Chapter#1 -------------------------------------------Communication is the ability to share information with people and to understand what information others want to convey

. Communication skills can be of many forms, including: • Gestures • Facial expressions • Signs • Speech • Written communication • Vocalization

∗ Communication:

∗ Definitions of Communication:
 Burleson and Steiner: The transmission of information ideas, emotions, skills etc by the use of symbols, words, speeches, figures, graphs etc are called communication.  Miller: Communication means that information which is passed from one place to another.  Edward R.Murrow: The newest computer can nearly compound at a speed the oldest problem in relation between human beings and in the end the communicator will be confronted with the old problem of what to say and how to say.  Weaver: Communication is all of procedures from one place to another. ∗

Purpose and objectives of communication:
Purpose of communication depends on what your objective is for communication. There are different methods of communication.  Effective communication in following situations: i. Life long process: Communication is the process which starts from birth to death that is why it is called life long process.

ii.

Multifaceted process: The communication is an interactive process between sender and receiver. Problem solving and decision making: Communication takes place for solving real life problems and it may also be done for decision making.

iii.

∗ Importance of communication (life blood of organization):
a. Communication is very important to for any organization because the operations of the organization cannot be done without sharing the ideas and information. b. Communication starts from birth to death in an organization, it continuously flows from the bosses to the workers and from workers to bosses. c. Effective communication is the life blood of every organization and a key to success in our business careers and our personal life. d. The effective communication is vital inside the company because employees can better be motivated and more efficient bite. e. Outside the company, a communication to customers, prospective customers, inquirers, suppliers and public and have far reaching effect on the business and goodwill of the company. f. A properly organized and arranged letter, telephone call or personal conversation can went back any disgruntled and dissatisfied customer and create goodwill for the company. Therefore the communication has far reaching effect on business and the goodwill of the company.

∗ Communication Skills:

When a person communicates, he must have the following essential communication skills. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. He/she must be able to communicate effectively with all levels of management. He/she must have substantial experience, training in oral and written communication and demonstrate good writing skills. He/she should be able to prepare special analysis, research reports and proposals. He/she needs ability to compose effective correspondence. He must have ability to communicate and sell ideas, firm and products. He/she must be able to cultivate and maintain good customer relationship.

vii.

He/she needs skills in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data and writing analytical reports.

∗ Formal and informal communication:
 Formal communication: The formal communication is used when we are dealing with serious business affairs or the language which is used while communicating in business. The following are the common situations in which formal communication is required. a. Job applications b. Letters to public and utility companies c. Business letters d. Business reports and memos e. Public discussions of serious issues f. Formal reports g. Oral and written reports h. Class discussions i. Discussion in conferences, seminars, assemblies and courts. In formal communication, the usage of slang and informal words and sentences are avoided.  Informal communication: Informal communication is used in private conversations and personal letters or peer to peer communication. The informal communication is avoided in the business, because it can effect the reputation of the communicator for business. The following is the list of formal and informal words. -Manager, Director, Supervisor, Owner. -A kind person, a helpful friend. -Friend -Family -Children -Police officer -Advertisement -Boss -A great guy. -Buddy, Pal -Folks -Kids -Cop -Ads

-------------------------------------------Chapter#2 --------------------------------------------

∗ Factors, Elements and Process of Communication:
 i. ii. iii. iv. Factors of Communication: Sender Message Medium Receiver

 Process of Communication: Thought Encoding Transmitter Noise and Barriers Receiver

Idea Received i.

