This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
INTRENSHIP REPORT DURATION : 3-WEEKS
MADE BY STUDENTS OF
SYNTHETIC FIBER DEVELOPMENT & APPLICATION CENTER (affiliated with Hamdard University)
SAAD AHMED CELL# 03132082156 MUHAMMAD FAHAD CELL# 03132296353 RAHEEL SHAFIQUE
SUBMITTED TO RESPECTED MR. ASLAM SIDDIQUE (G.M OF NAVEENA TEXTILE)
First of all we thank Almighty Allah who brought this moment in our life when we came in NAVEENA TEXTILE for intrenship. It has been a great experience to work with all of you and we are feeling proud that we can say we have worked in NAVEENA TEXTILE which is not only one of the best DENIM manufacturer & Exporters in Pakistan but also all over the world and where the management and the workers have demonstrated a very good performance in all areas of the business. NAVEENA TEXTILE is a dynamic organization with professionals loving and professionals making setup. As it is said “Time Spent in Training is time Well-spent”. The golden time, which we spend here and the practical, conceptual and industry- related knowledge, which we gained here will be a milestone in our professional carrier. We would like to thanks
Mr. Aslam Siddique (General Manager)
We are grateful to our class advisor Mr. FAQIR MUHAMMAD for arranging this intrenship. We always remember the hospitality we received during our stay at the NAVEENA TEXTILE. We are privileged to work with experienced personnel, who are the master of their skill and field. Their ever supporting behavior, kind advice, and professional approach taught us how to perform tough and critical tasks with utmost ease. We have very much enjoyed being amongst wonderful people. We wish each and every one everlasting progress, success and of course wish NAVEENA TEXTILE a very prosperous future.
We dedicate this report to our loving parents whose prays, affection and support are always a source of encouragement for us to reach at this destination and a humble icon for others in future. Our parents and teachers who give us real eyes that help us to leads ourself and others in the dark and cruel world.
We focused on getting the best out of us in terms of quality and also emphasis on gratifying the customers' needs. Our Goal is to understand customers' requirement and to give them maximum satisfaction. Finally. wants and demands. Excellence. Career development opportunities for employees. It’s GOALS Continuous improvement. its vision. This organization is situated in Karachi. The salient features of this report are NAVEENA’S organizational background. Quality of product and system. . this report is a nutshell comprises of my practical learning. We believe in philosophy of making long term relationship with our valued customers by strong communications in all manners.Executive Summary This report consists of my three weeks internship at NAVEENA exports (Pvt) Ltd (Denim Unit). Vision of Company The company undertakes to apply the vision in letter and spirit under the following guiding principles: In time action Clear understanding of customer’s instructions. Clear communication with vendors Clear instructions for production Strict compliance with quality control system. Customer’s satisfaction. recommendations and suggestions. Commotment to buyer. This report focuses its production operations. It’s Corporate Values Team work Integrity. Maintenance of consistent standard. Naveena Denim established in 2003 are situated in Pakistan . Total devotion maintains first class quality standard. corporate values and goals of the company. Absolute efforts for in time shipments.
NAVEENA DENIM UNIT FLOW CHART YARN GODOWN WARPING ROPE DYEING RE-BEAMING SIZING WEAVING FINISHING WASHING INSPECTION DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS AT NAVEENA BALL WARPING Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. COMPONENTS OF MACHINE •CREEL •LEASING STAND •TURN-AROUND ROLL •TURN-AROUND STAND •BALL WARPER •Dual MOTOR DRIVE CREEL: . The warp yarns are wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. the tow is separated and wound on a beam. This stage is also called long chain beaming or re-beaming. After the dyeing process.
