(study guide)

Rostov-on-Don 2009



Rostov-on-Don 2009

УДК ББК 81.2 Англ-9 Г Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ПИ ЮФУ Рецензент: кандидат филологических наук, доцент Черкасс И.А. Научный редактор: доктор филологических наук, профессор Агапова С.Г. Автор-составитель: Гущина Л.В., кандидат филологических наук, доцент
Gushchina L.V. Modern English Literature: Literary Criticism (A Study Guide). − Rostov-onDon: PI SFU, 2009. − 58p. Modern English Literature: Literary Criticism is a comprehensive guide for the 3rd -4th years students that deals with literary criticism and a variety of critical approaches, enlarging students’ knowledge in the sphere of modern English literature on the whole, concerning some aspects of lingual and stylistic types of interpretation. The overall goal of this study guide is to introduce basic literary theory and criticism. This course helps students gain a basic understanding of some literary criticism theories: Textual, Moral / Philosophical, Historical, Biographical approaches, Formalism, New criticism, Russian Formalism, Structuralism, Marxist Critical Approach. Practical approaches are provided to developing critical views on literature, close reading and unseens, comparing different critical approaches, studying texts in accordance to them, coursework assessment and tests.


УДК ББК 81.2 Англ-9 © ПИ ЮФУ, 2009 © Гущина Л.В., 2009

1. 1.3.Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………... Copy-Text Editing……………………………………………………. Marxist Literary criticism…………………………………………………...2. 5. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………… 5 6 6 7 10 10 13 13 15 16 21 26 30 34 34 36 38 43 44 46 46 48 49 53 57 4 ... Literary Criticism……………………………………………….. 6. Literature…………………………………………………………………… 1. Russian Formalism………………………………………………………… 6.. Russian Formalism……………………………………………….2. Module 5.... Module 7. Dialogism…………………………………………………………………. Stemmatics………………………………………………………….. Constants of the Formalist Approach: Some Key Concepts.2.1. 2.1... stemmatics and copy-text editing………….4. 2..2. 6.3. Historical and Biographical Approaches………………………....1. Textual Criticism…………………………………………………. Module 4. The Formalist Approach………………………………………….2.3.4.. Post-structuralism………………………………………………………….2... 2. 2.. Eclecticism…………………………………………………………. Structuralism……………………………………………………………….1. Module 1. The New Criticism………………………………………………………….. Module 2.. Textual criticism………………………………………………………….2.5... 6... 2... 6. Moral and Philosophical Approaches……………………………. and Devices……………………………………………………………………. 5. Cladistics……………………………………………………………… Module 3. Terms.2.. The Formalist Approach…………………………………………………… 5. Module 6. Textual criticism: eclecticism. 2. Literary Criticism…………………………………………………………..2. Environmentalism and Ecocriticism…………………………….

to explain his or her interpretation of the work. you will learn the basic terminology associated with literary criticism as well as have the opportunity to practice applying various literary criticism theories to your study of different British and American books. and interpretation of literature. It is important to understand how a particular form of literary criticism may help you understand a text more clearly. However. Critical literary theories can bring certain qualities of a work of literature into focus or call our attention to particular issues.Introduction So what is literary criticism? Literary criticism describes the study. As we read a text. Of course. Literary criticism helps readers to understand the intricacies of a text and communicate with other readers about those intricacies. or to provide other readers with relevant historical or biographical information. Critical approaches are very much like the lens through which we view and understand a piece of literature. This book presents itself a research project for learning. Instead. In particular. this book was designed to help you become more familiar with the different types of literary criticism and interpretation theories. criticism from other sources should never be a substitute for your original ideas regarding a text. let’s get started! Good luck! 5 . Literary criticism is made up of a number of different types of critical approaches. ‘Literary criticism is an extension of this social activity of interpreting’. As readers we use criticism as a way to communicate with other readers our ideas regarding a particular text. evaluation. you can ask a question: ‘But why do I need to know about different literary theories?’. There is a great definition of literary criticism found on the Literatureclassics. So. You will be asked to explore and evaluate different sources (both literary and online ones) related to your study of literary website which reads. discussion. reading other critics may help you clarify your own understand and ideas. we are constantly engaging in the practice of interpretation as we attempt to understand a particular work’s significance and meaning. The critics’ purpose may be to make value judgments on a work. In addition.

by language or place of origin (e. Literary Criticism The overall goal is to study some corresponding terms like literature. aims and purposes of literary criticism.. science and politics – were counted as literature. topography. etc.1. Literature Literature is a body of written works related by subject-matter (e. criticism. Since the 19th century. ‘literature’ is taken to include oral. philosophical. and broadcast compositions that may not have been published in written form but which have been (or deserve to be) preserved. history. literary criticism. and fiction. no end or purpose beyond its own existence. Even more restrictive has been the academic concentration upon poetry. or by prevailing cultural standards of merit. many kinds of non-fictional writing – in philosophy.S. 1. biography. Russian literature). as a work of art. implicit in this broader usage is a definition of literature as that body of works which – for whatever reason – deserves to be preserved as part of the current reproduction of meanings within a given culture (unlike yesterday’s newspaper. drama. The term was used by T. which belongs in the disposable category of ephemera). 6 . creative. dramatic. Until the mid-20th century.g. and to enumerate its main schools and theories. ‘A poem should not mean | But be’. or biographical works that involve practical reference to things outside themselves: in the words of the American poet Archibald MacLeish. Eliot in 1923 and adopted by New Criticism to distinguish the self-referential nature of literary art from didactic. usually related to a work’s absence of factual or practical reference – its autotelic. critical.g. Autotelic stands for having. This sense seems more tenable than the later attempts to divide literature – as creative. the broader sense of literature as a totally written or printed works has given way to more exclusive definitions based on criteria of imaginative. the literature of computing).Module 1. or artistic value. In this last sense. A similar idea is implied in the theory of the ‘poetic function’ put forward in Russian Formalism.

interpretation. Literary Criticism Literary criticism is the reasoned discussion of literary works. designed to impart information. 3 didactic – instructive. text. or a mixture of both. classification of a work according to its genre. analysis of its structure and style. estimation of its likely effect on readers. arrangement. In liberal criticism. rhetoric2. Literary criticism attempts to serve the following purposes: explain a work and its underlying principles to an uncomprehending audience. 2 rhetoric – the deliberate exploitation of eloquence for the most persuasive effect in public speaking or in writing. analysis. 1.2. composition. in varying proportions: the defence of literature against moralists and censors. It was cultivated as an important art and science in antiquity. Contrary to the everyday sense of criticism as ‘fault-finding’. Literary criticism is a term applied since the seventeenth century to the scientific investigation of literary documents in regard to such matters as origin. an activity which may include some or all of the following procedures. so that the usual modern sense of the term implies empty and ineffectual grandness in public speech. involving the elaborate categorizing of figures of speech together with the arts of memory. writing to persuade people to support a particular religious or political cause. much modern criticism (particularly of the academic kind) assumes that the works it discusses are valuable.e. fictional. advice. Literary criticism may be positive or negative. Propagandist writing is thus a kind of didactic literature directed toward changing or confirming readers’ and audiences’ allegiances. or home doctrine of morality or philosophy. and oratorical delivery. Modern critics sometimes refer to the rhetorical dimension of a literary work. 7 1 . or the epic theatre of Brecht. or non-practical – from factual writings or practically effective works of propaganda1. meaning those aspects of the work that persuade or otherwise guide the responses of readers. This term refers to studies devoted to the comparison. The functions of judgement and analysis having to some extent become divided between the market (where reviewers ask ‘Is this worth buying?’) and the educational world (where academics ask ‘Why is this so good?’). The different standards. or didactic3 writing. social realism. with the suggestion that these are betrayals of true Art. propagandism – the tendency to compose literary works chiefly to serve the purpose of propaganda. The emphasis on sincerity in the culture of Romanticism helped to discredit rhetoric. and evaluation of works of literature. or as a whole) can be evaluated and understood. and the establishment of general principles by which literary works (both individually and in categories. i. meaning a ‘judge’. have led to the development of various schools or varieties of literary criticism. A practitioner or theorist of rhetoric is called a rhetorician.imaginative. interpretation of its meaning. judgement of its worth by comparison with other works. the term is used disparagingly of leftwing literary forms such as agitprop. and/or history. interpret works to readers who might otherwise fail to understand or appreciate them. by which literary critics have judged works of literature. or criteria. The term ‘criticism’ is derived from the Greek word kritikos. and was an essential element of medieval university education.

Project Tasks 1. gender. practical. Test №1 The test consists of 6 tasks. social class. Explore in depth definitions of literature and literary criticism. Your presentation should contain the following points: • a title. that is. It requires 3 minutes to solve it. • basic background information regarding your topic. or descriptive. politics. Metacriticism is criticism of criticism. In addition. The term usually implies a consideration of the principles underlying critical interpretation and judgement. 2. methods. focusing the work itself (as in New Criticism and structuralism). Particular schools of criticism also seek to understand literature in terms of its relations to history. 8 . as with psychoanalytical criticism. Marxist criticism. Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form. it also attempts to answer the following questions about literature: What is literature? What does literature do? What is literature worth? The various kinds of criticism fall into several overlapping categories: and apply principles which describe the foundations of ‘good literature’. Create a presentation (report) on Literary Criticism. and others. erocriticism.and 20th-century critical writing. Criticism concerned with revealing the author’s true motive or intention (sometimes called ‘expressive’ criticism) emerged from Romanticism to dominate much 19th. linguistic theory. and terms of criticism either in general (as in critical theory) or in the study of particular critics or critical debates. prescribe rules for readers and legislate taste for the audience. Answer the following questions: • What is literature? • What is literary criticism? • What are the main purposes of literary criticism? • What schools of criticism do you know? 3. the examination of the principles. judge works by clearly defined standards of evaluation. mythology. justify imaginative literature in a world that finds its value questionable. and to a shift of attention to the reader in Reader-response criticism. feminist criticism. impressionistic. • use textual evidence to support your commentary. but has tended to give way to ‘objective’ criticism. myth criticism. prescriptive. affective. or psychology. • a brief definition for your topic.

interpretation. word kritikos. criticism either in general analysis. composition. What literary criticism can be? 1 only positive 3 positive and negative 2 only negative 4 critical 4. The term ‘criticism’ is derived from the . and terms of studies devoted to the comparison. affective. Literary criticism is a term applied since the 17th century to the scientific investigation of literary documents in regard to such matters as: origin. methods. 1 independent 2 overlapping 3 material 4 psychological 6. impressionistic. categories: theoretical..1. 1 Greek 2 German 3 Dutch 4 Roman 3.. prescriptive. text. . What purpose does not belong to the purposes of literary criticism? explain a work and its underlying principles to an 1 uncomprehending audience unjustify imaginative literature 3 in a world that finds its value questionable 2 interpret works to readers who might otherwise fail to understand or appreciate them discover and apply principles which describe the foundations of ‘good literature’ 4 2. practical.. 1 biology 2 psychology 3 history 4 maths 5. The various kinds of criticism fall into several . or descriptive.. and .. meaning a ‘judge’.. Which definition does not define the term literary criticism? 1 the reasoned discussion of literary 2 reveal of the author’s true motive works or intention the examination of the principles. 3 4 (as in critical theory) or in and evaluation of works of the study of particular literature critics or critical debates Blank Form № 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 .

the product of textual criticism is an edited text that the editor believes comes as close as possible to a lost original (called the archetype). New York: Oxford University Press. 5.. survive in hundreds of copies. Waugh P. Russell D.1. 2. its three fundamental approaches: eclecticism. In the English language. http://humanities. Rhetoric. although originally developed and refined for works of antiquity. stematics and copy-text editing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Literary Theory and Criticism: An Oxford Guide. The principles of textual criticism. date and place of composition of the text. Textual criticism has been practiced for over two thousand years. 2007. Normally. 2008.. and the relationship of each copy to the original may be unclear. Literature. have been applied to the works of many authors. New York: Oxford University Press. Criticism. Winterbottom M. and Shakespeare. 2. 4. 10 .edu/rhetoric/silva Module 2. Many ancient works. and because the effort and expense to produce superior editions of his works has always been widely viewed as worthwhile.byu. such as the Bible and the Greek tragedies. representing periods from ancient times to the twentieth century. 3. Cross H. which is the endeavour to establish the authorship. New York: Oxford University Press. and which readings in those sources are correct. 2004. Textual scholars have debated for centuries which sources are most closely derived from the original. Early textual critics were concerned with preserving the works of antiquity. This term is used in contrast with higher criticism.A. Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. and later with medieval and early modern manuscript writings. Textual criticism Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts.4 Literature 1. 6. Baldick C. and Style. or some other version of a text as it existed – or was intended to exist – in the past. Classical Literary Criticism. the Bible. Richards J. Textual Criticism The overall goal is to study the theory of Textual Criticism. New York. Croft S. 2006. though the question if the Bible has ever had only one original has been discussed. the works of Shakespeare have been a particularly fertile ground for textual criticism – both because the texts as transmitted contain a considerable amount of error. 2008.

Ezra Pound’s editorial surgery transformed T. were likely to have done). however. were it night be more expected. and each time a manuscript was copied.e. or compositors. textual criticism is anything but an essentially mechanical operation. spelling. i. for example. be they scribes. disseminated. because Eliot himself authorized versions containing substantive differences) or other famous textual cases include Dickens’s two endings for Great Expectations (after seeing the first ‘unhappy’ ending in proof. Instead of a scribe miscopying his source. errors might be introduced by the human scribe. Although its practitioners are very much concerned with accidentals. the ideal of textual criticism is the establishment of an authentic text. as has often happened. without the intervention of author or editor. but printed editions are subject to many of the same kinds of errors.When comparing different documents (or. it is not always apparent which variant is original and which is an error. There are countless ways in which a literary text may be corrupted from what the author intended. or the ‘text which the author intended’. 11 . Thus it has enabled us to see how. Textual criticism plays an especially important role in studying the genesis and development of a piece of literature. Many additional mishaps can befall a manuscript in the course of producing multiple copies for the public that the ‘ordinary history of the transmission of a text. therefore. and it is a problem not only with older works. If the author or someone who knows what the author intended does not catch these errors during proofreading. So. literary works had to be copied by hand. is to sort through the variants and establish a ‘critical text’ that is intended to best represent the original by explaining the state of all extant witnesses. copyists or editors may take it upon themselves to improve. or printers. it is a compositor or a printing shop. but also in contemporary literature. Later editors have published the first version as having more aesthetic integrity. and affiliation of each witness) and ‘internal’ considerations (what the author and scribes. is one of progressive degeneration’. This aim is not so easy to achieve as one might think. ‘witnesses’) of a single text. Thorpe understandably asks. another example is that Thomas Hardy made so many substantive character and plot alterations in the four versions of The Return of the Native. and perpetuated. all of which he authorized for publication between 1878 and 1912. however. Eliot’s The Waste Land from a clumsy and diffuse poem to a modern classic (the poem still presents textual problems. Moreover.S. or correct what the author wrote.. So. in establishing the critical text it is important for the textual critic to deal with both ‘external’ evidence (the age. but Dickens never authorized it). Dickens wrote another and authorized only it. The textual critic's task. Or. or scanners. The author’s own manuscript may contain omissions and errors in spelling and mechanics. ‘Which is the real Return of the Native’. Before the invention of printing. these mistakes may be preserved by the text copyists. censor. that J. who may add a few of their own. provenance. they can be published. The age of printing reduced the need for handwritten copies.

