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ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERISTY, ISLAMABAD.

Business Communication
Non-Verbal Communication

Assignment: 2

Submitted to:

--------------

Submitted By:

Miss Shanza Malik

MBA Spring 2000

Roll No: A1

Reg No: -----------

Date: ------------

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Assignment: 2 Non-verbal Communication

Acknowledgment
First of all I am thankful to Allah who gives me the courage to complete this report.
Secondly I’m thank full to Mr. Syed Aadil Hannan shah, Assistant Electrical Engineer,
Crescent Jute Mill (pvt) Ltd., for providing me required data and explaining the
communication status of the mill.

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Abstract

Non-verbal communication consists of all the messages other than words that are used in
communication. In oral communication, these symbolic messages are transferred by means of
intonation, tone of voice, vocally produced noises, body posture, body gestures, facial
expressions or pauses. People react to the unspoken, as much (if not more) to how something is
said as to what is the explicit meaning of the words. Misunderstandings can often be clarified if
the people involved have the ability to notice and comment on the nonverbal communications in
an interaction.

This report is about the non verbal communication in crescent jute mill. It describes what
common non verbal cues are used in the mill and how these cues are interpreted at different
levels within organization?

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment........................................................................................................2
Table of Contents........................................................................................................4
LITERATURE REVIEW...................................................................................................6
Nonverbal Communication.........................................................................................6
Types of Nonverbal Communication.......................................................................7
1. Facial Expression..............................................................................................7
2. Gestures...........................................................................................................7
3. Paralinguistic....................................................................................................7
4. Body Language and Posture.............................................................................7
6. Eye Gaze..........................................................................................................8
7. Haptics.............................................................................................................8
8. Appearance......................................................................................................8
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Groups ......................................8
PRACTICAL STUDY OF ORGANIZATION......................................................................11
CRESCENT JUTE PRODUCTS LIMITED ......................................................................11
Profile...................................................................................................................11
Mission..................................................................................................................11
Vision....................................................................................................................11
Jute Features........................................................................................................13
Nonverbal communication in Crescent Jute Mill........................................................14
Eye contact: ......................................................................................................14
Facial expressions and body expressions: .........................................................14
Posture and Gestures.........................................................................................15
Hand Shaking.....................................................................................................15
Paralinguistics: ..................................................................................................16
Data Collection Techniques......................................................................................16
SWOT Analysis of Non verbal communication Profile of Crescent Jute Mill...............17
Strengths..............................................................................................................17
Weaknesses..........................................................................................................18
Suggestions and Conclusion.....................................................................................19
References................................................................................................................19

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Appendix...................................................................................................................20
Non verbal communication Questionnaire............................................................20
Crescent Jute mill (Pvt) Limited............................................................................20

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Nonverbal Communication
“Nonverbal communication is a dynamic process that engages the mind, body and society as
intersubjective entities. Humans create symbolic meanings for; and attach them to, the behaviors
of self and others. They are influenced by the contexts of action and by master themes in society.
In inner conversations with the self, or self-talk, humans propose and enact lines of action to
fulfill the perceived demands of the situation, or the expectations of others. In this dramaturgy of
behavior, humans learn to modify their nonverbal behaviors to meet the demands of new
situations. Human identity, achieved in interaction, is poignantly expressed in self
presentations.”

• It is omnipresent. All face-to-face interaction has a nonverbal component. It is useful in


diverse ways. That is, humans use nonverbal means to persuade or control others, to
clarify or embellish verbal expressions, or even to mislead others. It can be used to
substitute for verbal expression, as in the use of emblems.
• It is emotionally expressive. That is, people from all cultures smile, cry, and caress or
repress their emotions through body or facial action. Many emotional expressions seem to
be at least minimally shared and displayed universally.
• It exhibits both phylogenetic and ontogenetic primacy. That is, in the development of
human communication, nonverbal behavior predated the development of verbal
communication; individuals, upon birth, rely first upon nonverbal means to express
themselves.
• It has interaction primacy; even before a sentence is uttered, observers take note of body
behaviors, trying to make sense of actors' behaviors.
• It seems to be trustable. That is, people assume that nonverbal actions do not lie. People
tend to believe a nonverbal message when a verbal message contradicts it. (Burgoon,
Buller, Woodall, 1995)

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Types of Nonverbal Communication


Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began with the 1872 publication
of Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Since that time, there
has been an abundance of research on the types, effects, and expression of unspoken
communication and behavior. While these signals are often so subtle that we are not consciously
aware of them, research has identified several different types of nonverbal communication.

1. Facial Expression
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider
how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal
communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for
happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are similar throughout the world.

2. Gestures
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without
words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate number
amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.

3. Paralinguistic
Paralinguistic refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes
factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that
tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice,
listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of
voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.