and recurring break indication for same package. The yarn from the cones is unwounded and passes from rod by cross wound. catcher tension. 0-75 GPE tension range. Operator interface is by 380mm Touchscreen. and yarns in an alignment so that each and every yarn end can wound separately. Drive Rolls are rubber covered for maximum durability and are coupled to Dual Caliper Disc Brakes for quick stopping. which has no bearings. DUAL MOTOR DRIVE: utilizes the latest drive technologies. TURN-AROUND STAND: Constructed of heavy duty steel with an aluminum flanged 300mm diameter x 125mm wide guide wheel. Combs straighten the yarns towards pressure drum. . Sheet Vacuum System (SVS). end break indicator. TURN-AROUND ROLL: Provides additional length to the yarn path (in sheet form) to allow for recovery of lost or broken ends and reduces rolling in the trumpet at the end of the traverse stroke. Then the yarn comes to the winding zone or headstock. Extra yarn is then removed through cutting. Then the yarn is wounded on beam in this way for a required length if beam is changed after one filling of beam then knotting of yarns is made. BALL WARPER: The Ball Warper is capable of producing a 1220mm width ball with diameters up to 1524mm (60”) and safe operating speeds up to 500 mpm. with individual post-post calibration. Integrated Motion Sensor with 25 millisecond response time. Magnetic tensioner is used for yarn tension. rod tension. Static charges due to friction of yarns on metal surface cause static charges. Drop Wire Stopmotion System. which are removed through an anti static device. end count confirmation. The guide wheel has a pneumatic disk brake for controlled stops.Custom designed to meet package dimensions. PROCEDURE OF WARPING: The creel stand has maximum capacity of five cones per stand. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT: Automatic Traveling Cleaner. including AC vector drive/motors. and sacker tension. LEASING STAND: Semi-Automatic lease insertion at programmable intervals with ertical oscillation to reduce wear. Customer support is provided through modem communication 24/7 by Griffin technicians. Inside loading/outside running creel design. Manual Post/Disc Tensions. Electromagnetic Tension Control with individual post adjustment. holed by a catcher guided to the tensioning zone when cone rotates anticlockwise. Similarly if cones are finished on one frame side then trolley system of cone changing is used in this way chains rotates the whole frame of empty side and new filled side of frame is forwarded again knotting is done between the new cones yarn and already winded yarn. end count requirements and available space. which supports beam. Sensors sense any type of yarn breakage and in case of yarn breakage knotting is done. There are three types of tension in warping i. The hold down arms provide programmable hold down pressure and are used in loading and doffing the beam.e. The trumpet carrier. The Griffin Director is a PC based drive and control system that completely automates the operation of the machine. is machined from thermoplastic to reduce weight and improve durability thus eliminating routine maintenance. high strength polyurethane timing belts and heavy duty beveled gearboxes.
Size of the dyeing unit is between 60 . structure of fabric and the properties of dyes. The warps are added to the sizing machine.Rope Dyeing DYEING Dyeing is a process in which we impart colour to the fabric. 6 dyeing vats are in use. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades. the sulphur dyes are not resistant to chlorine containing bleaches. In practice. Vat dyes in keto form are water insoluble pigments.80 m. Indigo is a special case in the vat dye class.15 000 m length. All commercial textile dyeing processes take place by the application of a solution or a dispersion of the dyes to the textile material followed by some type of fixation process. . and reactive. There are nevertheless variations with 3 to 8 dyeing vats. Vat dyes are characterized by the presence of a keto group. The disadvantage compared to other methods is that yarn breakages do occur more often. As a class. sulphurs. Vat dyes are more expensive and difficult to apply than other classes for cellulose such as directs. VAT DYES: Vat dyes are mainly applied on cellulosic fibres. Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it. The dye solution or dispersion is almost always in an aqueous medium.400 warp threads are bound on the ball warper to very thick cables of 10000 . dyed and dried after the dyeing process on cylinders and put into cans. Then the cables are dissolved to warps on the long chain beamer. However it is important that the cables have a constant tension in order to avoid warp stripes. wetted. A major objective of the fixation step is normally to ensure that the coloured textile exhibits satisfactory fastness to subsequent treatment in aqueous wash liquors. They usually have outstanding colour-fastness properties.350 . 12 to 36 cables are led side by side. sized and then led together to warp depending on the total numbers of threads. Dyes use for Denim • Sulphur Dyes • Vat Dyes SULPHUR DYES: Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use. but some can be applied to protein fibres. Dyeing is mainly depends on the type of fabric. Sulphur dyes are usually dull in shade since the molecular structures are complex. Light fastness of pale shades is poor. DYEING PROCEDURE: Indigo Rope Dyeing When dyeing according to the rope dyeing or cable dyeing method. this method has proven to be very good through obtaining an optimum indigo dyeing. On the continuous dyeing installation. Normally.
