ASEAN

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN
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Motto: "One Vision, One Identity, One Community"
"10 countries, 1 identity"

Anthem: "The ASEAN Way"

Seat of Secretariat Jakarta Largest city Jakarta Working language English[show] Demonym Southeast Asian Member states 10[show] Government Regional organisation - ASEAN Summit Presidency Indonesia [1] - Secretary General Surin Pitsuwan Formation - Bangkok Declaration 8 August 1967 - Charter 16 December 2008 Area - Total 4,479,210.5 km2

2,778,124.7 sq mi Population - 2010 estimate 601 million 135/km2 - Density 216/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate - Total US$ 3.084 trillion [2] - Per capita US$ 5,131 GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate - Total US$ 1,800 billion - Per capita $2,995 HDI (2007) 0.742 (medium) (100th¹) Currency 10[show] Time zone ASEAN (UTC+9 to +6:30) Internet TLD 10[show] Website asean.org Calling code 10[show]
1 2

If considered as a single entity. Selected key basic ASEAN indicators 3 Annual growth 1.6%

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bangkok Declaration

The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations,[3] commonly abbreviated ASEAN (generally pronounced /ˈɑːsi.ɑːn/ AH-see-ahn,[4] occasionally /ˈɑːzi.ɑːn/ AH-zeeahn[5] in English, the official language of the bloc),[6] is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.[7] Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Its aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, the protection of the peace and stability of the region, and to provide opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully.[8]

2 Asia-Europe Meeting  3.1 S.E.4 Scholarship o 6.1 List o 6. its combined nominal GDP had grown to USD $1.6 Official song 7 Sports o 7.ASEAN spans over an area of 4. 8.8 trillion.1 Policies 3 Meetings o 3.6 ASEAN six majors 5 Charter 6 Cultural activities o 6. 3% of the total land area of Earth.5. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 History o 1. it would rank as the 9th largest economy in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia in terms of nominal GDP.4 Football Championship .[9] If ASEAN were a single country. In 2010.2 Environment and democracy 2 The ASEAN way o 2.3 Commemorative summit o 3.3 FESPIC Games/ Asian Para Games o 7.1 Another Three  3.1 Continued expansion o 1.5 Other meetings  3. with a population of approximately 600 million people. Write Award o 6.5 University Network o 6.4 Single Aviation Market o 4.5 Free Trade Agreements With Other Countries o 4.8% of the world population.4 Regional Forum o 3.3 ASEAN-Russia Summit 4 Economic Community o 4.3 Heritage Parks  6.2 Comprehensive Investment Area o 4.1 ASEAN Summit o 3.5.5.1 Free Trade Area o 4.3 Trade in Services o 4.A.46 million km2.2 ASAIHL o 6.2 ASEAN Para Games o 7.3.1 Southeast Asian Games o 7.2 East Asia Summit o 3.

In 1990. commonly called ASA. and South Korea. not to mention Indonesia’s ambition to become a regional hegemon through regional cooperation and the hope on the part of Malaysia and Singapore to constrain Indonesia and bring it into a more cooperative framework. Vietnam became the seventh member. reduced faith in or mistrust of external powers in the 1960s.[11] Throughout the 1970s. was established on 8 August 1967. The bloc itself. In 1976. and Thanat Khoman of Thailand– are considered as the organisation's Founding Fathers. Japan. Malaysia and Thailand that was formed in 1961.[14][15] During the 1990s. Malaysia. the bloc experienced an increase in both membership as well as in the drive for further integration. barely a week after the country became independent on 1 January. Rajaratnam of Singapore. when foreign ministers of five countries– Indonesia. with the intention of counterbalancing the growing influence of the United States in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation . the Philippines.[13] Laos and Burma (Myanmar) joined two years later in 23 July 1997.[10] The motivations for the birth of ASEAN were so that its members’ governing elite could concentrate on nation building. following the stabilisation of its government. S. the organisation embarked on a program of economic cooperation. Singapore. Abdul Razak of Malaysia. the common fear of communism. as well as a desire for economic development. however.• • • • 8 Criticism 9 See also 10 Notes 11 External links [edit] History See also: List of ASEAN member states ASEAN was preceded by an organisation called the Association of Southeast Asia. The five foreign ministers– Adam Malik of Indonesia. Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus[16] composing the then-members of ASEAN as well as the People's Republic of China. The country later joined on 30 April 1999. an alliance consisting of the Philippines.[14] Cambodia was to have joined together with Laos and Myanmar. more commonly known as the Bangkok Declaration. following the Bali Summit of 1976. but was deferred due to the country's internal political struggle. The bloc then grew when Brunei Darussalam became the sixth member after it joined on 8 January 1984. the Melanesian state of Papua New Guinea was accorded observer status. and Thailand– met at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and signed the ASEAN Declaration.[12] [edit] Continued expansion On 28 July 1995. Narciso Ramos of the Philippines. This floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area.

