If frIes fo repIace evoIufIonary rafIonaIIfy fhe rafIon-
aIIfy ol a socIefy fhaf soIves Ifs prolIems ly sponfaneous adapfafIon
vIfh a consfrucfIvIsf rafIonaIIfy fhaf vIshes fo emlody fhe soIufIon
fo aII lufure prolIems In a masfer pIan. And vhen fhe condIfIons
ol memlershIp are alused or Ignored as vhen a ruIIng eIIfe aIIovs
unconfroIIed ImmIgrafIon lrom dIsIoyaI mInorIfIes and anfagonIs-
fIc reIIgIous groups fhen aII fhe lenelIfs ol a IIleraI socIaI order are
af rIsI.

The mofIves ol memlershIp are Iove, grafIfude, and lear Iove ol
counfry, Ianguage, neIghlors, lamIIy, reIIgIon, cusfoms, and home,
grafIfude fovard fhese fhIngs as fhe source ol IIle and happIness, and
lear ol fheIr dIssoIufIon and ol fhe anarchy, enmIfy, and predafIon
fhaf vouId fhen ensue. AII ol fhose leeIIngs lIov Info a common
reservoIr ol IoyaIfy, vhIch maInfaIns fhe communIfy In leIng and
overcomes fhe prolIemol fhe ''lree rIder.´´ !or some fhIs IoyaIfyfaIes
a reIIgIous lorm fhe IoyaIfy ol fhe ''creed communIfy,´´ as SpengIer
caIIed If. !or ofhers, vho have passed fhrough fhe £nIIghfenmenf
experIence, IoyaIfy Is dIrecfed fo fhe nafIon and fhe homeIand.
Òfhers sfIII IacI fhe leeIIng aIfogefher, and IdenfIly fhemseIves as
In some vay oufsIde fhe socIefy ly vhIch fhey are neverfheIess
surrounded and on vhIch fhey depend lor fheIr grocerIes. LoyaIfy
lrIngs fhe capacIfy lor sacrIlIce. And sacrIlIce means fhe prepared-
ness fo Iose confroI ol your ludgef, fo cease fo maxImIze your ovn
ufIIIfy, fo Iay dovn your IIle, ín exrremí·, lor your unInovn lrIends.
If Is parf ol fhe lusIness ol poIIfIcs fo susfaIn fhe condIfIons under
vhIch fhIs IoyaIfy arIses, and IIleraIs |In HayeI´s sense ol fhe ferm]
have argued, on fhe vhoIe, as fhough IoyaIfy dId nof maffer, or as
fhough If couId le cosfIessIy repIaced ly reIafIons ol a pureIy con-
fracfuaI IInd.
There Is a fendency In HayeI, encouraged ly hIs mefhodoIogIcaI
IndIvIduaIIsm, fo see sponfaneous order as fhe delauIf posIfIon ol
human socIefy fhe posIfIon fo vhIch ve nafuraIIy reverf vhen fhe
dIsforfIng pressures ol poIIfIcaI confroI and egaIIfarIan pIannIng are
IIlfed. In fhIs HayeI resemlIes fhose AmerIcan neoconservafIves
vho leIIeve fhaf democracy Is fhe delauIf posIfIon ol governmenf,
fo vhIch even a NIddIe £asfern socIefy vIII reverf vhen fhe
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gangsfers have gone. In lacf, hovever, sponfaneous order, IIIe
democracy, Is a rare achIevemenf, exfracfed af greaf cosf lrom fhe
frue delauIf posIfIon ol manIInd, vhIch Is prIesf-haunfed fyranny.
Òne ol fhe goaIs ol conservafIve poIIfIcaI fhInIIng In our fIme, fhere-
lore, has leen fo gIve a coherenf and humane accounf ol fhe IInd ol
pre-poIIfIcaI memlershIp fhaf vIII susfaIn lree InsfIfufIons and a
ruIe ol Iav. Nany conservafIves have leen affracfed ly fhe argu-
menfs ol WIIheIm Ro¨ pIe, In supporf ol a ''socIaI marIef economy´´:
an economy In vhIch fhe lree marIef Is comlIned vIfh veIlare
provIsIons desIgned fo refaIn fhe IoyaIfy ol fhose vho mIghf ofher-
vIse Iose ouf.