Decoding

Thought: Any idea, information or material that the sender has thought of to be shared with the receiver is called thought. Encoding: The form of the information is called encoding, such as an idea, advice, opinion, request, question, answer etc. Transmitter: The medium of communication, such as letters, reports, sms, facts, emails, charts, pictures or any other mechanical device is called transmitter. Noise and Barriers: The blockage in the flow of communication is called noise and barrier. Receiver: The person for whom the information is transmitted is called receiver. Decoding: The way in which the receiver understands the information is called decoding. Idea Received: The information that has been learned by the receiver through the message is called idea received.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

-------------------------------------------Chapter#3 -------------------------------------------∗ Planning steps for communication:
i. There are six planning steps before we transmit our message. Know the purpose of the message. This is the first step in the planning for communication in which the communicator decides on what should be the purpose of the message he is communicating. Visualize your render or listener. This is the second planning step of communication in which the communicator conceders his readers or audience and collects the information about his audience likes and dislikes etc. Choose the ideas to transmit. In this step of planning, the communicator considers the basic idea which should be conveyed through the message. Get all the facts to backup these ideas. In this part, the communicator collects all the facts and figures relating to his message and what should be included in the message so that the idea is effectively communicated. Organize your ideas in the most effective order. Once the ideas have been collected, they need to be organized and arranged in such a manner that the communication becomes almost perfect. Revise and proof read. In this step, the communicator revises his message and facts. And at the end, he proof reads it so that there is little margin of error.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

-------------------------------------------Chapter#4

-------------------------------------------∗ Business writing principals:
 9C’s of communication: 1. Correctness: For correct communication, following points must be kept in mind. a. Use of correct level of language. b. Include only accurate facts, words and figures. c. Maintain acceptable writing mechanism. 2. Conciseness: The communication must not be too long or lengthy. It should be concise and accurate so that the reader may find it easy to understand. To achieve conciseness, following points may help. a. Avoid hackneyed expressions and klatches. b. Avoid unnecessary repetition and wordy expressions. c. Include only relevant facts with courtesy. d. Organize message logically and effectively. 3. Clarity: Clarity demands that the business message should be correct, concise, complete, concrete and with consideration. To accomplish these objectives the following points can help. a. Choose pithy, short, familiar and conversational words. b. Prepare punctuations and make the writing clear. c. Insert pictures, charts, graphs etc. d. Make the message readable and understandable. 4. Completeness: The message should be complete to bring the desirable results. The following are the guidelines for completeness. a. The message should answer all the questions in order they were asked. b. Give some additional information. Ensure to answer 5 W’s (Who, When, What, Where, Why).

5. Concreteness: The business writing should be specific, definite, unambiguous and vivid rather than vague and general.

The following guidelines can accomplish concreteness. a. Use of specific facts and figures. b. Use action verbs. c. The message should have vivid and image building words. 6. Consideration: Consideration refers to your attitude, empathy, human touch and understanding of human nature. Consideration means the message with receiver in mind. It means visualizing reader’s interest, desire, emotions, circumstances and possible reactions. The consideration can be achieved through the following. a. Emphasize ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ or ‘We’. b. Your message should convey the truth. c. Stress the positive pleasant aspects of facts. d. Offer a service of value to the reader. 7. Courtesy: “Everyone gains where courtesy reigns” is a good old age slogan for written and oral communication. Courtesy is more important and advantageous in business writing than it is in the face to face communication or conversation. Courteous messages strengthen pleasant relations and make new friends. It’s also a goodwill builder. Courtesy may be achieved by the following. a. Be truly tactful, thoughtful and appreciative. b. Omit expressions that annoy distress or disparage. c. Answer all your mail timely. d. Grant and apologize kindly. 8. Confidence: When the communicator communicates his information, he must be confident in his message and also be confident for the positive response from the receiver. Following are the undesirable conditions that may occur if a message lacks in confidence. a. You may find yourself unable to write or speak. b. You may not represent your case strongly. c. You may throw a bad impression on others and as a back lash it will damage the goodwill of the firm.

9. Conversational tone:

Your letter should read as if you were talking to the reader. The tone should be comfortable, natural, conversational and inconspicuous. To accomplish conversational tone, following points will help. a. Vary your words. b. Use proper syntax. c. Be straight forward. d. Keep paragraph small. e. Avoid vague writing.