5gpl . wet pick up is as low as 60%.. It sqeeze rolls are too hard then there are chances of slippage and uneven yarn tension. Surface of the squeeze rolls should be ground twice a year. High pH or Caustic Concentration --> Redder and lighter Low pH or caustic concentration --> greener and darker Dipping Time: Longer the dipping time. PROCESS CONTROL OF ROPE DYEING FOR DENIM 1. Concentration of Hydrosulphite: It is measured by vatometer. • Topping: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with indigo in start and then it is washed and then it is dyed with another dye (normally with sulfur). Caustic Soda or pH value : Should be from 11. Drying: Insufficient or unevenly dried yarns will result in poor rebeaming. which lead to higher color yield.5 gpl to 2. It should be from 1. or by redox potential of dye bath which should be from -730 mV to -860 mV. better will be the penetration and lesser will be the ring dyeing effect. It varies from 15-22 seconds Squeeze Pressure: High pressure will lead to lower wet pick up and result in lesser color and better penetration. DYEING IN NAVEENA TEXTILE: . If squeeze rollers are too soft then shading will occur. First the warp sheet is dyed with sulfur and then it is washed and then dyed with indigo. dye penetration will be less and wash down characteristics are also poor. It should be in g/l Guidelines High Indigo Concentration --> Shade is greener and lighter Low Indigo Concentration --> Shade is dull and Red. At pH higher than this.5. squeeze pressure is 5-10 tonnes. At rope dyeing. Effect of Ph: At pH of 10. Hardness of squeeze roller is about 70-75 deg.• Bottoming: In this case another dye is applied before dyeing with indigo. ie.5 to 11. Airing Time: it should be 60-75 seconds. there will be formation of more monophenolate ions. shores. as strike rate of the dye to the yarn bundle is very high. Dye concentration in Dye bath: it is measured by spectrophotometer. and wash down activities will be very good. Longer airing time results in high tension on the yarn and subsequent processes will become difficult.5-12.5 3. 2.
making it the globally recognized "first quality" method of indigo dyeing is the world. There are two working shifts in the department each of 12 hours a day. luster. The Inspected Lots are then transferred to the Re.The Rope Dyeing section is equipped with Morrison's Rope Dyeing Range.Beaming section for further processing. . Dyed Lots are inspected at US Denim's in-house Dyeing Lab to ensure the fabric shade as per customer requirements. strength & fashion effects Multiple dips of indigo & oxidation time in the skier section for shade depths Multiple wash boxes for rinsing & chemical application Coilers lay ropes into drums in a pattern that facilitates Re-beaming operation. Dyeing department is present on first floor. Morrison has more than 200 Rope Dyeing systems installed the world over. MORRISON'S ROPE DYEING RANGE Features:Custom designed Indigo Rope Range for maximum flexibility with minimum waste Dyes multiple yarn weights with multiple dye classes Runs short or long production lots with light or heavy depths of shade Pretreatment consists of counter flow scour / wash boxes Mercerizing adds improved dye affinity.
.25 tax (1800's)] yarn processing capabilities. dyed yarn is rebeamed. Precise tension control. Individual beam tension control in the creel via load cell tension rolls & tension controlled motors.RE-BEAMING: After rope dyeing. High energy efficiency by utilizing AC generated power. Greater yarn stability through fluted rolls. Features: Tension-controlled motors in creel to drive the size box & head end motors. Heavyweight [66 tax (G 75's)] to lightweight [2. This is also called warper beam.
To increase the abrasion resistance of the yarn against other yarns and various machine elements. The wet yarns are dried by using cylinder drying. a protective coating of polymeric film forming agent (size) is applied to the warp yarns prior to weaving. . A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding. To achieve these properties on the warp yarns.SIZING Although the quality and characteristics of the warp yarns coming out of the winding. A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding. To reduce fluff and fly during the weaving process for high speed weaving machines. Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls called the drying cylinders. The cylinders are coated with Teflon to prevent sticking of the yarns on the cylinders. The main purposes of sizing are as follows: To increase the strength of the yarns To reduce the yarn hairiness that would cause problems in weaving process. WEAVER’S BEAM:The yarns are wound on to weaver’s beam at the headstock. smooth and elastic or extensible to certain degree. warping and dyeing processes are quite good. TRANSPORTATION OF BEAMS:Beam is then transported to the weaving department. this process is called slashing or sizing. they are still not good enough for the weaving process for most of the yarns. A guide roller guides the yarns to the weaver’s beam. The weaving process requires the warp yarns to be strong. DRYING ZONE:After the size box the yarns go through the dryer section.
there is a wide range of looms being used. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp yarn. Air jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Over the years. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. • Simple operation and reduced hazard because of few moving parts. where the relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. . WEAVING IN NAVEENA TEXTILE: In NAVEENA TEXTILE weaving is carried out through air Jet looms.WEAVING The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. As of today. Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. • Low noise and vibration levels • Low spare parts requirement. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper. AIR-JET WEAVING: Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. both the process as well as the machine has undergone phenomenal changes. Air jet weaving utilizing a multiple nozzles system and profile reed. Weaving department is playing a leading role in denim manufacturing at of denim at NAVEENA TEXTILE. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper. • Low initial outlay. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. • Reliability and minimum maintenance. Profile reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp. right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom. The tandem and the main nozzle combination provide the initial acceleration. Yarn is drawn from a filling supply package by the filling feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles. Like some other departments weaving department is running 24 hours a day and meeting the sales requirements. the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed. • Reduced space requirements. The advantages of air jet weaving machines are: • High productivity. which provide the initial acceleration. • High filling insertion rates. A cutter is used to cut the yarn when the insertion is completed.