Òfhers have seen fhe veIlare sfafe, even In fhe mIId
lorm proposed ly Ro¨ pIe and BeverIdge, as a fhreaf fo fhe shared
IoyaIfy on vhIch socIaI survIvaI uIfImafeIy depends. The quesfIon
vho Is rIghf In fhIs conlronfafIon Is, ly Ifs very nafure, nof one fhaf
canle resoIved ly HayeI´s mode ol argumenf. CIassIcaI IIleraIIsmol
HayeI´s IInd legIns lrom fhe assumpfIon fhaf socIefy exIsfs, and
fhaf fhe dIsfIncfIon lefveen fhe memler and fhe non-memler Is
secureIy esfalIIshed In fhe fhoughfs and emofIons ol fhose vho are
lacIng fhe lufure fogefher so secureIy esfalIIshed fhaf If need nof le
NemlershIplrIngs a vIfaI pIece ol InovIedge fo fhose ioInedly If,
nameIy InovIedge fhaf fhey are so ioIned, and fherelore can frusf
each ofher. !rom fhaf InovIedge fhe cafaIIacfIc process can legIn.
Buf memlershIp InvoIves aIfogefher more vIsceraI and Iess caIcuIaf-
Ing leeIIngs fhanfhose fhaf drIve fhe marIef, leeIIngs fhaf cause us fo
espouse poIIcIes and causes fhaf couId never sfand up fo examInafIon
under fhe vIfherIng eye ol mefhodoIogIcaI IndIvIduaIIsm. Hence
fhose fhInIers vho have faIen memlershIp serIousIy have fended
fo emphasIze ofher aspecfs ol Iav, cusfom, and fradIfIon fhan fhose
sIngIed ouf ly HayeI. WhIIe HayeI poInfs fo fhe roIe ol fhe common
Iav In provIdIng remedIes fo IniusfIces sullered ly fhe IndIvIduaI,
NaIfIand, lor exampIe, Is more Inferesfed In fhe roIe ol equIfy In
profecfIng fhe rIghfs, properfy, and IdenfIfy ol InsfIfufIons.
fhe mosf arfIcuIafe delender ol fhe Cerman common Iav, sav fhIs
Iav In sImIIar ferms, as arIsIng lrom fhe need fo profecf fhe com-
munIfy, fhe Ceno··en·c|o|r, agaInsf predafIon ly fhe sovereIgn
pover. ThIs Is nof fhe pIace fo expound CIerIe´s InferesfIng anaIy-
Buf I menfIon If In order fo drav affenfIon fo fhe lundamenfaI
veaIness In HayeI´s argumenf, vhIch Is hIs laIIure fo faIe proper
HayeI and conservafIsm ::¬
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nofe ol fhe emofIons and mofIves fhaf are presupposed ly fhe enfer-
prIse ol lree assocIafIon, and vhIch vIII InevIfalIy surlace In, and
drav IImIfs fo, fhe InsfIfufIons and Iavs ol a lree socIefy.
ThIs same veaIness Inlecfs HayeI´s response fo socIaIIsm. As
I remarIed alove, HayeI laIIs fo accounf eIfher lor fhe passIon
among InfeIIecfuaIs lor equaIIfy, or lor fhe resuIfIng success ol
socIaIIsfs and fheIr egaIIfarIan successors In drIvIng fhe IIleraI Idea
lromfhe sfage ol poIIfIcs. ThIs passIon lor equaIIfyIs nof a nevfhIng,
and Indeed pre-dafes socIaIIsm ly many cenfurIes, lIndIng Ifs mosf
InlIuenfIaI expressIon In fhe vrIfIngs ol Rousseau. There Is no con-
sensus as fo hov equaIIfy mIghf le achIeved, vhaf If vouId consIsf
In Il achIeved, or vhy If Is so desIralIe In fhe lIrsf pIace. Buf no
argumenf agaInsf fhe cogency or vIalIIIfy ol fhe Idea has fhe laInfesf
chance ol leIng IIsfened fo or dIscussed ly fhose vho have laIIen
under Ifs speII. Why Is fhIs¹ I shaII concIude vIfh a suggesfIon.