∗ Seven principals to develop writing skills:
i. Learn grammar. Knowledge of grammar is essential for writing, speaking, understanding and listening. A business man therefore must have good knowledge of grammar. Increase your word power. If a businessman has greater vocabulary, than he is capable of writing effective business communication. Develop reading habit. Reading helps you in expanding your understanding and knowledge, therefore it is considered as a very essential tool of businessmen. You must have standard dictionary. A businessman finds a modern mobile phone a very helpful tool to increase his vocabulary. Develop writing habit. Regularly write diaries, notes, short stories, articles or memorandums or constructive several sentences using a simple and difficult word. Develop your imagination. Without imagination, one cannot write, no matter how great vocabulary he has. Improve your knowledge of subject: If one lacks the knowledge of the subject, than you are unable to write even a single line.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

--------------------------------------------

Chapter#5 -------------------------------------------∗ Nature and kinds of communication:
 Internal communication: Internal communication is done within an organization. It has three types. i. Horizontal or crosswise communication: It is the communication that flows between personal in one department and personal of equal lower status in other departments. ii. Downward communication: When communication flows from superiors to subordinates, it is called downward communication. Upward communication: When communication flows from subordinates to superiors, it is referred to as upward communication.  External communication: The inter company communication is referred to as external communication. This type of communication can be done for various reasons, such as; with other companies, for one company’s product marketing by the other company and the inter company joint venture.  Basic organization plans: Business letters, memos and reports can be arranged by the direct or indirect approach. Letters and memos can be arranged in following four basic organization plans. Good news ----------------- Deductive Direct request ------------- Deductive Bad news ------------------- Inductive Persuasive request ------- Inductive i. Direct (deductive) approach: Direct method is used when the message is favorable or neutral. The goodness plans and direct request plans are achieved through deductive method. Indirect (inductive) approach: Indirect approach is used when the message is unfavorable (negative) or when a persuasive request is made.

iii.

ii.

 Opening and closing:

The opening and closing are most important parts of the body of a letter or any other message. They are discussed in detail below. i. Opening: Since first impression is the last impression, therefore the opening of a business letter may determine weather the reader continues reading or puts the message aside or discard it. The paragraph should preferably: a. Reader centered. b. Make a favorable impression. c. Orient the reader to the subject and purpose of the message. Closing: The closing plays an important role in motivating reader to act as desired provided it is appropriately written. We remember best what we read last. In closing, we want to bring the desired action, last impression is pasting impression.

ii.

-------------------------------------------Chapter#6 -------------------------------------------∗ Business letters:
A I D A ------------------------------------------------Attention Interest Desire Action

 Parts of business letters: i. The heading: It’s the name and address of the firm, sending the letter. ii. Inside address: Inside address mentions the name and address or designation of the person, the letter is being sent to. Salutation: Salutation is the start of the letter. Body: The body includes the message you want to send.

iii.

iv.

v.

Complimentary close: It means the closing words that the writer of the letter uses for the reader. Signature: Signature is the part of business letter in which the writer of the letter writes his name and his signature. Reference section: Reference section includes the initials of the dictator of the message and the typist it appears. Flash with the left margin or one or two lines below the last line of the signature.

vi.

vii.

 Punctuation styles: i. Open punctuation: No punctuation is used after every line of the heading, inside, address, salutation and complimentary close. This style is used with full block and AMS simplified format. It may also be used in modified block, hanging paragraph and personalized format e.g. Gentleman, dear Mr. Imran, yours sincerely. Etc. ii. Mixed punctuation: A colon follows the salutation and a comma follows the complementary close. Mixed punctuation is used in modified block style e.g. dear Mr. Raja:, yours truly, etc.