They must be highly skilled in linguistics. Instead of a scribe miscopying his source.e. 3) a record of rejected variants (often in order of preference). literary criticism. who may then proceed to interpret and evaluate. are nonetheless not immune to introducing variations from an author's autograph. they simply are not exact scientists (i.. ones dealing in an exact science). Perhaps it would be more accurate to concede that textual critics are scientists of sorts. In contrast to this approach. while less susceptible to the proliferation of variations likely to arise during manual transmission. parchment. and bibliography. capitalization. which is accompanied by an apparatus criticus (or critical apparatus) that presents: 1) the evidence that the editor considered (names of manuscripts. in the establishment of an authentic text. On the whole. They are. inscribed or printed on paper. Housman says.punctuation. though textual critics must and do make aesthetic judgements. some textual critics prefer to 12 . a combination of scientist and artist. and many variations were introduced by copyists. reconstruction of the lost original is often aided by a selection of readings taken from many sources. textual criticism is the ‘science of discovering error in texts and the art of removing it’. more precisely. Before mechanical printing. The study of formal documents such as deeds and charters belongs to the science known as “diplomatics”. The age of printing made the scribal profession effectively redundant. papyrus. Printed editions. to mention only the most obvious areas. textual criticism can be defined as a branch of literary scholarship that attempts to establish the most accurate version of a written work by comparing all existing manuscript and / or printed versions so as to reconstruct from them the author’s intention. or abbreviations called sigla). However. This contains a text most closely approximating the original.E. eliminating copyists’ and printers’ errors and any corrupt interpolations. An edited text that draws from multiple sources is said to be eclectic. reducing the amount of error. As A. the technique of restoring texts as nearly as possible to their original form. or similar materials. Texts in this connection are defined as writings other than formal documents. they deal with much more than close proofreading. So textual critics are not and should not be considered scientists. In this case textual criticism can be treated not as a traditional interpretive approach to literature but as an indispensable tool for further meaningful analysis. Since each scribe or printer commits different errors. literature was copied by hand. 2) the editor's analysis of that evidence (sometimes a simple likelihood rating). The textual critic's ultimate objective is the production of a ‘critical edition’. not only in accidentals but also in substantives (actual verbal readings). while inscriptions on coins and seals are the province of numismatics and sigillography. the study of writings on stone is part of epigraphy. italicization. improving or clarifying the state of textual affairs and approaching the ideal. and paragraphing. textual criticism deals with cutting losses. They have no predetermined or inviolable laws that they can use to come out with an authentic text. So. a compositor or a printing shop may read or typeset a work in a way that differs from the autograph. they do so in order to establish by means as scientific as possible an authentic text for the literary critic. literary history.

Although a reading supported by the majority of witnesses is frequently preferred. What one omits. or printers. original text. such as Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. therefore. although the same techniques have been applied with less frequency to many other works. Although nearly all 13 .2. provenance. the observed differences are called variant readings. and not to combine readings from multiple sources. namely a work of textual criticism whereby all variations and emendations are set side by side so that a reader can track how textual decisions have been made in the preparation of a text for publication. 2. and affiliation of each witness) and ‘internal’ or ‘physical’ considerations (what the author and scribes. what one adds. or ‘witnesses’.2. The Bible and the works of William Shakespeare have often been the subjects of variorum editions. The practice is based on the principle that the more independent two transmission histories are. is to sort through the variants. stematics and copy-text editing. either by accident (duplication or omission) or intention (harmonization or censorship). as scribes or supervisors transmitted the original author's text by copying it. The process of textual criticism seeks to explain how each variant may have entered the text. a second edition of a Shakespeare play may include an addition alluding to an event known to have happened between the two editions. and the prose writings of Edward Fitzgerald. Eclectic readings also normally give an impression of the number of witnesses to each available reading. the critical text should document variant readings. the textual critic considers both ‘external’ evidence (the age. based on the evidence of contrasts between witnesses. stematics and copy-text editing There are three fundamental approaches to textual criticism: eclecticism. It is not always apparent which single variant represents the author's original work.identify the single best surviving text. that is intended to best approximate the original. or simply variants or readings. of a single. Textual criticism: eclecticism. were likely to have done). eliminating those most likely to be un-original. The textual critic’s task. 2. Eclecticism Eclecticism is the practice of examining a wide number of witnesses and selecting the variant that seems best. At the same time.1. hence establishing a ‘critical text’. The collation of all known variants of a text is referred to as a Variorum. When comparing different documents. the other is unlikely to add. so the relation of extant witnesses to the reconstructed original is apparent to a reader of the critical edition. the less likely they will be to reproduce the same errors. For example. this does not follow automatically. In establishing the critical text. the other may retain. Techniques from the biological discipline of cladistics are now also being used to determine the relationship between manuscripts. or critical edition. Eclecticism allows inferences to be drawn regarding the original text.

Various considerations can be used to decide which reading is the most likely to be original. Sometimes these considerations can be in conflict. relying on both external and internal evidence. One of the earliest was Johann Albrecht Bengel (1687-1752). Even so. ‘The difficult reading is to be preferred to that which is easy’. the oldest manuscripts. in which there is no a priori bias to a single manuscript. he established fifteen critical rules. skips to the second. The scribe. being of the Alexandrian texttype. its date. It is based on the idea that copyists are more likely to simplify and smooth a text they do not fully understand. Homeoteleuton occurs when two words/phrases/lines end with the same sequence of letters. a majority of witnesses. the most geographically diverse witnesses. are the most favoured. the critic forms opinions about individual witnesses. source. Since the mid-19th century. and the critical text has an Alexandrian disposition. Critics will often prefer the readings supported by the oldest witnesses. or canons of textual criticism. and relationship to other known witnesses. Various scholars have developed guidelines. Canons of textual criticism. omitting all intervening words. since a scribe is unlikely on his own initiative to have departed from the usual practice. textual critics may reconstruct the original without the addition. In his commentary. who in 1734 produced an edition of the Greek New Testament. One of the techniques is Lectio difficilior potior (‘the harder reading is stronger’).subsequent manuscripts may have included the addition. no single witness is theoretically favoured. he established the rule Proclivi scriptioni praestat ardua. the consideration internal and external evidence is related. to guide the exercise of the critic's judgment in determining the best readings of a text. Thus. Homeoarchy refers to eye-skip when the beginnings of two lines are similar. Johann Jakob Griesbach (1745-1812) published several editions of the New Testament. based on taking the more difficult reading as being more likely to be the original. External evidence is evidence of each physical witness. Some developing research. The evaluation of internal evidence also provides the critic with information that helps him evaluate the reliability of individual manuscripts. suggests that this principle cannot be applied universally. independent of the physical characteristics of the document. as is the case with the Book of Revelation. meaning ‘same endings’. Another scribal tendency is called homeoteleuton. however. The result of the process of eclectism is a text with readings drawn from many witnesses. eclecticism. The critic may also examine the other writings of the author to decide what words and grammatical constructions match his style. In a purely eclectic approach. Readings that depart from the known practice of a scribe or a given period may be deemed more reliable. Among them 14 . In his 1796 edition. Instead. having finished copying the first. Internal evidence is evidence that comes from the text itself. has been the dominant method of editing the Greek text of the New Testament. or the best witnesses.

Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901) and Fenton J. have wide applicability to any text susceptible to errors of transmission. and not the number. ‘the shorter reading is best. even though he did not invent it (see Timpanaro. If one reading occurs more often than another at the same level of the tree. They also argued that ‘Readings are approved or rejected by reason of the quality. including a version of Bengel's rule. based on the idea that scribes were more likely to add than to delete. Having completed the stemma. placing all extant manuscripts in a family tree or stemma codicum descended from a single archetype.was a variant of Bengel's rule. Since the canons of criticism are highly susceptible to interpretation. Lectio difficilior potior.A. they can often be employed to justify any result that fits the text critic's aesthetic or theological agenda. then the editor uses his judgment to select the correct reading. called a hyparchetype. The family tree is also referred to as a cladorama. The genesis of Lachmann's method). scholars sought more rigorous methods to guide editorial judgment. Many of these rules. the critic proceeds to the next step. and at times even contradict each other. They proposed nine critical rules. The method takes its name from the stemma. ‘the hardest reading is best’. Stemmatics Stemmatics or stemmatology is a rigorous approach to textual criticism developed by Karl Lachmann (1793-1851) and others. which shows the relationships of the surviving witnesses. ‘family tree’. The method works from the principle that ‘community of error implies community of origin’. although originally developed for Biblical textual criticism. Stemmatics and copy-text editing – while both eclectic. Starting in the nineteenth century. Karl Lachmann himself greatly contributed to making this method famous. That is. 15 . in that they permit the editor to select readings from multiple sources – sought to reduce subjectivity by establishing one or a few witnesses presumably as being favored by ‘objective’ criteria. If two competing readings occur equally often. of their supporting witnesses’. The process of constructing the stemma is called recension. where the text of the archetype is determined by examining variants from the closest hyparchetypes to the archetype and selecting the best ones. then the dominant reading is selected. Limitations of eclecticism. called selection or selectio. Relations between the lost intermediates are determined by the same process. as scribes may omit material inadvertently’. or the Latin recensio. and that ‘The reading is to be preferred that most fitly explains the existence of the others’. Hort (1828-1892) published an edition of the New Testament in 1881.2. ‘The reading is less likely to be original that shows a disposition to smooth away difficulties’. This rule cannot be applied uncritically. if two witnesses have a number of errors in common. Best-text editing (a complete rejection of eclecticism) became one extreme. 2. Another was Lectio brevior praeferenda.2. it may be presumed that they were derived from a common intermediate source.

more than one reasonable stemma could be postulated. for many works. The step of examination. But in fact. Some of the method's rules that are designed to reduce the exercise of 16 . He concluded that this outcome was unlikely to have occurred by chance. ‘That if a scribe makes a mistake he will inevitably produce nonsense is the tacit and wholly unwarranted assumption’. or examinatio is applied to find corruptions. The stemmatic method assumes that each witness is derived from one. In the stemmatic method. and found that textual critics tended overwhelmingly to produce trees divided into just two branches. He suspected that editors tended to favor trees with two branches. The critic Joseph Bédier (1864-1938) launched a particularly withering attack on stemmatics in 1928. and that therefore. since there may be passages where no source preserves the correct reading. but ‘sophistication’ impairs the method by obscuring a document's relationship to other witnesses. It is required. it is corrected by a process called ‘emendation’. suggesting that the method was not as rigorous or as scientific as its proponents had claimed. Emendations not supported by any known source are sometimes called conjectural emendations. The stemmatic method's final step is emendatio. If it seems that one manuscript is by far the best text. Where the editor concludes that the text is corrupt. it is said to be sophisticated. and if it seems that a group of manuscripts are good. then eclecticism on that group would be proper. and only one. He surveyed editions of medieval French texts that were produced with the stemmatic method.After selection. This assumption has often come under attack. then the new copy will not clearly fall into a single branch of the family tree. Limitations and Criticism. but in which a rigorous family history of the text cannot be determined but only approximated. the text may still contain errors. He also noted that. also sometimes referred to as ‘conjectural emendation’. predecessor. The steps of examinatio and emendatio resemble copy-text editing. In fact.W. or emendatio (also sometimes called divinatio). The stemmatic method requires the textual critic to group manuscripts by commonality of error. that the critic can distinguish erroneous readings from correct ones. the other techniques can be seen as special cases of stemmatics. but applied to a restricted set of hypothetical hyparchetypes. the method was tending to produce bipartite stemmas regardless of the actual history of the witnesses. The method also assumes that scribes only make new errors – they do not attempt to correct the errors of their predecessors. the critic employs conjecture at every step of the process. and making it more difficult to place the manuscript correctly in the stemma. then copy text editing is appropriate. If a scribe refers to more than one source when creating his copy. a manuscript that is derived from more than one source is said to be contaminated. When a text has been improved by the scribe. The process of selectio resembles eclectic textual criticism. Greg noted. W. The Hodges-Farstad edition of the Greek New Testament attempts to use stemmatics for some portions. therefore. as this would maximize the opportunities for editorial judgment (as there would be no third branch to ‘break the tie’ whenever the witnesses disagreed).