4. Body Language and Posture


Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Research on body language
has grown significantly since the 1970’s, but popular media have focused on the over-
interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-crossing, especially after the
publication of Julius Fast’s book Body Language. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate
feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive
that previously believed.

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5. Proxemics
People often refer to their need for “personal space,” which is also an important type of
nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive
as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational
factors, personality characteristics, and level of familiarity

6. Eye Gaze
Looking, staring, and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people
encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking
at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest, and attraction.

7. Haptics
Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has been a
substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood. Harry
Harlow’s classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes
development. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior
and social interaction.

8. Appearance
Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles, and other factors affecting appearance are also
considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has
demonstrated that different colors can invoke different moods. Appearance can also alter
reactions, judgment, and interpretations.

The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Groups


• Group participants spend more time communicating nonverbally than they do verbally.

• Nonverbal cues are the primary ways the feelings, emotions, and the social climate of the
group are expressed.

• People believe nonverbal messages more than verbal messages.

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Applications of Nonverbal Communication

Body Posture, Movement and Gestures

• Emblems
• Illustrators
• Affect displays
• Regulators
• Adaptors

Deception Cues

• reduced eye contact


• increased shifts in posture
• more hand/shrug emblems
• more adaptors
• slower speech
• higher pitch in voice
• more deliberate pronunciation and articulation

Leadership Cues

• frequent gesturing
• shoulder and arm gestures

Persuasion Cues

• more animated facial expressions


• more gestures to emphasize their points
• head nods
• more likely to smile
• less fidgeting
• more likely to shift their postures toward others

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Synchronized Interaction

• we tend to mirror the posture and behavior of others


• we respond to physical posture, movement, rhythm and sound of human speech
• group coalitions may be identifiable through synchronized interaction

Eye Contact

• cognitive--thought processes
• monitoring--feedback
• regulatory--flow of communication
• expressive--feelings, emotions, attitudes

Culture and Nonverbal Communication

• High-Context and Low-Context Cultures (emphasis on nonverbal communication)


• High-Contact and Low-Contact Cultures (emphasis on touch)

Gender and Nonverbal Communication

• Men and women use and respond to nonverbal cues differently


• People of both sexes tend to move closer to women than to men
• Women tend to move closer to others than do men
• Men tend to use more gestures than do women
• Men initiate touch more often than women
• Women speak with less volume than men

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PRACTICAL STUDY OF ORGANIZATION

CRESCENT JUTE PRODUCTS LIMITED

Profile
CRESCENT JUTE PRODUCTS LIMITED (CJPL) was established in 1965 and is one of the
largest jute mills in the country. The manufacturing facility in Jaranawala (Central Punjab) is
spread over an area of 127 acres comprising of 500 conventional and 60 shuttles-less looms and
the requisite back process.CJPL employs a workforce of 3,000 and has the capacity to produce
30,000 Metric tons of Jute goods annually. This production is comprised of a mix of Sacking,
Hessian and Twine. CJPL is part of the Crescent Group (CG); CG is one of the largest Industrial
Groups in Pakistan and has diverse business interests including Textiles, Textile value added,
Sugar, Steel and Banking.

Mission

Our Mission at CJPL is to fulfill our vision through the following activities:

• Investment in new technologies for enhancement in productivity.


• Creating new and non-traditional jute based products through active R&D.
• Retaining and training of professionals to uphold a strong, honest and healthy
organizational culture.
• Helping the community to keep the environment clean and healthy and to improve the
quality of life and material well being of all stakeholders.

Vision

We, at CJPL, will continue to excel in producing quality jute products by establishing our
position as industry leaders in setting standards for professional excellence.

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COMPANY INFORMATION

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Mr. Zahid Hussain (Chairman)

Mr. Mazhar Karim (Chief Executive)

(In Alphabetical order.)

Mr. Amir Hasnain Zaidi

Mr. A. Rashid M. Hanif

Mr. Anis Wahab Zuberi

Mr. Khalid Bashir

Mr. Khurram Mazhar Karim

Mr. Riaz Masood

Mr. ShaukatShafi

Mr. Saif Ullah Khan

AUDIT COMMITTEE

Mr. Khalid Bashir Chairman

Mr. Riaz Masood

Mr. Khurram Mazhar Karim

SECRETARY:

Mr. Amir Hasnain Zaidi

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AUDITORS

A.F. Ferguson & Co.,


Chartered Accountants

REGISTERED OFFICE

26-B, Aibak Block


New Garden Town, Lahore.
Tel: (042) 5837989
Fax: (042)5882022
WORKS
Jute Unit, Jaranwala

Jute Features
Jute has gained immense popularity around the globe because of its bio-degradable character. It
is a natural vegetable fiber which merges with soil and does not emit toxic fumes or residue on
combustion.

