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ELECTRO CERAMIC SOLUTIONS
Morgan Electro Ceramics forms part of Morgan Technical Ceramics, a Division of The Morgan Crucible Company plc
©Copyright November 2007
Morgan Electro Ceramics (MEC) has a comprehensive range of piezoelectric and dielectric materials from which many products are manufactured, including transducers, sensors, actuators and high voltage and RF capacitors. MEC has established an enviable reputation for providing value-added solutions through world-class research and development, innovative design and, perhaps most important of all, application engineering.
A subsidiary of The Morgan Crucible Company, MEC forms part of the Morgan Technical Ceramics Group. The Group includes Morgan Advanced Ceramics and from manufacturing locations in North America, Europe and Asia, supplies an extensive range of products, including ceramic components, braze alloys, ceramic/metal assemblies and engineering coatings. This brochure contains information about the range of piezoelectric materials produced by Morgan Electro Ceramics and gives an introduction to the properties that may well provide solutions to your design challenges. It does not address other materials, many of which are listed below, that are available from the Morgan Technical Ceramics Group of companies, as other literature exists for these. For detailed specifications of individual materials, please contact your local area sales person or visit www.morganelectroceramics.com. For more information on Morgan Advanced Ceramics visit www.morganadvancedceramics.com.
MATCHING YOUR REQUIREMENTS TO MORGAN’S CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING
It is our objective to help our customers as much as possible when designing Piezo components into their products. Applications engineering assistance is provided as a support facility across the product portfolio.
Process control of raw materials and their fabrication into ceramic compounds ensures high quality and repeatability of properties. The control of the specially formulated ceramic materials are vital to the success of the product range and we continually strive to reduce variability in our processes.
TESTING AND CHARACTERISATION
Computer modelling techniques employed in the development of new designs requires input of the most accurate material property data available. Morgan focuses on test capabilities to provide this characterisation service to their customers.
First class manufacturing processes are employed to provide components engineered for top performance of electrical and mechanical properties. Quality systems to ISO 9001:2000 are in place to provide the structure for control, function and traceability through the manufacturing facilities.
THE MORGAN CRUCIBLE COMPANY PLC
The Morgan Crucible Company plc is the ultimate holding company of a group of subsidiary engaged in the manufacture and marketing of carbon and ceramic components for application in a wide range of industries and services. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange in the engineering sector and is part of the FTSE All-Share index. For more information visit www.morgancrucible.com.
Expertise has been developed in the deposition of many electrode material types on to ceramics with patterns, wrap-around and feed through configurations to custom designs. The ability to provide special electrodes can facilitate the manufacture of the devices into which the ceramic components are mounted.
Morgan’s electroceramics components, transducers and assemblies are applied in leading edge technologies such as: AEROSPACE AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS DEFENCE MEDICAL ENERGY INDUSTRIAL
ASSEMBLIES, BIMORPHS AND TRANSDUCERS
Our customers have found that there are great advantages in working closely with us so that we can provide them with a full or sub-assembly. The transducers we manufacture to our own design are a complete, fully tested assembly ready for immediate fit into a system.
Piezo Ceramic Multilayer Actuators (PCMA) operate at reduced drive voltage to deliver small accurate displacements rapidly and with low power consumption. This gives advantages over electromagnetic actuators in specific applications.
Morgan continues to develop new materials and value added assemblies to meet the rapidly expanding opportunities in these markets. Quality assurance is an intrinsic part of everything we do from the moment we receive your initial enquiry to final delivery and after-care. Our total quality ethos is implemented through an intensive Six Sigma continuous improvement programme. All Morgan Advanced Ceramics sites around the world have ISO 9000 accreditation. In addition, individual sites hold a variety of industry-specific quality standards. 1
giving the ceramic material a remnant polarisation and permanent deformation (i. In addition to the crystals mentioned above.TABLE OF CONTENT NATURE OF PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 16 19 20 22 23 25 27 28 Introduction Table of Contents The Nature of Piezoelectric Ceramics PZT Manufacturing Process Piezoelectric Applications Piezoelectric Ceramic Materials Piezoelectric Property Symbols and Notation Typical Symbols Employed in Describing Properties of Piezoelectric Materials Modes of Vibration. If it is stretched. If an external force produces compressive or tensile strain in the material. as well as making it permanently piezoelectric. PZT-induced motor action is found in transducers for ultrasonic cleaning equipment. tourmaline and Rochelle salt. the body distorts along its poling axis. Examples of Piezoelectric-induced generator action can be found in cigarette and gas lighters. when an electric field is applied to one of these materials. the ceramic material will be isotropic and will exhibit no piezoelectric effect because of this random orientation. conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy.e. possible since there are several allowed directions within each crystal. the voltage will have the same polarity as the poling voltage (see Figure 3b). if an alternating voltage is applied to the electrodes. fuel injection systems and piezoelectric motors. The PZT can be fashioned into components of almost any shape and size. The PZT ceramics in this data handbook are solid solutions of Lead Titanate (PbTiO3). Conversely. Finally. means that it is not possible to get perfect dipole alignment within the field. The random orientation of the crystallites. Figure 3 illustrates the piezoelectric effect in a cylinder of PZT material. For clarity. 3 2 . These are examples of generator action. a group of piezoceramics generally known as PZT. ultrasonic atomisers. A reasonable degree of alignment is. the resulting change in dipole moment causes a voltage to appear between the electrodes. When a voltage is applied between them. producing dimensional changes in the material. the crystalline structure changes shape. This spontaneous polarisation disappears at a critical temperature (the Curie point). hydrophones and microphones. The ceramic can be made piezoelectric in any chosen direction by a poling treatment. Within a certain stress range (which depends on the crystal concerned). and Lead Zirconate (PbZrO3). PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS Quartz is a good example of a piezoelectric material. modified by additives. If this crystal is then stressed. These materials are used as electromechanical transducers. leading to a charge in the dipole moment of the crystal (piezoelectric effect). After it has been sintered. the cylinder will shorten (see Figure 3d). Piezoelectric properties occur naturally in some crystalline materials and can be induced in other polycrystalline materials. of which PZT is an example. PZT is hard. and the fact that only certain polarisation directions are allowed. As well as being strongly piezoelectric. Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered piezoelectricity in the 1880’s. chemically inert and completely unaffected by humid environments. this change in the dipole moment with stress is approximately linear and reversible. a tetragonal/rhombohedral structure very close to cubic. Ferroelectric crystals. the dipoles remain locked in alignment. (see Figure 1) in which A denotes a large divalent metal ion such as Pb. When a field is removed. A PZT component will usually have metal electrodes deposited on its surface perpendicular to its poling axis (see Figure 2). When mechanical pressure is applied to one of these materials. the cylinder will expand and contract at the same frequency as that of the applied voltage (see Figure 3f). strong. Figure 3a shows the cylinder under no-load conditions. accelerometers. If a voltage of opposite polarity to the poling voltage is applied to the electrodes. the lattice will distort. the magnitude of the effect has been exaggerated. the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. an important group of piezoelectric materials are the piezoelectric ceramics. 30 31 32 33 33 34 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 Navy I Type Piezoelectric Ceramics Navy II Type Piezoelectric Ceramics Navy III Type Piezoelectric Ceramics Navy V Type Piezoelectric Ceramics Navy VI Type Piezoelectric Ceramics Custom Piezoelectric Ceramics Custom Piezoelectric Ceramics Custom Piezoelectric Ceramics Single Crystal Materials Material Cross Reference Table Glossary of Terms Samples Ordering Data Checklist Technical Publications Figure 1: The Piezoelectric crystal structure. however. and B denotes a small tetravalent metal ion such as Zr or Ti. If the applied voltage has the same polarity as the poling voltage. They have the general formula ABO3. Figure 2: Electric dipoles in piezoelectric materials PIEZOELECTRIC ACTIONS In a ferroelectric crystal. e. If the crystal is cooled through the Curie point in the presence of an external electric field. the cylinder will lengthen (see Figure 3e). above which the crystal becomes paraelectric. making it anisotropic). which involves exposing it to a strong electric field. also exhibit piezoelectricity. These are polycrystalline ferroelectric materials with the perovskite crystal structure. Displacement and Voltage Typical Temperature Properties for PZT Compositions Dynamic Behaviour of Piezoelectric Ceramics Useful Electromechanical Relationships Piezoelectric Sensor Acoustic Impedance Matching Shapes and Mechanical Tolerances Electrodes Transducers and Sensors PZT Flexure Elements: Bimorph Multilayer Actuators Table of Properties PIEZOELECTRICITY Piezoelectricity is a property exhibited by certain classes of crystalline materials.g. the voltage across the electrodes will have opposite polarity to the poling voltage (see Figure 3c). each cell of the crystal lattice spontaneously polarises along one of a series of allowed directions. the dipoles tend to align in the allowed direction most nearly aligned with the field. If the cylinder is compressed. the crystalline structure produces a voltage proportional to the pressure. These are examples of motor or actuator action. This poling treatment is usually the final stage of PZT component manufacture. A PZT ceramic may be regarded as a mass of minute crystallites randomly oriented.
For impact applications. the piezoelectric effect becomes linear. In practice. The materialís temperature limitation decreases with greater continuous operation or exposure. and piezoelectric constants may only be specified for a standard time after poling. When the pulse duration approaches a microsecond. It should be noted that alternating fields can have the same effect during the half cycle. and duration of the applied stress.AR. until complete and permanent depolarisation occurs at the materialís Curie temperature.log t) Where: XT is value of interest at T days after poling. Nickel. • Strong electric de-poling field. 4 5 . The ageing rate of various properties depends on the ceramic composition. materials with higher energy output (high g constant) can be used.NATURE OF PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS PZT MANUFACTURING PROCESS AGEING RATES AND TIME STABILITY Most of the properties of piezoelectric ceramics change gradually with time. For dynamic stress (impact ignition) the limit is less severe. At elevated temperatures. Poling Final Test / Inspection Figure 5: Typical piezoelectric ceramic manufacturing process Figure 4: Typical hysteresis loop and associated lateral strain or contraction. isostatic press. Because of ageing exact values of various properties such as dielectric constant. the ageing process accelerates. Material selection should be based on the conditions of a given application. The changes tend to be logarithmic with time after poling. The Curie point is the absolute maximum exposure temperature for any piezoelectric ceramic. The typical operating limit is between 500V/mm for soft piezoelectric materials and 1000V/mm for hard piezoelectric materials during continuous application.25kV/mm for a soft piezoelectric material. due to the short application time compared to the relaxation time of the domains. Xt is value at poling date. and the maximum safe stress level is reduced. Tape cast Binder Burnout <800 C o Sintering <1200 C o VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS A piezoelectric ceramic can be depolarised by a strong electric field with polarity opposite to the original poling voltage. In bimorph actuators it is possible to apply an electrical field up to 1. For the sake of clarity. When the ceramic element is heated above the Curie point. As the operating temperature increases. AR is the Ageing Rate (Positive or Negative) MEC manufactures electro-ceramics materials in a batch process that involves the following basic process stages (see figure 5 below): PbO TiO2 ZrO2 Dopants Weigh Out Raw Material Milling Calcine Firing <1000 C o Milling Spray Drying TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS Figure 3: The Piezoelectric effect on a cylindrical body of piezoelectric ceramics. As a general rule it is not recommended to exceed half of the materialís Curie temperature in degrees Centigrade. EQUATION FOR AGEING RATE To predict value X at T days after poling: XT = Xt+ Xt . After poling. Each ceramic has its own Curie point. the material has a remnant polarisation (Pr) and a remnant stress (Sr) as shown in Figure 4. which is opposite to the poling direction. the operating temperature must be substantially below the Curie point. all piezoelectric properties are lost. only one dipole is shown. Forming Dry press. Exposing the ceramic to one or more combination of the following conditions can accelerate the ageing process in any ceramic: • High mechanical stress. the geometry and on the way the ceramic is processed during manufacture. and the operating temperature. • High temperatures approaching the Curie point. coupling. The longer the time period after poling. The limit on the field strength is dependant on the type of material. Gold Electrode Firing MECHANICAL STRESS LIMITATIONS High mechanical stress can depolarise a piezoelectric ceramic. the material behaves quasi-statically (non-linear) for pulse durations of a few milliseconds or more. (logT . piezoelectric performance of a material decreases. the more stable the material becomes. Machining Electroding Silver. Typical ageing rates of various material properties can be found on pages 30-37 of this handbook. the duration of the application. The limit for the applied stress is dependent on the type of ceramic material.