HayeI Is rIghf fo dIsfInguIsh fhe InfeIIecfuaI lromfhe schoIar, and
fo see fhe InfeIIecfuaI as sfrIvIng lor an InlIuence fhaf fhe frue
schoIar may alhor. And In hIs InfroducfIon fo Cojíro|í·m ond r|e
Hí·roríon· he argues pIausIlIy lor fhe vIev fhaf recenf hIsforIans,
IIIe ofher InfeIIecfuaIs, have leen anImafed ly an anfI-capIfaIIsf
ThIs lIas has caused fhem fo mIsrepresenf capIfaIIsm as a
lorm ol expIoIfafIon, and prIvafe prolIf as achIeved aIvays af fhe
expense ol fhe vorIlorce fhaf heIped fo produce If. Indeed, If seems
fo le characferIsfIc ol a cerfaIn IInd ol InfeIIecfuaI fo perceIve aII
economIc acfIvIfy as a zero-sum game. Il someone gaIns, anofher
Ioses. ThIs zero-sum vIsIon underpIns Narx´s fheory ol surpIus
vaIue, and crops up agaIn and agaIn In fhe socIaIIsf affacIs on prIvafe
enferprIse, seIecfIve schooIs, InherIfance, and iusf alouf anyfhIng
eIse fhaf creafes a lenelIf fhaf nof everyone can enioy. The Idea fhaf
InequaIIfy |ol revard, sfafus, advanfage, or vhafever] mIghf le In fhe
Inferesf ol lofh parfIes, fhe leffer oll and fhe vorse oll, Is eIfher nof
accepfed, or seen as IrreIevanf fo fhe charge agaInsf fhe capIfaIIsf
order. If Is fo fhe credIf ol RavIs fhaf he leIIeves fhaf InequaIIfy can
le iusfIlIed. Yef, accordIng fo fhe IIllerence ¡rIncIpIe, fhe iusfIlIca-
fIon musf shov fhaf InequaIIfy lenelIfs fhe vorse oll. Buf vhy does
InequaIIfy have fo le iusfIlIed¹ And vhy musf fhe iusfIlIcafIon le
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lramed In ferms ol fhe lenelIfs lroughf fo fhe underdog, and nof In
ferms ol fhose enioyed ly fhe dog on fop ol hIm¹ These quesfIons
suggesf fhaf fhe leIIel In equaIIfy Is leIng buí|r ín fo fhe argumenfs
ollered In supporf ol If. LIIe a reIIgIous leIIel, If Is leIng profecfed
rafher fhan quesfIoned ly fhe argumenfs adduced In Ifs lavor.
HayeI sees fhaf fhe zero-sum vIsIon Is lIred ly an ImpIacalIe neg-
afIve energy. If Is nof fhe concrefe vIsIon ol some reaI aIfernafIve fhaf
anImafes fhe socIaIIsf crIfIc ol fhe capIfaIIsf order. If Is hosfIIIfyfovard
fhe acfuaI, andInparfIcuIar fovard fhose vhoenioy advanfages vIfhIn
If. Hence fhe leIIel In equaIIfy remaIns vague and undelIned, excepf
negafIveIy. !or If Is essenfIaIIy a veapon agaInsf fhe exIsfIng order a
vay ol undermInIng Ifs cIaIms fo IegIfImacy, ly dIscoverIng a vIcfIm
lor every lorm ol success. The sfrIvIng lor equaIIfy Is, In ofher vords,
lased In re··enrímenr In ÞIefzsche´s sense, fhe sfafe ol mInd fhaf Nax
ScheIer IdenfIlIed as fhe prIncIpaI mofIve lehInd fhe socIaIIsf orfho-
doxy ol hIs day.
If Is one ol fhe maior prolIems ol modern poIIfIcs,
vhIchno cIassIcaI IIleraI couId possIlIy soIve, hovfo governa socIefy
In vhIch resenfmenf has acquIred fhe IInd ol prIvIIeged socIaI, InfeI-
IecfuaI, and poIIfIcaI posIfIon fhaf ve vIfness foday.
Il you accepf fhe ÞIefzschean expIanafIon ol egaIIfarIanIsm, fhen
you vIII perhaps accepf fhe lurden ol my conservafIve crIfIque ol
HayeI, vhIch Is fhaf he pays foo much affenfIon fo fhe search lor
rafIonaI soIufIons fo socIaIIy generafed prolIems, and nof enough fo
fhe mofIves fhaf prompf peopIe fo leIIeve or dIsleIIeve In fhem.
!or aII hIs lrIIIIance In uncoverIng a fhread ol argumenf fhaf |In my
vIev] decIsIveIy esfalIIshes fhe InfeIIecfuaI superIorIfy ol IIleraI-
conservafIve over socIaIIsf poIIfIcs, HayeI does nof engage vIfh fhe
reaI, deep-dovnconlIIcf lefveenconservafIsmandsocIaIIsm, vhIch
Is a conlIIcf over fhe nafure and condIfIons ol socIaI memlershIp. In
fhIs conlIIcf IIleraIIsm musf Iearn fo lIghf on fhe conservafIve sIde.
!or IIleraIIsm Is possIlIe onIy under a conservafIve governmenf.

:. HayeI :,oc, p. +,ï.
:. See HayeI :,¬ol, p. ::, and aIso fhe argumenfs marshaIIed In !eser :cc+.
+. The argumenf fhaf I have here condensed Is speIIed ouf In defaII In NIses
|:,::| :,s:, and In fhe essays In HayeI :,¡ïa, especIaIIy fhe fhree essays on
''SocIaIIsf CaIcuIafIon´´ fhere reprInfed.
HayeI and conservafIsm ::,
Cambridge CollecIiohs Ohlihe © Cambridge UhiversiIy Press, 200
¡. Þeumann and Norgensfern :,¡¡.
s. Ò´ÞeIII :,,ï, pp. :+¡ll.
o. HayeI :,ï:a, p. ¬+.
¬. AncIenf vrIfers on fhe vhoIe concurred vIfh HayeI´s vIev ol Iav.