[21] Satellite image of the 2006 haze over Borneo [edit] Environment and democracy At the turn of the 21st century. known as the Chiang Mai Initiative. It became fully effective on 21 June 2001. a revival of the Malaysian proposal was established in Chiang Mai. the Southeast Asian Nuclear-WeaponFree Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asia into a NuclearWeapon-Free Zone. however. which means all member countries believe democratic processes will promote . both of which are responses to the potential effects of climate change. Japan. the bloc also focused on peace and stability in the region.[22] Unfortunately. The organisation started to discuss environmental agreements. After the East Asian Financial Crisis of 1997. Through the Bali Concord II in 2003. ASEAN has subscribed to the notion of democratic peace. this was unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze. after the Philippines ratified it. member states continued to work for further integration and ASEAN Plus Three was created in 1997. issues shifted to involve a more environmental perspective. In 1992. because of heavy opposition from the United States and Japan.[17][19] Despite this failure.[20] Aside from improving each member state's economies. the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and as a goal to increase the region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market. effectively banning all nuclear weapons in the region. On 15 December 1995. This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. The treaty took effect on 28 March 1997 after all but one of the member states have ratified it. which calls for better integration between the economies of ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three countries (China. and South Korea).(APEC) as well as in the Asian region as a whole.[23] the ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network (ASEAN-WEN) in 2005. These included the signing of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002 as an attempt to control haze pollution in Southeast Asia. Climate change is of current interest. Other environmental treaties introduced by the organisation include the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security.[17][18] This proposal failed.[24] and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate.

India. In 2006.[citation needed] On February 27.[27] Furthermore. the organisation awarded the status of "dialogue partner" to the United Nations. ASEAN stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with China. which was supposedly patterned after the now-defunct European Community. in line with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. which promotes energy security by finding energy alternatives to conventional fuels. by ASEAN and the other members of the EAS (Australia. also felt the need to further integrate the region. a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an international legal entity. then Prime Minister of East Timor. India. This was followed by the even larger East Asia Summit. and South Korea. signed a formal request for membership and expected the accession process to last at least five years before the then-observer state became a full member. This new grouping acted as a prerequisite for the planned East Asia Community. Australia and New Zealand by 2013.[30] On 26 August 2007. Japan. South Korea). it is estimated that this FTA would boost aggregate GDP across the 12 countries by more than US$48 billion over the period 2000-2020. The ASEAN Eminent Persons Group was created to study the possible successes and failures of this policy as well as the possibility of drafting an ASEAN Charter. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Japan. ASEAN Plus Three was the first of these and was created to improve existing ties with the People's Republic of China.[citation needed] During the same year. (May 2008) . Beginning in 1997.[33][34] [edit] The ASEAN way This section does not cite any references or sources. ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly. José Ramos-Horta. on 23 July that year. which included these countries as well as India. the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security was signed in Cebu on 15 January 2007.[25] The leaders of each country. Also.[28][29] In 2007. South Korea.[26] As a response. Japan. the bloc began creating organisations within its framework with the intention of achieving this goal. ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its inception. New Zealand. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.[31][32] In November 2007 the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN Charter. Australia. the non-democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to. particularly Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia.regional peace and stability. and New Zealand. People's Republic of China. and 30 years of diplomatic relations with the United States. 2009 a Free Trade Agreement with the ASEAN regional block of 10 countries and New Zealand and its close partner Australia was signed.

[36] On the surface. namely non-interference. non-use of force and non-confrontation have constituted what is called the ASEAN Way. Thus. non-interference in the internal affairs of one another. subversion or coercion. minimal institutionalisation.The flags of 10 ASEAN members. who often share a reluctance to institutionalise and legalise co-operation which can undermine their regime's control over the conduct of regional co-operation. renunciation of the threat or use of force. but the ASEAN process has been managed through close interpersonal contacts among the top leaders only. and effective cooperation among themselves".[35] The ASEAN way can be traced back to the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. "Fundamental principles adopted from this included: • • • • • • mutual respect for the independence. consultation and consensus. In the 1960s. the process of consultations and consensus is supposed to be a democratic approach to decision making. human rights abuses and . settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner. [37] All of these features. the push for decolonisation promoted the sovereignty of Indonesia and Malaysia among others. territorial integrity. "Through political dialogue and confidence building. no tension has escalated into armed confrontation among ASEAN member countries since its establishment more than three decades ago". and national identity of all nations. many scholars have argued that the principle of non-interference has blunted ASEAN efforts in handling the problem of Myanmar. sovereignty. equality. informality. the right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference. Since nation building is often messy and vulnerable to foreign intervention. Territorially small members such as Singapore and Brunei were consciously fearful of force and coercive measures from much bigger neighbours like Indonesia and Malaysia. the governing elite wanted to be free to implement independent policies with the knowledge that neighbours would refrain from interfering in their domestic affairs. the organisation is chaired by the secretariat. Since the late 1990s.