2. defining it as ‘the text used in each particular case as the basis of mine’. from a single source. the base text is selected from the oldest manuscript of the text. noting that ‘if an editor has reason to suppose that a certain text embodies later corrections than any other. A plausible reading that occurs less often may. Lastly. In some cases. are the work of the author. and then to emend it only where the text was obviously corrupt. as he feared that a later edition – even if it contained authorial corrections – would ‘deviate more widely than the earliest print 17 . Copy-Text Editing With copy-text editing. selected a manuscript from the local Dominican monastery in Basle and corrected its obvious errors by consulting other local manuscripts. The French critic Joseph Bédier likewise became disenchanted with the stemmatic method. the copy text was often a manuscript that was at hand. In McKerrow's method as originally introduced. McKerrow's concept of copy-text. However. printed edition of the Greek New Testament was produced by this method. McKerrow had changed his mind about this approach. the critic examines the base text and makes corrections (called emendations) in places where the base text appears wrong to the critic.3. The bibliographer Ronald B. and believed it was more prudent to choose one particular text that was thought to be particularly reliable. For example.editorial judgment do not necessarily produce the correct result. in his Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare. however remotely. normally the critic will select the dominant reading. and that the text could have existed at different times in more than one authoritative version. nevertheless. but in the early days of printing. This can be done by looking for places in the base text that do not make sense or by looking at the text of other witnesses for a superior reading. or some of them at least. the stemmatic method assumes that every extant witness is derived. which was the basis for the Revised Version of the English bible.2. Often. the textual critic selects a base text from a manuscript thought to be reliable. also used the copy-text method. and emend it as little as possible. McKerrow was aware of the limitations of the stemmatic method. and concluded that the editor should choose the best available text. Using the copy-text method. be the correct one. and at the same time has no ground for disbelieving that these corrections. Erasmus. the editor. the copy-text was not necessarily the earliest text. McKerrow introduced the term copy-text in his 1904 edition of the works of Thomas Nashe. he has no choice but to make that text the basis of his reprint’. By 1939. The Westcott and Hort text. It does not account for the possibility that the original author may have revised his work. The first published. using the Codex Vaticanus as the base manuscript. it may be no more than fortuitous that more witnesses have survived that present a particular reading. Close-call decisions are usually resolved in favor of the copy-text. where there are more than two witnesses at the same level of the tree. McKerrow would choose a later witness.

fearing the arbitrary exercise of editorial judgment. which is a matter of external authority. but that ‘as regards accidentals they will normally follow their own habits or inclination. and there has arisen what may be called the tyranny of the copy-text. such in general as spelling. those namely that affect the author's meaning or the essence of his expression. Thus it may happen that in a critical edition the text rightly chosen as copy may not by any means be the one that supplies most substantive readings in cases of variation. if there is no reason for altering its reading. from the first edition which contains them.W. in practice.. saving any which seem obvious blunders or misprints’.. so long as by ‘merit’ we mean the likelihood of their being what the author wrote rather than their appeal to the individual taste of the editor’. and others. be influenced by their copy’.. that the copy-text should govern (generally) in the matter of accidentals. but that the choice between substantive readings belongs to the general theory of textual criticism and lies altogether beyond the narrow principle of the copy-text. Anglo-American textual criticism in the last half of the twentieth century came to be dominated by a landmark essay by Sir Walter W. ‘a distinction between the significant.’ The choice between reasonable competing readings. for various reasons and to varying degrees. In such a case. which may be regarded as the accidents. Greg The Rationale of Copy-Text. partly by the intrinsic authority of the several texts as judged by the relative frequency of manifest errors therein. was that the ‘copy-text can be allowed no over-riding or even preponderant authority so far as substantive readings are concerned. The failure to make this distinction and to apply this principle has naturally led to too close and too general a reliance upon the text chosen as basis for an edition. punctuation. Greg observed that compositors at printing shops tended to follow the ‘substantive’ readings of their copy faithfully. of the text. readings of the text. McKerrow stated that.. ‘The true theory is.appear to be exactly balanced. a tyranny that has. he said. He concluded. W. Greg's rationale of copy-text.. Greg proposed. except when they deviated unintentionally.’ He therefore concluded that the correct procedure would be ‘produced by using the earliest ‘good’ print as copy-text and inserting into it. word-division. though they may. But.from the author's original manuscript. and partly by the editor's judgement of the intrinsic claims of individual readings to originality – in other words their intrinsic merit. I contend. in short. and the like. ‘we must accept all the alterations of that edition. such corrections as appear to us to be derived from the author’. or as I shall call them ‘substantive’. affecting mainly its formal presentation. Greg's view. he suggested that an editor should defer to the copy-text when ‘the claims of two readings. having concluded that a later edition had substantive revisions attributable to the author. while there can be no logical reason for giving preference to the copy-text. vitiated much of the best editorial work of the past generation’. or as I shall call them ‘accidentals’. 18 . Although Greg argued that an editor should be free to use his judgment to choose between competing substantive readings. ‘will be determined partly by the opinion the editor may form respecting the nature of the copy from which each substantive edition was printed. in my opinion.

Bowers argued that the rationale was ‘the most workable editorial principle yet contrived to produce a critical text that is authoritative in the maximum of its details whether the author be Shakespeare. and he must substitute for its readings any words that he believes Hawthorne changed in proof’. Bowers's assertion of ‘supremacy’ was in contrast to Greg's more modest claim that ‘My desire is rather to provoke discussion than to lay down the law’.the obvious thing seems to be to let it stand’. this has paramount authority. In his 1964 essay. Thomas Tanselle vigorously took up the method's defense and added significant contributions of his own. except for the accidentals. and then wrote the manuscript of The Blithedale Romance according to the same system as the manuscript of the Seven Gables. Application to works of all periods. Following Greg. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Greg's rationale as practiced by Bowers and Tanselle has come to be known as the ‘Greg – Bowers’ or the ‘Greg – Bowers – Tanselle’ method. Yet the fallacy is still maintained that since the first edition was proofread by the author. W. an editor cannot simply reprint the manuscript. in that the authority for the ‘accidentals’ is derived from one particular source (usually the earliest one) that the editor considers to be authoritative. The principle is sound without regard for the literary period’. G. Greg did not live long enough to apply his rationale of copy-text to any actual editions of works. His rationale was adopted and significantly expanded by Fredson Bowers (1905–1991). spelling. For works where an author's manuscript survived – a case Greg had not considered – Bowers concluded that the manuscript should generally serve as copy-text. capitalization. Greg – Bowers – Tanselle. the editor would then replace any of the manuscript readings with substantives from printed editions that could be reliably attributed to the author: ‘Obviously. Fielding.W. The ‘exactly balanced’ variants are said to be indifferent. it must represent his final intentions and hence should be chosen as copy-text. When one collates the manuscript of The House of the Seven Gables against the first printed edition. It would be ridiculous to argue that Hawthorne made approximately three to four thousand small changes in proof. he noted. of course. Whereas Greg had limited his illustrative examples to English Renaissance drama. one finds an average of ten to fifteen differences per page between the manuscript and the print. is constructed without relying predominantly on any one witness. but the authority for the ‘substantives’ is determined in each individual case according to the editor's judgment. and word-division. Bowers said that ‘the theory of copy-text proposed by Sir Walter Greg rules supreme’. ‘When an author's manuscript is preserved. a system that he had rejected in proof’. or Stephen Crane. Some Principles for Scholarly Editions of Nineteenth-Century American Authors. many of them consistent alterations from the manuscript system of punctuation. Citing the example of Nathaniel Hawthorne. where his expertise lay. Dryden. Editors who follow Greg's rationale produce eclectic editions. The resulting text. Practical experience shows the contrary. Starting in the 1970s. 19 .

and as to the wisdom of conflating readings from the two different versions of Maggie. Bowers stated similarly that the editor's task is to ‘approximate as nearly as possible an inferential authorial fair copy’ (quoted in: Tanselle. Tanselle notes that. however. in anticipation of the character of the expected censorship. as accurately as possible. This marks a departure from Greg. Though the editor may indeed give a rational account of his decision at each point on the basis of the documents. Maggie. Bowers asserted that editions founded on Greg's method would ‘represent the nearest approximation in every respect of the author's final intentions’. but to revert to the 1893 readings where he believed that Crane was fulfilling the publisher's intention rather than his own. Tanselle discusses the example of Herman Melville's Typee. nevertheless to aim to produce the ideal text which Crane would have produced in 1896 if the publisher had left him complete freedom is to my mind just as unhistorical as the question of how the first World War or the history of the United States would have developed if Germany had not caused the USA to enter the war in 1917 by unlimited 20 . intermediate cases that could reasonably have been attributed to either intention. the text finally intended by the author’. Crane originally printed the novel privately in 1893. who had merely suggested that the editor inquire whether a later reading ‘is one that the author can reasonably be supposed to have substituted for the former’. McKerrow had articulated textual criticism's goal in terms of ‘our ideal of an author's fair copy of his work in its final state’.has generally been undertaken with a view to reconstructing. Melville's publisher asked him to soften the novel's criticisms of missionaries in the South Seas. To secure commercial publication in 1896. because of the systematic character of the work. Bowers and Tanselle argue for rejecting textual variants that an author inserted at the suggestion of others. There were. In his writings. Bowers's approach was to preserve the stylistic and literary changes of 1896.. Bowers said that his edition of Stephen Crane's first novel. ‘Textual criticism. and some of Bowers's choices came under fire – both as to his judgment. concluding that ‘there is no evidence. internal or external. After the novel's initial publication. to suggest that they are the kinds of changes Melville would have made without pressure from someone else’. determined at this stage by literary considerations. not implying any further inquiry as to why the author had made the change. Again in consequence of the systemic character of the work.. Secondly. purely censorial alterations sparked off further alterations. 1976: 168). the contamination of the two historical versions in the edited text gives rise to a third version. presented ‘the author's final and uninfluenced artistic intentions’. Tanselle refers to ‘unconstrained authorial intention’ or ‘an author's uninfluenced intentions’. Crane could be led to undertake alterations which also had literary value in the context of the new version. Bowers confronted a similar problem in his edition of Maggie. Hans Zeller argued that it is impossible to tease apart the changes Crane made for literary reasons and those made at the publisher's insistence: Firstly. Although Melville pronounced the changes an improvement. Tanselle rejected them in his edition. but he also made stylistic revisions. Crane agreed to remove profanity.Uninfluenced final authorial intention.

Between influences on the author and influences on the text are all manner of transitions. i. Even footnotes at the bottom of the text pages are open to the same objection. or improving the work as then conceived (whether or not it succeeds in doing so).e. because it involves alterations within the same plane. Both produce local changes in active intention. but revisions of the first type appear to be in fulfillment of an altered programmatic intention or to reflect an altered active intention in the work as a whole. From the text which arose in this way it is not possible to subtract these forces and influences. He suggests that where a revision is ‘horizontal’ (i. refining.e. Furthermore. then the editor should adopt the author's later version. and the second ‘horizontal revision’. But where a revision is ‘vertical’ (i. In addition to the content of the apparatus. leaving the critically-established text ‘in the clear’. fundamentally altering the work's intention as a whole). free of any signs of editorial intervention. when the question of a photographic reprint arises’. ‘In the first place. in order to obtain a text of the author's own. Tanselle argues that: ‘two types of revision must be distinguished: that which aims at altering the purpose. whereas those of the second do not’. Bowers and Tanselle recognize that texts often exist in more than one authoritative version. Although no device can insure accuracy of quotation. then the revision should be treated as a new work. thus attempting to make a different sort of work out of it. the insertion of symbols (or even footnote numbers) into a text places additional difficulties in the way of the quoter. Bowers led a movement to relegate editorial matter to appendices.. Bowers was also influential in defining the form of critical apparatus that should accompany a scholarly edition.. direction. Tanselle explained the rationale for this approach. Format for apparatus. aimed at improving the work as originally conceived). A second advantage of a clear text is that it is easier to quote from or to reprint.e. whether his goal is to reconstruct that form of the text which represents the author's final intention or some other form of the text.submarine combat. and that which aims at intensifying. an editor's primary responsibility is to establish a text. most quotations appear in contexts where symbols are inappropriate. The nonspecific form of censorship described above is one of the historical conditions under which Crane wrote the second version of Maggie and made it function. Relegating all editorial matter to an appendix and allowing the text to stand by itself serves to emphasize the primacy of the text and permits the reader to confront the literary work without the distraction of editorial comment and to read the work with ease. thus altering the work in degree but not in kind. the first might be labeled ‘vertical revision’. or character of a work. If one may think of a work in terms of a spatial metaphor. and edited separately on its own terms. Indeed I regard the ‘uninfluenced artistic intentions’ of the author as something which exists only in terms of aesthetic abstraction. because it moves the work to a different plane. thus when it is necessary to quote from a text which has not been kept clear of apparatus. 21 . the burden of producing a clear text of the passage is placed on the quoter. his essential task is to produce a reliable text according to some set of principles.

for example. producing a new copy with characteristics of both. Instead of ‘dew’.2. where it is used to determine the evolutionary relationships between different species. relegating textual variants to appendices that are difficult to use. which is regarded now as a dialectical variant of ‘glow’. Cladistics Cladistics is a technique borrowed from biology. rather than simply arranging the manuscripts into rough groupings according to their overall similarity. 2. This makes it more like an automated approach to stemmatics. it is being used by the Canterbury Tales Project to determine the relationship between the 84 surviving manuscripts and four early printed editions of the Canterbury Tales. While this assumption is applicable to the evolution of living creatures. so all similarities can be taken as evidence of common ancestry. indicating. since a scribe can work from two different manuscripts at once. the first edition of the poem had ‘glew’. which records all the differences between them. One of these problems deals with the last word in the following couplet: Now therefore. The difference between cladistics and more traditional forms of statistical analysis is that. ‘English scholarly editions have tended to use notes at the foot of the text page. The major theoretical problem with applying cladistics to textual criticism is that cladistics assumes that. a senseless reading in the context. where there is a difference. Other types of evidence must be used for that purpose. it is not always true of manuscript traditions. and so does not indicate which branch of the tree is the ‘root’ – which manuscript tradition is closest to the original. the computer does not attempt to decide which reading is closer to the original text. The text of a number of different manuscripts is entered into a computer.Some critics believe that a clear-text edition gives the edited text too great a prominence. while the youthful hue Sits on thy skin like morning dew. cladistics assumes that they are part of a branching family tree and uses that assumption to derive relationships between them.4. the two branches cannot rejoin. tacitly. However. A Sample of the Textual Criticism in Practice: To His Coy Mistress after Andrew Marvell There are several textual problems in Andrew Marvell’s To His Coy Mistress. Nonetheless. a greater modesty about the ‘established’ text and drawing attention more forcibly to at least some of the alternative forms of the text’. software developed for use in biology has been applied with some success to textual criticism. The manuscripts are then grouped according to their shared characteristics. once a branching has occurred in the family tree. But when someone conjectured ‘dew’. ‘Lew’ (dialectical ‘warmth’) was also suggested as a possibility. although it was earlier thought to be another spelling of ‘glue’. As Shillingsburg notes. 22 . and suggesting a greater sense of certainty about the established text than it deserves.

and ‘instant’ means ‘now present’ and ‘urgent’. the word is much nearer to its Latin original than to its 20thcentury meaning. Create your own piece of the Textual criticism on any modern literary work. Choose the topic for your presentation (report). • Define each fundamental approach of the Textual criticism. why would someone be most likely use your approach. such as: what does your theory focus on. Admittedly. • use textual evidence to support your commentary. Two other words in the poem that must be explained are ‘transpires’ and ‘instant’ in the following couplet: And while thy willing soul transpires At every pore with instant fires. 3. • Speak on the different concepts of copy-text. Explore in depth the Textual Criticism. • Discuss the role of the Textual Criticism in studying the genesis and development of a piece of literature. Project Tasks 1. what questions does your approach address. • pros: Why would someone use your assigned approach?. Both Louis Martz’s Anchor Anthology of Seventeenth-Century Verse and George de F. create it to explain your group's assignment. it was apparently so happy an emendation that virtually all textbooks have long printed it without any explanation. • basic background information regarding your theory. Your presentation should contain the following points: • a title to introduce your topic. this sort of linguistic information borders on the technical. Participate in the suggested discussion: • Give the definition of the Textual criticism. 2. 5. • cons: What are disadvantages to your approach?. Complete Poetry print ‘glew’ (meaning ‘glow’) as making more sense in the context and being quite sound linguistically. 23 . but an appreciation of the meaning of the words is imperative for a full understanding of the poem. But several modern texts restore the earliest reading. Answer the suggested questions: • What is the Textual criticism? • Why is the Textual criticism sometimes called lower criticism? • What does the Textual Criticism deal with? • What types of evidence does the textual critic deal with when he establishes the critical text? • What are the fundamental approaches of the Textual criticism? What are their similarities and differences? 4.probably in the 18th century. (see a sample of the Textual Criticism in Practice). Lord’s Andrew Marvell. ‘Transpires’ thus means literally ‘breathes forth’. • a brief definition for your theory. In each case.

Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form. How are different documents called which are studied to re-create a single text? 1 manuscripts 2 editorials 3 critical texts 4 witnesses 3. What definition doesn’t define the Textual criticism? a branch of philology or the establishment of an authentic bibliography that is 1 2 text. eliminating copyists’ and printers’ errors and any corrupt interpolations 2. It requires 4 minutes to solve it. or the text which the author concerned with the intended identification and removal of errors from texts a branch of literary scholarship that attempts to establish the most accurate version of a written work by comparing all existing the technique of restoring texts as manuscript and / or printed 3 4 nearly as possible to their versions so as to original form reconstruct from them the author’s intention. What point does not belong to ‘external’ evidence? 1 age 2 affiliation of each witness 3 provenance 4 physical consideration 5. Test №2 The test consists of 6 tasks. What judgements do textual critics make? 1 material 2 3 aesthetic 4 symbolic classical 4. What is ecclectism? the practice of examining a wide number of witnesses and 1 selecting the variant that seems best 3 Using it. 1. where it is used to determine the . the critic examines the base text and makes corrections (called 24 2 4 it works from the principle that community of error implies community of origin a technique borrowed from biology.• Explain what cladistics is.

Fifth Series XXVII (2). The Rationale of Copy-Text // Studies in Bibliography 3. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Petzer J. 1987. Greetham D.H.. Fifth Series XXXII (32). 1972.. 1978. 2005. 6..61-74.. 1964. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bradley S. Some Principles for Scholarly Editions of Nineteenth-Century American Authors // Studies in Bibliography 17. 1950.emendations) in places where the base text appears wrong to the critic 6. Baldick C.C. 2. Bowers F. Page and Co... 12. Gosse E.. 3. 1980. 4. Guerin W. Bentham G. Doubleday.W. Bowers F. Morgan L. NY: NYU Press.C. NY: Oxford University Press. Comfort Ph. Brill. Willingham J.223-228. Who became the ‘father’ of stemmatics? 1 Johann Albrecht Bengel 2 3 Karl Lachmann 4 Blank Form № 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 evolutionary relationships between different species Brooke Foss Westcott Johann Jakob Griesbach 4 5 6 Literature 1. Hartin P.R. Reesman J. – Pp. 5. 1902. Aland B. Davis T. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Text of the New Testament.J. The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. 13. Labor E.L.. 9. From Writer to Reader: Studies in Editorial Method. 7. Theories of the text. – Pp. 5th ed. 2008. B&H Publishing Group.19-36. Aland K. Manning B. The CEAA and Modern Textual Editing // Library. 10.81-115. NY. 1999. 25 . Text and Interpretation: New Approaches in the Criticism of the New Testament.W. 11. – Pp. The Variorum and Definitive Edition of the Poetical and Prose Writings of Edward Fitzgerald. Leaves of Grass: A Textual Variorum of the Printed Poems. 1977. Brill. 8. 2001. 2005. Greg W. Multiple Authority: New Problems and Concepts of Copy-Text // Library. Encountering the Manuscripts: An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textural Criticism. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. Gaskell Ph. – Pp.

B.T. – Pp. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 17.html#Bengel Module 3. 26. Rosemann 36. 1972. 1996. Historicism and Critical Editing // Studies in Bibliography 39.Y: Cornell University Press. Minneapolis: Fortress 35. Studies in Stemmatology. McGann 25.R.. Historical and Biographical Approaches The overall goal is to study the Historical and Biographical Approaches.Thorpe J. Tanselle G. 1989. Mulken van M. Prolegomena for the Oxford 30. Understanding scholastic thought with Foucault. 1958. http://www.55-78. – Pp. Reenen van P.T. San Marino. Zeller H.html#Griesbach 34.. 26 .231-264. 29. Minneapolis: Fortress. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1939. 1972. 2001.T. Martin's Press.omnipelagos. Tanselle G. Reynolds L. 1975.E. – Pp. An Inquiry into the Social Status of Texts and Modes of Textual Criticism // Studies in Bibliography 42. CA: The Huntington Library. http://www. Shillingsburg P. 19. The Varieties of Scholarly Editing // Scholarly Editing: A Guide to Research. A critique of modern textual criticism. 1992. Textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 15. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. G. A Rationale of Textual Criticism. 1999. main principles and the role in modern literature. 28. define their similarity. Wilson N. 23. http://www. 24. Houseman A. N. study its context. Tanselle 1974. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Schuh R. The Editorial Problem of Final Authorial Intention // Studies in Bibliography New York: St.T. 32. 1976. Textual criticism: recovering the text of the Hebrew Bible. McCarter K.41-88. 31. New York: The Modern Language Association of America. – Pp.britannica. Tanselle G. 16.. Principles of Textual Criticism. Tov E. McKerrow R. 1986. 2000. Some Principles for Editorial Apparatus // Studies in Bibliography 25. Ithaca.J. 27. – Pp.1-46. Oxford: Clarendon Press.T. 1970. Biological systematics: principles and applications. 20. http://www. 21.14. 1989. Maas P. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. 18. The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism // Art and Error: Modern Textual Editing. Tanselle. Greetham D. 22.T. A New Approach to the Critical Constitution of Literary Texts // Studies in Bibliography 28. http://www. Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature. Textual Criticism. 1986.

respectively. Katherine Woodcock. Milton was already blind when he married her. Historical criticism is the search for the author's original intention. the French and Indian War (and the American frontier experience generally). Milton affords us an excellent example of an author whose works reflect particular episodes in his life. the French Revolution. For example. Historical Criticism assumes that the relationship between art and society is organic. members of a Protestant sect living in the valleys of northern Italy.Although the historical and biographical approaches have been evolving over many years. Norris’s The Octopus. is to ask what the author meant when he or she created it.B. and J. et moment. In addition. Biographical Criticism assumes that by examining the facts and motives of an author's life. J. so that the author is interested in the characters only to the extent that they are molded by these events. W. The author is the context in which the work is studied and is the cause of the work's meaning. if not exclusively. according to the historical critic. views a literary work in relation to the standards and social milieu of the period in which it was produced. On the whole. In other words. Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath are certainly better understood by readers familiar with. A historical novel is likely to be more meaningful when either its milieu or that of its author is understood. Several of Milton’s other sonnets also reflect events in his life or times. Dickens’s Tale of Two Cities. best understood when one realizes that the poet became totally blind when he was 44.F. To ask what a literary work means. it is necessary for the historical critic to examine the work against its historical surroundings and determine how these surroundings worked with the individuality of the author and the individuality of the age to create and define the text. Sinclair’s The Jungle ring truer (or falser as the case may be) to those who 27 . John Milton’s sonnet On the Late Massacre in Piedmont illustrates the topical quality that great literature may and often does possess. this kind of criticism sees a literary work chiefly. Ch. Anglo-Norman Britain. H. U. In fact. elaborated in his History of English Literature. milieu. beaspeaks a hereditary and environmental determinism. as a reflection of its author’s life and times or the life and times of the characters in the work. Taine. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Scott’s Ivanhoe. For example. its basic tenants are perhaps most clearly articulated in the writings of the 19th-century French critic Hippolyte A. This poem commemorates the slaughter in 1655 of the Waldenses. Two such are On His Blindness. a tribute to his second wife. the meaning and intent of his/her literary work can be illuminated. a fact that explains the line. Knowledge of this background clarifies at least one rather factual reference and two allusions in the poem. In order to study the author as context. there is a very real sense in which these books are about these great historical matters. and On His Deceased Wife. The basic premise of Historical Criticism is that literary meaning is grounded in the author. whose phrase race. F. The same thing can be said especially about ideological or propagandist novels. and the American Depression. Cooper’s Last of the Mohicans. ‘Her face was veiled’.

A. principally those of Bernard De Voto. Project Tasks 1. Paine. Advantages: This approach works well for some works – like those of Alexander Pope. or biblical background. They believe that this approach tends to reduce art to the level of biography and make it relative (to the times) rather than universal. and in other towns up and down the Mississippi. 1845. Twain We know from M. for ‘On His Blindness’ to have any meaning. Benson did this for several weeks and resolutely refused to be enticed into betraying the man for the reward offered for his capture. John Dryden. Twain’s autobiographical writings and from scholarly studies of him. political. for he declared in later life that he once ‘saw a brave gentleman deride and insult a [lunch] mob and drive it away’. the shooting of Old Boggs by Colonel Sherburn is drawn from the killing of one ‘Uncle Sam’ Smarr by William Owsley in the streets of Hannibal on January 24. It also is necessary to take a historical approach in order to place allusions in there proper classical. for instance. The attempted lynching of Sherburn is also an echo of something that Mark Twain saw as a boy. Explore in depth the Historical and Biographical Approaches. that the most sensational happenings and colourful characters in Huckleberry Finn are based on actual events and persons Twain saw in Hannibal. For example.know about the antebellum South.B. Disadvantages: New Critics refer to the historical / biographical critic's belief that the meaning or value of a work may be determined by the author's intention as ‘the intentional fallacy’. and Milton – which are obviously political in nature. 2. and scandals in the American meat-packing industry in the early 20th century. railroad expansion in the late 19th century. During the summer of 1847 Benson Blankenship. society. This is undoubtedly the historical source of Huck’s loyalty to Jim that finally resulted in his electing to ‘go to Hell’ in defiance of law. Missouri. older brother of the prototype Huck. Answer the suggested questions: • What is the Historical Criticism? • What is the Biographical Criticism? • What do they deal with? • What is the context in which the work is studied and is the cause of the work's meaning? 28 . A Sample of the Historical / Biographical Approach in Practice: ‘Huckleberry Finn’ after M. secretly aided a runaway slave by taking food to him as his hideout on an island across the river from Hannibal. And one must know something about the Exclusion Bill Crisis to appreciate John Dryden's ‘Absalom and Achitophel’. and Dixon Wecter. where he grew up. and religion rather than turn in his friend. One must know Milton was blind.

• cons: What are disadvantages to your approach?.B. what questions does your approach address. Stowe’s ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’.• What is the role of these approaches in modern literature? 3. 4. • pros: Why would someone use your assigned approach?. such as: what does your theory focus on. • basic background information regarding your theory. • a brief definition for your theory. Your presentation should contain the following: • a title to introduce your literary theory. London’s ‘Martin Eden’(see: A Sample of the Historical and Biographical Approach in Practice). 29 . why would someone be most likely use your approach. • use textual evidence to support your commentary. Write a short critical article according to historical and biographical approaches on either H. or J. Create a presentation (report) to explain your group's assigned literary theory (Historical or Biographical Approaches).

F. Taine 3 Alexander Pope 4 J. 1 views a literary work in relation to 2 it seeks to establish the proper text the standards and social milieu of for study of a literary work the period in which it was produced it views a literary work as an imitation or reflection of it analyzes a literary work the world and human life. Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form. What is the disadvantage of the Historical / Biographical Approach? It places allusions in there proper A historical novel is likely to be more meaningful when 1 classical. 1. Whose writings contain the basic tenants of the Historical / Biographical Approach most clearly articulated? 1 John Milton 2 Hippolyte A.Test №3 The test consists of 6 tasks. It requires 3 minutes to solve it. or biblical 2 background either its milieu or that of its author is understood New Critics refer to the historical / This approach works well for biographical critic's belief some works – like those of that the meaning or value Alexander Pope. political. Cooper 3. John Dryden. What is the definition of the Historical Criticism? it assumes that the relationship between art and society is organic. What is the context in which the work is studied in the Historical / Biographical criticism and is the cause of the work's meaning? 1 the author 2 the audience 3 the work itself 4 historical events 30 . When were the basic tenants of the Historical / Biographical Approach most clearly articulated? th 1 19 century 2 17th century 3 20th century 4 16th century 2. and 3 4 of a work may be Milton – which are obviously determined by the author's political in nature intention as ‘the intentional fallacy’ 4. 3 according to a set of general 4 applies the criterion of principles ‘truth’ to the subject matter which the work represents 5.

Literary Theory and Criticism: An Oxford It is necessary for the historical critic to examine the work against its .html#historical http://home.C. 2006. The moral-philosophical approach is as old as classical Greek and Roman critics.literatureclassics. http://www. ves/special/lib2/Biographical_Criticism.. Croft S. Oxford: Oxford University Press.olemiss. New York: Oxford 2. NY. Moral and Philosophical Approaches The overall goal is to study the Moral and Philosophical Approaches.html Module 4. Literature. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature.. 2004.R.. 7. Matthew Arnold.. Criticism. advantages and disadvantages. Guerin W. main principles. 8.txt http://www. Morgan L. They would interpret literature within a context of the philosophical thought of a period or group.utexas. 4. Cross H. New York: Oxford University Press. Reesman J. Its main practitioners are Plato.6. Labor E.. Willingham J.html http://www. Among its most famous exemplars are the commentators of the age of neoclassicism in English literature (1660-1800). Horace. Plato. Horace stressed that literature should be delightful and instructive. 5th ed. etc. 3. particularly Samuel Johnson.cwrl. From their point of view Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus can be read 31 .edu/~pasupathi/critical_tools/e314l_fall_2000/archi ves/special/lib1/Historical_Criticism. Waugh P. for example. The basic position of such critics is that the larger function of literature is to teach morality and to probe philosophical issues.cwrl. 5. 2005.utexas.L. and Style. emphasized moralism and utilitarianism. define their origin.html#historical http://www. 1 social 2 biographical 3 historical 4 material Blank Form № 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Literature 1. University Press.