These materials are used in various sensors. In addition. PZT5A SERIES (NAVY TYPE II) This material is used as the receiver or generator element in hydrophones. HIGH POWER “HARD” MATERIALS High power or “hard” ceramics can withstand high levels of electrical excitation and mechanical stress. It has been used in a wide range of applications from hydrophones to ink jet printers. It has the lowest Curie temperature of the “soft” materials (or PZT500 Series family). The material in many aspects is similar to materials PZT400 Series. high Qm. Hard Materials. Soft Materials and Custom Materials.PZT508 PZT5K1 PZT700 Series PZT5R Low Qm ( 80) d33>400 pC/N Table 1: Classification of PZT materials by typical applications. PZT407 (HARD) This material was developed for its specific combination of permittivity. and other high power acoustic radiation applications. This material has very high “d” coefficients and permittivity. receivers. and actuators. The materials have a combination of property stability. PZT508 (SOFT) This material has been developed to surpass the electrical performance of PZT5H Series materials while improving the temperatures characteristics by raising the Curie temperature to 220°C. See page 33 for more specific material properties. and piezoelectric constant. low-power motortype transducers. sonar. PZT5A Series is a Lead Zirconate Titanate with a high sensitivity. and time stability. PMN-PT28/30 This new single crystal piezoelectric material has been designed for use in transducer and actuator devices. coupling. it can be used under both constant and repetitive conditions. See page 30 for more specific material properties. PZT5H Series provides extremely high permittivity. The ceramic materials are arranged in three groups. accelerometers. PZT5J1 (NAVY TYPE V) This material is used in fuses. PZT800 Series has the ultimate power handling capability. sensitivity and source level in applications. but have been optimised for charge constants or coupling coefficients for specific applications. See page 37 for more specific material properties. developed specifically for bimorph applications. which therefore provides excellent hydrostatic properties and has the highest (figure of merit) for any Morgan Electro Ceramic materials. medical imaging. good sensitivity and have found use in a variety of sensor applications. PZT501 – PZT506 (SOFT) These materials are all “soft” and fall between DOD Categories II and V.PIEZOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS PIEZOELECTRONIC CERAMIC MATERIALS MATERIALS AUTOMOTIVE PIEZOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS Several types of piezoelectric ceramic materials are available. Unlike PZT it has low radial mode coupling coefficients. PZT400 SERIES (NAVY TYPE I) This material is ideally suited for ultrasonic cleaning. PZT507 (SOFT) This material is an improved PZT5H Series. PT1 This material is a Lead Titanate. These materials are suited for high voltage or high power generators and transducers. This is achieved by changing the chemical composition of the ceramic to enhance specific properties. while maintaining a high permittivity. even though its piezoelectric activity level is slightly lower than PZT400 Series. See page 34 for more specific material properties. low dielectric losses and improved electromechanical coupling coefficients. 6 7 . but falls outside the Navy I classification. PZT601 (HARD) This material was designed for transducer applications requiring reduced dielectric constant. See page 35 for more specific material properties. PZT5K SERIES (SOFT) This material outperforms PZT5H Series and PZT508 while at the expense of Curie temperature. See page 31 for more specific material properties. It has lower time stability. With an extremely low loss factor. See page 35 for more specific material properties. See page 35 for more specific material properties. PZT5J1 is a Lead Zirconate Titanate with a high permittivity and a high piezoelectric voltage constant. See page 32 for more specific material properties. but under high drive conditions are susceptible to self-heating beyond their operating temperature range. PZT502 is used as an alternative to PZT5A Series when higher sensitivity is required. and vibration sensors. Typical Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties: • Applications include high power sonar projectors. PZT800 SERIES (NAVY TYPE III) This material is used in high power applications. • The increased coupling and displacement results in improved bandwidth. See page 34 for more specific material properties. Each type is tailored towards the requirements of particular applications. loss and “d” coefficient. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Ultrasonic Cleaning Transducers Sonar Transducers Medical Therapy Ultrasonic welding Cosmetics Sensors Material testing Medical Diagnostics Actuators Low power generators Receivers Hydrophones Gyroscopes Accelerometers Ink jet printers Bimorphs SUITABLE MATERIAL PZT TYPE Hard Material High Qm High Tc Low tan UNDERWATER PIEZOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS PZT400 Series PZT800 Series CUSTOM MATERIALS Morgan Electro Ceramics manufacture a number of materials that do not fall within the Department of Defence (DOD) standards that are often used to define PZT materials. All the materials have similar dielectric constants. See page 35 for more specific material properties. See page 33 for more specific material properties. permittivity. It has been formulated to exhibit very large electromechanical coupling coefficients and also offers high dielectric constants and low dielectric losses. and low-power generators. which restricts its operating temperature range. They range in Curie temperatures from 270°C to 350°C. and other applications that require a combination of high energy and high voltage output. See page 36 for more specific material properties. Soft Material PZT5A Series PZT5J1 PZT5H Series PZT501 . PZT502 has high acoustic sensitivity. See page 34 for more specific material properties. PZT400 Series is a Lead Zirconate Titanate material capable of producing large mechanical drive amplitudes while maintaining low mechanical and dielectric losses. and high coupling. PZT700 SERIES (SOFT) These materials have been developed for a number of property optimisations. HIGH SENSITIVITY “SOFT” MATERIALS High sensitivity or “soft” ceramics feature high sensitivity and permittivity. hydrophones. PZT5H SERIES (NAVY TYPE VI) This material is used in sensitive receivers and applications requiring fine movement control.
etc… The table includes the MKS units used in measuring each property. some liberties have been taken in the explanations – electric boundary conditions are identified by indicating locations and connections of electrodes.85x10 F . Some of the piezoelectric property symbols are listed and defined in table 2.m ) -2 T = Stress (N . The terms 4. with axes 1 and 2 perpendicular to this. Density mass volume Kg/Metre² Frequency Constant N Controlling Dimension x Resonant Frequency Hz. 2 and 3 directions (see figure 6 left). These symbols identify the property: compliance. mechanical. the inner quantities are the extensive variables (generalised displacements). The direction of polarisation is conveniently taken as axis 3. these symbols are used to identify properties of materials only. and should not be used to describe characteristics of actual physical elements made of these materials. and thermal fields 8 9 . and thermal fields. the interaction between the electrical and mechanical behaviour of the piezoelectric medium can be described by the following relationships: Strictly speaking.Metre Table 2: Ceramic Property Definitions DIRECTION DEPENDENCE Poled piezoelectric ceramics are anisotropic and the direction of polarisation may be freely chosen.PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTY SYMBOLS AND NOTATION TYPICAL SYMBOLS EMPLOYED IN DESCRIBING PROPERTIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS CERAMIC PROPERTY DEFINITIONS The piezoelectric properties are described by a system of symbols and notations. PROPERTY Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient k DEFINITION mechanical energy stored electrical energy supplied or electrical energy stored mechanical energy supplied Strain developed applied stress or short circuit change density applied stress open circuit field applied stress or strain developed applied charge density MKS UNITS PIEZOELECTRIC EQUATIONS To a good approximation. - Piezoelectric Constants d Metre/Volt or Coulombs/Newton g Volt/Newton or Metre/Coulombs Relative Dielectric Constant K permittivity of material permittivity of space - WHERE: -1 E = field (V . However. elastic.m ) r = relative permittivity or dielectric constant -12 -1 0 = permittivity of free space (8. The outer quantities are the thermodynamic intensive variables (generalised forces). 5 and 6 apply to shear strains associated with the 1. electromechanical coupling. for convenience. Figure 6: Notation of axes Figure 7: Couplings between electrical.m ) T = permittivity under constant stress Modulus of Elasticity Y stress strain Newton/Metre² Figure 7 below depicts the phenomenology arising from the mutual couplings among the electric. a method of identifying the axes of a component is necessary in order to specify its parameters.m ) S = Strain (SI) -2 D = Dielectric displacment (C .
DISPLACEMENT & VOLTAGE SHAPE AXES POLARISATION DIRECTION APPLIED FIELD VOLTAGE OUTPUT MODE OF VIBRATION DISPLACEMENT APPLIED STRESS FREQUENCY CAPACITANCE DISPLACEMENT (STATIC) VOLTAGE (STATIC) THIN DISC PLATE RING TUBE ROD HEMISPHERE SHEAR PLATES NOTES: 1 . DISPLACEMENT & VOLTAGE MODES OF VIBRATION.All variables are metric.Equations valid for: (A) plate.Constants g31 and g33 and negative values which result in negative strain (contraction) and negative voltage (contraction) 4 . L and W>>thk 2 . disc.MODES OF VIBRATION. use MKS units 3 . 10 11 .Each type of material has particular voltage. stress and temperature limitations. ring & shear plate where r.
In the absence of a customer specification. C1. At the series resonance (1) the frequency is expressed in equation 6. • Capacitance • tan • Coupling (Kp. the holder and the leads. is the motional capacitance. L1 is determined by the mass. The measurements of fr and fa give the ratio expressed in equation 9. and C0 is made up of the electrodes. Za • Insulation Resistance • Other parameters as per customer request. which is needed to calculate the mechanical quality factor Qm. 13 . The oscillator and input resistors R1 and R2 are used to apply a constant voltage signal to the piezoelectric ceramic transducer. C1. the structure is simply a capacitor C0 but at the precise resonant frequency the circuit becomes a capacitor and resistor in parallel. R1 is a result of bulk losses. Keff) • Fr. Temperature ( C) o Temperature ( C) o NOTE: ABOVE CURVES ARE REPRESENTATIVE DATA ONLY. the voltmeter reading is proportional to the transducer's admittance. When operated far off resonance. Between points A and B. Morgan Electro Ceramics will apply internal limits. Fa • Zr. The current passing through the transducer is measured across output resistor R2. and C0. Figure 8: The electrical equivalent circuit for a PZT resonator. % Capacitance Change % Frequency Change The impedance between points A and B is at its maximum and is expressed in equation 8. which means the circuit is purely resistive. If the transducer's impedance is much greater than R2. only R1 is remaining. Hence equation 10 follows: % Coupling Coefficient Change % d31 Change The resonant frequency fr can be measured with either of the following two circuits: MEASURING METHOD USING CONSTANT VOLTAGE CIRCUIT The fr measuring circuit using a constant voltage source is shown in Figure 10. 12 Figure 9: The reactance of the PZT resonator varies with frequency of operation near resonance. L1. Potentiometer P1 is used to determine the resonant resistance Zr . An area typically chosen for operation of the oscillator is either near series resonance or at the more inductive area of parallel resonance. TESTING OF PZT COMPONENTS Below is a list of the various electrical parameters which are normally measured to qualify PZT components. the oscillator.TYPICAL TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES FOR PZT COMPOSITIONS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT The electrical equivalent (see Figure 8) provides the link between the physical property of the crystal and the area of application. The reactance of the PZT approaches zero at the point of series resonance and reaches a maximum at the anti-resonant frequency fa (see Figure 9). The frequency where the voltmeter reading is maximized is the resonant frequency fr and the frequency where the reading is minimized is the anti-resonant frequency fa. At the parallel resonance (2) the frequency is expressed in equation 7. Figure 10: Resonant frequency method using constant voltage. Temperature ( C) o Temperature ( C) o The physical constants of the crystal determine the equivalent values of R1.
