# Computer & Electronic Systems Year 1, Semester 2 Electronic Building Blocks 1 Transistor

Preview • • • • • • Introduction Construction Symbols Currents Voltages Regions of Operation Transistor 2 .

Transistors • Most important devices in electronics today • Integrated circuits may contain millions of transistors • 3-terminal devices • Resistors. Inductors. Capacitors. Diodes are “passive” devices Transistors are “active” devices Transistor 3 .

Discrete Transistors Transistor 4 .

Bipolar Junction Transistor) Transistor 5 .Transistor • A semiconductor device that controls current between 2 terminals based on the current at a 3rd terminal • Focus on Bipolar Transistor (also called BJT.

Transistor Construction • 2 pn junctions in the same crystal • NPN: p-type region (Base) is sandwiched between 2 n-type regions (Collector and Emitter) PNP: n-type region (Base) is sandwiched between 2 p-type regions (Collector and Emitter) • B: Base E: Emitter C: Collector • Wire leads connect to each of the 3 regions Transistor 6 .

Transistor PN Junctions • Base-Emitter Junction: pn junction joining the Base region and the Emitter region • Base-Collector Junction: pn junction joining the Base region and the Collector region Transistor 7 .

Transistor Symbols • Arrow on the Emitter terminal gives the direction in which current flows: NPN: from B to E PNP: from E to B • Our focus is on NPN transistors Transistor 8 .

IC=βIB β is typically between 20 and 200 • Large Collector current (IC) controlled by the small Base current (IB) Transistor 9 .Transistor Currents • Emitter current is the sum of the Collector and Base currents • IE=IC+IB • IB is very small compared to IE and IC • Parameter Beta (β): β=IC/IB.

7V means the pn junction is reverse-biased Transistor 10 .7V • VB=VE+0.Transistor Voltages • When current flows in the transistor. the Base-Emitter voltage is 0.7V means the pn junction is forward-biased pn junction voltage < 0.7V • pn junction voltage ≥ 0.

Regions of Operation • Determined by the biasing of the junctions • Saturation Region: Base-Emitter Junction: Forward-biased(≥ 0.7V) Base-Collector Junction: Reverse-biased(<0.7V) • Active or Linear Region (IC=βIB): Base-Emitter Junction: Forward-biased(≥ 0.7V) Base-Collector Junction: Forward-biased(≥ 0.7V) Base-Collector Junction: Reverse-biased(<0.7V) • Cutoff Region: Base-Emitter Junction: Reverse-biased(<0.7V) Transistor 11 .

Review • • • • • • Introduction Construction Symbols Currents Voltages Regions of Operation Transistor 12 .