These can include properties relating to visual effect. texture and performance. Finishing treatment is done to achieve the ultimate customer requirements. yarns and fabric causing them to change in appearance.” The term finishing covers all those treatments that serve to impart to the textile the desired end-use properties. WORKING IN FININSHING DEPARTMENT It is divided in to following main sections: D-Batcher Singeing Sanforizing .WEAVING MACHINE: Brand Name: PICANOL Make : Belgium Brand Name: Make: Total looms: 105 FINISHING “A process done to fibers. handle and special characteristics such as waterproofing and nonflammability.
It seems like that the beating is not done properly. It is somewhat emboss and occur at the full length of the fabric. These are: 1.HOLE When fabric passes through temple it produces holes on the fabric due to its wiry surface. 2. Similarly fibers present in the form of bunch at the fabric are called slubs. 3.SLUBS: It is the collection of the threads at the surface of the fabric.INSPECTION Quality is ultimate concern.CRACKS : During weaving when m/c stops and again starts running then there is a gap between the two wefts. Defective fabric pieces are rejected and sold as seconds and relatively minor defective points are marked clearly using stickers to alert cutters . every single yard of the denim goes through inspection department and rated by a point count system to ensure that quality is up to standard before packing. it looks like that some warps or wefts are missed.OIL STAINS: When fabric gets spots of oil lubrication from any part. 2. 4. This defect is removed by combing. 5.BROKEN PICK: . Defects: • Removable defects • Non-Removable defects (a) REMOVABLE DEFECTS: Removable defects are those defects which are removed by washing and by cutting.JALA: In warp and weft direction there is a gap.DOUBLE PICK : The two or more threads are inserted at the same place. Defects are: 1.PATTI : It is the dark color or thick weft lines in the fabric. (b)NON REMOVABLE DEFECTS: Those defects which cannot be removed by mending and these are count in fabric grading. 3.
11.MISS PICK: If the weft yarn is missing from any place of fabric then it is known as miss pick. 8.KNOT: It comes due to knotting of broken warp end.STARTING MARKS: That mark which is due to the beating motion of the loom is called starting mark. 12.B GRADE FABRIC: If more than 30 points comes in fabric then it is considered as B grade fabric. 15.FINGER MARK: It comes when a person touches the warp ends. 17.CREASE MARK: Creases occur due to improper finishing.TIGHT END: When warp end becomes tight due to tension in dyeing.WRONG DENTING: When more yarns are passed through dents. . 9.A GRADE FABRIC: If 30 points come in meter fabric it is considered as A grade fabric. 10.REED MARKS: The lines are formed on the fabric due to reed movement and this defect is called reed marks.BROKEN END: When the warp end is broken. 14. 7.COARSE END: It comes when warp end is coarse.If the double or thick yarn is inserted 1/4 or ½ width of the fabric then it is known as cut or broken pick. 6. 16. 13.
It should be noted that large. Selection of stone Stone should be selected of the proper hardness. Mechanical washes . hardness. such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life. Dry denim. freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumice stones to achieve a soft hand and desirable look.Microsanding 2. Variations in composition. The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment. hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavy weight fabrics only. and size for the particular end product. DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES: 1. shape. unique look than pre-distressed denim. With dry denim. size shape and porosity make these stones multifunctional. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to that which artificially distressed denim attempts to replicate. removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn. however.Stone wash .WASHING BASIC WASHES IN DENIM FABRIC: DENIM WASHING: Denim washing is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide strength. Chemical washes . This creates what many feel to be a more natural.Enzyme wash . is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production.Acid wash MECHANICAL WASHES: STONE WASH: In the process of stone washing.Denim bleaching . Pumice stones give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY STONES: . as opposed to washed denim.