• Bio-degradable jute deteriorates organically, replenishing the earth with productive


invaluable nutrients.

• Environmentally friendly jute is non-pollutant.

• It produces no toxic gases or harmful gases as bye products.

• It beautifies the earth with vegetation, prevents further erosion and climatic change when
used as soil saver.

• Jute is almost the perfect eco-system.

• Jute is preferred to other backing substitute materials (polypropylene, latex foam,


polyurethane foam).

• Jute packages have long durability.

• Jute naturally protects perishable goods during storage, reducing product losses and
prolonging storage life.

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• Jute is one of the most versatile natural fibers with renewable resource having
applications in packaging, textiles and non-textile sectors.

• Hydrocarbon Free Jute Bags are now being considered as the perfect medium for packing
of Food grade items like Cocoa & Coffee Beans, shelled Nuts, etc.

• Used as Geo-Textile in road construction, river bank protection, land slides control, canal
lining, shallow land recovery, railway slope protection, etc.

Nonverbal communication in Crescent Jute Mill


Physical appearance, kinesics and vocal demeanor, and proxemic patterns are the most
immediately available sources of information some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to
explore are:

• Eye contact
• Facial expressions and body orientation
• Posture and Gestures
• Paralinguistics
• Humor

Eye contact:

Eye contact, an important channel of interpersonal communication, helps regulating the flow of
communication. And it signals interest in others. In crescent jute mill, frequent eye contact opens
the flow of communication and conveys interest, concern, power and credibility.

Facial expressions and body expressions:

Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits; Happiness, Friendliness, Warmth, Liking and
Affiliation .Thus, smile is used frequently among employees. However its intensity varies in
vertical positions. Some facial expressions are used very frequently for specific meanings. They
are given here.

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Expressions Meanings
Smile subtly It is a gesture of approval
Widen eyes Amazed
Look away from a person Dislike
Head is down In front of senior level management...to show
obedience
Raised fist Aggression
Nod (yes) Repeating
Touch someone on the arm To show friendship
Crossed arms To accept challenge
Speaking excessively in an effort to Lying
convince, using humor and sarcasm to avoid
the subject

Posture and Gestures

• Usually working staff move and work in very rough style and keep their body in best
suitable working posture.
• Higher-stature people often stand straighter and hold their heads higher than do lower-status
people.
• In a sitting position, however, higher-status people are likely to have a more relaxed posture than
lower-status people who tend to sit in a rather rigid, erect position.
• Higher ranks remains in formal constricted pose (legs closed, hands on their lap, and
slouched) during meetings
• Gestures vary with the climate and working stress. In good climate every one laughs,
enjoy talking and forgive small errors. In stressed working hours labor as well as
management keeps teeth and tongue inside. During Overstay quarrelling on small matters
is common.

Hand Shaking

• Lead Shake: Some people take hold of next person’s right hand using their right and
then place their left on top like a glove. They do this to imply they're trustworthy but
instead other person likely feels overpowered and uncomfortable.
• Slippery Shake. Those people having dislike for handshakes use this type of handshake
to get it over quickly.

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• Limp Shake: This handshake feels as if the person you are greeting has no strength in
their hand and they just hang it. This hand shake has no feeling and this is very common
in mill. Bosses handshake with workers in this style.

Paralinguistics:

Such vocal elements are clearly observable in the mill:

• Tone and Pitch

Peers usually talk in soft tone; with variable pitch, with one another but in anger they
don’t care for their high tone even.

In front of top management, tone is kept very low even if the boss is insulting the staff.
And an explanation with taunting pitch is completely avoided.

• Loudness

Workers use loud volume while communication because of noisy environment. However,
lower grade staff is often seen to talk in louder tone then middle level management.

Environment

• Working environment is noisy that has affected hearing quality of labr very badly.
• Working areas near machines are very clean.
• Labor sitting areas are not properly cleaned daily.

Data Collection Techniques

Various data collection techniques can be used such as:

• Using available information


• Observing
• Interviewing (face-to-face)

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• Administering written questionnaires


• Focus group discussions
• Projective techniques, mapping, scaling

Following techniques are used for collecting data of this report

• Using available information

Information available form the company is first read thoroughly for this report. Annual reports,
website and newsletters were consulted in detail.

• Observing

For creating a non verbal communication profile of the company, I visit the mill and observe non
verbal cues by spending time with workers and management.

• Interviewing (face-to-face)

In the mill, I talked to workers; asked questions about their methods of communications, and
behavior of management with them. And after face to face talks with management, I finalize my
data for this report.

• Administering written questionnaires

A simple Questionnaire is prepared for the crescent jute mill workers to understand their
communication process. One sample of this Questionnaire is attached in the appendix.