The participants stand as representatives of their respective states and reflect the official positions of their governments during negotiations and discussions. backtrack on positions. The track that acts as a forum for civil society in Southeast Asia is called Track III. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. generating pressure through the media. and. While Track II meetings and interactions with Track I actors have increased and intensified. This track tries to influence government policies indirectly by lobbying.[38] Their recommendations. [edit] Policies This section does not cite any references or sources. Third-track actors also organise and/or attend meetings as well as conferences to get access to Track I officials. are often closer to ASEAN’s decisions than the rest of civil society’s positions. and dependent on government funding for their academic and policy-relevant activities. Track I refers to the practice of diplomacy among government channels. every member in fact has a veto and decisions are usually reduced to the lowest common denominator.[38] Track II differs slightly from Track I.[39] This track enables governments to discuss controversial issues and test new ideas without making official statements or binding commitments. with the consensus-based approach. "Track I refers to intergovernmental processes". (May 2008) Apart from consultations and consensus. There has been a widespread belief that ASEAN members should have a less rigid view on these two cardinal principles when they wish to be seen as a cohesive and relevant community. especially in economic integration. [40] Track III networks claim to represent communities and people who are largely marginalised from political power centres and unable to achieve positive change without outside assistance.haze pollution in the region. very much linked to their respective governments. ASEAN’s agenda-setting and decision-making processes can be usefully understood in terms of the so-called Track I and Track II. these think-tanks are. Although Track II dialogues are sometimes cited as examples of the involvement of civil society in regional decision-making process by governments and other second track actors. Those with Track I have been even rarer. All official decisions are made in Track I. Therefore. NGOs have rarely got access to this track. meanwhile participants from the academic community are a dozen think-tanks. and many working in Track II have previous bureaucratic experience. Track III participants are generally civil society groups who represent a particular idea or brand. in most cases. rarely has the rest of civil society had the opportunity to interface with Track II. involving civil society groups and other individuals with various links who work alongside governments. . if necessary. Meanwhile. However. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

the incumbent Indonesian President Dr. the fourth meeting was held in Singapore in 1992 where the leaders again agreed to meet more frequently. about declarations and plans of action. are accountable only to their governments and not the people. Leaders of member states would hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.” [41] [edit] Meetings [edit] ASEAN Summit The organisation holds meetings. Japan. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono admitted: “All the decisions about treaties and free trade areas. there is little knowledge. as well as to conduct other meetings with other countries outside of the bloc with the intention of promoting external relations. are made by Heads of Government. it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. where heads of government of each member meet to discuss and resolve regional issues. deciding to hold the summit every three years. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Myanmar which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the European Union. The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali. Its third meeting was held in Manila in 1987 and during this meeting.[citation needed] 1st Date 23–24 February ASEAN Formal Summits Country Bali Indonesia Host . of the large initiatives that ASEAN is taking on their behalf. it is clear that until now. ASEAN has been run by government officials who. known as ASEAN-CER. known as the ASEAN Summit.Looking at the three tracks. is set for another set of leaders of two Dialogue Partners (Australia. known as ASEAN Plus Three. South Korea) A separate meeting. A meeting.[43] By December 2008. Indonesia in 1976. And the fact that among the masses. let alone appreciation. New Zealand).[42] Consequently. The usual itinerary is as follows: • • • • Leaders of member states would hold an internal organisation meeting. the ASEAN Charter came into force and with it. is set for leaders of three Dialogue Partners (People's Republic of China. ministers and senior officials. In a lecture on the occasion of ASEAN’s 38th anniversary. as far as ASEAN matters are concerned. the ASEAN Summit will be held twice in a year.[42] In 2001. The formal summit meets for three days. it was decided that the leaders would meet every five years.

1976 2nd 4–5 August 1977 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 14–15 December 3rd Philippines Manila 1987 27‒29 January 4th Singapore Singapore 1992 14‒15 December 5th Thailand Bangkok 1995 15‒16 December 6th Vietnam Hanoi 1998 5‒6 November 7th Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan 2001 4‒5 November 8th Cambodia Phnom Penh 2002 7‒8 October 9th Indonesia Bali 2003 29‒30 November 10th Laos Vientiane 2004 12‒14 December 11th Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 2005 11‒14 January 12th Philippines2 Cebu 20071 18‒22 November 13th Singapore Singapore 2007 27 February . . 2 hosted the summit because Myanmar backed out due to enormous pressure from US and EU 3 This summit consisted of two parts. Hua Hin 16th 8–9 April 2010 Hanoi Vietnam 28-31 October 17th Vietnam Hanoi 2010 18th4 2011 Indonesia Manado 1 Postponed from 10‒14 December 2006 due to Typhoon Seniang. The second part was aborted on April 11 due to protesters entering the summit venue.1 March 2009 Cha Am. 4 Indonesia proposed a swap with Brunei as it will play host to APEC (and possibly the G20 meeting) in 2013. Hua Hin 14th3 Thailand 10–11 April Pattaya 2009 15th 23 October 2009 Thailand Cha Am. The first part was moved from 12‒17 December 2008 due to the 2008 Thai political crisis.

2005 Philippi Cebu City 15 January Rescheduled from 13 December 2006.During the fifth Summit in Bangkok. Malaysi Kuala Lumpur .[44] The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on 14 December 2005 and subsequent meetings have been held after the annual ASEAN Leaders’ Meeting.Malaysia. Japan. The summit has discussed issues including trade. energy and security and the summit has a role in regional community building. The members of the summit are all 10 members of ASEAN together with China. the leaders decided to meet "informally" between each formal summit:[42] ASEAN Informal Summits Date Country Host 1st 30 November 1996 Indonesia Jakarta 2nd 14‒16 December 1997 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 3rd 27‒28 November 1999 Philippines Manila 4th 22‒25 November 2000 Singapore Singapore [edit] East Asia Summit Participants of the East Asia Summit: ASEAN ASEAN Plus Three Additional members Observer Main article: East Asia Summit The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asian forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region. South Korea. Meeting First EAS Second a Country Location Date Note 14 December Russia attended as a guest. Australia and New Zealand who combined represent almost half of the world's population. with ASEAN in a leadership position. Russia has applied for membership of the summit and in 2005 was a guest for the First EAS at the invitation of the host . India.