 Kinds of letter format: i. Block or full block format: Here the date, inside address, salutation, paragraphs and complementary close begin with flush with the left margin. In other words no line will have any indentation. ii. Modified block or semi block format: This format has two versions. a. Paragraph begins at the left margin without any indentation. Date and complementary close appears at the centre or at the right of the letter. Mixed punctuation is used but o[en punctuation may also be used. b. Paragraphs are indented; other things will remain same as above. AMS simplified format: Administrative Management Society of US has suggested this style. All lines begin with flush with the left margin. Here you limit salutation and complementary close and it is modern and time saving

iii.

format. It uses a subject line in place of salutation. Name should be used in the first line of first paragraph. iv. v. Personal format: It is a combination of block and AMS format. Memo and memorandum: These are used within the organization. A memo resembles with AMS simplified format in that it doesn’t use salutation and complementary close. It is the rapid and convenient mean of communication. Hanging paragraph: This format is only used in sales and advertising letters. All lines of the letter body are indented except the first line of each paragraph. Official letter format: Public and government officials as well as business persons use this style. It may be blocked or modified blocked. The inside address appears some line block the last line of signature. This is main feature of this format.

vi.

vii.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

 Difference between letter and memo: Letter Memo It is formal communication in 1. It is informal communication in writing writing It must have heading with name 2. It may or may not include name and address of company and address of the company as It must have inside address heading It includes salutation 3. Inside address is ignored The body text of the letter starts 4. Salutation is not needed with a formal sentence 5. The memo does not carry any the body ends with a formal formal sentences as an opening. It closing experience starts right away with the main Complementary close is an idea important part of the letter 6. No formal closing sentence is Compound with the memo it required. It stops right at the takes more time to write. completion of the idea 7. Complementary close is not needed 8. It is a time saving device

 Kinds of letters: i. Announcement letters (sales, sales promotions, circulars): These letters are written to make some announcements which may be good or bad. These letters may be written to an individual or for a group. These letters are also called circulars. The contents of announcements may be; increase in salaries, sales and events, procedures, policies, responsibilities, promotion, shifting, prizes, honors, activities of people, ambition or retirement, obituary, celebration etc. ii. Transmittal letters: These are the letters with which something is transmitted like a cheque, document, form, passbook, booklet, map or report to a customer or a business.

iii.

Adjustment letters: An adjustment letter is prepared to reply a complaint, request or claim letter. Adjustments may be in the following forms or situations. a. Granting claims b. Seller is at fault c. The buyer is at fault d. When the fault is not yet determined and will be adjusted e. Granting request such as approved credit’ f. Refusing request Job letters: A job letter is a sort of sales letter or sales promotion letter where the candidate or applicant is like a product. It is used by a candidate to offer his services to the prospective employer. A job letter may be solicited (invited) or unsolicited (uninvited) a. Solicited: It is a job letter which is written in response to an advertisement or call from employer. b. Unsolicited: This job letter is written without any invitation or advertisement by the employer or offering services.

iv.

v.

Direct requests: a. Claim or complaint: When the goods or services received are not according to the contract of sales or when the payment is not received in time, complaint or the part of aggrieved party arises.

b. Enquiry letters: Those letters which are written to enquire some information about the firm, person, goods or services. The inquiry letters may be divided into three categories. i. Inquiry above the product ii. Inquiry above the candidates iii. Status inquiry

∗ Job Letters:
 Definition: A job letter is a kind of sales letter or sales promotion letter in which the seller (applicant) offers him self as a product (candidate).  Sources of careers and jobs: Following are the important sources for careers and jobs available for candidates. i. Business in the field of your choice ii. Chambers of commerce iii. Persons in the employee of firms iv. Business schools and universities and their placement offices v. General and professional colleges vi. Employment agencies such as internet websites vii. Foreign employment offices and agencies viii. Friends and relatives ix. Personal departments of companies x. Professors and instructors xi. Company notice boards xii. Advertisements  Self audit and product analysis: Before you apply for a job for a job, it’s necessary that you conduct an analysis of yourself. Auditing refers to better understanding yourself and rating your abilities, weaknesses, strands, wants and aspirations. Self audit helps you review your own attributes. Evaluation of your qualities in three categories: a. Physical traits b. Intelligence traits c. Personality traits  The job audit: You not only require knowing yourself but also you need to know the requirements and suitability of the job. The job audit can be conducted by evaluating job description and job specification. This job analysis includes the location of the job, its duties, the equipment