SWOT Analysis of Non verbal communication Profile of


Crescent Jute Mill.
Strengths
• Feedback

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Feedback is used very extensively in the mill. It tells the upper staff how the
listener is responding to them, their message.

• Interaction of manager with workers

To function effectively as a team leader the manager must interact with the other
members successfully. Non-verbal cues, when interpreted correctly, provide him
with one means to do so

• Effective team Leadership

Some personal needs such as approval, growth, achievement, and recognition may
be met in effective teams. The extent to which these needs are met is closely
related to how perceptive the team leader and team members are to non-verbal
communication in themselves and in others on the team

• Smile-Friendly working environment

Just a simple, sincere, greeting smile that is welcoming and appealing is used
among workers, which creates a friendly environment. However, if some one is
not a "smiler," every one remains aware of his facial expression and usually tries
to avoid talking with him.

• Understanding problems

When words fail to match up with nonverbal signals, people tend to ignore what
has been said and focus instead on nonverbal expressions of moods, thoughts, and
emotions. All workers concentrate on the non verbal cues of their fellows and can
easily understand their problems.

Weaknesses
• No Questioning About Nonverbal Signals

If any one is confuse about the next person’s nonverbal signals he will never ask
questions to clarify it.

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• Less Consideration of Context

When workers are communicating with managers, they usually do not consider
the situation and the context in which the communication occurs.

• Poor Listening

Even the workers are nodding heads but they are not listening well. They are
habitual of saying “Yes Sir, Ok I got it.” e.t.c but do not concentrate on listening

• Interruption, distractions

Hurdles to effective listening are never tried to remove.

Suggestions and Conclusion


In the Crescent Jute Mill, non verbal communication is playing very important
role. From the labor to the top management every one communicates with a lot of
symbols, gestures and signs specifically developed for this environment. Every level of
hierarchy have specific body posture, hand shake and even smile.However this
communication is totally dependent on personal skills. There is no proper training of non
verbal communication for workers; management and Human resource officer .Poor
listening some time results in huge misunderstandings causing delay in work but
management do not take proper actions for it. Workers never feel comfortable with top
management because of lack of interpersonal communication of management with lower
grade staff. There is no Labor union for support of labors.

Although Crescent group has great reputation, it must revise it interpersonal


communication policy to facilitate its human power.

References
[1]Murphy, P. (2007, July 18). Effective Business Communication

[2]Beebe & Masterson (6th Edition) © 2000, Communicating in Small Groups: Principles and
Practices.

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[3]CHRIS ARGYRIS, Harvard Business Review, 1966, Interpersonal Barriers to Decision

Making

[4]Allan Canfield, Ph.D.,Body, Identity and Interaction: Interpreting Nonverbal Communication.

[5] Crescent Jute Mills (pvt) Limited, Annual Report 2009, Jaranwala, Faisalabad.

[6] www.cresjute.com

[7]www.netmba.com

[8]www.tajzia.com

[9]www.articlebase.com

[10]www.about.com

[11]www.wikihow.com

[12]www.ezinearticles.com

[13] www.quickmba.com

Appendix
Non verbal communication Questionnaire

Crescent Jute mill (Pvt) Limited


Name: ________________________

Rank: ________________________

Working in crescent jute mill since:__________________________________

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Simply choose the response that fits you best to examine whether your
communication skills serve your best interests.

A = Always or almost always, F = frequently or often, S = Sometimes or reasonably


and N = rarely or never

1. I give my full attention to others when they talk to me.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

2. I maintain eye contact throughout a conversation.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

3. I display empathy.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

4. I encourage others to talk when appropriate.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

5. I ask the best questions to invite the best answers from others.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

6. I ask for clarification of whatever I don't fully understand.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

7. I treat others respectfully.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

8. I deal with conflicts and differences appropriately.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

9. I share my feelings and needs with loved ones.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

10. I understand and optimize non-verbal communications.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

11. I discover what is in the best interest of others.

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♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

12. I communicate my boundaries effectively to others.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

13. I respect myself in all my communications with others.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

14. I respect the dignity and rights of others.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

15. I praise and reprimand others appropriately.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

16. I motivate others to do their best.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

17. I minimize others' unwanted behaviors effectively.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

18. I optimize others' suboptimal thoughts, feelings and behaviors.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

19. I cooperate with others to create the best results.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

20. I respond optimally even when I am ready to explode.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

21. I deal optimally with those who complain, criticize, blame and make excuses.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

22. I optimize communications with those who practice one-upmanship.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

23. I negotiate the best solutions with all personality types.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

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24. I assert my needs appropriately.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

25. I respond appropriately when others are off track.

♦A ♦F ♦S ♦N

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