The December summit was also notable as the first 2003 ASEAN summit held between ASEAN and a non-ASEAN country outside the region.EAS nes 2007 Third EAS Fourth EAS Fifth EAS 21 Singapore November re 2007 Agreed to establish Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia The date and location of the venue was rescheduled several times. 30. 2 June the establishment of relations 2009 between ASEAN and Republic of Korea Date ASEAN – Japan Commemorative Summit Jap an Tokyo ASEAN – China Chi Commemorative Nanning na Summit ASEAN – Republic Sou of Korea th Jeju-do Commemorative Korea Summit . 31 To celebrate the 15th anniversary of October the establishment of relations 2006 between ASEAN and China To celebrate the 20th anniversary of 1. The host country invites the heads of government of ASEAN member countries to discuss future cooperation and partnership. Meeting Host Location Note To celebrate the 30th anniversary of the establishment of relations 11. and then a Summit scheduled for 12 April 2009 at Cha-am Thailan 25 October Pattaya. 12 between ASEAN and Japan. Energy and the Environment[45] [edit] Commemorative summit A commemorative summit is a summit hosted by a non-ASEAN country to mark a milestone anniversary of the establishment of relations between ASEAN and the host country. The Summit Hin has been rescheduled for October 2009 and transferred again from Phuket[46] to Cha-am and Hua Hin. Thailand was cancelled when and Hua d 2009 protesters stormed the venue.[47] Officially invited the US and Russia to 30 October Vietnam Hanoi participate in future EAS as full-fledged 2010[48] members [49] Singapo Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security Singapore Declaration on Climate Change.

North Korea. the European Union. TimorLeste. instead of heads of government. Australia. other regular[52] meetings are also held. such as defence[52] or the environment. Japan. ARF objectives are to foster dialogue and consultation. [edit] Asia-Europe Meeting The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an informal dialogue process initiated in 1996 with the intention of strengthening cooperation between the countries of Europe and Asia. and issues regarding the Taiwan Strait are neither discussed at the ARF meetings nor stated in the ARF Chairman's Statements. India. [edit] Another Three The ASEAN Plus Three is a meeting between ASEAN. As of July 2007. Papua New Guinea. and South Korea. [edit] Other meetings Aside from the ones above. Bangladesh.[51] The Republic of China (also known as Taiwan) has been excluded since the establishment of the ARF.[52][56] and are attended by Ministers.[57] ASEAN. such as the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. South Korea. and promote confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the region. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: all the ASEAN members. it is consisted of 27 participants. Pakistan. is one of the 45 ASEM partners. China. It also appoints a . United States and Sri Lanka.[50] The ARF met for the first time in 1994. and is primarily held during each ASEAN Summit. multilateral dialogue in Asia Pacific region.[53] These include the annual ASEAN Ministerial Meeting[54] as well as other smaller committees. Russia.[edit] Regional Forum █ ASEAN full members █ ASEAN observers █ ASEAN candidate members ██ ASEAN Plus Three ███ East Asia Summit ██████ ASEAN Regional Forum The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a formal. especially members of the European Union and ASEAN in particular. official. the People's Republic of China. represented by its Secretariat.[55] Meetings mostly focus on specific topics. Canada. New Zealand. Japan. Mongolia.

Laos and Myanmar in 1997. forestry and mining is scheduled by 2010 for most . the Philippines. sociocultural and economic integration.[59] The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is an agreement by the member nations of ASEAN concerning local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries.representative to sit on the governing board of Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF). but they are officially considered part of the AFTA as they were required to sign the agreement upon entry into ASEAN.[58] The regional grouping has made the most progress in economic integration. aiming to create an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The latecomers have not fully met the AFTA's obligations. Indonesia.[61] [edit] Comprehensive Investment Area The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA) will encourage the free flow of investment within ASEAN. [edit] ASEAN-Russia Summit The ASEAN-Russia Summit is an annual meeting between leaders of member states and the President of Russia. [edit] Economic Community ASEAN has emphasised regional cooperation in the “three pillars” of security. Singapore and Thailand. with exclusions to be phased out according to schedules National treatment is granted immediately to ASEAN investors with few exclusions Elimination of investment impediments Streamlining of investment process and procedures Enhancing transparency Undertaking investment facilitation measures Full realisation of the ACIA with the removal of temporary exclusion lists in manufacturing agriculture. and were given longer time frames in which to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations. ASEAN had six members. Vietnam joined in 1995. a common external preferential tariff scheme to promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN. and Cambodia in 1999. The AFTA agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. a sociocultural organisation associated with the Meeting. Malaysia. Brunei. namely.[59] [edit] Free Trade Area The foundation of the AEC is the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). The main principles of the ACIA are as follows[62] • • • • • • All industries are to be opened up for investment. fisheries.[60] When the AFTA agreement was originally signed.