An absolute value on the power limitation of the ceramic cannot be determined without knowledge of its operating conditions. the static capacitance acts as a load on the active part of the transducer. In most non-resonant devices. the electromechanical relationships are such that the displacement of the piezoelectric element from its normal position.DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS MEASURING METHOD USING CONSTANT CURRENT CIRCUIT The fr measuring circuit using a constant current source is shown in Figure 11. temperature-limited. hence the single capacitor representation. however. RG and the mechanical load impedance. Depolarisation of the ceramic due to temperature rise 6. but instead reduces the output at all frequencies (except very low frequencies as discussed in the next paragraph). shunted by an impedance representing the mechanical vibrating system. In resonant devices. an inductor equal to (see equation 15) is connected across the transducer. It can be shown that the acoustic power density P per cubic metre is given by equation 11. Under these conditions. By the application of elementary network theory. Figure 11: Resonant frequency method using constant current. the electric field necessary to cause sufficient depolarisation will create extremely undesirable operating conditions with very high dielectric losses. Temperature limited transducers are dependent on the efficiency of the heat removal from the ceramic. such as a microphone or accelerometer. at resonance. In electrically driven devices. also upon the dryness of the surface. since mechanical losses are negligible compared to dielectric losses. represents the load resistance and eL represents the load potential. ultrasonic. cable. or dynamic-strength limited. The power per cubic meter dissipated in the ceramic by dielectric dissipation Pd is given by equation 12. be considered to be purely capacitive. a non-resonant piezoelectric generator device. POWER LIMITATIONS The acoustic power handling capacity of a radiating transducer is limited by the following factors: 1.6 PZT-400 series Parallel PZT-400 series Parallel PZT-400 series Transverse PZT-400 series Transverse PZT-5A series PZT-5A series PZT-5A series PZT-5A series Parallel Parallel Transverse Transverse Figure 12: Non-Resonant Mechanically Driven Device The values of the shunt leakage resistance and the capacitance of the piezoelectric element are dependent on the dimensions of the element and. Between these two extremes. A transducer may be efficiency-limited. RESONANT DEVICES The electrical impedance of a piezoelectric device is. In this case. where the generator resistance. The shunt static capacitance generally is undesirable. This is analogous to the situation existing in conventional RC-coupled amplifiers. power limitations are imposed by factors 2 and 5 and the feedback between them (factor 6). In this case. the latter impedance may be approximated by a capacitor.5 0. Table 3: Relative power for PZT-400 and PZT-5A series. Factor 1 may be reduced through mechanical bias in sonar. depending on the composition of the ceramic. and the acoustic power and efficiency are given by equation 18. the specific limitation is dependent on the mechanical design of the transducer. which are electrically driven. Table 3 lists the relative power for PZT-400 and PZT-5A series at resonance for the same acoustic load for a given volume of material. a resistance of relatively low value and this is shunted by the same static capacitance. In devices designed for operation at resonance. together with the load on the device. The frequency where the voltmeter reading is minimized is the resonant frequency fr.5 2. Resistor R3 regulates the current passing through the piezoelectric ceramic transducer. Instability resulting from the positive feedback between dielectric losses and internal heating (factor 2 and 5) In practice. the low frequency response begins to fall off. In non-resonant devices. This tends to hold for materials with Qm > 100. With high values of Q m power handling capacity of the material is limited at times by the dynamic tensile strength. NON-RESONANT ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN DEVICES In the case of non-resonant piezoelectric devices. assuming that the material is limited by the dielectric losses tan =0. and amplifier input does not bring about a relative loss of high frequency response as in the case of resistive or inductive sources shunted by capacitance loads. If R3 is much greater than the transducer's impedance.2 0. The impedance of the driving electric generator is set equal to the image impedance in order to maximise the transducer bandwidth. the acoustic power is given by equation 14. the basic circuit can be reduced to the equivalent circuit of figure 12c. Therefore. at any instant. Reduction in efficiency due to mechanical losses 4. Rc is the shunt leakage resistance of the device. it shunts the driving amplifier or other signal source requiring that the source be capable of supplying extra current. Matching is the term applied to the process of adjusting the acoustic load so that it corresponds to the image impedance of the transducer. Factor 3 may be generally disregarded. the bandwidth is given by equation 17. 14 Figure 13: Resonant PZT device matched by inductor. ranging from several hundred megohms to many thousands of megohms. Under normal operating conditions. below resonance operation. and the frequency where the reading is maximized is the anti-resonant frequency fa. CL is the shunt load capacitance. MATERIAL MODE TEMPERATURE (ºC) 25 100 25 100 25 100 25 100 RELATIVE POWER 100 65 23 12. the impedance representing the mechanical system may become. the static capacitance may be “neutralised” or matched by employing a shunt or series inductor chosen to resonate with the static capacitance at the operating frequency. which is treated as a bandpass filter. CIRCUIT CONSIDERATIONS NON-RESONANT MECHANICALLY DRIVEN DEVICES For most practical design purposes. except choose a piezoelectric material having maximum activity. Generally. low duty transducer is efficiency-limited. A more accurate representation would be a capacitor representing the static capacitance of the piezoelectric element. Dynamic strength is significant only when a transducer is not mechanically biased and the ceramic has a high mechanical quality factor Qm. A low frequency. In the case of mechanically driven devices. Reduction in efficiency due to dielectric losses 3. may be represented by the equivalent circuit of figure 12a. It can be seen from this circuit that the shunt load capacitance CL of wiring. and other similar applications. It is assumed that the mechanical losses in the ceramic and the housing are negligible compared to dielectric losses. the capacitances in the circuit have reactances very much lower than the circuit resistances. whether the device is designed for operation at resonance or for broadband. From this it can be seen that when the combined reactance of the piezoelectric and circuit capacitances in parallel approaches the combined resistance. resulting in low efficiency. RT. 3 and 4 may be neglected. reducing the electric output. is directly proportional to the electric charge applied at that instant. for most practical purposes. are given in equation 16. except at very low frequencies. the circuit reduces to the simple capacitive voltage divider circuit (see Figure 12b). more complicated than the simple capacitor representation generally employed in discussing nonresonant devices. In the case of factor 4. not much can be done about the shunt capacitance. even though a bias compressive stress as high as 80MPa is used with PZT-400 series. For all frequencies well below the first mechanical resonance of the device. in the case of leakage resistance. These equations may be simplified for the specific case of a matched transducer. The equations pertaining to the power handling capacities of the material may be readily derived from lumped equivalent circuits. the voltmeter reading is proportional to the transducer's impedance. This is illustrated in Figure 13. in reality. 15 . the value of this resistance is many times greater than the normal load resistance.04 The efficiency of the transducer considering only the internal losses of the material is approximated by equation 13. Factors 1. Depolarisation of the ceramic due to electric field 5. A high frequency continuous duty transducer is temperature-limited. we have a capacitor in parallel with a capacitor. Dynamic mechanical strength of the ceramic 2. the electrical impedance of the device may.7 3. where Ce represents the capacitance of the piezoelectric element. which is useful for analysing the low frequency response.
fm may be calculated using equation 37. (Discs) (Discs) (Rods) (Rods) In addition to the coupling coefficient. equation 35 (above second resonance). and equation 20 for rods. can be calculated by equation 22 for plates. k1 is kp (radial). in equation 31. the bandwidth. The most useful of these relationships are described in equation 28 for plates. is approximately equal to the product of the coupling coefficient and the series or parallel resonance frequency as described in equation 38. for the different operational modes. Where k33 is the relative dielectric constant of the material and permittivity of free space (8. Between each. The frequency difference f2 . A properly designed transducer can operate at well over 90% efficiency. This frequency. the total efficiency of a transducer depends on the mechanical and dielectric losses. Where d is equal to d33 for thickness mode operation or d31 for radial or transverse E mode.85x10-12 F/m). and equation 25 for shear plates. since they differ by a very small amount (<0. To approximate these frequencies. and k3 represent the coupling factors for the particular resonance. When k<<1. (Above second resonance) This value. For the case of the direct piezoelectric effect where the material develops an electric charge from an applied stress. For high intensity transducers. the magnitude of the piezoelectric effect is given by piezoelectric “d” and “g” constants. and therefore the dielectric constant and capacitance. and equation 30 for rods. or vice versa. T 0 is the At frequencies far below the mechanical resonance frequency.f1 is the frequency bandwidth at about 3dB where the amplitude is 1/ 2 of its maximum value.F as described . (Above third resonance) Qm can also be determined approximately from the frequency response curve as follows. are given by the dissipation factor. These “d” and “g” coefficients are related by equation 19 for plates and discs. This frequency represents the maximum sensitivity for receivers or the maximum output for drivers. and the output are all dependent on the external resistive load. k1 is k33 (length). The maximum bandwidth. since it does not take into account electrical and mechanical dissipation or losses. the behaviour of the piezoelectric material is much more complex. When a transducer is not operating at resonance or if it is not properly tuned and matched. and Y11 is Young’s Modulus for that material. k2 is kt (thickness). (Parallel inductance) The coupling factor is a useful expression relating the amount of energy that can be changed from the electrical form to the mechanical form. The dielectric losses. k1 and k2 are k31 and k’31 (length and width respectively). at which the transducer’s electromechanical transduction is maximised. there is a frequency fm. For a thin plate. equation 29 for discs. k2. equation 24 for rods. from equation 32. The mechanical losses can be determined from the mechanical quality or damping factor.USEFUL ELECTROMECHANICAL RELATIONSHIPS USEFUL ELECTROMECHANICAL RELATIONSHIPS STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC OPERATION Under static or quasi-static (below resonance) conditions. For a rod. This derivation is somewhat complex as K is dependent on both the shape of the component and the mode of vibration. can be derived from these frequencies. Rext. the permittivity is the product of the static permittivity and a loss term based on the coupling of the resonance mode each resonance point the applied frequency has exceeded. For the converse effect where the material develops a strain from an applied electric field. Where S is the compliance of the material. and k3 is kt (thickness). They are usually lower than the low drive level values. obtainable by electrical tuning. the electromechanical coupling factor. For a thin disc. the definitions for “d” for constant field and “g” for constant dielectric displacement should be used. the material behaves as if it was S clamped (strain = 0). Under dynamic conditions.. the dielectric permittivity is T 33 (free). The coupling factor can be expressed as equation 26. equation 23 for discs. Qm. particularly since these losses increase with power. the definitions for “d” and “g” for constant stress should be used. the efficiency can be quite low. measure the frequency of the minimum impedance (fr) and maximum impedance (fa) for the component. For static operation. it is recommended that materials with a low dissipation factor be used for high power applications. is given approximately by equation 27. It should be noted that at high drive levels QE and Qm are not constants. In addition to fr and fa (series and parallel resonance frequencies). Of these losses. Therefore. It can be characterised in terms of an equivalent electrical circuit. as described in equation 34 (above first resonance). The pressure P. B. and equation 36 (above third resonance). The coupling coefficient. which a ceramic driver can impart. If the mechanical quality factor is high (Qm>Q). which exhibits the conditions of parallel and series resonance frequencies. Where CP is the low frequency capacitance and Zr is the minimum impendance at resonance. k. 16 Where QE is the electrical damping. the dielectric losses are usually the most significant. should not be considered the overall efficiency of the electromechanical transduction. decreases as the applied frequency (mechanical or electrical) exceeds each resonant frequency of the particular ceramic part. although related. For dynamic operation well above r all resonance frequencies of the ceramic part. well below the first resonance frequency. (Discs and plates) Where k1. D. (Above first resonance) (Series inductance) 17 . E is the applied electric field. (Rods) DYNAMIC OPERATION The permittivity of the material is related to both the permittivity of free space and the dielectric constant of the material according to equation 21. tan . K. (Plates) (Plates) Where QA is the mechanical quality factor due to the acoustical load alone. and the electric permittivity is r 33 (clamped). the overall electro-acoustical efficiency is given approximately by equation 33.1%). and there is no third resonance. k2 is k’p and there is no third resonance. The dielectric permittivity of the material. the external resistance Rext for a fairly flat frequency response can be approximated by equation 39 for parallel inductance. or equation 40 for series inductance.