On its highest plane this is not superficially didactic. by remarrying within a month of a spouse’s death) but also the civil 32 . and that the message of a work – and not just the decorous vehicle for that message – is important. all great literature teaches. In the larger sense. It is also useful when considering the themes of works (for example. Robert Frost’s ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening’ suggests that duty and responsibility take precedence over beauty and pleasure.profitable only if one understands existentialism. Finally.. Sometimes Hamlet is explained as an idealist temperamentally unsuited for life in a world peopled by fallible creatures. figurative language. it recognizes that literature can affect readers. whose sexual indulgences are decidedly atoned for by his humanitarianism. which does present an obvious moral philosophy. and instinctive honor (innate as opposed to acquired through training). Pope’s Essay on Man may be grasped only if one understands the meaning and the role of reason in the eighteenth-century thought. He is therefore shattered when he discovers that some humans are so ambitious for a crown that they are willing to murder for it and that others are so highly sexed that they will violate not only the laws of decorum (e. illustrates the moral superiority of a hotblooded young man like Tom. Some believe literature should be judged primarily (if not solely) on its artistic merits. Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter is likewise seen essentially as a study of the effects of secret sin on a human soul – that is. Advantages: This approach is useful for such works as Alexander Pope's ‘An Essay on Man’. Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones. The important thing is the moral or philosophical teaching. and other purely aesthetic considerations. whether subtly or directly. A related attitude is that of Matthew Arnold. the victorian critic. it does not view literature merely as ‘art’ isolated from all moral implications. Serving as foils to Tom are the real sinners in the novel – the vicious and the hypocritical. but they consider them to be secondary. not its moral or philosophical content. though it may at first seem so. man's inhumanity to man in Mark Twain's ‘Huckleberry Finn’). this meaning will be there. If the work is in any degree significant or intelligible. Such teaching may also be religiously oriented. A Sample of the Moral and Philosophical Approaches in Practice: ‘Hamlet’ by W. for example. tenderheartedness.g. Disadvantages: Detractors argue that such an approach can be too ‘judgemental’. On the whole. who insisted that a great literary work must possess ‘high seriousness’. The critic who employs the moral-philosophical approach insists on ascertaining and stating what is taught. sin unconfessed before both God and man. In each instance critics working from a moral bent are not unaware of form. Shakespeare This play is valuable primarily for its moral and philosophical insights. even more. Moral and philosophical critics believe that the larger purpose of literature is to teach morality and to probe philosophical issues. the sin of Roger Chillingworth. as the sin of Arthur Dimmesdale with Hester Prynne. or. Similarly.

Test №4 The test consists of 4 tasks. He is further crushed when he thinks that his fiancée and his former schoolfellows are tools of his murderous uncle. Study in depth the Moral and Philosophical approaches. Labor. what questions does your approach address. Project Tasks 1. It requires 3 minutes to solve it. 2005: 80-81). One can see Hamlet’s plight as that of the essentially moral and virtuous intellectual man.e. certainly aware of the gentlemanly code that demands satisfaction for a wrong. why would someone be most likely use your approach. • a brief definition for your theory. We can also regard Hamlet as a man of action. Reesman. 2. Answer the suggested questions: • What is the Moral approach? • What is the Philosophical approach? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches? 3. it shows a person of heroic proportions going down to defeat under circumstances too powerful for him to cope with. 33 . Willingham. thwarted by such practical obstacles as how to kill a king surrounded by a bodyguard. For most readers and audiences the question of Hamlet’s tragic flaw will remain a moot one. Hamlet fulfills the technical requirements of the revenge play as well as the salient requirements of a classical tragedy. But this will not keep them from recognizing the play as one of the most searching artistic treatments of the problems and conflicts that form so large a part of the human condition (Guerin. • cons: What are disadvantages to your approach?.. Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form. torn between the demands and the values of the middle Ages and those of the modern world. but too much the student of philosophy and the Christian religion to believe in the morality or the logic of revenge. • pros: Why would someone use your assigned approach?. such as: what does your theory focus on. Morgan. • use textual evidence to support your commentary. • basic background information regarding your theory. Related to this is the view of Hamlet as a kind of transitional figure. Your presentation should contain the following: • a title to introduce your literary theory. On the whole. i.and ecclesiastical laws against incest. Create a presentation (report) to explain your group's assigned literary theory (the Moral or Philosophical Approaches).

R. Labor E.1. What is the disadvantage of the Philosophical and Moral approach? it recognizes that literature can affect readers.. What is the primary thing for philosophical critics? 1 a moral bent 2 figurative language 3 form 4 aesthetic consideration 3. Literature. New York: Oxford University Press.. 34 . 5th ed..L. Who is not considered to be the main practitioner of the Philosophical / Moral approaches? 1 Plato 2 Matthew Arnold 3 Horace 4 Aristotle 2. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. 2004. and Style.. NY.. Willingham J. Guerin W. Criticism. 2 the message of a work – man's inhumanity to man in Mark and not just the decorous Twain's ‘Huckleberry Finn’) vehicle for that message – is important it does not view literature merely 3 4 such an approach can be too as ‘art’ isolated from all ‘judgemental’ moral implications Blank Form № 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Literature 1. Croft S. whether it is useful when considering the subtly or directly. Morgan L. and that 1 themes of works (for example. Reesman J. Cross H. 2005. 2. What is the purpose of literature according to Philosophical and Moral approaches? 1 to study morality 2 to train philosophy 3 to teach morality and to probe 4 to gain some morality and philosophical issues philosophical issues 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press.C.

metaphor. this approach came to be called the New Criticism.colorado. to several kinds of approach to literature in which form is emphasized in isolation from a work’s meanings or is taken as the chief criterion of aesthetic value.wsu. Waugh P. New York: Oxford University Press. that to many students of literature during that is the cultivation of artistic technique at the expense of subject-matter. 7. 6. 5. form takes many forms. for even ‘newer’ approaches have gained popularity and have had little or nothing in common with the old New Criticism. http://www.intro.3. They articulated the concept that in an organic form there is a consistency and an internal vitality that we should look for and appreciate. history. and tone. to study corresponding critical approaches focusing on the term ‘form’. The New Critics helped us to read well. Plato exploits dialectic and shapes movement toward Socratic wisdom by his imagery.ksu. setting. either in literary practice or in criticism. and at least it has come to be called by many of the old New Criticism. its essence. Literary Theory and Criticism: An Oxford Guide. 5. http://www. Art entails form. One of the most salient considerations of the New Critics was emphasis on Aristotle’s Poetics 35 . 2006. http://wwww. http://www.htm.html Module 5. they taught us to look at the individual work of literary art as an organic form. In the last third of the century.html. Backgrounds of the Formalist Theory Classical art and aesthetics amply testify to a preoccupation with form.msward. often in a derogatory sense. we would appropriate the work to ourselves and make it part of our consciousness in the same way that we might when we study Mahler’s Ninth Symphony or Michelangelo’s David. in the most general sense. characterization. It should be %20Map. the New Criticism came to be called by other names.1. A Brief History of the Formalist Approach The formalist approach emphasizes the manner of reading literature that was given its special dimensions and emphases by English and American critics in the first two-thirds of the 20th century. The Formalist Approach The overall aim is to explore the Formalist Approach. dramatic scenes. The term has been on the work of art as an object.html. 4. In doing so. The Formalist Approach Formalism.

the analogy usually likened the internal life of a painting or poem to the quintessential unity of parts within a tree. he set himself against realistic details in poetry. In America. Perhaps because of the Romantics’ infatuation with nature. But the Romantic movement in Europe in the late 18th -19th centuries intensifies speculations about form in literature. Horace admonishes the would-be poet: ‘In short. let it be simple and unified’. poetry should appeal only to the sense of beauty. and Schelling. all in their proportion harmonizing with. flower. medieval. his own most abiding ambition was to become a powerful critic. Schlegel and Coleridge) and took his stance as a reviewer from the slashing critics of the British quarterlies. Both poems and tales should 36 . Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849). so the organism develops and lives. extending Coleridge’s theory. Hegel. although the prose tale. poetry of ideas. particularly of vegetation. with truth as one object. In a ‘legitimate poem’. Just as he had modeled his poems and first tales on British examples (or British imitations of the German). and Renaissance treatises on art or poetics. 1818). be your subject what it will. or any sort of didactic poetry was illegitimate.recommends as ‘orderly arrangement of parts’ that form a beautiful whole or ‘organism’. as to seek to transfuse from one language into another the creations of a poet. informational poetry. and supporting the purpose and known influences of metrical arrangement’. Coleridge declared. asserted the excellence of short lyric poems and short tales because they can maintain and transmit a single. The plant must spring again from its seed. Such a conception encouraged discrimination between a poem and other forms of discourse by stressing the poem’s power to elicit delight as a ‘whole’ and ‘distinctive gratification from each component part’. This interrelationship between the whole and the parts was manifested in a consistently recurring image among the Romantics – the image of growth. not truth. Holding that the true poetic emotion was a vague sensory state. And some awareness of formalism is at least implicit in many other classical. could profit from the discreet use of specifics. According to Poe’s basic critical principles. unitary effect more successfully than can long works like ‘Paradise Lost’. or plant: as the seed determines. or it will bear no flower’ (about relationship of sounds in poetry in translation) (Shelley). he took his critical concepts from treatises by late-18th century Scottish Common Sense philosophers (later modified by his borrowings from A. Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) brought to England (and thus to America) the conception of a dynamic imagination as the shaping power and unifier of vision – a conception he had acquired from his studies of the German philosophical idealists: Kant. Fichte. the parts ‘mutually support and explain each other. 2) ‘it were as wise to cast a violet into a crucible that you might discover the formal principle of its colour and odour. Here are some quotations concerning viewpoint: 1) ‘If Poetry comes not as naturally as Leaves to a tree it had better not come at all’ (Keats. The number of Poe’s collected writings contributed to the theory of literary criticism on the whole. As far as we know.W.

the short story. James implies the same interdependence and kinship for all other aspects of a work of fiction – setting. Longfellow for committing what he called the ‘heresy of the didactic’ be taking on obtrusive (thus inorganic) moral lessons and accordingly violating the lyric effects of their poems. and several bright students – Allan Tate. necessary interrelationship of parts ad the whole. cannot be read at one sitting. Poe also reprimanded certain contemporary poets like H. in ‘The Art of Fiction’ and the prefaces to his tales and novels. The New Criticism Although there were antecedents from Plato through James. scene and narrative. otherwise the reader misses its immense force.2. everything will count. nothing that goes into the work will be wasted. good writers should calculate their effects precisely. 5. and holds and preserves. and form will be present: ‘Form alone takes. Robert Penn Warren. In ‘The Philosophy of Composition’ Poe demonstrated how the parts of his ‘The Raven’ allegedly developed from the single effect he short enough to be read in one sitting. image and symbol. When the work achieves its ‘organic form’. theme. Poe argued. in which he surveyed the theories developed in 37 . a systematic and methodological formalist approach to literary criticism appeared only with the rise in the 1930s of what came to be called the New Criticism. concentrating on the verbal complexities and ambiguities of short poems considered as self-sufficient objects without attention to their origins or effects. control over the narrative structure as well as accuracy in the use of language become characteristic features of this literary genre. He maintained that a short story has two fundamental traits: ‘unity of impression’ and ‘single effect’. they in time adopted the name of Figutives and published an elegant literary magazine called The Figutive in Nashville from 1922 to 1925. substance – saves it from the welter of helpless verbiage that we swim in as in a sea of tasteless tepid pudding’. otherwise the unity of effect would be dissipated. in which E. which due to its length. and Cleanth Brooks. In Poe’s view. Poe also underlined that the short story need to be based on ‘a certain unique or single effect’ which is ‘preconceived’ with deliberate care and should constantly be kept in mind throughout the narration. Coming together originally at Vanderbilt University in the years following World War I. Henry James (1843-1916). It would be appropriate to mention here his famous essay (1842). Poe wrote what may be considered the manifesto of the short story. Therefore.A. its totality. Associated at first in an informal group that discussed literature. The name comes from John Crowe Ransom’s book The New Criticism (1941). The New Criticism can be characterized as a movement in American literary criticism from the 1930s to the 1960s. Later in the 19th century and on into the 20th.W. should not be interrupted by ‘worldly interests’. argued for fiction as a ‘fine art’ and for the intricate. When the artist is attending to his or her craft. John Crowe Ransom. As opposed to the novel. the New Critics included a teacher-scholar-poet.

they sought to overcome the traditional distinction between form and content: for them. imagery.S. The Kenyon Review. Richards. Understanding Drama (1945) by Brooks and Robert B. and William Empson. and The Hudson Review and in college and university English departments. Ray B. a poem was ideally an ‘organic unity’ in which tensions were brought to equilibrium. which by the 1950s had become the dominant critical system in such influential journals as Sewanee Review. Such developments strengthened the emergent New Criticism. Many later critics – often unsympathetic to the New Critics’ Southern religious conservatism – accused them of cutting literature off 38 . In short. Jr. Stallman (The Art of Modern Fiction). they dealt with organic tradition. a situation.A. W. dismissing them under such names as the affective fallacy and the intentional fallacy.A. such that when the external facts are given. a chain of events which shall be the formula of [a] particular emotion. and his students Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren with Robert B. the ideal of a society that encourages order and tradition. West. 1950. include Allen Tate (The House of Fiction.K. or the social and economic implications of the literary work. As for T. Jr.P. The New Critics sought precision and structural tightness in the literary work. So. students. Richards in Practical Criticism (1929) and Empson in Seven Types of Ambiguity (1930). Eliot’s views. Heilman had already advanced their critical theory and techniques through a series of brilliant college textbooks on literary analysis: Understanding Poetry (1938). Their favoured terms of analysis – irony. the American New Critics repudiated ‘extrinsic’ criteria for understanding poems. R. I. Eliot was particularly influential in his formulation of the objective correlative (‘a set of objects. co-ed. conservatism related to classical values. metaphor. Ransom called for a more ‘objective’ criticism focusing on the intrinsic qualities of a work rather than on its biographical or historical context. and they called for an end to a concern by critics and teachers of English with matters outside the work itself – the life of the author. and the rigorous and analytical reading of literary texts.S. and were not successfully transferred to the study of dramatic and narrative works. critics. Eliot was also influential in his endorsement of the English Metaphysical poets of the 17th century for their success in blending ‘states of mind and feeling’ in a single ‘verbal equivalent’. despite their differences. they turned the attention of teachers. Caroline Gordon). together with the work of the American critic Yvor Winters.S. and readers to the essential matter: what the work says and how it says it as inseparable issues. the importance of strict attention to form. the emotion is immediately invoked’). they insisted on the presence within the work of everything necessary for its analysis.England by T. and Robert W. Other critics grouped under this heading. Heilman. Eliot. J. and symbol – tended to neglect questions of genre. Wimsatt. and by the detailed semantic analyses of I. a preference for ritual.. paradox. the history of his or her times. Understanding Fiction (1943) by Brooks and Warren. Influenced by T. and Kenneth Burke. which helped to make New Criticism the academic orthodoxy for the next twenty years. they favoured a style and tone that tended toward irony. Eliot’s view of poetry’s autotelic status. Blackmur. Moreover.

from history, but their impact has in some ways been irreversible, especially in replacing biographical source-study with text-centered approaches. The outstanding works of New Criticism are Brook’s The Well-Wrought Urn (1947) and Wimsatt’s The Verbal Icon (1954).