The negotiations result in commitments that are set forth in schedules of specific commitments annexed to the Framework Agreement. will introduce an open-sky arrangement to the region by 2015.[69] The agreement with People's Republic of China created the ASEAN–China Free Trade Area (ACFTA). Korea. and also freeing up tourism. Australia. ASEAN Member States enter into successive rounds of negotiations to liberalise trade in services with the aim of submitting increasingly higher levels of commitments.[64] [edit] Single Aviation Market The ASEAN Single Aviation Market (SAM).[70] Republic of China (Taiwan) has also expressed interest in an agreement with ASEAN but needs to overcome diplomatic objections from China.[65][66] Beginning 1 December 2008. allowing ASEAN to directly benefit from the growth in air travel around the world. ASEAN is currently negotiating a free trade agreement with the European Union. proposed by the ASEAN Air Transport Working Group. ASEAN has concluded seven packages of commitments under AFAS. and Vietnam) countries. • • • Indonesia: 695 billions (1. there will be full liberalisation of air freight services in the region. trade. supported by the ASEAN Senior Transport Officials Meeting. Japan. New Zealand and most recently India. These schedules are often referred to as packages of services commitments. there will be liberalisation of fifth freedom traffic rights between all capital cities. In addition.[67] while from 1 January 2009.[63] Under AFAS.[68] [edit] Free Trade Agreements With Other Countries ASEAN has concluded free trade agreements with PR China.[65] The ASEAN SAM will be expected to fully liberalise air travel between its member states. Myanmar. At present. while[65][66] By 1 January 2011. The figures in parentheses are GDP PPP.ASEAN members and by 2015 for the CLMV (Cambodia. The six majors are: GDP nominal 2010 based on IMF data. investment and services flows between member states. 2010. Lao PDR.027 billions) Thailand: 312 billions (584 billions) Malaysia: 218 billions (412 billions) . restrictions on the third and fourth freedoms of the air between capital cities of member states for air passengers services will be removed. which went into full effect on January 1.[62] [edit] Trade in Services An ASEAN Framework Agreement on Trade in Services was adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok in December 1995.[71] [edit] ASEAN six majors ASEAN six majors refer to the six largest economies in the area with economies many times larger than the remaining four ASEAN countries. and endorsed by the ASEAN Transport Ministers.

with the aim of moving closer to "an EUstyle community". b) shared commitment and collective responsibility in enhancing regional peace. i) respect for fundamental freedoms. and the promotion of social justice. d) reliance on peaceful settlement of disputes. Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided." "The fundamental principles include: a) respect for the independence. . integrating and transforming itself into a community. good governance. subversion and coercion. e) non-interference in the internal affairs of ASEAN Member States. subscribed to by ASEAN Member States. the promotion and protection of human rights.[72] The charter turns ASEAN into a legal entity and aims to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. It is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift. c) renunciation of aggression and of the threat or use of force or other actions in any manner inconsistent with international law. President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated that "This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating. referring to climate change and economic upheaval. equality.• • • Singapore: 217 billions (291 billions) Philippines: 189 billions (350 billions) Vietnam: 101 billions (275 billions) [edit] Charter Main article: ASEAN Charter On 15 December 2008 the members of ASEAN met in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta to launch a charter. g) enhanced consultations on matters seriously affecting the common interest of ASEAN. h) adherence to the rule of law. sovereignty. f) respect for the right of every Member State to lead its national existence free from external interference. territorial integrity and national identity of all ASEAN Member States. security and prosperity. including international humanitarian law." he added. war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s. the principles of democracy and constitutional government. signed in November 2007. j) upholding the United Nations Charter and international law.

the ongoing global financial crisis was stated as being a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter.E.A. [edit] S. [edit] Cultural activities Logo of the S. Examples of these include the ASEAN University Network. Write Award The organisation hosts cultural activities in an attempt to further integrate the region. including the use of its territory. m) the centrality of ASEAN in external political. Write Award is a literary award given to Southeast Asian poets and writers annually since 1979. Write Award The S. the ASEAN Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award.E. in a market-driven economy". territorial integrity or political and economic stability of ASEAN Member States. pursued by and ASEAN Member State or non-ASEAN State or any non-State actor. These include sports and educational activities as well as writing awards.A.k) abstention from participation in any policy or activity. outward-looking.E.[75] The body was established later in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). The award is either given for a specific work or as a recognition of . economic. l) respect for the different cultures. while emphasising their common values in the spirit of unity in diversity. which threatens the sovereignty. and the Singapore-sponsored ASEAN Scholarship. languages and religions of the peoples of ASEAN. and n) adherence to multilateral trade rules and ASEAN's rules-based regimes for effective implementation of economic commitments and progressive reduction towards elimination of all barriers to regional economic integration. This proposition caused controversy. social and cultural relations while remaining actively engaged. the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity.[74] and also set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. inclusive and non-discriminatory. as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries who violate citizens' rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.A.[73] However.