The latter tests are more sensitive to minor flaws. A few of the most useful relationships are described in equations 41 through 53. This is expressed in equation 57 and 58. accelerometers. Table 4 High signal properties for PZT400. Typical hydrophone bandwidths are in the 1kHz to 10kHz range. (c) In range to 70MPa (d) In range to 35MPa (e) These figures are dependant upon configuration and perfection of fabrication.045 C82.1 13. The upper and lower cutoff frequencies are given in equation 55.7 82. However. noise is the overriding concern among sonar system designers.8 34. Previously. TYPICAL FREQUENCY RESPONSE Two of the more important considerations in the practical use of charge amplifiers are time constant and drift. THE PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR Piezoelectric measuring systems are active electrical systems.5 >1. however.5 (b) 20. For this reason. The noise floor of the hydrophone and the hydrophone preamplifier together limit the sensitivity of the system and therefore the overall usefulness of the hydrophone.8 24. In this table units of electrical field are in kV/mm and stress is in MPa. 19 (Hydrostatic charge constant & coefficient) % change of d33 with stress increase to rated maximum compressive stress at 25°C (b) Maximum rated compressive stress (maintained) PERPENDICULAR to the polar axis Maximum rated hydrostatic pressure Compressive strength Tensile strength. and their output capacitance remains constant. the crystals produce an electrical output only when they experience a change in load. and some accelerometers require an amplifier.7 0. A typical cylinder has a nominal capacitance of around 6.6 345 >517 75. ~25% (c) ~ -3% (d) ~18% (c) HYDROPHONES Interfacing the outputs of highly capacitive transducers such as hydrophones.8 13. with their low noise figures and high input impedance are ideal for use as hydrophone amplifiers. Thus.1% @20.734.2 @100°C 27. The output impedance is typically108 or 100M . (a) The value of tan at a given electrical field is a function of time after poling or after any major disturbance such as exposure to an elevated temperature. dynamic (peak) (e) ~ 0.33 @25° 0. This charge would normally produce an open-circuit output voltage at the transducer output equal to Q/C. Maxim Integrated Products and Linear Technology. the charge amplifier only responds to AC inputs.0 10 HIGH SIGNAL PROPERTIES AC depoling field AC field for tan = 0. PZT800 and PZT5A series. The longer the time constant is. which is not a function of the measured variable. designers had to use costly hybrid amplifiers consisting of discrete low-noise JFETs in front of conventional operational amplifiers to achieve the low levels of voltage and current noise required by these applications.7 ±15% (c) ~ -13% @34. Q. This consists of a temperature stabilisation plus a few minutes soak at the appropriate static stress. The temperature stabilisation is.04 @100°C (Plates) Maximum rated static compressive stress (maintained) PARALLEL to the polar axis % change of T 33 with stress r increase to rated maximum compressive stress at 25°C Figure 14: Simplified model of a charge amplifier. The static tensile strength figures were obtained from bending tests on thin Bimorph structures. The product of the feedback capacitor C2 and the feedback resistor R2 determines the time constant ( ) of a charge amplifier. and condenser microphones to the outside world presents many design challenges.4 Charge-emitting transducers produce an output charge. the better the low-end frequency response and the longer the usable measuring time.000pF with a series resistance of 10 . the charge is transferred to capacitor C2 producing an output voltage expressed in equation 54. Further reading and application notes can be found on the manufacturers’ web site. @100°C 41.8 138 >517 75.04 @25°C (a) (Plates) % increase of electric field T r 33 at above AC field for tan = 0.4 PZT800 SERIES >1. Figure 15: Typical frequency response of an accelerometer. In sonar applications.6 55.39 17 0. hydrophones. more important than the stress soak. (Rods) (Rods) (Rods) Figure 15 below illustrates the typical frequency response of an accelerometer. which can measure mechanical quantities such as force. defined in equation 56. acceleration or pressure. The AD743® /AD745®. a piezoceramic cylinder is commonly used as the active element in the hydrophone. High impedance transducers such as piezoelectric sensors.USEFUL ELECTROMECHANICAL RELATIONSHIPS PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR Many of the calculated parameters before are interrelated. they cannot perform true static measurements. Drift is defined as an undesirable change in output signal over time. Below the lower cutoff frequency it is considered as DC mode.0 0.5 6% (c) @25°C 55. MAX4252® or LT1792® operational amplifiers respectively from Analog Devices. 18 .2 27.6 345 >517 75. Since the hydrophone signals of interest are inherently Alternating Current (AC) with wide dynamic range. Because of the high Direct Current (DC) output impedance of these devices. many useful relationships can be derived. That is.5 In an actual application.8 27. (Plates) PZT400 SERIES >1. while the dynamic tensile strength figures were obtained from measurements of high amplitude resonant vibration rings. static (e) Tensile strength. the voltage across the transducer is held constant by the virtual ground of the op amp (R1 is usually small).45 11 n/a 20. (b) After appropriate stabilising treatment. which converts a transfer of charge into a change of voltage. appropriate buffers are required.7 41.7 PZT5A SERIES 0. The basic circuit for an inverting charge sensitive amplifier is shown in Figure 14.
Wavelength is expressed in equation 68. However. the matching layer. solution of reflection and transmission problems for normal incidence is given by equation 59 below and represented in figure 16. and Zm2 denote the acoustic impedance of the first and second matching layer. respectively. and the effective piezoelectric coupling coefficient of the ceramic (kt2). First. Brass Inconel Monel Aluminium 6262-T9 PVDF Carbon (soft) Alumina oxide Silver Iron (cast) Salt water Polyurethane. given the values of Zp. and Matching layer-Media of propagation. and a stack of very thin matching layers whose total acoustic thickness is ( /4). and the media of propagation respectively. the number of matching layers is determined from Za. a geometrical series is obtained. all terms in this summation have the same phase when the wave leaves the matching layer. At a plane interface between media A and B. From equation 60. acoustic impedance is given as in equation 65. reflected. For an ideal quarterwavelength matching layer (no attenuation and acoustic impedance given by equation 63) working at its resonant frequency. the finite thickness of the piezoelectric element is considered. Aluminium 6262-T9 and PVDF seem to be adequate materials for the application as their acoustic impedance is close to calculated values.41 4. water. and subscripts p.ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE MATCHING ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE MATCHING Piezoelectric transducers require the use of impedance matching layers to partially mitigate the impedance mismatch between a media through which ultrasonic wave signal is propagated and the piezoelectric element. Z is the acoustic impedance. r. Where Zm1. respectively. Acoustic impedance is given by equation 67. For a double matching layer it is given by equation 66.5 34.1 2. in which the piezoelectric element is considered an infinite layer. The transmitted wave through a matching layer. Zp. Thus giving matching layer thicknesses of: Where is the wavelength. and the amount of energy transmitted through each interface is maximised. Using equation 64. Two cases are analysed: For a single /4 matching layer. examples are single quarter wavelength ( /4) layers and variations of this configuration such as ( /8) and (n+1). At the resonant frequency of a quarter-wavelength matching layer. The first one is based on the optimization of the energy transfer through the two interfaces involved in the problem: Piezoelectric element-Matching layer and Matching layer-Media of propagation (air.0 29.6 17. and r represents the ratio of reflected to incident wave amplitude. denote the piezoelectric ceramic. There are two different procedures to determine the optimum acoustic impedance of the /4 matching layers.5 35 MATERIAL Where u is the particle velocity. DESIGN OF QUARTER WAVELENGTH MATCHING LAYERS The impedance mismatch between a media and piezoelectric ceramics has two main consequences for the design of the piezoelectric transducers: •Sensitivity is low •Bandwidth is narrow A single matching layer can improve sensitivity.560 2. The wavelength in each material can be calculated from equation 68.2 7.569 1. EXAMPLE A piezoelectric ceramic element has the following characteristics: • Material: PZT501 • Shape: Disc • Diameter: 10mm • Thickness: 1mm The radial resonant frequency of the piezoelectric transducer is: Where t represents the ratio of transmitted to incident wave amplitude. The series that represent the amplitude of the transmitted wave and its summation are given in equation 60. half-wavelength configurations ( /2). Several matching configurations have been studied. the th impedance of the j layer is given as in equation 64. The same result is obtained if the multiple reverberations inside the matching layer are ignored.6 33. and a.2 47. They lead to somewhat different results. Considering plane waves. and optimum bandwidth and maximum efficiency are imposed to determine both the number of /4 matching layers required and the acoustic impedance of each one. For maximum transmitted energy. Then the impedance of each layer is determined.7 47. considering multiple reverberations is of interest in order to account for the contribution of the attenuation. from a piezoelectric element to a media.31 32 38 33. In any of these configurations. is the sum of the contribution of each of the multiple reverberations within the matching layer. the ratio of energy flux transmitted to the media of propagation to the energy flux incident on the matching layer ( t) is given in equation 62: Where is the density and c the acoustic velocity of the material. and transmitted waves respectively. and subscripts i. A transmission line model (KLM) is used. RP-6400 Neoprene Hard PVC Rubber Butyl Zinc PZT500 series PZT5H series PZT400 series PZT800 series Table 5: Materials acoustic characteristics Figure 16: Transducer with transmission and reflection paths In general. and t denotes incident. a key aspect for the successful design of matched transducers is the acoustic impedance of the outer layer. Figure 17: Piezoelectric transducer with matching layers 20 21 . SOUND VELOCITY [m/s] 4430 5700 5400 6380 2300 3310 10000 3600 4600 1531 1500 1600 2060 1800 4200 4350 3800 4600 4600 ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE [106xkg(m2s)] OR [MRay1] 36. they are given as equation 61: In this example. the value of Zm is given by the simplified equation 63. m. Subscripts 1 and 2 denote the two interfaces involved: Piezoelectric ceramicMatching layer.71 28. /4. and in equation 63 can be generalised for a stack of “n” matching layers. the stronger influence of the attenuation in the matching layer is obtained for the single matching layer scheme. but the widening of the frequency bandwidth requires the use of two or more matching layers. gas. c is the sound velocity and f the frequency. Za. the piezoelectric transducer must be interfaced to salt water with a double quarter-wavelength matching layer. From table 5.78 2. stacks of /4 layers. having acoustic impedances ZA and ZB.2 1. etc…). there is no energy loss ( t=1). and they are briefly reviewed here. In the second procedure. the acoustic impedance of the matching layers can be calculated.