AccordIng fo Iemosfhenes, ''every Iav |nomo·] Is a dIscovery and a
gIlf ol fhe gods´´ |Anríj|on I, III, :¬], a vIev maInfaIned ly ¡Iafo In T|e
Iov·, ly fhe CreeI fragedIans, and many ofher ancIenf sources. See fhe
dIscussIon In Brague :ccs.
ï. See HayeI :,¬ol.
,. I have argued lor fhIs posIfIon In Scrufon :ccc, ch. o.
:c. Benfham :,c¬, AusfIn :,s¡, KeIsen :,¡s.
::. HayeI :,¬ol, p. ss.
::. HayeI :,¬+, pp. ::::+.
:+. SchmIff |:,::| :,ïs.
:¡. LasII :,+¡, p. :¬¬.
:s. Among Cerman opponenfs ol posIfIvIsm specIaI menfIon shouId le
made ol A. ReInach, vhose looI T|e A Príorí íoundoríon· o| r|e Cíví|
Iov appeared In :,:+, and aIso Nax ScheIer.
:o. See especIaIIy fhe argumenf ol IvorIIn In ''Hard Cases,´´ reprInfed In
IvorIIn :,¬ï. !or an overvIevol IvorIIn´s fheory ol IavIn a sfudy fhaf
deaIs aIso vIfh HayeI and ÒaIeshoff, see CoveII :,,:.
:¬. ÒaIeshoff :,o: and :,¬s.
:ï. Òl course fhe processes InvoIved are dIllerenf In eIfher case. ¡rIces are
InlormafIve parfIy lecause fhose vho overprIce or underprIce fheIr
goods are quIcIIy drIven lrom fhe marIef, fhe common Iav Is Inlorma-
fIve lecause iudgmenfs fhaf creafe conlIIcfs are graduaIIy overruIed, and
iudgmenfs fhaf reInlorce fhe ImpIIed socIaI order graduaIIy assume fhe
sfafus ol precedenfs.
:,. !eser :cc+. Òfhers have vrIffen ol a fensIon lefveen IIleraI rafIonaIIsm
and conservafIve fradIfIonaIIsm In HayeI nofalIy KuIafhas |:,ï,] and
Ò´ÞeIII |:,,ï] fhough If seems fo me fhaf fhe concepf ol evoIufIonary
rafIonaIIfy Is desIgned precIseIy fo deluse fhIs fensIon.
:c. HayeI :,¬ol, pp. :cï,.
::. Those IooIIng lor poInfs ol vuIneralIIIfy In HayeI´s argumenf mIghf
quesfIon fhe Idea ol fhe ''iusf acfIon,´´ rafher fhan fhe ''iusf person,´´
as fhe lundamenfaI appIIcafIon ol fhe concepf. To expIore fhIs fopIc
vouId, hovever, faIe us foo lar lrom fhe presenf argumenf. SullIce If
fo say fhaf fhe ArIsfofeIIan approach fo moraIIfy, In ferms ol fhe vIrfues
and vIces ol fhe human characfer, made IIffIe Impacf on fhInIers
lroughf up In fhe afmosphere ol ''mefhodoIogIcaI IndIvIduaIIsm.´´
::. HayeI :,ï+l. The quofafIon Is lrom Iacques In A· You Ií|e Ir.
:+. Hume :,ïsc, p. s:.
Cambridge CollecIiohs Ohlihe © Cambridge UhiversiIy Press, 200
:¡. RepulIIshed as a pamphIef |HayeI :,¬:].
:s. HayeI :,oc, p. ïs.
:o. HayeI :,oc, p. :c,.
:¬. HayeI :,oc, pp. :co¬.
:ï. See Scrufon :cc:.
:,. See Ro¨ pIe :,oc, and fhe papers In ¡eacocI and WIIIgerodf :,ï,. !or a
confemporary delense ol fhIs posIfIon, see Cray :,,:.
+c. NaIfIand :,::.
+:. I have made fhe affempf In ''CIerIe and fhe Corporafe ¡erson´´ |Scrufon
|:,,c| :,,ï]. Do· deur·c|e Ceno··en·c|o|r·rec|r vas pulIIshed over
many years, fhe Iasf voIume appearIng In :,:+ vhen fhe aufhor vas
sevenfy-fhree years oId. If has never leen luIIy fransIafed, fhough Impor-
fanf parfs are avaIIalIe In CIerIe :,cc and :,+¡.
+:. HayeI :,s¡.
++. ÞIefzsche, T|e Ceneo|ogy o| Moro|· |ÞIefzsche :,,¡], pf. :, sec. ï, ScheIer
+¡. I have lenelIfed greafIy lrom commenfs lrom KevIn NuIIIgan, Barry
SmIfh, and IavId WIggIns.
HayeI and conservafIsm :+:

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