[edit] ASAIHL ASAIHL or the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning is a nongovernmental organisation founded in 1956 that strives to strengthen higher learning institutions. There are now 35 such protected areas. research. [edit] Heritage Parks ASEAN Heritage Parks[76] is a list of nature parks launched 1984 and relaunched in 2004. including the Tubbataha Reef Marine Park and the Kinabalu National Park. novels. It aims to protect the region's natural treasures. plays. folklore as well as scholarly and religious works. short stories.an author's lifetime achievement. with the intention of cultivating a sense of regional identity and interdependence. espescially in teaching. Ceremonies are held in Bangkok and are presided by a member of the Thai royal family.[77] [edit] List ASEAN Heritage Sites Site Country Site Alaungdaw Kathapa National Ao Phang-nga Marine Myanmar Park National Park Apo Natural Park Philippines Ba Be National Park Bukit Barisan Selatan National Gunung Leuser National Indonesia Park Park Gunung Mulu National Park Malaysia Ha Long Bay Hoang Lien Sa Pa National Vietnam Iglit-Baco National Park Park Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Inlé Lake Wildlife Myanmar Sanctuary Sanctuary Kerinci Seblat National Kaeng Krachan National Park Thailand Park Khakaborazi National Park Myanmar Khao Yai National Park Kinabalu National Park Malaysia Komodo National Park Lampi Kyun Wildlife Kon Ka Kinh National Park Vietnam Reserve Meinmhala Kyun Wildlife Lorentz National Park Indonesia Sanctuary Mu Ko Surin-Mu Ko Similan Thailand Nam Ha Protected Area Marine National Park Country Thailand Vietnam Indonesia Vietnam Philippines Myanmar Indonesia Thailand Indonesia Myanmar Myanmar Laos . Works that are honoured vary and have included poetry. and public service.

The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Council of Asia.Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park Taman Negara National Park Tasek Merimbun Wildlife Sanctuary Tubbataha Reef Marine Park Virachey National Park Preah Monivong (Bokor) National Park Sungei Buloh Wetland Philippines Reserve Tarutao Marine National Malaysia Park Thung Yai-Huay Kha Brunei Khaeng National Park Ujung Kulon National Philippines Park Cambodia Keraton Yogyakarta Vietnam Cambodia Singapore Thailand Thailand Indonesia Indonesia [edit] Scholarship The ASEAN Scholarship is a scholarship program offered by Singapore to the 9 other member states for secondary school. school fees. [79] Currently AUN comprises 21 Participating Universities. ASEAN Song of Unity or ASEAN Hymn. . medical benefits & accident insurance. music by Kittikhun Sodprasert and Sampow Triudom Thailand. music by Ryan Cayabyab Philippines. and university education. Let us move ahead. food. is a biennial multisport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. and examination fees. It was originally founded in November 1995 by 11 universities within the member states.the official regional anthem of ASEAN.[80] [edit] Official song • • • The ASEAN Way . an ASEAN song. Lyrics by Payom Valaiphatchra Thailand. commonly known as the SEA Games. composed by Candra Darusman Indonesia.[78] [edit] University Network The ASEAN University Network (AUN) is a consortium of Southeast Asian universities. It covers accommodation. [edit] Sports [edit] Southeast Asian Games The Southeast Asian Games. junior college.

using the same facilities and venue made disability-accessible. accredited by FIFA and contested by the national teams of Southeast Asia nations. but after Asia Pacific Breweries terminated the sponsorship deal. The Games. The 2010 Asian Para Games will debut shortly after the conclusion of the 16th Asian Games.[84] . [edit] Criticism Non-ASEAN countries have criticised ASEAN for being too soft in its approach to promoting human rights and democracy in the junta-led Myanmar. also known as the Far East and South Pacific Games for the persons with disability. The games are participated by the 11 countries located in Southeast Asia. Malaysia. a success[81] in December 2006 in the 9th FESPIC Games in Kuala Lumpur. was the biggest multi-sports games in Asia and South Pacific region. who are amputees and those with cerebral palsy. [edit] FESPIC Games/ Asian Para Games The FESPIC Games. is a multi-sport event held every four years after every Asian Games.[83] This has caused concern as the European Union. [edit] Football Championship The ASEAN Football Championship is a biennial Football competition organised by the ASEAN Football Federation.[edit] ASEAN Para Games Logo of the ASEAN Para Games The ASEAN Para Games is a biennial multi-sport event held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. has refused to conduct free trade negotiations at a regional level for these political reasons.[82] Despite global outrage at the military crack-down on peaceful protesters in Yangon. It was inaugurated in 1996 as Tiger Cup. patterned after the Paralympic Games. The inaugural Asian Para Games. visual disabilities. The FESPIC Games were held nine times and bowed out. the parallel event for athletes with physical disabilities. ASEAN has refused to suspend Myanmar as a member and also rejects proposals for economic sanctions. "Tiger" was renamed "ASEAN". China. a potential trade partner. The Games re-emerges as the 2010 Asian Para Games in Guangzhou. are played by physically challenged athletes with mobility disabilities.