Parts can be made to the size ranges shown.0006" Parallelism (Lapped Parts) 12µm (0. Even if the possible soldering time is increased with this type of solder.006" ±0.Time profile for PZTs HEMISPHERE FROM OUTSIDE DIAMETER 6mm (0. Please contact the manufacturing site for more details. Components can be produced to tighter tolerances (e.24") 1mm (0.SHAPES AND MECHANICAL TOLERANCES ELECTRODES DISC FROM DIAMETER THICKNESS TO 1mm (0.02") 140mm (5. 6. 3. pH. TUBE FROM OUTSIDE DIAMETER 1mm (0. This phenomenon is mainly caused by a reaction between sulphuric molecules in the atmosphere with the silver surface .006" ±0.B: If a piezoelectric element is heated to its Curie point. and if the solder time is too long the electrode will completely dissolve in the solder. silver is soluble in the solder. This means that the increase in temperature introduced by the soldering process will generate an electrical charge. Tin the lead with solder and then dip the thinned lead into the flux. etc.005") TIR and surface finish (Ra) within 1.015mm) 0. since this will immediately depolarize the piezoelectric phase. use soldering temperatures between 240 and 300°C. Flux (Superior 30 or equivalent). Concentricity within 0.04") TO 150mm (5.04") 150mm (5. use a solder with silver content of 2-4%. Use fluxes that are as mild as possible but still provide a strong solder joint.0005" Surface Flatness (Large Sliced Parts) 15µm (0.15° 0. A safe operating temperature would normally be about half way the Curie point.6 m (62 in)). A separate list of standard sizes of parts available can be obtained on request. The thickness of the screen-printed silver electrode is in the range of 3µm up to 10µm. BARREL STAVE Legend: Electrode PZT Ceramic Parallelism (Large Sliced Parts) Surface Finish (Ra) Figure 20: Different configurations for wire bonding to ceramics 22 23 .5mm (0.08mm (0.9") 10mm (0.15mm (0.39") FOCAL BOWL FROM DIAMETER THICKNESS STANDARD MECHANICAL TOLERANCES TO 150mm (5. even if completely harmless to humans.5mm (0. The formation and thickness of this layer is influenced by several factors such as age.15mm ±0. Occasionally there can be problems with wetting the solder on the silver surface and soldering can then be difficult.08mm (0. 4.002" 0.9") INNER DIAMETER 0.g.003") 25mm (1") SHAPES Custom shapes are available as well as the shapes shown to the left of this page. humidity. STANDARD MECHANICAL TOLERANCES T olerances on machined dimensions apply to most components. which. Melt some solder on the tip of the soldering iron.003mm) 0. Place lead on the electrode area and place the soldering iron with mild pressure on the lead until the solder flows onto the electrode. 2.04") 254mm (10") 0. Gold sputtered electrodes are also available. glass brush. solderability and bond strength of electrodes are routinely tested. In order to increase the possible solder time.04") 150mm (5. CONNECTION TO NICKEL ELECTRODES Our Nickel electrodes vary depending upon the deposition method used: • Chemically plated • Electroless Nickel • Evaporated Nickel For connection. The thickness. Figure 18 (left) shows various PZT components with fired on silver electrodes. Always keep the tip coated with a thin layer of solder. Care should be taken not to over-specify a tolerance as this can significantly increase costs. Figure 18: Various PZT components It is therefore be recommended to solder parts in short-circuit conditions. Processes are tightly controlled during manufacture to do everything possible to supply parts with high quality electrodes. Too high soldering temperatures and too large temperature gradient such as rapid heating or cooling may cause electrical failures and mechanical damages of the devices.13mm (0.04") INNER DIAMETER 0. the charges can be disordered and the element becomes completely depolarised. ELECTROLESS NICKEL Materials used: 15W soldering iron.002" Figure 19: Soldering profile for most PZTs on silver fired electrodes KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER 1.with the formation of a silver sulphide layer on the surface of the part. As "Fired" tolerances ±0. The positioning of the wire when the connection is made should be as close as possible to the final position.06mm) 3µm (0. Procedure: Pre-heat the soldering iron then clean the electrode area using QTip with Ethanol. For normal PZT types.9") 0. we therefore recommend two different methods: EVAPORATED NICKEL Conductive epoxies are typically used to provide a consistent reliable electrical connection. Hold the lead stationary for approximately 5 seconds to allow solder to solidify.3mm or ±3% whichever is greater SOLDERING TO SILVER ELECTRODES Soldering electrical wires to the screen-printed silver electrodes make excellent and time-stable connections.04") TAPERED STAVE Concentricity Surface Flatness (Lapped Parts) 12µm (0.006" ±0.9") 10mm (0. 5. Recommended soldering temperature . This charge can be released as a spark.0005" 60µm (0.5") 150mm (5.5") THICKNESS 0.04") 150mm (5. Q-Tip and Ethanol.05mm Within 0. For large size parts.15mm ±0.003") 25mm (1") RING FROM TO OUTSIDE DIAMETER 1mm (0.9") 140mm (5. Use a tip with the shortest reach possible for maximum efficiency. can be very unpleasant for the operator.006") 25mm (1") N. unleaded solder (if possible). A glass brush (RS 514-868) or steel wool is very useful for this operation. PLATE (SQUARE & RECTANGLE) FROM LENGTH WIDTH THICKNESS TO 1mm (0. the solder time must not exceed 2-4 seconds (see Figure 19).02") LENGTH 1mm (0. it is good practice to gently clean the surface of the electrodes on the part before soldering.980 TIR ±0. but not in every combination of thickness and lateral dimensions.012mm) 0.24") WALL THICKNESS 1mm (0.04") TO 150mm (5. but also a significant pyroelectric coefficient. Bending the wire at right angles to its original position will almost certainly break the joint due to the high peeling stress introduced.2mm TIR 0.9") 1mm (0. In order to overcome such problems. Furthermore.9") When soldering is performed it is important that the temperature does not exceed the Curie point of the material. C = Constraint Point SR = Stress Relief Bend 6mm (0. FREQUENCY TOLERANCES Better than ±5% up to 2MHz Typ. ±7% above 2MHz Closer tolerances are available on request TYPICAL SIZE RANGE Other sizes outside the range may be possible. or a mild abrasive such as an eraser.39") Outside Diameter Inner Diameter Length & Width Thickness Squareness (edge to face) ±0. confirmation of the tolerances achievable will need to be agreed prior to placing an order.012mm) 0.15mm ±0.0001" Mechanical stressing of the joint after completion must be avoided or at worst kept to the minimum. Match the tips size to the work. Keep temperature as low as possible while maintaining enough temperature to quickly solder a joint (2 to 3 seconds maximum for electronic soldering). It should also be noted that the piezoceramic parts do not only have a high piezoelectric coefficient.
Improved results can be achieved with lead-free solders if modern soldering irons with good tip temperature control are used. tip life can be significantly shortened. Morgan specialises in designing and manufacturing complete solutions for OEM applications. These transducers are generally custom designs with bespoke mechanical dimensions. which itself is beneficial. hand soldering is often controlled by specifying the soldering iron's tip temperature. Dual frequency transducers (typically 1 and 3 MHz) can also be designed. treatment and therapy of skin and soft tissue. Small tubes (up to 100mm) are usually manufactured using a monolithic PZT ceramic tube. The key in reducing operator issues and reduced wetting Figure 21: Typical Lead-free solder joint resides in the optimization of the soldering process. Silver. which has been specially developed to provide a lead-free substitute for tin/lead cored solder wire in all hand soldering operations. As a result. 25 . SOLDERING IRON TIP LIFE Lead-free solder alloys and their cored wire fluxes are both more aggressive to soldering iron tips than tin lead cored wire. These materials have extremely good electrical loss properties. Resistivity measurement via four point probe and 3. In many types a thread is also provided to enable mounting top tanks with threaded studs. This joint was obtained using a temperature regulated soldering station with a lead free chisel tip. Morgan’s transducers are fully tested to ensure consistent electrical and mechanical characteristics to ensure good compatibility with our customer’s drive circuits. Minor adjustments to soldering temperatures will be required. Adhesion test. 24 A step-by step process transition would be as follows: • Ensure the tips are designed for lead-free • Ensure the flux content in the wire is a least 2% wt/wt • Use lead free tips with the longest life • Ensure the parts are easily solderable with the chosen flux • Avoid prolonged contact times • Avoid needless reworking of the joint • Avoid the use of additional liquid flux The picture bottom left illustrates a typical lead free solder joint. but the resultant solder joint will perform as well as tin/lead solder joints. Tip life will be reduced with lead-free solders and it is important to choose tips really designed for lead-free soldering. Soft piezoelectric materials such as PZT5K1. At worst this can result in the solder freezing at the lowest temperature and being too hot for some components at the highest temperature. Standard transducers are available with either exposed contact for soldering leads or complete with flying leads. Aluminium and others upon request that can be supplied at varying film thicknesses from 100Å to 20. In addition to the custom designs. TRANSDUCERS FOR ULTRASONIC THERAPY Used by physio and beauty therapists around the world. Lead-free is less forgiving and the right tip for the job will go a long way in preventing defects. These can be avoided. Different temperature settings on the solder tip were used to obtain this joint result. industrial and defence. as lead-free alloys have much higher melting points than tinlead formulas. These designs are made with the help of Morgan’s bespoke design software and extensive testing facilities. resulting in a significantly narrower process window. The main differences are in the heat output available and the accuracy of the temperature control. a 10°C increase in temperature will halve tip life. but an ability to maintain temperature and minimize fluctuation during soldering is more important as this will enable operators to use a lower tip temperature. High tin solders like to dissolve iron and this reduces tip life. •Ultrasonic Cleaning •Ultrasonic Therapy •Pre-stressed fibre wrapped tubes APPLICATION & MARKETS Medical Dental Descalers Ultrasonic scalpel Cell disruption Ultrasonic phacoemulsion Industrial Ultrasonic Cleaning Ultrasonic Welding Sonochemistry Degassing DESIGN We design our transducers using in house modelling software backed up with extensive test and measurement capabilities. high coupling and excellent mechanical properties. TYPE OF SOLDERING IRON Soldering irons of various types are available. However. Modern irons are available with higher power ratings. Morgan designs and manufactures transducers for massaging. DESIGN CAPABILITY: • 3D Finite-Element Analysis software • Proprietary computer modelling software • Custom formulated PZT & shapes • Single / multi-layer products • Stack transducers • Flexural mode transducers • Bonded / encapsulated assemblies •Bimorph actuators and sensors ULTRASONIC CLEANING Morgan’s range of ultrasonic cleaning transducers uses the latest high performance PZT material and are designed to operate in continuous mode in harsh environments. Designing a drive circuit to match transducer characteristics is critical for good system performance. Larger tubes (up to 500mm) are constructed with multiple tapered PZT ceramic segments. HAND SOLDERING For operators used to working with tin-lead solders. As a general rule. To ensure a high strength bond is achieved. Consult the manufacturer’s technical datasheet if curing of the epoxy is required. a more comprehensive set of parameters must be defined. Therefore. The main issues encountered with lead-free hand-soldering are cold solder joints. Silver conductive epoxies are a good alternative to Figure 22: Typical Silver conductive epoxy joint traditional soldering techniques. Many tips are only tinned with lead-free solder and the iron plating is no different than traditional soldering tips. The sputtering is done in a class 1000 clean room environment and adapted for high volume production. These transducers use Morgan’s high performance low loss PZT materials to ensure optimum efficiency and thus minimise self-heating. which enables us to design and manufacture some of the most efficient ultrasound generators available on the market. manufacturers are currently introducing tips designed for extended life under these conditions. The tip life will depend to a large extent on the soldering temperature used. which includes laser vibrometry for displacement measurement. hence making it more susceptible to depolarisation. In addition to this. thoroughly clean the surface with acetone or equivalent cleaning agent. Older types of soldering iron use a method of temperature control that results in large variations in tip temperature. use a solder tip temperature of 270-320°C. PRODUCTS: • Ultrasonic Transducers • Sensors CAPABILITIES: • Transducer Manufacture • Transducer Design • Transducer Testing ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS Our ultrasonic transducers are designed using Morgan’s world leading piezo materials. Choose a solder tip which has enough heat delivering capacity. PRE-STRESSED FIBRE WRAPPED TUBES For the Sonar Industry Morgan supplies prestressed fibre wrapped PZT tubes. 2. Morgan is able to design and manufacture custom transducers for specific frequencies and power ratings. Main markets served otal included medical. poor wetting and de-wetting. aerospace. ELECTRODE SPUTTERING MEC-Bedford offers in-house RF/DC sputtering of Gold/Nichrome. TRANSDUCERS & SENSORS Morgan Electro Ceramics is a world leader in the field of electroceramics and manufactures a wide range of specialised piezoelectric transducers and sensors for mechanical. Fine point tips cannot be used in all applications and in some cases a tip such as a chisel type is best suited to deliver sufficient heat to the parts to be soldered. There are numerous other suppliers of lead-free solders and each Morgan Electro Ceramics site has its own preference. They typically come in the form of a two part composition. These transducers have a grit-blasted base to assist with adhesive bonding to tanks. Film characterisation includes: 1. allowing it to dry before applying the epoxy.000Å with a film uniformity of ±15%. often requiring a mixing ratio of 1:1 which is more suitable in a production environment. However. electrical and electronic applications. Many of our customers find that Morgan’s complete Sensor and Transducer divisions offer a T Solution to their needs. EPOXY BOND In heat sensitive applications it is often necessary to observe particular attention to the heat treatment process for the connection joint. With design centres and manufacturing locations in Europe and the USA. we have standard designs for the following applications. Morgan’s high coupling and low loss materials are always the basis of a high efficiency tube. All of Morgan’s standard transducers are varnish treated to maximise the resistance to humidity and other atmospheric conditions. They have been proven in service over the last decade and are used by many of world’s leading manufacturers of ultrasonic cleaning systems in applications as diverse as cleaning semiconductors and engine parts. it is recommended to contact the specific site for more detailed information on solder recommendations. Thickness measurement via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and/or surface profilometer. This includes the ability to supply transducers for multi frequency operation.ELECTRODES TRANSDUCERS & SENSORS LEAD FREE SOLDERING Successful soldering results have been obtained using Multicore® 96S fluxcored solder. T avoid issues use a flux content of 2-3% by weight in the o solder wire. Fibre wrapping enable high energy projectors to be designed whilst minimising the risk of ceramic failure through excess tension. Nichrome. wiring and frequencies to suit the OEM. ultrasonic therapy is well proven in these fields. PZT5H1 or of similar characteristics have a low Curie temperature.
matching layers. one of the PZT strips will always be subject to a voltage opposite to the polarising voltage. PZT strips are connected to the voltage source in series (See figure 23). both strips will be driven in the polarisation direction. IMPACT SENSORS Impact sensors use the piezo-electric effect to sense forces (dynamic) and rate of force application. Morgan’s Engineers have expert knowledge of the fundamentals such as acoustics. Doppler or acoustic transmission principles to measure a wide range of parameters. Morgan’s considerable expertise in key technologies for ultrasonic sensors is used to design custom sensors for OEM applications. PROCESSES & CAPABILITIES INCLUDE: • Prototype assemblies • Small to large volume manufacture • Custom assembly • Clean room facilities available • Wire bonding / pulse soldering • Thermal cycling • Humidity chamber • Encapsulation (Thermoplast + Thermoset) PRACTICAL DESIGN DATA FOR PZT500 SERIES FLEXURE ELEMENTS Examples of applications: • Pneumatic valves for industrial and automotive applications • Valves in medical applications • Insulin pumps • Braille keys for the blind • Energy harvesting in car-tyres • Textile machinery • Optical switches Many applications require displacements far greater than are possible with simple PZT transducers operating in the d33 or d31 modes. Accelerometers can be housed in standard housing (e. angle of impact. these elements are unsuitable for use as electro-acoustic transducers.TRANSDUCERS & SENSORS PZT FLEXURE ELEMENTS: BIMORPH SENSORS Morgan’s range of custom designed sensors find applications in many markets in particular Medical. Many OEM manufactures of wheel balancing equipment have found that Morgan’s design offers and excellent solution in terms of value for money. the voltages required to produce these displacements are very high. flow. Industrial and Aerospace. MEC brings a wealth of experience in the development of customized high precision piezo bimorphs components – resulting in real added-value for our customers. accurate blood pressure readings. and in a parallel bimorph strips are individually connected to the voltage source (See figure 24). T oday you will find Morgan Electro Ceramics piezo bimorphs in a host of specialist application areas. electro-mechanical properties and environmental resistance. ULTRASONIC SENSORS Ultrasound Sensors use either time of flight measurement. pneumatic valves. Upon request custom versions with either IDC or flying leads (with or without connector) can be manufactured. charge sensitivity measurement (accelerometers) • Power meter • Optical inspection including SEM and Vision CMM Figure 24 Table 6: Summary of equations for bimorphs VOLTAGE OUTPUT V/N Figure 23 CAPACITANCE F 27 . Facilities such as these are available throughout our design and production process. In designing these sensors great care is taken to ensure that the signal response is consistent in a variety of conditions. The sensing principals used in Morgan sensors are either acoustic (active) and/or piezoelectric (passive). transducers. temperature etc. including ultrasonic atomizers. This consists of two thin PZT strips bonded together. it has been designed using our world leading piezo materials. the simplest form of which is the bilaminar cantilever or bimorph. ACCELEROMETERS Morgan’s stable and high sensitivity materials form an excellent basis of accelerometers. and because they present a considerable mismatch to air. printing technologies. thereby avoiding drift in characteristics caused by depolarisation. Electronics design and manufacture is done in co-operation with our partner companies which include APEX in the USA and others in Europe. Moreover. Key applications include level. TRANSDUCER & SENSOR MANUFACTURING All of our transducer and sensor manufacturing facilities are ISO 9000:2000 certified and many are also certified to ISO 14001:2004. Morgan’s bimorph materials can also be used where increased sensitivity is required. ARTERIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCER The Arterial Pressure Transducer (APT) is a piezoelectric transducer that provides fast. The piezo electric materials can be used in either compression or shear mode to form single or multi-axis accelerometers. transistor cans) or custom made packages.g.g. TRANSDUCER TESTING The testing of electrical properties of resonating structures requires considerable expertise and sophisticated equipment. fruit). Lt: Total length F: Force on tip W: Width L: Free length h: Total thickness z: Deflection of tip Field Strength: max 500V/mm Figure 26: Flexure element (Bimorph) PARAMETER DEFLECTION PARALLEL BIMORPH SERIES BIMORPH UNIT m/V BENDING m/N RESONANCE FREQUENCY Hz CHARGE OUTPUT C/N MEASUREMENT TOOLS USED INCLUDE: • Impedance Analyser (4194A and 4294A) • Laser Vibrometer • Acoustic characterisation (tank test) / Echo Response Rigs • Sound pressure measurement / Beam characterisation • Shaker table. robustness and accuracy. damping and adhesive technology which are all key to good transducer design. Transducers are generally supplied with exposed (solderable) connectors. In the series bimorph. Bimorphs are usually mounted as a cantilever and usually operate in the d31 mode as shown on figure 23 & 24. vibration and dynamic pressure measurement. 26 WHEEL BALANCING SENSORS Morgan’s over-moulded sensors for wheel balancing can be found in many garage workshops around the world. Example applications of impact sensors are coin validation equipment and firmness testing (e. These over-moulded sensors are available in a number of versions. Like all of Morgan Electro Ceramics’ ultrasonic transducers. SENSOR TYPES INCLUDE: • Ultrasonic Sensors • Accelerometers (passive) • Blood pressure sensor • Wheel balancing • Impact Sensors Electronics form a key part of every sensor and MEC offer sensors comprising of the sensing element only or design incorporating a level of electronics integration. The bimorphs are available in a range of sizes from 6 to 74mm in length and 1 to 43mm in width. A much more compliant structure operating in the d31 mode is the flexure element. This is also true to the parallel bimorph configuration of figure 25. SERIES & PARALLEL BIMORPHS: HIGH SENSITIVITY & COST EFFICIENT Examples of applications: • Sensor systems (airbag) • Printing technologies • Ultrasonic atomizers • Ultrasonic transducers • Viscosity measurement systems • Flow measurement systems CARBON-FIBRE OR METAL REINFORCED BIMORPHS: HIGH FORCE/DEFLECTION RATIO AND EXTREMELY LONG LIFE-TIME Figure 25 In a series bimorph. textile machinery and many more. PIEZOELECTRIC BIMORPHS With a history in piezo bimorphs extending some 45 years to the pioneering days of the technology. A large portfolio of materials is used to design the optimum sensor in terms of acoustics. so there is always a danger of depolarisation. to reflect the variety of applications in which they can be used. but if it is connected as shown in figure 26.
the dimension of the actuator in the direction of polarisation must be large as well. axially-stacked actuators. Because of the very thin layers of PZT. Figure 27: Multilayer parallel bimorph element Figure 32: Blocking force of square stacks TRANSVERSAL MODE (D31) ACTUATORS Multilayer actuators (figure 33) can be produced with layer thicknesses as low as 20-40µm. Figure 28 below shows the performance of a typical multilayer flexure mode actuator. The performance of a transversal d31-mode type is shown in figure 34. For most practical applications it is necessary to stack several of these elements to form a so called multilayer stacked actuator as illustrated in the figure 30 below. However. Figure 29: Axial mode multilayer actuator Since the maximum strain is about 1X10-3 at 50V supply voltage. Poling direction Figure 30: Various examples of stacked d33-mode actuators Electrical field Displacment Figure 33: Tranversal mode (D31) multilayer actuator Figure 28: Deflection of flexure mode actuator as a function of applied voltage AXIAL MODE MULTILAYER ACTUATORS (D33-MODE) As with “classical”. Bimorph Actuator Combination of 2 d31 actuators Since the maximum strain is around 5x10-4 for 1kV/mm (as with discrete flexure elements). like a metal strip • Combining a d31 actuator with an unpolarised PZT layer • Combining layers of piezoelectric ceramic with an intricate electrode structure so that the layers expand or contract like a classical bimorph element. the general rule and formulas in this section also apply to multilayer elements. the absolute increase of its thickness will be about 2 m. The difference is that the effect is reached for a much lower voltage. 28 Figure 31: Performance of a multilayer d33-mode actuator Figure 34: Performance of a multilayer d31-mode actuator 29 . Figure 29 below shows the structure of such an element. the strain in the direction of polarisation is twice as large as it is in the transverse direction. The manufacturing method is completely different from the classical process of sawing and electroding individual discs or plates. to get a large absolute elongation. For the multilayer process the thickness is currently limited to about 2mm. The elongation per unit length or height is roughly the same as for of “classical” actuators.MULTILAYER ACTUATORS MULTILAYER ACTUATORS MULTILAYER FLEXURE MODE ACTUATORS The use of very thin piezoelectric layers in flexure elements requires much lower driving voltages than classical bimorph actuators. Note that the element shortens for a drive voltage in the polarisation direction. Figure 27: below illustrates a multilayer parallel bimorph element. an electrical field strength of about 1kV/mm can easily be reached for a drive voltage as low as around 50V. Axial mode multilayer d33-mode actuators achieve higher displacements but also retain high blocking forces which are proportional to cross-sectional area as illustrated in the figure 32 underneath. Basically these elements can be built up three ways: • Gluing a d31 actuator onto an inactive substrate.
7 -5.62 350 27.8 -2.20 - PZT5A2 1 1700 1730 0.60 -0.8 -11.5 0. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.m Hz.10 -2.3 11.90 -2.m Hz.1 10.003 >1010 108.70 -2.2 9.6 3.40 +1.60 0.6 162 2120 1515 2000 990 600 0.2 - -2.5 3.HIGH FIELD T Increase in r 33 @ 2KV/cm Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm T Increase in r 33 @ 4KV/cm Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL T UNIT PZT5A1 1 1875 0.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .7 38 152 2180 1650 2060 2000 1040 500 0.m Hz.34 0.2 16.56 0.3 7.5 105.2 64 1960 1400 1845 1880 890 75 18.2 64 1960 1400 1845 1880 890 75 18.5 3.3 7800 Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.68 -0.50 -3.HIGH FIELD Increase in T 33 @ 2KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm Increase in T 33 @ 4KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL T UNIT PZT401 1 1470 0.4 15 -7.40 +1.7 -3.90 -2.8 13. Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.8 -12 2.9 0.69 -0. Operating Temp.4 5.002 1010 - PZT402 1 1200 0.9 10.69 -0.m Hz.60 1.71 315 -135 45 24.9 374 250 -0.1 43.02 1012 0.003 - PZT404 1 1450 0.33 0.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .9 7.6 8.5 PZT403 1 1350 1475 0.4 9.67 315 -132 51 511 26.6 -10.60 -3.62 0.35 7900 360 420 1.40 -1.70 -0.02 - 25 - - 25 - - tan % tan k k15 k31 k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 N5 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 Tc °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants k k15 k31 k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.1 -0.02 0.58 0.2 12.1 >100 +0.9 6.76 11.6 2000 1370 1410 1465 930 1940 60 17.60 -3.60 0.NAVY 1 TYPE PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS NAVY 1I TYPE PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .m Hz.m Hz.70 -4.00 -0.2 -0.90 +0.60 0.m Hz.34 0.71 374 -171 32 585 24.3 11.2 -2.31 7600 7500 15 13 0.m Hz.00 +0.34 0.8 143 2190 1636 1576 1800 1030 2080 600 0.8 13.m Hz.31 7600 16.4 14.1 -5.71 -0. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant Quality Factor Dielectric Loss Factor Tc E Q-1 °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % 330 - 320 - 320 200 - 325 - 300 - 325 420 1.50 -6.86 5.m Hz.6 6.00 +1.01 12. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.7 7750 370 -0.60 0.1 r 33 r 11 r 33 r 11 T T tan el el el m m m tan el el el m m m % % tan % tan 5.76 39.6 6.0035 1010 - PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .2 - E Q-1 k C T k C T f 33 d33 Seconds -1.7 0.2 7.8 -11.71 374 -171 32 585 24.5 8.90 - PZT5A3 1 1700 1730 0.67 0.4 2 38.9 7.8 -10.4 14.5 8.34 0. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant N 15.34 0.003 - PZT406 1 1325 0.5 0.1 - PZT5A4 1 1850 1650 0.69 -0.02 0.8 16.017 5010 0.8 16.1 10.6 9.m Hz. 30 31 .37 0.4 -10.3 6.004 - PZT405 1 1450 0.9 7700 365 250 0.5 f d33 T/33 (25oC) N Qm tan 33 minutes Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.5 12.70 315 -130 27 -11 2200 2015 >600 80 750 Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.8 5.7 -11 3.35 0.4 2 38.61 -0.m Hz.4 5.10 -4.m Hz.40 +0.8 5.72 460 -195 550 28 -13 37 1970 1400 2060 900 >600 100 80 18 16 45 0.68 315 -135 45 26.m 106 Pa 106 Pa 0.31 7600 16.33 0.10 -0.44 7600 15.m 106 Pa 106 Pa x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.45 409 -176 58 25.00 - -1. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.60 -0.m Hz.66 0.6 162 2110 1515 990 600 0. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.m Hz. Operating Temp.70 285 -122 41 495 24.1 0.4 9.3 2160 - 0.6 12.3 6.10 -4.
55 -0.31 0.2 14.7 0.2 7650 x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 22.9 3.m 106 Pa 106 Pa 0.30 0.53 -0.30 -1.003 1013 - PZT807 1 1150 1190 0.6 2.63 -0.1 7450 Tc E Q-1 °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % 300 - 300 175 - 300 - 300 420 1.10 -4.4 6. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.45 280 -104 79 26.015 0. Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.2 -0.30 0.6 -10.9 7600 13.5 10.10 1.8 31.HIGH FIELD T Increase in r 33 @ 2KV/cm Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm T Increase in r 33 @ 4KV/cm Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL UNIT PZT5J1 1 2600 0.9 112 2285 1700 2000 2070 1070 >517 75.1 4.008 - 1.8 68 1965 1420 1930 2000 890 65 x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.50 0.69 0.m Hz.9 2245 - 0.025 >1011 1011 1010 T r 33 r 11 T r 33 r 11 T T tan el el el m m m tan el el el m m m % tan % tan 0. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.3 -4.m Hz.4 8.8 16.82 2320 1080 2030 75 1200 Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants k k15 k31 k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.35 0.5 11.9 7500 7450 13 11 0.7 11.4 1975 1375 1785 1430 920 1895 65 0.4 -10.003 1010 - PZT804 1 1050 0.9 3.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .51 0.6 8.8 1000 0.7 -9.5 294 25.m Hz.01 3.02 - PZT5H1 1 3400 0.4 -10.2 11.5 10.3 Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.1 7.NAVY 1I1 TYPE PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS NAVY V & V1 TYPE PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .4 28.m Hz.36 0. 32 33 .009 0.00 -4.8 6.004 4.7 -9.86 28.6 7.60 0.7 10.6 Tc E Q-1 °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % 250 140 - 200 - 195 110 - k C T 33 f d33 Seconds -2.4 8.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .55 -0.10 - -1.7 11.60 -3.001 - PZT805 1 1000 0.m Hz.5 -7.7 11.m Hz.64 225 -97 31 330 25.69 500 -220 60 670 21.9 112 2340 1700 2000 2070 1070 1000 0.4 10.6 48.65 10.8 -4. Operating Temp. Operating Temp.50 -4.75 44.8 9.9 -4.00 0.5 7400 20.20 -1.90 -6.7 16.018 - PZT5H2 1 3400 0.6 -28.3 2155 1660 1555 1780 1010 2060 1200 0.2 9.m Hz.54 0.00 - -2.10 -4.8 30.11 4.3 8.1 0.m Hz.00 +0.1 7.60 -0.1 4.9 0.71 0.5 26.20 -0.m 106 Pa 106 Pa 0.30 0.m Hz.31 7400 Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.2 7.m Hz.6 -28.7 4.50 620 -250 125 21.m Hz.72 0.9 -8.9 8.0016 1012 - PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .5 15.39 0.08 -10.55 -0.10 -4.30 o 100 (at 25 C) - -2.50 1.7 -3. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant 13.m Hz.4 9 14.9 17.7 7600 15.6 0.1 1.90 +0.5 11.75 593 -274 45 741 19.5 8.66 230 -100 27 -11 2350 2050 >600 80 1000 0.m Hz. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant N 21.m Hz.1 7.64 250 -97 31 300 24.9 -3.004 1010 - PZT802 1 1150 1290 0.30 - -0.50 0. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.006 % tan % tan - - - Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants k k15 k31 k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.75 - k C T 33 f d33 Seconds -0.HIGH FIELD T Increase in r 33 @ 2KV/cm Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm T Increase in r 33 @ 4KV/cm Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL UNIT PZT801 1 1000 0.8 9.2 - 300 - 300 88. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.47 260 -92.3 7800 14.002 1010 - PZT806 1 1250 0.90 -6.30 o 100 (at 25 C) -1.00 0.5 35 150 1980 1450 910 75 0.29 0.7 -5.55 250 26.68 -0.5 8.50 -3.65 0.55 -0.
8 13.2 -0.HIGH FIELD Increase in T 33 @ 2KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm Increase in T 33 @ 4KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL UNIT PZT701 1 425 0.2 -1.015 5010 0.9 0.3 12.m Hz.m 106 Pa 106 Pa 0.020 0.3 10.48 170 -64 310 37 -14 45 2450 1750 2150 1000 13.02 >1011 1011 1010 0.4 9 -4 26 7. Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.005 0.9 10.4 8.2 -1.31 7600 325 0.6 30.m Hz.52 0.005 - T r 33 r 11 T tan el el el 3900 0.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at approx 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .019 5010 0.68 -0.6 13. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.1 -6.7 6900 255 130 - PZT601 1 640 750 0.00 -0.5 1.m Hz.020 0.1 7. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant Quality factor Dielectric Loss factor E Q-1 k C T °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % E Q-1 k C 33 T 33 N d33 T/3 (25oC) Qm tan minute N d33 T/3 (25oC) Qm tan minute Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.66 405 -185 95 564 22.02 - PZT703 1 1100 0.7 545 -225 1940 65 15.36 <0.10 -2.06 -0.31 7800 350 0.2 7.02 <0.68 0.34 0.3 7800 285 420 1.4 14.50 -1. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant Quality factor Dielectric Loss factor Tc Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.37 0.00 -3.02 5010 0.1 6.60 -1.38 0.74 450 -200 25 -12 2000 1900 >600 80 75 19 15 0.8 820 -360 20 -10 1925 1400 1800 >600 80 65 20 16 7800 165 420 1.m Hz.50 >7 10 -10 PT1 1 210 240 0.30 >500 -3.65 -0.m Hz.5 2 120 1930 1400 78 80 16.54 68 -3 62 70 37 -2 33 34 2046 2870 n/a 2145 1100 8.52 0.00 0.39 0.m Hz.m Hz.00 - PZT508 PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .73 340 -150 500 30 -10 33 2100 1500 920 >600 80 80 15 38 0.50 >300 - PZT504 1 2000 0.7 7.m Hz.m Hz.2 -0.m 106 Pa 106 Pa Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.68 0.37 0.3 7900 315 420 1.02 0.HIGH FIELD Increase in T 33 @ 2KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm Increase in T 33 @ 4KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL UNIT PZT501 1 2000 0.71 0.5 16.4 6.00 0.35 450 -195 60 25 -11.90 - PZT502 1 1950 0.70 0.m Hz.6 0.m Hz.00 0.50 1.50 -2.02 0.31 7600 330 0.6 7.4 13.3 7800 270 420 1.31 7700 300 - x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.75 720 -315 90 750 18.50 >25 - PZT505 1 2600 0.1 0.2 -0.CUSTOM PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS CUSTOM PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .67 0.01 >1011 1011 1010 0.38 0.9 6.5 45 1950 1420 1880 55 22 16.03 0.72 0.5 8000 300 - PZT507 1 4400 3300 0.00 0.01 0.4 181 1950 1420 890 75 16.5 7830 285 - PZT506 1 2250 0. Operating Temp.5 10 -3.72 610 -270 1900 60 16.5 -9 0.05 - PZT702 1 1200 1700 0. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.4 6.m Hz.1 14.9 -10.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at approx 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .69 0.1 11 7 7900 208 - T r 33 r 11 T m m m % tan el el el m m m % tan % tan k k15 k31 tan % tan k k15 k31 k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 N5 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 Tc °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 N5 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.m Hz.2 10 0.4 26 7.2 9.50 0.3 7800 270 420 1.1 6.9 36. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.75 -0.10 - PZT503 1 2100 1800 0.60 0.64 0.50 >250 - PZT407 1 1225 1400 0.9 9.m Hz.31 7700 350 210 0.63 0.0025 1010 0.90 0.30 0.029 5010 0.20 -3.6 2260 1625 1040 500 10.66 -0.7 7. Operating Temp.67 153 -60 33 360 41 -16 9 50 297 2340 1750 2050 2100 1070 600 13.74 325 -150 480 30 -12 39 2175 1620 2000 950 >600 80 1200 15 12 37 0.75 500 -215 515 24 -10 33 1975 1450 1850 930 >600 80 75 18 15 39 0.9 10 9.63 -0.28 225 -100 25 21 -9.3 11.64 -0.016 1010 0.8 13 11 0. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques. 34 35 .41 -0.4 9.m Hz.9 4.m Hz.50 -0.7 0.02 0.48 -0.3 0.00 0.
3 8200 137 - PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .5-2.6 9.1 10.4 8.3 PMN-PT30 1 5500-7000 2.9 6.70 -0.1 1.m Hz.02 0.7 4.55 1700-2200 -950 >40 >15 1800-1900 Poisson’s Ratio σ Density x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 10-14 25-30 > 8.m Hz.5 2. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.90 >0.8 -6.9 14.m Hz.4 8200 160 -0. Operating Temp.50 880 -401 78 16 -7.70 -0.8 2. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values. Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Young's Modulus Internal Friction TIME STABILITY Coupling Factor Capacitance Permittivity Frequency Time Constant Quality factor Dielectric Loss factor NAVY V NAVY VI CUSTOM E Q-1 k C T N d33 T/3 (25oC) Qm tan 33 minute Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.02 0.4 16.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Coercive Field ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants MECHANICAL Compliances SYMBOL UNIT PMN-PT28 1 4500-5500 3.LOW FIELD Relative Permittivity Relative Permittivity Dielectric Loss Resistivity (at approx 25oC) Resistivity (at 100oC) Resistivity (at 200oC) ELECTRICAL .2 6.m Hz.78 0.1 273 1880 60 23.50 - PZT5K2 1 6200 5200 0.49 950 -410 130 15.1 13. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.4 9.m 0.3 6 10.8 T r 33 r 11 T T r 33 tan el el el EC k33 kt d33 d31 g33 g31 Nt SD33 YE33 ρ kV/cm m m m % tan % tan k k15 k31 k33 kt d33 d31 dh d15 g33 g31 gh g15 dhgh N N1 N3 N5 Na N3t or N33 Ns Hoop or Nc Nt Qm SE33 SE11 SE12 SE13 SE55 SE66 SD33 SD11 SD12 S66 YE33 YE11 YD33 YD11 x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 10-12 m2/N x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 x 1010 N/m2 kg/m3 Tc °C °C J/kg K W/m K Gpa x 10-4 Relative change per time decade % x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N Hz.24 13.0 10-14 16-21 > 8.50 -0.55 1100-1700 -850 >30 >17 0800-1900 0.42 0.m Hz.3 8200 150 - PZT5K4 1 7100 0.42 0.m 106 Pa 106 Pa THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Trt Transition Temperature Approx.2 286 1920 1380 65 20.90-0.7 4.9 7.7 137 1880 68 23.02 0.6 16.68 -0.1 -6.40 0.94 >0.m Hz. MATERIAL CROSS REFERENCE TABLE PREVIOUS MATERIAL NAVY I PC4D PZT4 PZT4D PZT4D PZT4E PXE42 PC5 PZT5A PZT5A PXE59 PZT8 PZT8 PZT8L PZT8S PXE43 PC4 PC8 PZT5J PC5H PZT5H PZT5B PZT5R PXE5 PXE21 PXE50+ PXE55 PXE52 PZT5T PC5K n/a n/a PXE41 PT2 PZT7A PZT7D PXE71 CURRENT MATERIAL REFERENCE PZT401 PZT402 PZT403 PZT404 PZT405 PZT406 PZT5A1 PZT5A2 PZT5A3 PZT5A4 PZT801 PZT802 PZT803 PZT804 PZT805 PZT806 PZT807 PZT5J1 PZT5H1 PZT5H2 PZT501 PZT502 PZT503 PZT504 PZT505 PZT506 PZT507 PZT508 PZT5K1 PZT5K2 PZT5K4 PZT407 PT1 PZT701 PZT702 PZT703 NAVY II NAVY III Poisson’s Ratio Density THERMAL DATA Curie Temperature Approx.0 Charge Constants or Strain Constants Voltage Constants or Stress Constants Frequency Constants Compressive Strength Tensile Strength Quality Factor MECHANICAL Compliances x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-12 C/N x 10-12 C/N or m/V x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-3 Vm/N x 10-15 Hz.75 870 -370 130 15.88-0.78 0.CUSTOM PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS SINGLE CRYSTAL MATERIALS PROPERTY NO OF DAYS AFTER POLING ELECTRICAL .0-3.m Hz. Acoustic Impedance Tc Trt ZA °C °C °C 106 kg/m2sec 143 95 ± 5 90 28 155 85 ± 5 80 28 Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only.6 4.2 16. Operating Temp.HIGH FIELD Increase in T 33 @ 2KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm Increase in T 33 @ 4KV/cm r Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Coupling Factors SYMBOL UNIT PZT5K1 1 6200 0.8 7.m Hz. 36 37 .
Minimum values and tolerances must be negotiated.fr) [kHz. The dielectric constant is derived from the static capacitance measurements at 1 kHz using a standard impedance bridge. or not. its function and the transducer function within the device. 39 kV/mm at 50/60Hz (for “hard” PZT only) % Maximum % Maximum pC/N Minimum [ ] [kg/m3] DIELECTRIC CONSTANT The relative dielectric constant is defined as the ratio of the permittivity of the material to the permittivity of free space. schematic or sketch. MHz]: Vibration mode: Loss factor: d33 or d31 [pC/N]: f = (fa . Note which tests. use this checklist to organise your application data and material requirements. Select the shape or shapes that satisfy the mounting and physical requirements of the application. the Young’s modulus is given by equation 73: APPLICATION Briefly describe the device. and review the shapes and formulae. For linear positioning applications. the relationship of wavelength of a vibration with propagation length at the resonant point is given by equation (69). Special dimensions and tolerances must be negotiated. FREQUENCY CONSTANT (N) The velocity of sound that propagates through a piezoelectric ceramic has a specific value in each vibration mode when the resonance of other vibration modes is not in the vicinity. the most important compliance tensor elements are those in the E direction of the PZT extension: S33 for strain due to uniaxial stress along the E poling direction. Navy Type I: Navy Type II: Navy Type III: Navy Type V: Navy Type VI: Custom: Single Crystal: SIZE & SHAPE Refer to page 22. This is generally measured well below the mechanical resonance. MATERIAL Refer to the material tables. It is defined as the temperature at which the dielectric constant is maximized when the temperature is increased. Normally E E S33 is 25% greater than S11. Select the combination that satisfies the mechanical and piezoelectric requirements of the application. note the operating requirements of critical properties. and Young’s modulus is given as the inverse of compliance. and special notes and instructions. REMANENT POLARIZATION (Pr) It is the net polarization remaining in a polycrystalline dielectric material after removal of an electric field. soft PZT is somewhat more compliant than hard PZT. Length: Width: Thickness: Outside Diameter (OD): Inside Diameter (ID): Wall Thickness: Flatness: Other: ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS These standard electrical measurements can be made on various Morgan Electro Ceramics parts. MHz]: ELECTRODES Type: • Silver • Nickel • Gold • Other (describe) Placement or Configuration: Ends: ID-OD: Stripes: Wraparound: Shear plate: Polarity Markings: SPECIAL MATERIAL TESTING These tests are usually performed on lot control samples only. and sizes. All dimensions are in metric (mm). 38 . For lengthwise vibrations. Because the sound velocity is constant. quality.GLOSSARY OF TERMS SAMPLES ORDERING DATA CHECKLIST COMPLIANCE When you apply stress to any material. Calculate the values of the critical properties for the selected materials. For a piezoelectric ceramic with a certain shape. If possible include a drawing. High field measurement at Capacitance Change Loss factor d33 Impedance Zr @Fr Density SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: Serial Numbers: Other Requirements: QUANTITY Quantity required for samples: Potential quantity required for production: CONTACT DETAILS Company Name Address Town/City Postcode Individual Name Position Tel/Mobile Fax Email Web Address ATTACHMENTS List attachments such as drawings. shapes. should be performed on the test sample for this order. it responds by changing its dimension due to its elastic properties. MECHANICAL (Qm) This shows the sharpness of mechanical vibration at the resonant frequency. and select the material(s) with the required characteristics. As you might guess from the name. schematics. YOUNG’S MODULUS (YE) When stress T is applied to an elastic body within the proportional elastic range. sketches. With this information. If you need assistance selecting the material. Morgan Electro Ceramics can help you select the most cost. and S11 for strain due to the perpendicular stress. CURIE TEMPERATURE (Tc) Curie temperature refers to the critical temperature at which crystals in the piezoelectric ceramic lose their spontaneous polarization and hence their piezoelectric property. SE is an elasticity constant (compliance). and design effective ceramic elements for your application. Tube Rod Disc Ring Plate Bar Bimorph Unimorph Actuator Transducer Special Capacitance [pF@1kHz]: Resonant Frequency [kHz. we obtain the following equations (70) and (71): Whether you are experienced with piezoelectric materials. POISSON’S RATIO ( ) This is defined as the ratio of the strain of polarization axis direction and the distortion of right angle direction to the polarization axis. strain S is given by equation 72: MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS Standard dimensions and tolerances are listed in page 22. if any. The compliance witnessed in piezoelectric ceramics is different in an important way: it exhibits different compliance perpendicularly than it does along its parallel poling axis.
PZT-6A2. PZT-6B) Procedures for measuring properties of piezoelectric ceramics The design of piezoelectric sandwich transducers Some considerations in the use of cylindrical ceramic elements in transducer design Some design considerations in the use of Bimorphs® as motor transducers Piezoelectricity Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of lead Titanate Zirconate ceramics at low temperatures Thermal expansion and pyroelectricity in lead Titanate Zirconate and barium Titanate Stress sensitivity of piezoelectric ceramics: Part 1. PZT800 Series) Behaviour of piezoelectric ceramics under various environmental and operation conditions of radiating sonar transducers Useful relationships for circular bender Bimorphs® Properties of specialised ceramics of Morgan Electro Ceramics (PZT700. PZT5A. Sensitivity to compressive stress perpendicular to the polar axis Piezoelectric high voltage transformers General description of piezoelectric transformers Cantilever mounted PZT-5A Bimorphs® 40 .F amplifier reliability .TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS For further information on piezoelectric ceramics. Series. PZT-6A1. Morgan Electro Ceramics has available the following technical papers on our website: TP-23 TP-26 TP-42 TP-43 TP-46 TP-47 TP-50 TP-212 TP-214 TP-215 TP-217 TP-218 TP-219 TP-220 TP-221 TP-222 TP-223 TP-224 TP-225 TP-226 TP-228 TP-230 TP-232 TP-234 TP-235 TP-236 TP-237 TP-238 TP-240 TP-241 TP-242-1 TP-242-2 TP-242-3 TP-243 TP-244 TP-245 Measurement of piezoelectric coupling in odd ceramic shapes Two-channel cylindrical PZT ceramic transducer Piezoelectric ceramic I. PZT5H. Heat treatment Stress sensitivity of piezoelectric ceramics: Part 3.F filters . A ceramic bandpass transformer and filter element An introduction to Morgan Electro Ceramics piezoelectric filters Design of piezoelectric ladder filters The electro-acoustic sensitivity of cylindrical ceramic tubes The stepped horn Speed of sound in seawater as a function of temperature. Solid-state tuned circuits improve I. Sensitivity to compressive stress parallel to the polar axis Stress sensitivity of piezoelectric ceramics: Part 2. pressure and salinity A primer of ferroelectricity and piezoelectric ceramics Flexure mode piezoelectric transducer Piezoelectric high voltage generators Effects of high static stress on the piezoelectric properties of transducer materials Power capacities of piezoelectric ceramics in sonar type acoustics transducers On the meaning of “g” and “d” constant as applied to simple piezoelectric modes of vibration Useful relationships for ceramic bender Bimorphs® On the meaning of piezoelectric coupling Power limitations of piezoelectric ceramics in radiating transducers Important properties of Morgan Electro Ceramics piezoelectric ceramics (PZT400.