5.3. Constants of the Formalist Approach: Some Key Concepts, Terms, and Devices 1. Form and Organic Form. In systems of the past, the word form usually meant what we would call external form. Thus, when we identify a poem with fourteen lines of iambic pentameter, a conventional pattern of rhymes, and a conventional division into two parts as a sonnet, we are defining its external form. The same kind of description takes place when we talk about couplets, tersest, ottava rima, quatrains, Spenserian stanzas, blank verse, or even free verse. But the formalist critic is only moderately interested in external forms (in fact, only when external form is related to the work’s total form, when stanzaic or metrical pattern is integral to internal relationship, reverberations, patterns, and systems). The process of formalist analysis is complete only when everything in the work has been accounted for in terms of its overall form. Organic form is a particular concept important to the New Critics, inherited from the English Romantics. In the Romantics, we find the emphasis on organicism not just in literary forms but in a broader, philosophical context, where the world itself is organic; objects within it are organisms that interact with each other in a larger organic universe. In the formalist approach, the assumption is that a given literary experience takes a shape proper to itself or at the least that the shape and the experience are functions of each other. This may mean at a minimum that a precise metrical form couples with a complex of sounds in a line of verse to present one small bit of the experience. Or it may mean that a generic form, like that of the sonnet, is used repeatedly in a sonnet cycle to show the interrelationship of thoughts to images, or a problem to a comment or solution. Statements that follow discovery of form must embrace what Ransom called local texture and logical structure. The logical structure refers to the argument or the concept within the work; local texture comprises the particular details and devices of the work (e.g., specific metaphors, images). The emphasis is upon counting for all aspects of the work are seeking to name or define its form and effect. Mark Schorer pressed the distinction further between the critic’s proper concentration on form and an improper total concern with content only: ‘Modern [i.e., formalist] criticism has shown that to speak of content as such is not to speak of the achieved content, the form, the work of art as a work of art, that we speak as critics. The difference between content, or experience, and achieved content, or art, is technique’. He goes on to say that ‘technique is the only means [an author] has of discovering, exploring, developing his subject, of conveying its meaning, and, finally, of evaluating it’. 2. Texture, Image, Symbol. Imagery and metaphor are an integral part of the work as well as its form and potential to embody meaning, especially in the poem. Of course, the formalist critics did not invent metaphor: Aristotle, very much a formalist, discussed metaphor in his Poetics. But the New Critics delighted in close analysis of imagery and metaphor, and they laid stress on a careful working out of imagery. The consistency of imagery in a lyric, whether it is a single dominant

image throughout the poem or a pattern of multiple but related images, became for some index to the quality of a given poem. Such consistency of imagery helped to create what J.C. Ransom among others called texture. When an image (or an incident or other discrete item) takes on meaning beyond its objective self, it moves into the realm of symbol. Symbols may sometimes remain within the works, as it were; but it is the nature of symbols to have extensional possibilities, to open out to the world beyond the art object itself. When meaning and value outside the work of literature are the real purposes of the symbol, some formalist critics may find fault with the work. On the other hand, such a restriction may well be one of the more limiting concerns of the New Critics, and even in a formalist reading we must sometimes go beyond the pure aestheticism of the work in itself to the extended meaning of the work as suggested by its symbols. So, symbol is a way of using something integral to the work to reach beyond the work and engage the world of value outside the work. It might be an incident that takes on meaning. It might be the conventional object or device – a crucifix, a colour, a tree – that becomes symbolic of meanings within and without the poem, story, or play. When that happens, the formalist approach must study such symbols as aspects of form, as exponents of meaning both within and without the work. 3. Fallacies. Another formalist term that has brought mixed responses is the intentional fallacy, along with its corollary the affective fallacy. The work must give us from within itself any intention that might be gardened, and we must not go to the author for his or her intention. At the very least the author is not a reliable witness. No work of literary art can be divorced from the reader and therefore from the reader’s response. 4. Point of View. Another device that a formalist approach must heed is the point of view, which, like consistency of imagery, is generally considered a virtue in the work of literary art, for it preserves the internal form, the organic quality of the work. Conversely, a nonexistent point of view (i.e., one in which several points of view is not clearly demarcated from each other) flaws the work, for the work then may go in several directions and therefore have no integrity: the centre does not hold. Such a fragmentation may be avoided if we grant the narrator the privilege of knowing all, seeing all, from a perspective that in theological terms would have to be called divine. In the great epics and in most traditional novels of an earlier day, the omniscient narrator possessed that godlike quality and narrated from a third-person perspective. But in more restricted points of view, the very form of the work is conditioned by the pint of view to which the author limits the narrator. Narrators may be either reliable (if they support the explicit or implicit normal norms of the author) or unreliable (if they do not). Thus Jake Barnes in The Sun Also Rises is a completely reliable narrator, for he is the very embodiment of what is often called the ‘Hemingway code’; on the other hand, the lawyer in Melville’s Bartleby the Scrivener is unreliable in his early evaluations of himself because he is not involved with humanity.

there is a pattern of departures and returns. A Sample of the Formalist Approach in Practice: Romance and Reality in Huckleberry Finn after M. and a formalist approach must study them for the reader to appreciate the fullness of the work. C. he chose Huck Finn himself as the point-of-view character. sometimes almost to the exclusion of other elements. Further. In this first-person point of view. In the middle are chapters largely related to the river as Huck and Jim travel down that river. If the author wishes to communicate anything beyond that to the reader that wish becomes a challenge in technique. as it were. Thus a young boy named Huckleberry Finn. But Twain was not limited to a pattern that can be charted. Hugh Holman and William Harmon summarize tension as ‘a term introduced by Allen Tate. All these points of view condition the form of literature. with no hints of narrator to intrude any perspective other than what we get from the dialogue itself. irony.. in the central portion there is a pattern of alternations between land and river. particularly of poetry as a pattern of paradox or as a form of irony’. We can say that Huck 42 . In this sense Huck Finn is honest on the one hand. His view is limited to what he sees and reports. so closely do they work together.In a first-person narration the author may condition the form even more. Twain The form of Huckleberry Finn at one level can be simplistically diagrammed as a capital letter ‘I’ lying on its side. Good poetry.. not a Tom Sawyer romanticism. here realism. The basic terms – tension. then. must not be allowed to know more than a young boy such as he would know. 5. Still another point of view that would claim total objectivity – the scenic or dramatic: we read only the dialogue of characters. not – at least – as a mature person devoid of cultural bias and prejudice might understand. is the ‘full. and paradox – are often nearly indistinguishable. The New Critics laid great stress on the terminology. Taking the novel as a whole. meaning the integral unity that results from the successful resolution of the conflicts of abstraction and concreteness. Nor does he understand all that he reports. the narration is limited to that person’s telling. who narrates his own story. Tate asserts. This aspect of formalist criticism – tension – is the resolution of opposites often found in irony and paradox. Further they note that ‘This concept has been widely used by the New Critics. of denotation and connotation. He allowed the central character to relate his adventures in his own way – the point of view called first-person narrator. Tension. as failure to note point of view as an aspect of form will result in a misreading or in an inadequate reading of the work. on graph paper. but an unreliable narrator on the other. for the information must be reported naively by Huck Finn and interpreted maturely by the reader on the basis of what the author has Huck Finn say. At each end there is a block of chapters set on the land and in a world where Tom Sawyer can exist and even dominate. paradox. of general and particular. In a master stroke of the creative art. irony. dominates. organized body of all the extension and intension that we can find in it’.

Your presentation should contain the following: • a title to introduce your literary theory. Explore in depth the Formalist approach and the New Criticism. 2. He is objective about the society he repeatedly confronts. • a brief definition for your theory. 43 . • cons: What are disadvantages to your approach?. evasions of truth. Write a critical article according to the principles of the Formalist approach. speak on its aims and its role in modern literature. His lack f subtly is a measure of his reliability as narrator: he has mastered neither the genteel speech of ‘respectable’ folks nor their deceit. • Describe the essential concepts of the Formalist approach. Thus the point of view Twain carefully establishes from the first words of the narrative offers a position from which the reader must consider the events of the narrative. 5. • basic background information regarding your theory. He is objective about himself. such as: what does your theory focus on. even when that objectivity tens to reflect negatively upon himself. He is an outcast and he knows it himself. • give the definition of the Formalist approach. He is always refreshingly himself. and penchant for pious platitudes. He does not blame the society that has made and will keep him an outcast. what questions does your approach address. define three main periods of its an objective narrator. that society possesses virtues and sanctions to which he must ever remain a stranger. even when he is telling a tall tale or engaging in one of his ambitious masquerades to get out of a jam. Answer the suggested questions: • What is the Formalist approach? • What is the background of the Formalist approach? • What is the New Criticism? • What are the constants of the Formalist Approach (some key concepts. • use textual evidence to support your commentary. and devices)? 3. terms. Participate in the suggested discussion: • discuss the background of the Formalist approach. He always assumes in his characteristic modesty that he must somehow be to blame for the estrangement. • pros: Why would someone use your assigned approach?. why would someone be most likely use your approach. even when. Create a presentation (report) to explain your group's assigned literary theory (the Formalist approach or the New Criticisms). as he often fears. • define the similarity and differences between the Formalist approach and the New Criticism. Project Tasks 1. 4.

It requires 3 minutes to solve it.W. What points are not considered key concepts of the Formal approach? 1 form and organic form 3 texture. views a literary criticism that sees the 3 4 work in relation to the work as the central object standards and social milieu that unites authors and of the period in which it readers was produced 2. symbol 44 2 4 formats for apparatus tension. Who does not belong to the classical background of the Formalist approach? 1 Plato 2 Aristotle 3 Horace 4 Coleridge 3. image.Test №5 The test consists of 5 tasks. What does the New Criticism do? It attempts by all scholarly means 1 to reconstruct the original manuscript of a work 2 It assumes that the relationship between art and society is organic It concentrates on the verbal complexities and ambiguities of short poems 3 It proposes a ‘theory of literature’ 4 considered as selfsufficient objects without attention to their origins or effects 5. the meaning 1 2 text for study of a literary work and intent of his/her literary work can be illuminated It assumes that the relationship between art and society is It deals with the theory of organic. Longfellow 4. paradox . What American writer contributed much to the critical theory on the whole? 1 Samuel Taylor Coleridge 2 Henry James 3 Edgar Allan Poe 4 H. irony. Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form. What does the Formalist approach do? It assumes that by examining the facts and motives of an It seeks to establish the proper author's life. 1.

Ransom J. 1992.html#formalism 14. 1996. Crowe. The Rhetoric of Fiction. A Review (1842) // Selected Writings.. 5th ed. Wimsatt W.. Pottle F. New York: Holt. 2005. 1948.A. Twice-Told Tales by Nathaniel Hawthorne. 6.R. 9. 12.A.bedfordstmartins. Booth W.H. Guerin W. New York: Oxford University Press. The Verbal Icon: Studies in the Meaning of Poetry.67-87. Schorer M. – Pp. 6th ed...asp?e=9 16. The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. 1938. A Handbook to Literature. Technique as Discovery // The Hudson Review 1. 1941. http://bcs. 2008. New York: Macmillan. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Genoa. Crowe. CT: New Directions. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. Parrino M. 13.bedfordstmartins. Beardsley M. Russian Formalism 45 .literatureclassics. Spring. 1952. Warren R. 11. 7.txt 17. Harmon W.P.L. 5. Poe E. http://mesastate. 1954. New York: Scribner’s. Labor E. The New Criticism. Norfolk. New York. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Widening 15. 1967. 1961. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.C. Holman C.. Brooks C.. Willingham J. 4. Understanding Poetry. 10.Ransom J. Corradin F. New York. 1960. Morgan L.html Module Form № 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 Literature 1. http://www. Baldick C. The Case of Shelley.. 3. http://bcs. Reesman J. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. The World’s Body. 3rd ed.

who developed the theory of foregrounding. of which the most influential was Roman Jakobson. and the later poets of the New Formalism. who developed the theory of foregrounding. Other important figures were Jan Mukařovský.1. from 1926 to 1948. Prague. as with the work of Howard Nemerov. in contrast with the more widely adopted use of free verse. Richard Wilbur. attempted a scientific description of literature (and especially poetry but has not addressed the more difficult problem of the non-fictional prose forms) to define literariness in terms of linguistic deviations. later a leading New Critic in America. for whom formalism was a term of reproach. a group of linguistic and literary theorists based at Charles University.The overall goal is to study Russian Formalism. which were to be further developed in Prague. however. Other important figures were Jan Mukařovský. and thus inviting strong disapproval from Marxist critics. devoting itself to the study of literariness. It should be mentioned that the old New Criticism is not directly concerned with the Russian formalists. who had arrived from Moscow bringing the principles of Russian Formalism. as a special use of language with observable features. and the literary historian Felix Vodička. With the consolidation of Stalin’s dictatorship around 1929. 6. the term has the specific sense of adherence to traditional meters and verse forms. thought the methodologies share some principles. which were to be further developed in Prague. what makes a given work a literary work’. René Wellek. that is. its background. The Prague School was a major influence on the development of structuralism. Formalism was silenced as a heresy in the Soviet Union. who had arrived from Moscow bringing the principles of Russian Formalism. a group of linguistic and literary theorists based at Charles University. the term frequently refers more specifically to the principles of certain Russian and Czech theorists. its aims and concepts and different critical branches. and the literary historian Felix Vodička. Thus. The Prague School is the name that commonly is given to the Prague Linguistic Circle. This meant deliberately disregarding the contents of literary works. In general terms literariness is a sum of special linguistic and formal properties (‘devices’) that distinguish literary language / texts from ordinary language / non-literary texts. later a leading New Critic in America. In the context of modern American poetry. the Russian Formalists in reaction against the vagueness of previous literary theories. The leading Formalist Roman Jakobson declared in 1919 that ‘the object of literary science is not literature but literariness. from 1926 to 1948. 46 4 . of which the most influential was Roman Jakobson. and its centre of research migrated to the Prague School4 in the 1930s. The Prague School was a major influence on the development of structuralism. Prague School is the name that commonly is given to the Prague Linguistic Circle. In modern critical discussion. Prague. Russian Formalism Russian Formalism is a school of literary theory and analysis that emerged in Russia around 1915. René Wellek.

the most prominent of the Russian Formalists was Roman Jakobson. and Valentin Voloshinov. usually in terms of the ‘foregrounding’ of the linguistic medium. P. who was active both in Moscow and in Prague before introducing Formalist theories to the United States. according to the theories of some English Romantic poets and of Russian Formalism. surprising metaphors. as a series of deviations from ‘ordinary’ language. So. in which the contrasted uses are liable to shift according to changed contexts. relative to other less noticeable aspects.B. the Formalists also clarified the distinction between plot (сюжет) and story (фабула). rhyme. thus drawing attention to how they say something rather than to what they say. Brecht’s theory of alienation effect in drama starts from similar grounds. Shelley in his essay ‘The Defence of Poetry’ (1821) also claims that poetry ‘makes familiar objects be as if they were not familiar’ by stripping ‘the veil of familiarity from the world’. Victor Shklovsky and his Formalist followers saw it as a linguistic dislocation. the Formalists (Russian and Prague) set out to define the observable ‘devices’ by which literary texts – especially poems – foreground their own language / linguistic status. and other patterns of sound and repetition by which its language draws attention to itself. In their studies of narrative. Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Biographia Literaria (1817) wrote of the ‘film of familiarity’ that blinds us to the wonders of the world. He and the other Formalists set out to define the devices by which literary works achieve this effect. and that Wordsworth’s poetry aimed to remove. Thus. the term corresponds to Viktor Shklovsky’s use of the Russian word отстранение in his influential essay ‘Poetry as Technique’ (1917). It this appears as a relation between different uses of language. these theorists combined defamiliarization is defined as a distinctive effect achieved by literary works in disrupting our habitual perception of the world. literariness was understood in terms of defamiliarization5. enabling us to ‘see’ things afresh.Rather than seek abstract qualities like imagination as the basis of literariness. or a ‘making strange’. Pavel Medvedev. A somewhat distinct Russian group is the ‘Bakhtin school’ comprising Mikhail Bakhtin. along with literariness the most important concept of the school was that of defamiliarization: instead of seeing literature as a ‘reflection’ of the world. in meter. 47 5 . In modern usage. Apart from Shklovsky and his associate Boris Eikhenbaum. In the period of Czech Formalism Jan Mukařovský further refined this notion in terms of foregrounding that stands for giving unusual prominence to one element or property of a text. Shklovsky argued that art exists in order to recover for us the sensation of life which is diminished in the ‘automatized’ routine of everyday experience. alliteration.

6. whose book Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics (1929) contrasts the dialogic or polyphonic interplay of various characters’ voices in Dostoevsky’s novels with the ‘monological’ subordination of characters to the single viewpoint of the author in Tolstoy’s.3. Structuralism Structuralism is a modern intellectual movement that analyses cultural phenomena according to principles derived from linguistics..elements of Formalism and Marxism in their accounts of verbal multi-accentuality6 and of the dialogic text. Their meanings can be Multi-accentuality – the ability of words and other linguistic signs to carry more than one meaning according to the contexts in which they are used. Rediscovered in the West in the 1960s. while recent examples would include terrorist.e. the work of the Russian Formalists has had an important influence on structuralist theories of literature.N. responsive nature of dialogue rather than by the single-mindedness of monologue.2.. up / down. when in actual practice the meaning of words is open to continual redefinition within the struggles between social classes and groups. against Saussure’s theory of la langue. 48 6 . In central historical circumstances. The term is important in the writings of the Russian theorist Mikhail Bakhtin. and thus the abstract codes and conventions governing the social production of meanings. Building on the linguistic concept of the phoneme – a minimal unit of potentially meaningful sound within a given language’s system of recognized sound distinctions defined purely by its differences from other phonemes rather than by any inherent features – structuralism argues that the elements composing any cultural phenomenon (from cooking to drama) are similarly ‘relational’: i. an important concept of structuralism which sees such distinctions as fundamental to all language and thought. Voloshinov) argued. and on some of the more recent varieties of Marxist literary criticism. although published under the name of V. Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (probably by Bakhtin. emphasizing the systematic interrelationships among the elements of any human activity. 6. left / right. especially in binary oppositions7 of paired opposites. Dialogism Dialogic (dialogical) is characterized or constituted by the interactive. particular words become objects of struggle between groups for whom they have different meanings: the meaning of freedom is constantly contested. they have meaning only by virtue of their contrasts with other elements of the system. 7 binary opposition – the principle of contrast between two mutually exclusive terms: on / off. that actual utterances are ‘dialogic’ in that they are embedded in a context of dialogue and thus respond to an interlocutor’s previous utterances and / or try to draw a particular response from a specific auditor. The concept was introduced in an important Russian critique of Saussure’s abstract theory of la langue: Valentin Voloshinov’s Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (1929) (sometimes alleged to have been written by Mikhail Bakhtin) accused Saussure of attributing fixed meanings to sings. In the same year. among many others. etc.

Narratology as a modern theory is associated chiefly with European structuralism. Baldick. its permitted grammatical combinations of elements. Semiotics is concerned not with the relations between signs and things but with the interrelationships between signs themselves. it should be the primary object of linguistic science. utterances. although some structuralist writings have encouraged a confusion between langue (the rules of a specific language) and Saussure’s distinct third term langage (the concept language as such): the power attributed to language in this tradition has little to do with Saussure’s notion of langue.established not by referring each element to any supposed equivalent in natural reality. i. Accordingly. A practitioner of semiotics is a semiotician. distinguished langue from parole. who proposed that linguistics would form one part of a more general science of sings: ‘semiology’. and partly from Russian Formalism and the related narratology11 of Vladimir Propp’s Morphology langue – the French word for language or tongue. 11 narratology – a term used since 1969 to denote the branch of literary study devoted to the analysis of narratives. since the substitution of one for another does not disturb the syntax of a sentence. a set of linguistic or other units that can be substituted for each other in the same position within a sequence or structure. Peirce (18391914) and separately by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913).e. and owes more to abstract conceptions of langage as a universal system.S. 2008: 303-304). The semiotic approach to literary works stresses the production of literary meanings from shared conventions and codes. etc. structuralist analysis seeks the underlying system or langue8 that governs individual utterances or instances. clothing. whereas the syntagmatic dimension governing the combination of linguistic units is the ‘horizontal axis’. Peirce’s term ‘semiotics’ is usually preferred in English. – whereas parole (speech) refers to the sphere of actual linguistic events. but only by analyzing its function within a self-contained cultural code. Linguists often refer to the paradigmatic dimension of language as the ‘vertical axis’ of selection. but in the terminology of structuralism. 10 semiotics (semiology) – the systematic study of signs. Structuralism and its ‘science of signs’ (semiotics10) are derived chiefly from the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). and a syntagmatic relation to sings present in the same sequence. more precisely. 1977. a pattern or model in which some quality or relation is illustrated in its purest form. in his Cours de linguistique générale (1915). As a distinct tradition of inquiry into human communications. or . of the production of meanings from sign-systems. In formulating the laws by which elements of such a system are combined. although older 49 8 . which has had a special sense in linguistics since the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. it distinguishes between sets of interchangeable units (paradigms9) and sequences of such units in combination (syntagms). linguistic or non-linguistic. In this sense. A paradigm in this sense may be constituted by all words sharing the same grammatical function. although Saussure’s principles and concepts – especially the distinctions between signifier and signified and between langue and parole – have been more influential as the basis of structuralism and its approach to literature. but the scope of semiotics goes beyond spoken or written language to other kinds of communicative systems such as cinema. The term semiosis is sometimes used to refer to the process of signifying (Hawkes. and more specifically of forms of narration and varieties of narrator. semiotics was founded by the American philosopher C. within their structured systems or codes of signification. 9 paradigm – in the general sense. Thus any sign has two kinds of relation to other signs: a paradigmatic relation to signs of the same class (which are absent in any given utterance). advertising. Saussure proposed that because langue emphasizes and makes possible the infinitely varied forms of parole. The langue / parole distinction is one of the theoretical bases of structuralism. langue refers to the rules and conventions of a given language – its phonological distinctions. thereby outlining a basic syntax of human culture. and cuisine. gesture.

maintaining or confirming their link.of the Folktale (1928). as far back as Aristotle’s Poetics (4th century BC) can also be regarded as narratological works. the referential. reader. studies of narrative forms and devices. i. in showing what implicit rules and conventions are operating in a given work. The second sense of ‘function’ is used in narratology. The first sense is employed in the influential model of communication outlined in Roman Jakobson’s Closing statement: linguistics and poetics (1960). A character (or acteur) is an individualized manifestation of one or more actants. the ‘text’ is seen as an objective structure activating various codes and conventions which are independent of author. to the communication’s linguistic features of sound. expressing an attitude or mood. following the widely discussed applications of structural analysis to mythology by the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. as in commands. orients a message towards a context beyond itself. or inanimate object (a magic sword as Helper. or as an action contributing towards the development of a narrative. 6) the poetic function is oriented towards the ‘message’ itself. The concept function is employed in structuralist literary theory in two senses: either as a kind of use to which language can be directed. Structuralist criticism is less interested in interpreting what literary works mean than in explaining how they can mean. In the narratology of A. claiming that their order of appearance is invariable. in his Morphology of the Folktale (1928). The structuralist tradition has been particularly strong in narratology. Holy Grail as Object). i. 4) the phatic function is oriented to the ‘contact’ between addresser and addressee. and diction (foregrounding). although not every function will appear in one tale. usually to establish that it is shared by both parties.e. helper / opponent. denoting a fundamental component of a tale: an action performed by a character that is significant in the unfolding of the story. syntax. Greimas. Modern narratology may be dated from Vladimir Propp’s Morphology of the Folktale (1928) with its theory of narrative functions. from Propp’s analysis of narrative functions to Greima’s theory of actants.J. Instead. 3) the most commonly used function. It flourished in France in the 1960s. sender / receiver. structuralism is distinguished by its rejection of those traditional notions according to which literature ‘expresses’ an author’s meaning or ‘reflects’ reality. Here Jakobson defines six linguistic functions according to the element of the communicative act that each function makes predominant: 1) the emotive function orients the communication towards the addresser (speaker or writer). The actants are paired in binary opposition: subject / object. 5) the metalingual function is oriented towards the code. conveying some information. In the study of literary works. 2) the conative (or connotative) function orients a communication towards its addressee or recipient. but an actant may be realized in a non-human creature (a dragon as Opponent). and external reality. or more than one acteur. described 31 such narrative functions in Russian fairy tales. Thus the 11th function (‘the hero leaves home’) necessarily precedes the 18th (‘the villain is defeated’) and the 20th (‘the hero returns’). the term ‘actant’ is introduced as one of six basic categories of fictional role common to all stories. Vladimir Propp.e. 50 .

Linguistics sometimes describes itself as a metalanguage because it is a ‘language’ about language.e. along with the later works of the critic Roland Barthes. 6. and the culturalpolitical writings of Jean-François Lyotard and Gilles Deleuze. It is also possible to have a meta-metalanguage. albeit as specialized uses with their own terminologies. It should be noticed that metalanguage is regarded as any use of language about language.e. 6. in which the over-confident ‘scientific’ pretensions of structuralism are abandoned. and so on the same assumption criticism is a metalanguage about literature. a ‘third-level’ discourse such as an analysis of linguistics. methods. for example in glosses. Are still within the same general language.The French critic Roland Barthes was an outstanding practitioner of structuralist literary analysis notably in his book A/Z (1970) – and is famed for his witty analyses of wrestling. stressing the indeterminacy of texts. or arguments about the usage or meaning of words. including that between language and metalanguage – and thus between literature and criticism. Metacriticism is criticism of criticism. Thus there is in principle no absolute distinction between criticism and literature. reacting against structuralist pretensions to scientific objectivity and comprehensiveness. and terms of criticism either in general (as in critical theory) or in the study of particular critics or critical debates. the historical critiques of Michel Foucault. or a work of metacriticism. which points out that linguistics. Some theorists of structuralism have spoken of metalanguages as if they were clearly separate from or standing above the ‘objectlanguages’ they describe. show s shift to post-structuralism.5. Instead they favoured a non-hierarchical plurality of ‘free play’ of meanings. post-structuralism’s delayed influence upon literary and cultural theory in the English-speaking world has persisted. however. The term usually implies a consideration of the principles underlying critical interpretation and judgement. i. Although waning in French intellectual life by the end of the 1970s. and other phenomena in Mythologies (1957): some of his later writings. These thinkers emphasized the instability of meanings and of intellectual categories (including that of the human ‘subject’). etc. but this claim is denied by post-structuralism. the examination of the principles.4. Post-structuralism Post-structuralism is a school of thought that emerged partly from within French structuralism in the 1960s. i. striptease. and sought to undermine any theoretical system that claimed to have universal validity – such claims being denounced as ‘totalitarian’. The term covers the philosophical deconstruction practised by Jacques Derrida and his followers. the psychoanalytical theories of Jacques Lacan and Julia Kristeva. criticism. They set out to dissolve the fixed binary oppositions of structuralist thought. definitions. Marxist Literary criticism 51 .

In this ‘neo-Marxist’ phase. under the name of proletcult (memorably derided by Leon Trotsky in his Literature and Revolution. capitalist) and their property relations and class struggles. who provided no developed aesthetic theory. and then a more conservative doctrine of socialist realism. and of ‘Western Marxism’ on the other. and thus tending to view literature in the light of modes of production (feudal. which tended to impose a bland official optimism upon writers while suppressing ‘decadent’ alternatives along with independent critical positions such as those of the Russian Formalists and of the Bakhtin group. although they expressed doubts about the value of propagandist fiction and thus discouraged the simple judgement of literary works according to the degree of socialist sentiment they express. Western Marxist criticism underwent renewal and diversification in the 1960s and 1970s. becoming more visible within academic literary studies and interacting with a range of other critical schools from structuralism. who tended to disagree on a range of questions including the requirement upon writers to be ‘committed’ to the socialist cause and the progressive or reactionary tendencies of realism and modernism. and some writers associated with the Frankfurt School. the claims of Marxist literary analysis have been more compatible with literary history (in which the formative importance of economic factors in literary evolution has commonly been accepted) than with evaluative criticism itself. and postcolonial theory to deconstruction and new historicism. the German poet-playwright Bertolt Brecht. In general. who inspired the school of cultural materialism) or quietly set aside in favour of explorations of literature’s relations with ideology and with the specific cultural contradictions of modern capitalist society. who argued to the contrary in defending modernist experiments as potentially radical. Russian Communist literary policy generated a short-lived ambition for the proletarianization of literature and the rejection of the bourgeois inheritance. In English. who interpreted the significance of Brecht’s epic theater and whose essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1935) is a widely admire classic of Marxist reflection upon modern culture. the traditional Marxist metaphor of economic causality in which a ‘superstructure’ of political and cultural forms grew up from a ‘base’ of economic forces and relations was either openly challenged (as it was by the British socialist critic Raymond Williams. who in Studies in European Realism (1950) and other works upheld the value of ‘bourgeois’ realism as a basis for socialist literature while attacking the allegedly apolitical pessimism of modernist writing. The more creative and ultimately more influential trends in Marxist criticism emerged from various Western Marxist thinkers. Little in this tradition derives directly from the writings of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels. Critical positions claiming to be Marxist arouse later in the two divergent currents of official Communist doctrine in the Soviet Union and its satellite parties (1917-1995) on the one hand.A tradition of literary and aesthetic interpretation and commentary derived from the principles of Marxism (‘historical materialism’). feminist criticism. 1924). psychoanalytic criticism. the leading figures in this phase have been the American 52 . notably Walter Benjamin. Notable figures here include the Hungarian writer Georg Lukács.