as a barrier to far-reaching cooperation outside the economic sphere. in the past.[87] During the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu. including many young states. several activist groups staged antiglobalisation and anti-Arroyo rallies.lowyinterpreter.[85] which implies that the organisation is "big on words but small on action".[86] Head of the International Institute of Strategic Studies – Asia. ASEAN.asean.php 3. ^ http://www.[89] A human rights lawyer from New Zealand was also present to protest about the human rights situation in the region in general.[93] [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • ASEAN Common Time Asian Union ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) ASEAN kecil Asian Monetary Unit Chiang Mai Initiative Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia List of ASEAN countries by GDP (nominal) Mekong-Ganga Cooperation SEA-EU-NET Southeast Asia Treaty Organization US-ASEAN Business Council Blue card system .imf.[89] They also viewed the organisation as imperialistic that threatens the country's sovereignty. of being a mere talking shop. Tim Huxley cites the diverse political systems present in the grouping. leaders such as the Philippines' Foreign Affairs Secretary.[92] Others have also expressed similar sentiment.org/post/2010/06/29/Indonesia-as-ASEAN-ChairA-test-of-democracy. http://www. Search Voice of America . ^ VOA.org/external/datamapper/index. said it would be a workshop not a talk shop. 4.htm. Retrieved 12 January 2009.International observers view it as a "talk shop". ^ "Overview". Alberto Romulo.org/64.[91] However.gov.[90] ASEAN has been criticized. ASEAN has begun to be less successful at restraining its members and resolving border disputes such as those between Burma and Thailand and Indonesia and Malaysia.motor insurance scheme of ASEAN [edit] Notes 1.aspx 2. the agenda of economic integration would negatively affect industries in the Philippines and would cause thousands of Filipinos to lose their jobs. ^ http://www. He also asserts that in the absence of an external threat to rally against with the end of the Cold War.[88] According to the activists.

14. 9. ^ IHT. Overview.org. http://www.asean.htm#CMI. Extracted 12 October 2006 23. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 7. The AsiaPacific Profile. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2700. ^ Bangkok Declaration. Asia's Reaction to NAFTA.org/3338.org. Mya Than (2001). Retrieved 28 August 2009. A Pronunciation Guide". ^ "ASEAN secretariat". 8.asean. 13 March 2007. United States State Department. Nancy J.go. Asean. 20. ^ East Asian leaders to promote biofuel. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2006. 15. 2008. Wikisource.htm. ISBN 981-230-081-3. 22. . Retrieved 14 March 2007.loc. 12. Whither East Asia? Retrieved 14 March 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 19. ^ UNT. ^ "Background Note:Brunei Darussalam/Profile:/Foreign Relations". 2007. Philippine Daily Inquirer.5. McNamara (1998).com.Europa. Deborah J.htm. European Union Relations with ASEAN. ASEAN Secretariat. 6. 8 May 2006. ASEAN Secretariat official website. by Termsak Chalermpalanupap.org/10098.htm. Gates. ASEAN Secretariat". ^ Bernard Eccleston. ISBN 0-415-17279-9. ASEAN Secretariat official website. ASEAN.org. 10. 11. 13.html. ^ ASEAN Secretariat. 18. Retrieved 29 September 2008. ^ Asean. http://www. ASEAN Enlargement: impacts and implications. Retrieved 28 August 2009. ASEAN Secretariat. 16. Retrieved 12 January 2009. ^ "Statement by the Secretary-General of ASEAN Welcoming the Kingdom of Cambodia as the Tenth Member State of ASEAN : 30 April 1999.Congressional Research Service. ^ "Regional Financial Cooperation among ASEAN+3".asean.google. 17. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 6 March 2007.org. ^ EC. ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. ^ a b Carolyn L. Retrieved 12 January 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2010. ^ "Vietnam in ASEAN : Toward Cooperation for Mutual Benefits".htm. ^ Asean. ^ East Asia Economic Caucus.mof.org/3839.eu.edu.gov/nls/other/ABC. http://www. Michael Dawson. Retrieved 14 March 2007. 23RD JULY 1999. ^ a b Asiaviews. Retrieved 27 June 2008. Routledge (UK). CRS . http://books.jp/english/if/regional_financial_cooperation. http://www. Asean. http://www. ^ "NLS/BPH: Other Writings.state. Japan Straddles Fence on Issue of East Asia Caucus. http://www. ASEAN-10: Meeting the Challenges. ^ Bangkok Treaty (in alphabetical order) At UNODA United Nations. Hamilton.com/books?visbn=0415172799&id=l07akyd6DAC&pg=RA1-PA311&lpg=RA1-PA311&ots=XgqmmGV3CC&dq= %22Bangkok+Declaration%22+ASEAN&ie=ISO-88591&output=html&sig=u2ddDhzn-yVhEn5Fwu3d8iih0OA. 21.org. The ABC Book.

