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II Year CSE B Sec
Pass parameters in registers. Languages defined to replace assembly language for systems programming allow system calls to be made directly (e. C. and pop off the stack by operating system.. to "supervisor mode" or "protected mode"). Store the parameters in a table in memory. and the table address is passed as a parameter in a register. SYSTEM CALL IN OPERATING SYSTEMS . In simple word “System Call” defined as interface between a running program and the operating system Generally available as assembly-language instructions. System calls often use a special machine code instruction which causes the processor to change mode (e. PL/360) Three general methods are used to pass parameters between a running program and the operating system. Push (store) the parameters onto the stack by the program.g. Bliss. This allows the OS to perform restricted actions such as accessing hardware devices or the memory management unit.SYSTEM CALL DEFINITION: The mechanism used by an application program to request service from the operating system.g.
System calls can be grouped into five major catagories Process management Memory management File management Device management Communication .System Call Mechanism: User code can be arbitrary User code cannot modify kernel memory Makes a system call with parameters The call mechanism switches code to kernel mode Execute system call Return with results Categories of System Call: The system call is made using the system call machine language instructions.
free memory. execute. wait for time. . get/set process attributes. create process. wait event.This functions are used to load. terminate process. allocate. signal event.
open. delete file. write. reposition. close.This functions are used to create file. get/set file attributes. get/set device attributes. This functions are used to request device. read. . logically attach or detach devices. reposition. release device. read. write.
delete communication connection. send.Information Maintenance functions are used to get/set time or date. transfer status information. the processes need to communicate with each other. get/set process. get/set system data. or device attributes. This allows a program to handle many user requests at the same time. Communication functions are used to create. Since even a single user request may result in multiple processes running in the operating system on the user's behalf. attach or detach remote devices INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION DEFINITON: Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system. receive messages. The IPC . file.
IPC facility provides two operations: send(message) – message size fixed or variable receive(message) If P and Q wish to communicate.g... they need to: establish a communication link between them exchange messages via send/receive Implementation of communication link physical (e.g. Each IPC method has its own advantages and limitations so it is not unusual for a single program to use all of the IPC methods. logical properties) IPC MANAGEMENT Purpose of IPC Data Transfer Sharing Data Event notification Resource Sharing and Synchronization . In simple words “InterProcess Communication” means Mechanism for processes to communicate and to synchronize their actions. shared memory. hardware bus) logical (e.interfaces make this possible.
. Windows. Symmetric or Asymmetric communications 3. Message Passing System: Exchange messages over a communication link Methods for implementing the communication link and primitives (send/receive): 1. Java RMI. some systems. Send-by-copy or send-by-reference 5. – A link is associated with exactly one pair of communicating processes. CORBA. (shared nothing) MemoryAll POSIX systems. Windows. Process Control Main IPC Methods Method File Provided by (Operating systems or other environments) Most operating systems. Windows. Most operating systems. This technique may carry race condition risk if a mapped file temporary file is used. Socket Most operating systems. only implement Signal signals in the C run-time library and do not actually provide support for their use as an IPC technique. Direct or Indirect communications (Naming) 2. Named pipe All POSIX systems. Windows. MailSlots and others. fixed or variable sized messages Direct Communication: • Processes must name each other explicitly: – send (P. Shared memory All POSIX systems. Message passing Used in MPI paradigm. Semaphore All POSIX systems. message) – send a message to process P – receive(Q. such as Windows. Pipe All POSIX systems. Windows. MSMQ. Automatic or Explicit buffering 4. Message queue Most operating systems. message) – receive a message from process Q • Properties of communication link – Links are established automatically.
– Each mailbox has a unique id. 1. – Who gets the message? • Solutions – Allow a link to be associated with at most two processes. 2. • Properties of communication link – Link established only if processes share a common mailbox – A link may be associated with many processes. – P1. but is usually bi-directional. P2 and P3 receive. P2. 3. Zero capacity – 0 messages Sender must wait for receiver (rendezvous). Synchronised: send and receive operations blocking . – Link may be unidirectional or bi-directional. – Allow only one process at a time to execute a receive operation. Bounded capacity – finite length of n messages Sender must wait if link full. implemented in one of three ways. – Allow the system to select arbitrarily the receiver. – Each pair of processes may share several communication links. – The link may be unidirectional. and P3 share mailbox A. sends. Indirect Communication: • Messages are directed and received from mailboxes (also referred to as ports). – Processes can communicate only if they share a mailbox. Sender is notified who the receiver was. Buffering: Queue of messages attached to the link.– Between each pair there exists exactly one link. • Operations – create a new mailbox – send and receive messages through mailbox – destroy a mailbox • Mailbox sharing – P1. Unbounded capacity – infinite length Sender never waits.
sender is suspended until receiving process does a corresponding read » receiver suspended until a message is sent for it to receive properties : » processes tightly synchronised . with low overhead disadvantages : » sending process might want to continue after its send operation without waiting for confirmation of receipt » receiving process might want to do something else if no message is waiting to be received Asynchronous : send and receive operations non-blocking » sender continues when no corresponding receive outstanding » receiver continues when no message has been sent properties : » messages need to be buffered until they are received a amount of buffer space to allocate can be problematic a process running amok could clog the system with messages if not careful » often very convenient rather than be forced to wait o particularly for senders » can increase concurrency » some awkward kernel decisions avoided s e. whether to swap a waiting process out to disc or not receivers can poll for messages » i.g.e.the rendezvous of Ada » effective confirmation of receipt for sender » at most one message can be outstanding for any process pair a no buffer space problems » easy to implement. do a test-receive every so often to see if any messages waiting » interrupt and signal programming more difficult » preferable alternative perhaps to have a blocking receive in a separate thread » Other combinations : non-blocking send + blocking receive » probably the most useful combination » sending process can send off several successive messages to one or more processes if need be without being held up .
INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION IN LINUX: . a server process might wait on a read until a service request arrived.g. take some action on message receipt e.e. then transfer the execution of the request to a separate thread then go back and wait on the read for the next request blocking send + non-blocking receive » conceivable but probably not a useful combination. » receivers wait until something to do i.