• use textual evidence to support your commentary. and numerous other works). • a brief definition for your theory. Participate in the suggested discussion. Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form.theorist Fredric Jameson (in Marxism and Form (1971). What is literariness? 53 . such as: what does your theory focus on. and later works) and the prolific British essayist Terry Eagleton (in Criticism and Ideology (1976). Test №6 The test consists of 5 tasks. The ideology of the Aesthetic (1990). When did the Russian Formalism emerge? 1 1905 2 3 1915 4 1925 1950 2. Your presentation should contain the following: • a title to introduce your literary theory. Explore in depth particular forms of literary criticism: Russian Formalism Structuralism Post-structuralism Dialogism Marxist criticism 2. 1. • cons: What are disadvantages to your approach?. what questions does your approach address. Who had arrived from Moscow bringing the principles of Russian Formalism. Project Tasks 1. What is the name of the group of linguistic and literary theorists based at Charles University from 1926 to 1948? 1 The Czech School 2 The Paris School 3 The Prague School 4 The Moscow School 3. • basic background information regarding your theory. It requires 3 minutes to solve it. which were to be further developed in Prague? 1 Roman Jakobson 2 René Wellek 3 Jan Mukařovský 4 Felix Vodička 4. why would someone be most likely use your approach. 3. Create a presentation (report) to explain your group's assigned literary theory (see above). • pros: Why would someone use your assigned approach?.

but in the 3 terminology of structuralism. What is Structuralism? a modern intellectual movement that analyses cultural phenomena according to principles derived from linguistics. a set of linguistic or other units that can be substituted for each other in the same position within a sequence or structure 4 in terms of defamiliarization it is understood as a series of deviations from ‘ordinary’ language 2 the systematic study of signs. enabling us to ‘see’ things afresh. more precisely. in his Cours de linguistique générale (1915). or . of the production of meanings from sign-systems. according to the theories of some English Romantic poets and of Russian Formalism the French word for language or tongue. distinguished langue from parole 5. and thus the abstract codes and conventions governing the social production of meanings a pattern or model in which some quality or relation is illustrated in its purest form. emphasizing the 1 systematic interrelationships among the elements of any human activity. linguistic or non-linguistic 4 the theory of criticism that sees the work as the central object that unites authors and readers Blank Form № 1 2 3 4 1 2 Literature 3 54 4 5 .the ability of words and other 1 linguistic signs to carry more than one meaning according to the contexts in which they are used 2 a distinctive effect achieved by literary works in disrupting our habitual perception of the world. which has had a special sense in linguistics since the Swiss linguist 3 Ferdinand de Saussure.

for what it reveals about implicit attitudes that have environmental consequences. Texts are evaluated in terms of their environmentally harmful or helpful effects. aims.html Module 7. Ecocritics analyze the history of concepts such as ‘nature’. Culler J. 1985.wsu. Marxist Literary Theory. Steiner P.html 12. 1984.crit. So far. http://bcs. Sarup M. 6. These were informed by environmentalist ideas and asked some of the questions that were to become important in and Dillard. 5. Galan F. Beliefs and ideologies are assessed for their environmental The Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE).shef.. was founded in 1992 at a meeting of the US Western Literature Association. including in Britain Raymond Williams’s The Country and the City (1973) and in the USA Annette Kolodny’s The Lady of the Land (1975).asp?e=7 13. 1998.1. and 55 . 9. 3. A few works of literary criticism may be said to have been ecocriticism before the term was invented. Direct representations of environmental damage or political struggle are of obvious interest to ecocritics. 8. 1988. Structuralist Poetics. Holquist M. The first use of the term ‘ecocriticism’ seems to have been by US critic William Rueckert in 1978. Scholes 10. 1928-1946. Historic Structures: The Prague School Project. 7. 11. http://www. http://www. 2. in an attempt to understand the cultural developments that have led to the present global ecological crisis. their background. but it was not until the beginning of the 1990s that ecocriticism became a recognized movement. Literature. Eagleton T. http://mesastate. but so is the whole array of cultural and daily life. Of the radical movements that came to prominence in the 1960s and 1970s. Abbey. 1977.marxists. Milne D. 4. 1996.W. http://www. ecocriticism has grown most rapidly in the United States. Ecocriticism is literary and cultural criticism from an environmentalist’s point of view. Environmentalism and Ecocriticism The overall goal is to study Environmentalism and Ecocriticism. Structuralism and Semiotics. An Introductory Guide to Post-Structuralism and environmentalism has been the slowest to develop a school of criticism in the academic humanities. Russian Formalism. Widdowson P. Hawkes T. concepts and interconnection.bedfordstmartins. 1974. Ecocriticism’s early bias towards the study of US nature writing in the tradition of Thoreau. Structuralism in Literature: An Introduction. Dialogism. now the major organization for ecocritics world-wide. a feminist study of the literary metaphor of landscape as female. 1990.

are modern forms of communication. Ecocritics responsive to environmental justice will bring questions of class. Among the possible consequences are flooding. a distinctively modern movement in which an indispensable role is played by science: by the methods and technologies. the loss of their lands and livelihoods. These are modern phenomena. For example. with its power of sending iconic images across the world to mass audiences. and they are global as well as local. because of the international response it received. Industrial pollution is the main threat. This is part of a broader attempt to bring together the different environmentalism of rich and poor. desertification. Searching for alternatives to the most destructive forms of industrial development. This movement grew partly out of traditions of enthusiasm for wild nature. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962). reflects its origin. such as excessive fishing and the ‘clear cut’ logging of forests. and water. food. food. many ecocritics have looked to indigenous non-industrial cultures. along with destructive ways of consuming natural resources. especially television. too. was Jonathan Bate in Romantic Ecology (1991). Environmentalism began to take shape in the 2nd half of the 20th century. tentatively. The treats that preoccupy environmentalists are not only to wildlife and wilderness but also to human health. for example. Other points of emergence were feminist theory and the study of Romantic literature. gender. and millions of environmental refugees. and shelter. reports began to appear of concern among scientists about climate changes thought to be occurring because of increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere. with the first rallying of environmentalism as a public movement. was a study of the toxic effects of residues of industrial and agricultural chemicals in animal and human bodies. are important presences in the new ecocritical canon. challenging versions of environmentalism that seem exclusively preoccupied with preservation of wild nature and ignore the aspiration of the poor. in response to perceptions of how dangerous environmental damage had become. race. In the late 1980s. eco-wars over diminishing resources. famine. Essential. the harmful contamination of their air. products of industry and the application of industrial methods to traditional harvest and husbandry. but is distinct from those traditions. and colonialism into the ecocritical evaluation of texts and ideas. that can identify chemical traces or analyze atmospheric data.Native American writing. 56 . and the indifference of governments and corporations. ‘The environmental justice movement’ is a collective term for the efforts of poor communities to defend themselves against the dumping of toxic waste. Texts such as Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony (1977) and Linda Hogan’s Solar Storms (1995). Many features of global warming defy political response and cultural representation. Environmentalism is both a critique of industrial modernity and another product of it. widely credited. The first British critic to use the term. exploring the possibility of alliance between these cultures and the wider environmental movement. two novels in which the environmental values of Native American cultures are set against those of white industrial capitalism.

Deep Ecologists reject merely technological and managerial solutions. and subject to forces outside their boundaries. food scares. Each local ecosystem is. literary novels. shelter. The word ‘ecology’ is frequently used in connection with the ‘green’ movement. Your presentation should contain the following: • a title to introduce your literary theory. adverts. There are some main concepts that give the ‘eco’ to ecocriticism: 1) ecology – is the scientific study of natural interdependencies: of life forms as they relate to each other and their shared environment. in which some poisons become more concentrated as they pass up the food chain to the few top predators. poems. Creatures produce and shape their environment. and all together constitute the global ecosystem. conceived in the early 1970s by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess and developed in the 1980s by US environmentalists Bill Devall and George Sessions. and is in turn eaten or rots down into nutrients. television wildlife documentaries. is based in field-work. in this way. part of a larger one. Ecology developed in reaction against the practice of isolating creatures for study in laboratories. New species arriving in an ecosystem will change it. dreams of rural retreat. Create a presentation (report) to explain Ecocriticism. and climate studies. botany. 3) ecological niche within the ecosystem is the ‘space’ the species occupies: the combination of factors that makes a population viable. called the ‘ecosphere’ or ‘biosphere’. Food chain is an important concept for ecologists investigating pollution.Environmental themes feature abundantly in culture: in thrillers. geology. 4) food chain describes one of the sets of relationships that make an ecosystem: the way in which energy circulates. for example. because of effects such as biomagnification. books and films for children. because these constitute yet another form of human dominance. tourism from country weekends to safaris. Deep Ecology proposes drastic changes in our habits of consumption. 2) ecosystem – a local set of conditions that support life. 2. Deep Ecology. Project Tasks 1. not only to avert catastrophe but as spiritual and moral awakening. Explore in depth Ecocriticism. and draws on a range of specialist disciplines including zoology. including food. • a brief definition for your theory. is a radical version of environmentalism. One creature eats another. Answer the suggested questions: • What is Ecocriticism? • What is the background of Ecocriticism? • What are the main concepts of Environmentalism? 3. horror movies. temperature. often in flux. Ecosystems are full of variables. and number of predators and competitors. 57 . as their environment produces and shapes them.

such as: what does your theory focus on. Test №7 The test consists of 5 tasks. • pros: Why would someone use your assigned approach?. • cons: What are disadvantages to your approach?. Choose the right answer and tick it in the blank form. What is ecology? 1 a local set of conditions that support life 2 4 The Association for the Study of Language and Ecology The Association for the Study of Logic and Ecocriticism the scientific study of natural interdependencies: of life forms as they relate to each other and their shared environment one of the sets of relationships that make an ecosystem: the way in which energy circulates the systematic study of signs. • use textual evidence to support your commentary. What concept does not illustrate the work of ecology? 1 ecosystem 2 food chain 3 ecological niche 4 ecocriticism 3. Participate in the suggested discussion. linguistic or non-linguistic 2 3 the ‘space’ the species occupies 5. 4. what questions does your approach address.• basic background information regarding your theory. ASLE stands for: The Association for the Study of 1 Literature and Environment 3 The Association for the Study of Linguistics and Ecology 4. 1. emphasizing the systematic interrelationships among the elements of any human 58 4 2 . of the production of meanings from sign-systems. why would someone be most likely use your approach. What is Ecocriticism? 1 a modern intellectual movement that analyses cultural phenomena according to principles derived from linguistics. When did Environmentalism emerge? 1 the 1st part of the 19th century 3 the 2nd part of the 20th century 2 4 the 1st part of the 18th century the 2nd part of the 19th century 2. It requires 3 minutes to solve it. or. more precisely.

4 the theory of criticism that sees the work as the central object that unites authors and readers Blank Form № 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 59 . Beliefs and ideologies are assessed for their environmental implications. and thus the abstract codes and conventions governing the social production of meanings literary and cultural criticism from an environmentalist’s point of view. Texts are evaluated in terms 3 of their environmentally harmful or helpful effects.activity.

Willingham J. 3. 2008. 2. Rooney E. Guerin W. The Return of the Reader. 12. 19281946. The Environmental Justice Reader. Criticism: An Oxford Guide. 7. Morgan L. 2nd. Eagleton M. 1985. The Ecocriticism Reader.. Garrard G. 1996. 21.E. Freund E. Hochman J. 13.. Literary Feminisms. Structuralism in Literature: An Introduction. 1974. 2004. 1990.. 2007. 2006. Coupe L. Eagleton T. Richards J. An Introductory Guide to Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism. Russell D.: University of Arizona Press. Fromm H. 1987. and Style. Winterbottom M.. 1. Russian Formalism. 10. 2001.W. Robbins R. Myth. Stein R. 6. 2008. Wallace K. Kerridge R.. Green Cultural Studies. 2005. Ecocriticism.C. 1975. Sarup M. Bibliography Baldick C... New York: Oxford University Press. 19. – 374p. Scholes R. Ed. 1998. Ecocriticism. Criticism. 4. 1984.L. Beyond Nature Writing: Expanding the Boundaries of Ecocriticism. 4. Glotfely Ch.Literature 1.. 5. 9.. Historic Structures: The Prague School Project. Szondi P. Tuscon. 1977. Steiner P. Classical Literary Criticism. 18. Dialogism. Rhetoric. 14. Labor E. The Cambridge Companion to Feminist Literary Theory. and London: University Press of Virginia. Mei Mei. Galan F. Cross H. Charlottesville. Milne D. Environmentalism and ecocriticism // Literary Theory and 2. Feminist Literary Theory. Croft S. 20. NY: Oxford University Press. Moscow.A. 17. 2004. 1996. New York: Oxford University Press.: University of Idaho Press. Garrard G. 1997. 2000. – Pp. 1995. Ariz. Armbruster K. 8. Va. 11. Marxist Literary Theory. 5th ed.. 60 . Reesman J. Oxford: Oxford University Press.. 16. Structuralist Poetics. The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Structuralism and Semiotics. Introduction to Literary Hermeneutics. Culler J. Literature. 2002. 1988. Hawkes T. 3. Adamson J. 1995. New York. Holquist M. Ida. 2000. 15. 5. 2006. London: Routledge. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature.R. New York: Oxford University Press.530-543.

edu/feminism/ 26. Подписано в печать Формат . New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. Садовая. ИПО ПИ ЮФУ: 344082. 23.cddc. Бумага офсетная. http://www. Лицензия № Сдано в набор . http://www. Ростов-на-Дону Печать офсетная 30. http://humanities. Literature. 1998. Гарнитура Times New Roman.uta.shef.Waugh P. 2006. http://www. http://www. http://www. 33 61 . ул.edu/huma/illuminations/ 27. Widdowson P. Psychoanalytic Criticism. Literary Theory and Criticism: An Oxford 29. 22. Заказ ___. Объем .marxists. Б. 28. Тираж 100 экз. Wright E. г. 2nd ed.

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