used, working conditions, pay, opportunities for promotion and a training offer.  Quality and traits of candidates: 1) Prepare attitude toward employment: The attitude of the candidate should show willingness to work and learn interest in the choice interest in the company and reasonable attitude towards the salary. 2) Willingness to work and learn: The candidate should be willing to perform routine and non routine type of work. 3) Interest in the field: People like to work only in the field of their interest such as it’s you who decide the type of work you are best fitted for. 4) Intersession the company: You should perform your duties as you are carrying your own business. 5) Reasonable attitude toward the salary: You should emphasize a challenging opportunity rather than a large begging salary. 6) Integrity and sincerity: The qualities of integrity and sincerity are vital for employers who cannot accept deceptive person. 7) Self confidence and determination: You must show self confidence and be determinative while performing your duties. 8) Appearance: The appearance of candidate is shown by the dress, grooming bearing. 9) Manner: Manner includes poise, self confidence and exclusive stature. 10) Voice and expressions: Quality of the voice and expressions impress the interviewer. 11) Organization: That comprises ability to present the case logically and get to the point quickly.

12) Experience: Experience includes Attitude, kind of work, skill, interest, ability, leadership and accomplishment. 13) Response and reactions: Interviewer judges those qualities by your alertness and quickness of response. 14) Forces and drives: It is the ability to stimulate others and includes self assurance. 15) Intelligence: The interviewer determines weather you have reasoning and problems solving abilities, smartness, kindness and ability to learn. 16) Sensitivity: It refers to social analysis and good with people attitude. 17) Balance: Balance makes you versatile, flexible, and well-rounded and a man with verity of experience and interest. 18) Communication skills: You should be articulate, persuasive and able to establish report with others. 19) Initiative: You should self started high achiever and be able to motivate yourself.  Characteristics of job letters: Following are the characteristics of a good job application in addition to 9c’s of communication. a job letter should have the following. i. Present the message concisely, clearly, honestly and with consideration ii. Give specific and pertinent information relative to the position sought iii. Be yourself and don’t use copied messages iv. Use an appropriate business like approach v. Triple check for accuracy of mechanics, grammar, sentences, punctuation, paragraph, structure, organization and spelling etc. vi. Make appearance of the letter attractive

vii. viii.

Personalize your presentation. You should tailor the message or resume for specific job Use good judgment in mailing the message

 Checklist for application letter: a. Attention: i. Business like opening, it can be accomplished by the following. • Summary- of two or three outstanding qualifications • Name of an individual or office, the reader is familiar with • Question for reader benefit • Use item related to employer • Other relevant reader oriented statement ii. Mention of specific job or field of interest.

b. Interest, desire, conviction: i. Discussion of your qualification from a reader benefit or reader interest, view point. Include your, • Education and training • Work experience • Significant personal attitude, interest, qualities etc. ii. Reference to resume

c. Action: i. Request for interview ii. Easy action, it can be accomplished by the following. • Phone number • Hours you can be contracted • Reply envelop or card enclosed

 Resume/CV: It refers to the bio data of the candidate. Modern business correspondence have only a few and most important information inserted in the job letter and the detailed information above experience, education, references, achievements and other personal data are written in a separate sheet of paper bearing the heading resume, bio data or curriculum vitae. This sheet of bio data is attached to the job letter. It has become a vital add to the reader for understanding and quick grasp of your bio data.

o Checklist of a resume: i. Personal information: • Name, address, phone number, age, domicile, date of birth, height, weight, identification sign, marital status, hobbies. ii. iii. Objective: • Main purpose for working in the applied organization Education: • School leaving certificate; division/grade, year, place • Higher secondary education; division/grade, year, place • Graduation; division, year, place • Post graduate; division/grade, year, place • Diploma; year, place, institute • Major courses; place, institute Work experience: • Previous employer; address, business, duration, designation, job description • Present employer; duties, title, position hold • Work specialization; research tutoring and publication Achievements: • Prizes won, honors achieved, scholarships earned, outstanding position held, publications made, teams led, fields performed, social work undertaking etc Languages: • Speak, read, learn Reference: • Name and address of first reference • Name and address of second reference

iv.

v.

vi. vii.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful