GCE

Edexcel Advanced Subsidiary GCE in History (8264) Unit 6521
First examination 2007

Issue 5 September 2005

Specimen Papers with Mark Schemes

Edexcel AS/A GCE in History Unit 6521

Paper Reference(s)

6521 Papers 1A/1B/1C/1D/1E/1F/1G

Edexcel GCE
History Advanced Subsidiary
Unit 1 Sample Assessment Material
Time: 1 hour

Materials required for examination Answer Book (AB08)

Items included with question papers Nil

Instructions to Candidates
Write the information required in the spaces at the top of the front page of your answer book. In the space marked ‘Subject/module title’ write the title of the paper for which you have been entered. In the space marked ‘Paper reference’ enter the appropriate reference number shown at the top of this page: write 6521 followed by the code of the paper for which you have been entered. Look at page 2 to find the page of the paper for which you have been entered. Turn directly to that paper, read the sources carefully, and answer BOTH part (a) and part (b) of the Question. Write your answers in the answer book. Additional answer sheets may be used.

Information for Candidates
There are 16 pages in this question paper. The total mark for this paper is 60. The marks for the various parts of questions are shown in round brackets, e.g. (20). The paper comprises a set of sources and a series of questions. Where you are directed to study certain sources, you must refer to those sources in your answer(s).

Advice to Candidates
Remember that quality of written communication will be taken into account in the marking of your answers. Quality of written communication includes clarity of expression, the structure and presentation of ideas and grammar, punctuation and spelling.
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Answer the ONE Paper for which you have been entered. Paper 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G Title Page

Securing the Tudor Dynasty: the Reign of Henry VII ....................................................3 The World Turned Upside Down: Monarchy and Republic in England, 1642–53 .........5 Poverty and the British State, c.1815–50 ........................................................................7 Votes for Women, c.1880–1918 .......................................................................................9 Russia in Revolution, 1905–17 ......................................................................................11 The Seeds of Evil: the Rise of National Socialism in Germany to 1933 ......................13 Boom and Bust: Economy and Society in the USA, 1917–33 .....................................15

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6521A - Paper 1A Securing the Tudor Dynasty: the Reign of Henry VII
Study Sources 1–5 below and answer Question 1, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (From Polydore Vergil, History of England, written 1513. Here Vergil is writing about the year 1491) King Henry was clever and careful. No one could get the better of him by lies or cunning. He was gracious and kind; he was attentive to his visitors and easy to approach. He treated severely subjects who were indebted to him, or who did not pay him due honour, or who were generous only with promises. He valued justice above all things, and so he vigorously punished violence, manslaughter and every other kind of wickedness. But all these virtues were hidden by his greed. In a monarch, this is the worst vice, since it is harmful to everyone, and distorts those qualities of trustfulness, justice and honesty by which the state must be governed. SOURCE 2 (Part of a letter written September 1496, from the Milanese ambassador in England to the government in Milan) Everything goes well with the king, especially as he has an immense fortune in his treasury. All the nobles of the realm know the royal wisdom, and either fear him or bear him in extraordinary affection. Not a man of important rank joins the Duke of York. The state of the realm is in the hands of the nobles, not the people. SOURCE 3 (Part of a letter written by a merchant, Giovanni de Bebulcho to the government of Milan. The letter records a conversation he had with a Florentine merchant who had recently arrived in the city of Bruges from England in July 1496.) I asked him about English affairs. He said that the king is more feared than loved, and this was because of his greed. I asked who had influence with the king. He said there was only one who can do anything, and he is named Reginald Bray, who controls the king’s treasure. The king is very powerful in money, but if some lord of the blood royal rose against him and he had to take to the battlefield, he would fare badly. His people would abandon him because of his greed. They would treat him as they did King Richard, whom they abandoned. SOURCE 4 (From Henry VII’s funeral oration, made by John Fisher, the Bishop of Rochester in 1509) His people were in as humble subjection to him as ever they were to any king. His land was held in peace and tranquillity. His success in battle against his enemies was marvellous; his dealing in times of perils and dangers was cold and firm. If any treason was conspired against him, it ended well for him. His treasure and riches were incomparable. His buildings were most goodly and after the newest style that gave great pleasure.

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SOURCE 5 (From Caroline Rogers, Henry VII, published 1991) So Henry never felt entirely secure on his throne. Even after the capture of Edmund de la Pole in 1506, his brother, Richard, was still roaming Europe, although with little success. The King’s only direct male heir (after 1502) was the young Prince Henry. He faced rebellions from his own subjects over demands for money which showed that he could only rely on their loyalty to a limited extent. The challenge from the former Yorkists, particularly the Earl of Suffolk was unnerving especially after they had sworn loyalty to the new regime. Worse still was the threat from the pretenders, Simnel and Warbeck, because of their entanglement with foreign powers and the consequent fear of invasion.

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Question 1

(Maximum marks)

(a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that Henry VII’s control was weakened by his greed? (20) (b) Use Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that Henry VII was never entirely secure on the throne? Explain your answer using these two sources and your own knowledge. (40)

(Total for Question 1: 60 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER 1A: 60 MARKS

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6521B - Paper 1B The World Turned Upside Down: Monarchy and Republic in England, 1642–53
Study Sources 1–6 below and answer Question 2, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (A description of Charles I from the Memoirs of his adviser, Edward Hyde, later Lord Clarendon. They were written when Hyde was in exile, after the Civil Wars.) He was not only a prince of admirable virtue, but also had great wisdom and judgement; and the worst of his misfortunes proceeded chiefly from the modesty of his nature, which kept him from trusting himself enough, and made him believe that others knew better, who were much inferior to him; and so to take the advice of more unskilled men, whose affections he believed to be unquestionable to his service. SOURCE 2 (From an entry made in Latin in the Diary of William Laud, recording an early meeting with Charles I.) Sunday [1 February 1624] I stood by the most illustrious Prince Charles at dinner. He was then very merry… Among other things he said that if he had to take any particular profession of life, he could not be a lawyer; adding his reasons. ‘I cannot’ saith he, ‘defend a bad nor yield in a good cause.’ May you ever hold this resolution Sire. SOURCE 3 (From a letter written by Charles I on the eve of his execution in January 1649, to his son and heir, Charles, giving him a father’s advice on how to govern.)
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The next main pillar on which your success as king will depend, is civil justice, and the settled laws of these kingdoms are the most excellent rules you can govern by… Nor would I have you entertain any aversion or dislike of Parliaments, which, in their right form, will never hinder or diminish your greatness, but will rather be an interchanging of love, loyalty and confidence between a prince and his people. SOURCE 4 (From John Lilburne’s pamphlet, The Free-man’s Freedom Vindicated, published 1646)

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All men and women are by nature equal and alike in power, dignity, authority and Majesty. None of them has by nature any authority over or above another. It is unnatural, irrational, sinful, and wicked for any man to take and assume unto himself a power and authority to rule, govern or reign over any sort of men in the world, without their free consent. SOURCE 5 (From G.E. Aylmer, Rebellion or Revolution, published 1986) There was a popular dimension to the English Revolution. At times, especially in 1640-2, mass involvement played a crucial part in the course of political events. There was a slight but real threat, and a much greater imagined one, that there would be a popular rising or attempted takeover in 1647 and 1649; but there was at no time a radical revolution on the brink of success. If Rainsborough and Lilburne wanted to be revolutionary leaders they needed control of the Army. Their only opportunity was in 1647; they did not take it, and the opportunity did not come again.

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SOURCE 6 (From Angela Anderson, The Civil Wars, published 1995)
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The emergence of radicalism during the war was hugely important. Once a minority had begun to challenge the authority of the Church, and to question the role of the state in religion, issues were raised that could not simply be ignored. The political and social claims of the Levellers could be contained with relative ease, but religious enthusiasm was a more dangerous force, that cut across class barriers and created a new and potentially revolutionary element – a politicized army.

Question 2 (Maximum marks) (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources suggest that Charles I possessed great wisdom and judgement? (20) (b) Use Sources 4, 5 and 6 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view expressed in Source 5 (line 22) that ‘there was at no time a radical revolution on the brink of success’? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. (40) (Total for Question 2: 60 marks) TOTAL MARKS FOR PAPER 1B: 60 MARKS

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6521C - Paper 1C Poverty and the British State, c.1815–50
Study Sources 1–5 below and answer Question 3, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (Evidence given to the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws by Assistant Commissioner S Walcott and published in the Report from the Royal Commission 1834. Walcott was responsible for North Wales.) As a body, I found annual overseers wholly incompetent to discharge the duties of their office, either from the interference of private occupations, or from a lack of experience and skill; but most frequently from both these causes. Their object is to get through the year with as little unpopularity and trouble as possible. SOURCE 2 (From Edwin Chadwick, An Article on the Principles and Progress of the Poor Law Amendment Act, published 1837)
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When the overseers of Uckfield in Sussex met to set a rate for the winter half year of 1836, they found that instead of a 5s or 6s rate, a rate of 1s 6d would be enough. In addition, they controlled two workhouses for able-bodied men who were out of work, with regular hours, regular diet, no beer, no tobacco, and strict supervision that provided monotonous work picking oakum. SOURCE 3 (Evidence given by Langham Rokesby, Chairman of the Market Harborough Union, to the Poor Law Commissioners and published in their second Annual Report 1836) Persons who never could be made to work before have become good labourers, and do not express any dissatisfaction with the measure*. In most parishes, the moral character of the poor is improving; there is a disposition to be more orderly and well behaved. So far as I can judge, the measure is working out very satisfactorily. The great body of the labouring poor throughout the union have become reconciled to it; the workhouse is held in great dread; there is a greater disposition to seek for employment, there are very few complaints of misbehaviour, and cases of bastardy are on the decline. *The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 SOURCE 4 (From Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, published 1845. Friedrich Engels was a German Socialist. He lived in England for most of his adult life, working in his father’s cotton factory in Manchester and writing political books and pamphlets.) The regulations for the new workhouses frighten away everyone who has the slightest prospect of living without this form of relief. The workhouse has been made a repulsive place in order to make people apply for relief only when they are in extreme need. The food is worse than that of the most ill-paid working man outside the workhouse, and the work is harder. This is to prevent the poor from preferring the workhouse to work outside.

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SOURCE 5 (From Norman Longmate, The Workhouse, published 1974) As, in one part of the country after another, the workhouses opened their doors, hostility to the new system became vocal and widespread. The reason why the workhouse survived, though abused on all sides, was plain. With no working class MPs in the House of Commons, popular opposition to the Poor Law Amendment Act was grossly under-represented in Parliament. By 1837, hostility in the country to the new Poor Law was growing in strength rather than diminishing. Yet, when in February 1838, a motion to repeal it was debated in the Commons, MPs defeated it by a majority of 309 to 17.

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Question 3 (Maximum marks) (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that the Old Poor Law was reformed mainly in order to save money? (20) (b) Use Sources 3, 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view, expressed in Source 3 (line 12), that the Poor Law Amendment Act was ‘working out very satisfactorily’ in the years after 1834? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. (40) (Total for Question 3: 60 marks) TOTAL MARKS FOR PAPER 1C: 60 MARKS

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6521D - Paper 1D Votes for Women c.1880–1918
Study Sources 1–6 below and answer Question 4, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (From a song, ‘The March of the Women’, composed by Ethel Smyth in 1911 and dedicated to the Women’s Social and Political Union. The suffragettes adopted it as their marching song.) Long, long – we in the past Cowered in dread from the light of heaven, Strong, strong – stand we at last Fearless in faith and with sight new given. Strength with its beauty, Life with its duty These, these – beckon us on! SOURCE 2 (From Christabel Pankhurst, published in the first edition of Votes for Women in October 1907) If you have any pettiness or personal ambition, you must leave that behind before you come to this movement that is dedicated to one end: the immediate gaining of the vote for women. There must be no conspiracies, no double dealing in our ranks. The founders and leaders of the movement must lead, the officers must carry out their instructions, the rank and file must loyally share burdens of the fight. There is no compulsion to come into our ranks, but those who come must be as soldiers ready to march onwards into battle. SOURCE 3 (From Teresa Billington-Greig, The Militant Suffragette Movement – Emancipation in a Hurry published 1911) I believed in it, worked in it, suffered in it and rejoiced in it, and I have been disillusioned. I do not believe any more in votes for women as a cure for all evils. I do not believe that every principle should be sacrificed to the immediate goal of female suffrage. I condemn the militant suffrage movement and I want to expose the tone and tactics of the WSPU. The crime of the militant suffrage movement in my eyes is hypocrisy. This woman’s movement displays rebellion in its public actions while it belittles and abuses rebellion when it occurs within its own ranks. SOURCE 4 (Part of a speech made by Herbert Asquith in the House of Commons, 1917) But what concerns me is the problem of reconstruction when the War is over. Questions will arise with regard to women’s work and women’s roles and I find it impossible to withhold from women, the power and the right of making their voices heard. And let me add that, since the War began, now nearly three years ago, we have had no recurrence of the detestable campaign which disfigured the history of political agitation in this country.

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SOURCE 5 (From a letter written from Lord Selborne to Lord Salisbury on 25 August 1916. They were two leading Conservative politicians) Personally, I think it would be most unjust to women and dangerous to State to enfranchise the adult fighting men and no women. Dangerous, because I firmly believe in the steadying influence of the women voters in essentials and in the long run. Unjust to women because I believe that the interests of working women would be ruthlessly sacrificed. SOURCE 6 (From B. Harrison, The First World War and Feminism in Britain, published in History Review 1993) In some ways, the war actually obstructed votes for women. First, the war seemed to confirm the ‘Anti’s’ physical force argument – the idea that men and women had separate roles because women are, on average, physically weaker than men. Although many women serving in the Armed Forces were extremely brave, they did not experience the horrors of the front line. The separation of role was also reinforced by geography, with many men across the Channel while most women stayed at home. Second, the war weakened the suffragist movement. It pushed all peacetime problems down the political agenda.

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Question 4 (Maximum marks) (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources suggest that the WSPU was a united movement? (20) (b) Use Sources 4, 5 and 6 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that the First World War hindered, rather than helped, the cause of female suffrage? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. (40) (Total for Question 4: 60 marks) TOTAL MARKS FOR PAPER 1D: 60 MARKS

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6521E - Paper 1E Russia in Revolution, 1905–17
Study Sources 1–6 below and answer Question 5, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (From Nicolai Tolstoy, The Open Address to Nicholas II, published 1902. Here he describes conditions in Russia in the early 20th century.) The rural population grow even more poor. On these 10 million people is the power of Russia based, and yet famine is their normal condition. All classes are dissatisfied with the government and are openly hostile to it. Autocracy is an hopelessly outdated form of government. That is why it is impossible to maintain this form of government except by violence. SOURCE 2 (The views of a senior Russian official about the situation in Russia in the early twentieth century, published 1904)
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The end will be that terror from above will awaken the terror from below, that peasant revolts will break out and assassinations will increase. Having said that, we are a rich country with all possible resources. We are simply ill-governed and prevented from unlocking our resources. SOURCE 3 (From the Petition of the Workers of St. Petersburg taken from the Winter Palace on Sunday 9 January 1905 [Bloody Sunday]) We ask for the reduction of the working day to eight hours, the fixing of the wage rates in consultation with us, the investigation of our grievances against factory managements, an increase in the daily rate for skilled men and women to one rouble. Neither we nor the rest of the Russian people enjoy a single human right, nor the right to speak or to think or to meet together to discuss our needs. SOURCE 4 (From a letter written by Guchkov, the Minister for War in the first Provisional Government, to General Alexeyevon on 9 March 1917) The Provisional Government has no real force that it can use. Its decrees are carried out only to the extent that is permitted by the Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. The Petrograd Soviet has in its hands the most important elements of real power, such as the army, the railways, the post and telegraphs.

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SOURCE 5 (From an account written by Theodore Dan, a leading Menshevik. The account was written and published some years after the events took place.) The defence of the country whilst awaiting a general democratic peace made it necessary to keep a multi-million army in fighting condition. Care had to be taken to avoid anything that might disorganise this army. Agricultural reform, therefore, was postponed until the constituent assembly was summoned. If there had been a revolutionary seizure of land and division of estates, millions of peasant soldiers would have deserted from the Front so as to be on the spot when the land was divided. SOURCE 6 (From Steve Phillips, Lenin and the Russian Revolution, published 2000) From the start, the Provisional Government had lacked both support and authority. Its attempts to pursue a moderate line were perhaps undermined by the lack of a substantial middle class in Russia, but it could have done more to gain support from the conservative elements or even from the moderate Left. Instead, it tended to alienate both groups and as a result was left isolated. The decision to continue the war was perhaps the crucial factor, sapping the strength and diverting the energies of a government whose hold on power was tenuous in the first place.

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Question 5 (Maximum marks) (a) Study Source 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources suggest that the chief cause of discontent within the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century was that it was ill-governed? (20) (b) Use Sources 4, 5 and 6 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that the continuation of Russia’s involvement in the First World War was the main reason for the failure of the Provisional Government? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. (40) (Total for Question 5: 60 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER 1E: 60 MARKS

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6521F - Paper 1F The Seeds of Evil: the Rise of National Socialism in Germany to 1933
Study Sources 1–5 below and answer Question 6, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (A German worker explains why, in 1922, he left the Communist Party and joined the NSDAP. From ‘Germany’s Hitler’, a collection of interviews with former Nazis, published in the USA 1934.) Everything Hitler said was just common sense and sound. Although I wasn’t one to be won over all in a moment, it didn’t take me longer than the first meeting to realise that Hitler was straight as a die. I went to every one of his meetings after that. Bit by bit he won me round. He knocked the Communist out of me – all about the world revolution to put the world right, and hot air like that. Instead of prophecies and far-off visions, in National Socialism he gave us a good working scheme of things we could get busy on right away. SOURCE 2 (From a confidential report on the NSDAP by the Reich Ministry of the Interior, 15 July 1927) In spite of the Nazis’ well-prepared and thoroughly organised propaganda, their successes remain very modest. This is a Party that is not going anywhere. Today it is a numerically insignificant revolutionary group that is incapable of exerting any noticeable influence on our great mass of the population, or on the course of political developments. SOURCE 3 (An unemployed graduate explains why, in 1925, he joined the NSDAP and remained a party member into the 1930s) Just then, I was introduced to Hitler. Life for me then took on a tremendous new significance. After everything, Germany would rise again; after everything I was wanted. I have since committed myself body, soul and spirit to this movement for the resurrection of Germany. I can only tell you that I cannot go back. I cannot question. I am pledged, I beg you not to try to set up conflict in my mind. Believe me, I cannot face uncertainty and conflict again. For me, Hitler and the resurrection of Germany on one side, or suicide on the other. I have chosen Hitler. SOURCE 4 (From an account by Otto Meissner, State Secretary in Hindeburg’s office, made to the Nuremberg Tribunal after the Second World War) Despite Papen’s persuasions, Hindeburg was extremely hesitant, until the end of January, to make Hitler Chancellor. Papen finally won him over to Hitler with the argument that the representatives of the other right wing parties which would belong to the government would restrict Hitler’s freedom of action. In addition Papen expressed his misgivings that, if the present opportunity were missed, a revolt of the national socialists and civil war were likely.

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SOURCE 5 (From Ian Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936 Hubris, published 1998) On the nationalist-conservative Right, the relatively sympathetic treatment of Hitler at the time of the Young Plan Campaign had given way to hostility. Hitler was portrayed for the most part as intransigent and irresponsible, not a statesman, an obstacle to political recovery, the head of an extremist movement with menacing socialist tendencies. Against these negative images had to be set the adulation of the third of the population that, despite the setbacks of summer and autumn 1932, still saw in Hitler the only hope for Germany’s future. More than 13.5 million had voted for Hitler in the July election. They were all potential or real devotees of the Fuhrer cult.

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Question 6 (Maximum marks) (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that the NSDAP was incapable of exerting any noticeable influence on the German people in the 1920s? (20) (b) Use Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that until the end of January 1933 it was by no means certain that Hitler would come to power? Explain your answer using these two sources and your own knowledge. (40) (Total for Question 6: 60 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER 1F: 60 MARKS

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6521G - Paper 1G Boom and Bust: Economy and Society in the USA, 1917–33
Study Sources 1–5 below and answer Question 7, parts (a) and (b) which follow. SOURCE 1 (From Andre Siegfried, America Comes of Age published 1927. Andre Siegfried was a French historian who researched and wrote about the history of several countries.) In America the daily life of the majority is lived on a scale enjoyed by the privileged classes elsewhere. In 1925, for example, there were 15 telephone subscribers for every 100 inhabitants as compared with 2 in Europe. Wireless is rapidly winning a similar position for itself, for even in 1924, the farmers alone possessed over 550,000 radios. The US owns over 81% of all the automobiles in existence, or one for every 5.6 people. SOURCE 2 (From an article published in a black American newspaper in 1921) Look around your cabin, look at the dirt floor and the windows without glass! Then ask your folks already up north about the bathrooms with hot and cold water, the steam heat and the glistening hardwood floors which down home you only see when you polish them. What chance has the average black to get these things down home? And if he does get them how can he be sure but that some poor cracker* will get his gang together and come round and drive him out? Step on a train and ride for a day and a night to freedom. Your nickel is worth as much as the other fellow’s nickel in the streetcars and you sit wherever you desire a seat. *cracker = white man SOURCE 3 (Part of the last statement made by Bartolomeo Vanzetti in 1927 to the court where his appeal against the death sentence was rejected. He and Sacco were found guilty of murder in 1920) We were tried during a time that has now passed into history. I mean by that, when there was hysteria of resentment and hate against people of our principles, against the foreigner, against slackers, it seems to me that you have done all you can to prejudice the jury against us. I am suffering because I am a radical and indeed I am a radical; I have suffered because I was Italian. SOURCE 4 (From Alistair Cooke, America, published 1976. He came to the United States from England in the early 1930s.) Within three months of the Crash, men who worked in big factories, small men who had merrily played the market, were warming their hands before scrap wood fires in the underpass beneath the Chicago Opera House. There were skyscrapers just finished that lacked tenants. A secretary was a ridiculous luxury. There were truckers with nothing to truck, crops that went unharvested and milk that went undelivered. Somebody had to take the blame, and it fell on Coolidge’s unlucky successor, President Herbert Hoover, a world-famous engineer who had done mighty work ten years earlier organising the feeding of starving Europe.

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SOURCE 5 (From Peter Clements, Prosperity, Depression and the New Deal, published 1997) The setting up of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in January 1932 was undoubtedly Hoover’s most radical measure to combat the Depression. However, many critics saw the RFC as giving direct relief to large concerns while none was offered to individuals in distress. In the summer of 1932 Hoover finally agreed to support the Emergency Relief and Construction Act, which authorised the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to lend up to $1.5 billion to states to finance public works. However, to be eligible, the states had to declare virtual bankruptcy and the works undertaken had to produce revenues which would eventually pay off the loans. In the end the RFC produced too little far too late.

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Question 7 (Maximum marks) (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that the USA was the land of opportunity? (20) (b) Use Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that President Hoover’s government has been unfairly blamed for the US economy’s failure to recover from the Crash of 1929? Explain your answer using these two sources and your own knowledge. (40) (Total for Question 7: 60 marks) TOTAL FOR PAPER 1G: 60 MARKS

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GCE History Mark Schemes General Instructions on Marking – All Units Principles of Assessment Examiners are encouraged to exercise their professional discretion and judgement in the assessment of answers. The schemes that follow are a guide and may at times be inapplicable to answers that tackle questions in an unusual, though acceptable, manner. Where examiners find it necessary to adapt the mark scheme to the needs of such answers, written comments should make clear the basis on which such decisions were made. Examiners should at all times mark positively rather than negatively, i.e. reward candidates for what they know and understand rather than penalising them for what they do not know or understand. Examiners should bear in mind that the examination is designed for a wide ability range and should therefore make full use of the whole range of marks available. Date of marking Do NOT date scripts. Each script should be numbered consecutively and marking should be completed in centre number order. Addition of marks Marks for each sub-question should be placed in the right hand margin. The final total for an answer must be ringed and placed in the right-hand margin and transferred to the front sheet. Do not write comments in the right hand margin. The level awarded should be noted in the lefthand margin as L1, L2 etc. Annotation The marking of questions is discussed in paragraph 5 below. Examiners must ensure that their marking is not only accurate and consistent, but that it is easy to follow. Marking conventions as described in the mark schemes and exemplified at standardisation must be followed. Every answer must show evidence in the body of the work that it has been marked. Answers should be analysed as follows: Underline with a straight line the key points of reasoning and argument, indicate flawed reasoning, irrelevance or error with a wavy line (in the left hand margin if the passages are lengthy). A cross or encirclement may be used for errors of fact, a question mark may be used to indicate a dubious or ambiguous assertion, an omission mark to indicate the absence of material that might reasonably be expected.

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Marking of Questions (a) Levels of response The mark scheme provides an indication of the sorts of answer that might be found at different levels. The exemplification of content within these levels is not complete. It is intended as guide and it will be necessary, therefore, for examiners to use their professional judgement in deciding both at which level a question has been answered and how effectively points have been sustained. Candidates should always be rewarded according to the quality of thought expressed in their answer and not solely according to the amount of knowledge conveyed. However candidates with only a superficial knowledge will be unable to develop or sustain points sufficiently to move to higher levels. In assessing the quality of thought, consider whether the answer: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) is relevant to the question and is explicitly related to the question’s terms argues a case, when requested to do so is able to make the various distinctions required by the question has responded to all the various elements in the question where required, explains, analyses, discusses, assesses, and deploys knowledge of the syllabus content appropriately, rather than simply narrates.

Examiners should award marks both between and within levels according to the above criteria. This should be done in conjunction with the levels of response indicated in the mark schemes for particular questions. At the end of each answer, examiners should look back on the answers as a whole in the light of these general criteria in order to ensure that the total mark reflects their overall impression of the answer's worth. Maps and diagrams drawn by candidates A map or diagram which relates directly to the set question, which is substantially accurate and which suggests (e.g. by location of places and boundaries) firmer historical understanding of the subject matter than is shown by the candidate's written work alone should receive credit. Analytical links indicated in such a way in a final hurried part of an answer should be given credit. Ccandidates should not be penalised for using note form. If you encounter the use of note form in a sub-question which requires extended writing, treat it on its merits. Unintelligible or flimsy notes will deserve little, if any, credit. If an answer consists of notes which are full and readily intelligible, award it the appropriate conceptual level but go to the bottom end of that level.

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Comments by examiners on answers and on scripts Examiners should feel free to comment on a part of an answer, a whole answer or a complete script to clarify the basis on which marks have been awarded. Such comments are of assistance to Team Leaders and to any others who may have reason to look further at a marked script at a later stage. These comments must represent professional judgements and must be related to the criteria for the award of marks. Negative comments should not be employed as an opportunity to vent the examiner’s frustration! For example, ‘Irrelevant’ may be an acceptable comment, ‘hopeless’ is not. Consistency Examiners should apply a uniform standard of assessment throughout their marking once that standard has been approved by their Team Leader. They should not try to find extra marks for candidates. It is the duty of an examiner to see that the standard of marking does not vary in any particular area of the mark range. Spread of marks Undue 'bunching' of marks is very undesirable. In particular, examiners should not hesitate to give high marks, and should go up to the maximum if it is deserved. Rubric offences A candidate who offends against the rubric of a paper should have all the answers marked and the best answers counted up to the required number within a particular paper or section of a paper. An answer that offends against the rubric and that does not score should be indicated thus: QU. 2. RUBRIC OFFENCE. DO NOT SCORE. Illegibility Scripts which are impossible to read or which contain offensive or disturbing comments should be marked `E' on the front cover and forwarded (separately) to the Assessment Leader for History at Edexcel after the script has been marked and the mark recorded. Such scripts will be considered separately by the Principal Examiners at the conclusion of the awarding meeting. Quality of written communication The marking of the quality of written communication is embedded within the levels of response of some questions. It forms one of the considerations for deciding reward within a level. Deciding on the mark point within a level 1. The first stage is to decide the overall level and then whether the work represents high, mid or low performance within the level. The overall level will be determined by the candidate’s ability to focus on the question set, displaying the appropriate conceptual grasp. Within any one piece of work there may well be evidence of work at two, or even three levels. One stronger passage at level four, would not by itself merit a level four award - but it would be evidence to support a high L3 award - unless there were also substantial weaknesses in other areas.

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2.

Where the mark range for a level exceeds 5, the level has been divided into 3 sub-bands, high mid and low. To decide which sub band to award within a level the following factors should be taken into account: the range and depth of coverage of issues the amount and accuracy of supporting information the consistency with which the standard is maintained throughout the work. In each case, the mid point of the mid mark band should be considered first and any move up or down from that should only be made if there is evidence in the work to support such a move. A move from the key mark point in a sub-band will be justified if the work has qualities to be considered for the next band up or down.

3.

Assessing quality of written communication QoWC will have a bearing if the QoWC is inconsistent with the communication descriptor for the level in which the candidate's answer falls. If, for example, a candidate’s history response displays mid level two criteria but fits the level three QoWC descriptors, it will require a move from the key mark point. In that case the quality of written communication will raise the award of marks to the top of the mid level two sub-band. In the case of a borderline candidate, QoWC inconsistent with the ‘history’ level will raise or lower the candidate into the next sub-band. In exceptional circumstances, i.e. where the quality of written communication is clearly better, or worse, than that indicated in the main generic mark scheme by more than one overall level, a larger downward or upward adjustment might be justified, across sub-levels or even into the next level down or up, where the candidate has first been placed in the low or high band of a level. In such cases, the examiner should make a brief explanatory note on the script.

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Unit 1 (6521) Mark Scheme Generic Level Descriptors (a) Awarding marks at key mark points and within level sub-bands • Decide on the level into which any given response falls going first to the key mark point. • Work up or down from the key mark point according to: - the range and depth of coverage - the use of the source materials - the consistency with which the standards are maintained. • If the answer is perceived as being of a higher or lower standard than would be expected for a mid-point response, always go first to the key mark point of the high or low band relevant to the level. • Reserve the bottom mark of each band for the border line responses. Target: (AO2) Analysis and cross-referencing of the sources for a specific enquiry. The task requires candidates to demonstrate the ability to reach a conclusion using all three sources. Level Level 1 (1–6 marks) Level 2 (7–16 marks) Level 3 (17–20 marks) Level 1 Band Low (1–2 marks) Mid (3–4 marks) High (5–6 marks) Low (7–9 marks) Mid (10–12 marks) High (13–16 marks) No Bands Key Mark Point 2 4 6 8 11 15 19 (20)

Simple Statements Responses are likely to be direct quotations or paraphrases from one or more of the sources. Sources will be used in the form of a summary of information in relation to the question. Developed statements Responses will offer detailed comparisons of similarities and /or differences with links made to the question. At this level candidates will begin to consider the sources as sources of evidence and not simply as sources of information. Responses will go beyond the information contained in the content of the sources and will consider other attributes, such as the nature of the evidence, when using the sources. Developed explanation Responses will offer a developed and substantiated explanation that addresses ‘how far’ in the question and uses the sources with discrimination to address the specific enquiry. In addressing ‘how far’ there will be a clear attempt to: use the sources in combination; and explore what can be said on the basis of the evidence, offering developed reasoning and a weighing of the evidence in order to create a judgement.

(1-6)

Level 2

(7-16)

Level 3

(17-20)

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(b)

Awarding marks at key mark points and within level sub-bands • • • Decide on the level into which any given response falls. If the response is clearly within a particular level go to the key mark point of the mid band. Work up or down from the key mark point according to: - the range and depth of coverage - amount and accuracy of supporting information - consistency with which the standard is maintained - quality of written communication - the use of source material - balance in the use of use of sources (62.5%) to own knowledge (37.5%). If the answer is perceived as being of a higher or lower standard than would be expected for a mid-point response, always go first to the key mark point of the high or low band relevant to the level. Reserve the bottom mark of each band for the borderline responses. (40)

• •

Target: Analysis and judgement based on use of sources and own knowledge. AO1a and AO1b: 15 marks, AO2: 25 marks Candidates who address only AO2 can score a maximum of 25 marks. Likewise candidates who only address AO1a and b can only score a maximum of 15 marks. The task requires candidates to engage with an issue, demonstrating the ability to create an explanation and make a judgement using two or three sources and own knowledge. Level Level 1 (1–8 marks) Level 2 (9–20 marks) Level 3 (21–35 marks) Level 4 (36–40 marks) Level 1 Band Low (1–3 marks) Mid (4–6 marks) High (7–8 marks) Low (9–13 marks) Mid (14–17 marks) High (18–20 marks) Low (21–25 marks) Mid (26-30 marks) High (31-35 marks) No bands Key Mark Point 2 5 8 11 15 19 23 28 33 39

Simple Statements Responses will be simple statements from the sources and/or own knowledge, and are most likely to be a mixture of both. They will contain assertions that, although accurate, will be generally unsupported, or supported by poorly developed, inaccurate or irrelevant information. Writing will be simple and comprehensible. There may be some evidence of basic organisation. Frequent syntactical and spelling errors are likely to be found.

(1-8)

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Level 2

Developed statements Responses at this level will be ‘telling it how it was’. Candidates will be describing what happened either from the sources or their own knowledge, or both. The sources will probably be used as sources of information, not evidence, and the knowledge displayed, though generally accurate, will not be well controlled and deployed to focus on the question. Writing will begin to show some coherence and organisation, but may be disjointed and poorly organised overall. Spelling and syntax will be generally secure. Developed explanation Responses will focus on the question although the focus may not be maintained throughout the work. The response will address the issue posed by the question. Own knowledge will generally be accurate and will display appropriate depth and breadth of coverage. Knowledge will be used together with the sources to meet the demands of the question, although there may be some imbalance in terms of depth of coverage, supporting detail or in focus on one aspect of the question more than another. Writing will show some degree of both control and direction, but these attributes may not be maintained throughout the answer. Meaning will be conveyed serviceably, although some syntactical and/or spelling errors may be found. Sustained argument Responses at this level will be clearly analytical in structure. There will be clear evidence that an appropriate range of accurate knowledge has been deployed, together with the sources used primarily as evidence, to construct a focussed argument and reach a reasoned, supported conclusion. Writing will be controlled and coherent, although some stylistic misjudgements may be found. However, the candidate who can analyse historical phenomena of some complexity will also be able to convey that analysis in logical, well-structured ways. Occasional syntactical and / or spelling errors may be found.

(9-20)

Level 3

(21-35)

Level 4

(36–40)

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6521A - Paper 1A Mark Scheme Securing the Tudor Dynasty: the Reign of Henry VII 1 (a) Study Sources 1,2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that Henry VII’s control was weakened by his greed? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make detailed comparisons of the sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2. Possible areas where agreement with the statement could be seen include the fact that Source 1 makes it clear that all Henry’s ‘virtues were hidden by his greed’ and Source 3 ‘the king was more feared than loved, and this was because of his greed…if he had to take to the battlefield he would fare badly. His people would abandon him because of his greed’. Areas of disagreement with the statement include Source 1 ‘But all his virtues were hidden, he was gracious and kind, he valued justice above all things’ and in Source 2 ‘all the nobles either fear him or bear him in extraordinary affection’. 1 (b)

(20)

Use Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that Henry VII was never entirely secure on the throne? Explain your answer using these two sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 4 can be used to show that Henry VII was able to control any form of opposition to his throne: ‘His success in battle…, his dealing in times of peril and dangers was cold and firm. If any treason… it ended well’. There was peace in the land, wealth and up to date stylish buildings. Source 5 can be used as the basis of creating a structured argument with specific examples to support the statement in the question. Henry never felt entirely secure on his throne, opposition from the nobility, threats from the Yorkists and pretenders. Rebellions from subjects over demands for money for example the Northern Rebellion of 1489, showed he could rely on their loyalty to a limited extent. In addition, the fear of invasion by France in support of pretenders was great. Own knowledge which could be deployed: Henry’s fears about the succession particularly after the death of Prince Arthur in 1502. The death of Elizabeth in childbirth in 1503 led to fears that radical Yorkists might now reconsider their allegiance. Henry VII’s insecurity because of his weak claim to the throne. There will be responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which Henry was secure and/or opposed. Such responses can get to the top of Level 2. For access to Level 3 focus must be on the question, with some consideration of the areas in which Henry VII was secure/insecure. Candidates operating at Level 3 and Level 4 must have a clear understanding of the view that Henry VII was never entirely secure in order to arrive at a judgement.

(40)

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6521B - Paper 1B Mark Scheme The World Turned Upside Down: Monarchy and Republic in England, 1641-53 2 (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources suggest that Charles I possessed great wisdom and judgement? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make a detailed comparison of the two sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2 but no further. Possible areas where agreement could be seen include the fact that in Source 1 he was a prince of great wisdom and judgement, and in Source 2, by the most illustrious Prince Charles. It is clear from Source 3 that Charles is passing his experience as a ruler of some wisdom to his son, that he respects justice and the laws. Areas of disagreement in Source 1 make it clear that Charles trusted men who were inferior to himself that in the selection of individuals for personal service he was a poor judge of men. Source 2 implies that he could be stubborn and unwilling to take advice. On the other hand one can infer from Source 3 that Charles is advising his son to achieve the right form of governance in England. From this one can infer that he acknowledges his own mistakes of not listening to his advisors. 2 (b)

(20)

Use Sources 4, 5 and 6 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view expressed in Source 5 (line 22) that there was ‘at no time a radical revolution on the brink of success’? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 4 and 6 can be used as the basis of creating a structured argument with specific examples that challenge the statement. They show that there was a radical revolution in terms of social and political issues, for example the questioning of the right of monarchs to rule without popular consent, the challenges to the authority of the Church by religious groups like the Puritans, the revolutionary elements of the army. In Source 6 the questioning of the role of religion and the state was perceived as being a dangerous force because it cut across class barriers and led to a politicised army. Source 5 can be used to show compromise between the radical elements and the state, ‘If Rainsborough etc wanted to be revolutionary leaders…their only opportunity was in 1647, they did not take it’. In addition there are elements in Source 6 that indicate that, ‘the Levellers could be contained with relative ease’. In Source 5 it argues that the threat was more an imagined one than real. Own knowledge which could be deployed: Unlikely that the radical groups like the Levellers enjoyed widespread support. But once their ideas began to spread the conservative elements within the government were able to isolate them. Attempts at the Settlement highlight the lack of support for radical political and social ideas and changes. There will be many responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which radicalism emerged and its impact. Such responses can get to top of level 2. For access to level 3, focus must be on the question, with some consideration of the areas of radical revolution and whether it was a threat. Candidates operating at Level 3 and 4 must have a clear understanding of the question in order to arrive at a judgement.

(40)

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6521C - Paper 1C Mark Scheme Poverty and the British State, c.1815-50 3 (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that the Old Poor Law was reformed mainly in order to save money? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make detailed comparisons of the sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2. Possible areas where agreement could be seen include the fact that in Source 1 the annual overseers were incompetent and therefore wasted money. It is clear from Source 2 that measures already introduced show savings being made, the winter rate for 1836 was reduced from 5s or 6s to 1s 6d. One can infer from this that the old Poor Law was perceived to be costly and wasteful. The money used by residents before the reforms was wasted on beer and tobacco. Areas of disagreement are shown in Source 3 where the reforms are not perceived as about saving money but about reforming the character of the poor. But within this source there are elements of agreement with the statement. The conditions within the workhouses have deteriorated one assumes because of the reduction of funding and more people are forced to look for work to maintain their standard of living. Source 4 makes it clear that able bodied people are encouraged to work even if it is dull and monotonous. 3 (b) Use Sources 3, 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view, expressed in Source 3 (line 12), that the Poor Law Amendment Act was ‘working very satisfactorily’ in the years after 1834? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 3 can be used to show that the Poor Law Amendment was working because there is an improvement in the moral behaviour of the poor. Source 4 can be used as the basis for creating a structured argument against the statement in the question because on the one hand it is saying the new Poor Law was working because fewer people used it, but on the other it is saying that the conditions within the workhouses were so bad people were frightened to use them. This is further supported by Source 3 when it states, ‘the workhouse is held in great dread’. In addition Source 5 supports the view that there was widespread hostility to the workhouses after the reform. Own knowledge: This can be used to show how there was a compromise between the intentions of the Poor Law Amendment Act and the implementation of this Act by the local authorities and guardians of the workhouses. By 1837 the administrative reorganisation was complete, some workhouses had been built but they were fairly grim. Some elements of violent resistance to the changes occurred particularly in the North because of the severe industrial depression after 1837. Many rural Guardians continued to bend the rules – in some respects cheaper to grant minimal outdoor relief. By 1850 only 110,000 paupers out of a total of 1 million were workhouse inmates. But the PLAA succeeded in reducing expenditure from £7 million to £4.5 million. There will be responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which the PLAA worked satisfactorily. Such responses can get to the top of Level 2. For access to Level 3 focus must be on the question, with some consideration of the term ‘satisfactorily’. Candidates operating at Level 3 and 4 must have a clear understanding of the issues in order to arrive at a judgement.

(20)

(40)

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6521D - Paper 1D Mark Scheme Votes for Women, c.1880-1918 4 (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources suggest that the WSPU was a united movement? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make detailed comparisons of the sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2. Possible areas where agreement could be seen include the fact that the song in Source 1 calls on the women to march together in unity, ‘strong stand we at last’. In addition in Source 2 members are called upon to work together, to leave pettiness and personal ambition behind. Everyone must work together whether officers or rank and file members. Areas of disagreement are clear in Source 3 which talks about rebellion in the ranks because of the militancy of the union. In addition there is disillusion with the struggle for the vote on two levels, one because of its hypocrisy and secondly, the sacrificing of principles. The writers of the three sources are all members of the WSPU, two of whom are willing to give everything for the struggle, whereas the writer in Source 3 has become disillusioned mainly with the way in which the movement appears to be dominated by the Pankhursts. 4 (b) Use Sources 4, 5 and 6 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that the First World War hindered, rather than helped, the cause of female suffrage? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 4 and 5 can be used to show that the First World War was responsible for changing the views on women’s suffrage. Individuals like Asquith were extremely anti-women’s suffrage before the war because of the militancy of the WSPU and blocked the Conciliation Bills 3 times between 1910-14. During the war the militant campaign was ended by the WPSU as they worked alongside government agencies for care of the sick etc. Source 5 perceives the inevitability of the vote being given to women because of the sacrifices made by both men and women during the war. In addition they saw women as a steadying influence. Source 5 can be used as the basis of creating a structured argument with specific examples including the patriarchal view of Selborne, women as a steadying influence and this is reinforced in Source 6 women ‘did not experience the horrors of the front line’. This overlooks the role women played in nursing the sick and wounded and countless other tasks they performed in supporting the armed forces. Source 6 shows clearly the view that the war actually obstructed the progress of votes for women because of the social ideas about the separation of the roles of men and women in society. In addition it pushed all the problems experienced by women in the political sphere lower on the governments agenda. Own knowledge which could be deployed: the role of Millicent Fawcett is an important consideration in the war years for winning the vote for women. Whilst the Pankhurst stopped their campaign Millicent Fawcett continued to lobby the government. There will be many responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which the war helped or hindered the granting of the vote. Such responses can get to the top of Level 2. For access to Level 3 focus must be on the question, with some consideration of the reasons why women won the vote. Candidates operating at Level 3 and 4 must have a clear understanding of the debates in order to arrive at a judgement.

(20)

(40)

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6521E - Paper 1E Mark Scheme Russia in Revolution, 1905-17 5 (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources suggest that the chief cause of discontent within the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century was that it was ill-governed? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make detailed comparisons of the sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2. Sources 1, 2 and 3 all agree with the statement that ‘Russia was poorly governed’. It is clear in Source 1 that the majority of the population faced poverty and famine, that the nature of the autocratic government, is poorly suited to the needs of people of all classes. Source 2 simply states we are ill-governed and unable to release the wealth within the country. Source 3 highlights the conditions of the workers and their inability to influence the government of Russia. Differences can be inferred from Source 2 and 3 where in Source 2 it highlights the fact that there is great wealth in Russia. In addition in Source 3 workers are petitioning the Tsar to help them overcome the problems they have with their employers. Source 1 disagrees with the statement when it states government is imposed by violence – hence revolutionary forces are being contained. 5 (b)

(20)

Use Sources 4, 5 and 6 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that the continuation of Russia’s involvement in the First World War was the main reason for the failure of the Provisional Government? Explain your answer using these three sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 5 clearly shows the reasons why the Provisional Government continued with the war, the fear of the desertion of the peasants and the necessity to defend Russia. Source 4 can be used as the basis of creating a structured argument with specific examples; the notion of dual power. The Soviet had control of important elements of real power, such as the army, the railways etc. this weakened the Provisional Government. Source 6 supports the view that the Provisional Government was weak when it states – it alienated the Left and Right political groups, there was no substantial middle class in Russia. The decision to continue the war sapped the energies of the government. Other factors to consider include the issue of peasants and land, the fear if land was given to the peasants the soldiers (peasants) would desert. Workers and the factories engaged in war production expected to work long days for little pay. The Kornilov Revolt and how the Provisional Government had to request the Bolsheviks to defend Petrograd against this revolt. Finally, the actions of the liberal politicians who had little governmental experience and they made many mistakes. There will be many responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which the war helped or hindered the Provisional Government. Such responses can get to the top of Level 2. For access to Level 3 focus must be on the question, with some consideration of the reasons why the Provisional Government failed to act and take Russia out of the war. Candidates operating at Level 3 and 4 must have a clear understanding of the debates in order to arrive at a judgement.

(40)

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6521F - Paper 1F Mark Scheme The Seeds of Evil: the Rise of National Socialism in Germany to 1933 6 (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that the NSDAP was incapable of exerting any noticeable influence on the German people in the 1920s? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make detailed comparisons of the sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2. Possible areas where agreement can be seen include the fact that Source 2 makes it clear – this Party is not going anywhere, numerically insignificant group. Source 1 states – I was not easily won over, ‘bit by bit he won me round’. Areas of disagreement are clear in Source 1 – it did not take more than one meeting, gave us a good working scheme, implying that there were many others who felt the same. Source 3 makes it clear that Hitler was a saviour, that the writer is committed totally to the cause that Hitler promotes. In addition it is clear from the sources 1 and 3 that there was a wide range of support for the NSDAP. From Source 2 we can infer that the NSDAP was important because the Ministry of the Interior had commissioned a report on them. 6 (b)

(20)

Use Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that until the end of January 1933 it was by no means certain that Hitler would come to power? Explain your answer using these two sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 4 can be used to show the hesitancy of Hindenburg to appoint Hitler and the role of von Papen in gaining his agreement to appoint Hitler. Source 5 can be used as the basis of creating a structured argument with specific examples for and against the statement, the support of the Right had given way to hostility in 1932. Hitler and his party were portrayed negatively to the public. But there is support for Hitler in the second half when it highlights the amount of popular support for Hitler, this is supported in Source 4 where it states that if they do nothing there will most probably be a civil war, inferring that the popular support for Hitler could be converted to a revolutionary force. Other factors to consider include the reduction in electoral support for Hitler in November 1932. The state of the economy was improving and it was during times of uncertainty that Hitler and the NSDAP gained most support. The use of propaganda by the NDSAP to maintain widespread support, discredit the communists and the Weimar Republic. The role of the SA in crushing the communists and stopping meetings of the opposition parties. The role of the elites, von Papen, Schleicher etc. in manipulating Hindenburg into giving Hitler the Chancellorship. There will be many responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which Hitler came to power without fully exploring the evidence within the sources. Such responses can get to the top of Level 2. For access to Level 3 focus must be on the question, with some consideration of the reasons why Hitler was able to overcome the opposition to his appointment by Hindenburg. Candidates operating at Level 3 and 4 must have a clear understanding of the debates in order to arrive at a judgement.

(40)

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6521G - Paper 1G Mark Scheme Boom and Bust: Economy and Society in the USA, 1917-33 7 (a) Study Sources 1, 2 and 3. How far do these three sources support the view that the USA was the land of opportunity? Indicative content Do not be too severe on candidates who make detailed comparisons of the sources without actually going beyond the surface features to address the sources as evidence. Such candidates giving a full and detailed comparison should be able to get to the key mark point of Level 2. Possible areas of agreement could be seen to include the fact that Source 1 makes it clear that the USA enjoyed a very high standard of living compared to other developed countries, Source 2 clearly states that in the northern states the standard of living is high and whether you are black or white you can travel on trains, your money is appreciated the same as anyone else’s. Areas of disagreement are clearly to be seen in Source 3 when it talks of the hysteria against immigrants from Italy/foreigners, where whether guilty or innocent it is your origins/colour that is used against you denying you rights. In Source 2 it asks – what chance does the average blacks have in the southern states, and makes clear the use of violence against individuals who are not WASP’s. 7 (b)

(20)

Use Sources 4 and 5 and your own knowledge. Do you agree with the view that President Hoover’s government has been unfairly blamed for the US economy’s failure to recover from the Crash of 1929? Explain your answer using these two sources and your own knowledge. Indicative content Source 4 can be used to show the impact of the Crash on individuals and has some sympathy for Hoover who had just been elected into the Presidency. Therefore the reasons for the Crash were because of the lack of action taken by his predecessor, Coolidge. Source 5 can be used as the basis of creating a structured argument with specific examples to show the failures of the Hoover administration; failed to get financial aid to where it was most needed, individuals and instead focused on the big institutions and banks. Source 4 questions Hoover’s methods – because he had been able to sort out problems in Europe ten years earlier but could not help the US. Source 5 sees Hoover’s actions as, too little too late, whereas Source 4 views the lack of action by Coolidge as being of greater importance in not only contributing to the Crash but for its impact on society. Own knowledge could focus on the actions of individuals leading up to the Wall Street Crash – speculation in the stock market, weak banking system, failure of the Coolidge administration to regulate financial dealings, problems with the economy etc. There will be many responses that simply describe, with varying degrees of accuracy, the ways in which the Hoover’s government responded to the Crash. Such responses can get to the top of Level 2. For access to Level 3 focus must be on the question, with some consideration of whether, Hoover’s government had been unfairly blamed. Candidates operating at Level 3 and 4 must have a clear understanding of the debates in order to arrive at a judgement.

(40)

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