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straitstimes. December 2007.KL-Singapore benefits from liberalisation". Retrieved 13 March 2007. ^ "ASEAN University Network/Board Member".sg/education/scholarships/asean. ^ Olivia Rondonuwu and Suhartono. Retrieved on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2008.php.reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 26 September 2008. International Herald Tribune.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/10/12/2003425653.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gT16o2eXYrGL35uoUD0fKcRPlDw. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation.fta. ISBN 978-979-3496-62-7. Agence FrancePresse.: "The ASEAN Charter". Retrieved 16 December 2008. http://www. http://news. ^ "Ministry of Education. ^ "Welcome to Singapore FTA Network". 76. The Straits Times. ^ AseanBiodiversity. ^ "ASEAN charter comes into force". 73. chinaview. http://www. Retrieved 16 December 2008.centreforaviation. ^ "Taipei Times . Harry (15 December 2008).com. Retrieved 13 March 2007.fta. ^ Association of South East Asian Nations. 77.php?newsid=23. http://www. Retrieved 21 December 2008.cn (Xinhua News Agency). Retrieved 26 September 2008. . 66.com/articles/ap/2008/12/15/asia/AS-ASEAN-Charter. http://www.gov.gov. p. http://www.xinhuanet. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity. 15 December 2008.org/about_agreement. Fta.asp. 71. http://in. 70.sg/sg_fta. The Straits Times. 79.sg/fta_ongoingneg. Taipeitimes.gov. http://www.6-7. Retrieved 21 December 2008. Singapore: ASEAN Scholarships".org. Moe.com/news/news. 75. Aun-sec. http://www. Retrieved 26 September 2008.aunsec. ^ a b c "Asean Single Aviation Market".php? option=com_content&task=view&id=5015.org. ^ a b "Singaporean PM urges ASEAN to liberalise aviation". 1 November 2007. Karamjit (25 September 2008). ^ "Three quarters of a million more seats and counting.htm.html.000 free seats".65.com/article/worldNews/idINIndia-37031520081215. Aun-sec.com/aviation/index.google.[dead link] 80. 72.com/Breaking %2BNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_282410. ^ "ASEAN University Network/Agreement". http://www.moe.org. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. 69.gov. ^ Kaur. ^ "'Momentous' day for ASEAN as charter comes into force".html. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 2 February 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008. "ASEAN launches charter under shadow of crisis". http://www. 78. 28 September 2008. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity.asian-aerocad. "Tiger offers 50.sg.iht. 68.sg. Fta. ^ "Welcome to Singapore FTA Network".gov. 67.sg.gov.asp. http://www. Retrieved 26 September 2008. 74.taipeitimes. 15 December 2008.com/english/2007-11/01/content_6990497. ^ ASEAN's Greatest Parks.archives". Retrieved 16 December 2008.

Retrieved 6 March 2007. BBC News.org/press/TU V/brian3_eiler_120706. "Burma an Issue in Asean-EU Trade Talks".com/Article. 3 January 2007.philstar.uk/2/hi/asiapacific/country_profiles/4114415. http://www. http://ap.asp? ArticleID=16729. ^ "BBC Country/International Organisation Profile: Association of Southeast Asian Nations". 89.laborrights.stm. http://web. Peace Journalism.[dead link] 86.asia/issue03/cover-03.org/asean-protests-cebu-will-also-underscoremassive-opposition-charter-change. ^ "Japan Cancels Myanmar Grant". Associated Press.org/member_u. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 17 October 2007.archive. 11 January 2007.bbc.html. News and Press. Retrieved 6 March 2007. 90. The Clash of Civlizations and the remaking of a New World Order.http://web. Retrieved 6 March 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007. http://news. ^ Huntington.htm. Retrieved 21 May 2009. ^ a b "ASEAN protests in Cebu will also underscore massive opposition to Charter Change". ^ http://development. 84. 83.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2005_Dec_5/ai_n15900039.com/article/ALeqM5iyMfhLN9Q7MwtQ1VlrvexLjr2dAD8SA9CS00.kilusangmayouno. http://peacejournalism. Retrieved 18 October 2007.asp?a=6693&z=163. ^ "ADB president calls for building Asian economic integration".aunsec. http://www. Samuel. Sai (15 February 2007). ASEAN Regional Forum Retrieved on 13 March 2007. http://www. 92.org/web/20080731123240/http://www.tv/video/3465/About-100-militants-stageprotest-vs-Asean-Summit-in-Cebu. Kilusang Mayo Uno.gmanews.jp.or. ^ "Closure of FESPIC Federation". ^ "About 100 militants stage protest vs Asean Summit in Cebu". The Irawaddy News Magazine Online Edition. Retrieved 6 March 2007.asp [edit] External links Organization • • • ASEAN Secretariat Retrieved on 13 March 2007. 13 January 2007. http://www. 7 December 2006. ^ "NZ rights lawyer to join protests at ASEAN summit". http://findarticles. 87.co. GMA News. Asian Political News.jp/fespic/. ^ ASEAN's Mixed Bag 88.org/web/20070927223412/http://www. 91. 7 December 2006. Summits . ^ "Malaysian foreign minister says ASEAN is no 'talk shop'".aspx?articleid=495010 93. ^ http://www.archive.taiyonoie. ^ Silp.irrawaddy. BBC Country Profile/Asean Retrieved on 13 March 2007.org/aviewer. Retrieved 21 December 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2007. 5 December 2005. 81. 85.com/ReadArticle. 82. Taiyonoie. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.or.google.

• • • • 14th ASEAN Summit 13th ASEAN Summit Singapore official site. Retrieved on 13 March 2007. 2005. Retrieved on 16 September 2007. ASEAN organisations • • • • • ASEAN official directory of ASEAN organisations ASEAN Architect ASEAN Law Association ASEAN Ports Association US-ASEAN Business Council [show] v•d•e Association of Southeast Asian Nations [show] v•d•e International trade [show] v•d•e World government . 12th ASEAN Summit Retrieved on 13 March 2007. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia official site. 11th ASEAN Summit 12 December-14.

[show] v•d•e Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) [show] v•d•e South-South Cooperation & Third Worldism [show] v•d•e Power in international relations .

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