time. Process time varies from 60-120 mins..Damage to wash machineries and garment due to stone to machine and machine to stone abrasion .Increase in labor to remove dust from finished garments. Stone wash process gives “used” look or “vintage” on the garments.Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts STONEWASH EFFECT: In traditional washing process. energy and environment.Stones may turn into powder during the process of making the garment grayish in color and rough too . and increases production costs. washing time. LIMITATIONS OF STONE WASHING: . . MICROSANDING : . pocket.Using alkaline detergent like sodium per borate with optical brightener as after wash. . material to liquor ratio and load of garments. size of stones. . Stone wash effect is one of the oldest but highly demanded washing effects. The degree of colour fading depends on the garment to stone ratio.Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans in the washing machines get abraded.Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control Outcome of a load of jeans is never uniform.The process is non-selective.Adding dispersion/suspension agent to wash cycle. volcanic rocks or pumice stones are added to the garments during washing as abradant. . because of varying degree of abrasion in the area such as waistband. There are many limitations and drawbacks associated with stone washing process. which can be overcome by using new enzyme based washing technology.Provides rougher feel than enzyme wash . REMEDY OF BACK STAINING: .Back staining and re deposition.Water pollution during disposal of used liquor. Re-coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads. . BACK STAINING OR RE-DEPOSITION: The dye removed from denim material after the treatment with cellulose or by a conventional washing process may cause "back staining” or "redeposition”. little percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion. seam and body. . . Due to ring dyeing and heavy abrasion fading is more apparent but less uniform.Intermediate replacement of wash liquor. This technology also helps to conserve water. . resulting in less contrast between blue and white threads. Normally after desizing.This reduces quality of the products and life of equipment. stone wash process starts with pumice stone addition in rotary drum type garment washer.
. . sometimes 'seated') -Various templates can be used to create a 3D effect. raising. ecological and environmental friendly.It is a water free process therefore no drying required. ironing boards) . Some of these processes are sueding.Different look on the garment can be achieved. . SAND BLASTING : Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular. MECHANICAL ABRASION : To give worn out effect.All are dry process. some mechanical processes have been developed. powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of the garment surface to be treated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look.There are 3 ways for this technique: • Sandblasting • Machine sanding • Hand sanding or hand brushing Used in various ways: .On the dummy (inflatable dummies. abraded look or used look. emeresing.It is purely mechanical process.Economical. sometimes standing. These are based on mechanical abrasion by which the indigo can be removed. Advantages of these processes: . not using any chemicals. sometimes flat.Any number of designs could be created by special techniques.Control on the abrasion . peaching and brushing.Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible.Flat surfaces (tables. . . . Other Mechanical washing Whiskering Shot gun denim Water jet fading Super stone wash Ice wash .
Hydrojet treatment is used for enhancing the surface finish. SUPER STONEWASH: . CHEMICAL WASHES : DENIM BLEACH: In this process a strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4 is added during the washing with or without stone addition.Crease lines around the crotch.Hydroject treatment involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through hydrojet nozzles. texture.Industrially done with laser.It is a computer controlled process for denim fading. .It is water free fading of denim. .This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots. durability of denim garment.Also called spray painting in denims. LASER TECHNOLOGY: .This technique has relatively high cost. up to six hours or more.As this process is not involved with any chemical. Materials should be carefully sorted before processing for color uniformity. Limitations: . temperature and treatment time. . .Prolonged stonewashing. Care should be taken for the bleached goods so that they should be adequately antichlored or after washed with peroxide to minimize yellowing. clarity of patterns.Also used for 'knee whiskers' (whiskers on the sides of knees) and 'honeycombs' (crease marks on the back of the knee) WATERJET FADING: . sandblasting. hand sanding and abrasive rods. . chances of human error are slim. .The degree of colour washout. machine sanding.Being an automatic system. Discoloration produced is usually more apparent depending on strength of the bleach liquor quantity. it is pollution free. . .Also known as ‘Cat's Whiskers’ . and softness of the resulting fabric are related to the type of dye in the fabric and the amount and manner of fluid impact energy applied to the fabric. It is preferable to have strong bleach with short treatment time. Thermo denim Laser technology finish WHISKERING: . images. . text or even pictures. .
•Homogenous abrasion of the garments. • Required antichlor treatment. •Use of softener can be avoided or minimised. which is not implicitly achieved with hypochlorite bleaching. • Laccases open up the door to bleach Lycra containing denim without loosing the strength of the fabric. •Neutral cellulase: It works best at pH 6 however its activity is not adversely affected in the range of ph 6-8 and show maximum activity at 55 C. . •Environmental friendly treatment.e. •Fancy colour-flenced surface can be obtained without or a partial use of stone. • Finally the process is based on enzyme so no risk of environmental pollution and harmful effluent discharge. •Prevents tendency of pilling after relatively short period of wear. and pass into the effluent where they cause severe environmental pollution. •Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem. •Due to absence of stone. ENZYME WASH : •Cellulase enzymes are natural proteins which are used in denim garment processing to get stone wash look on to the denim garments without using stones or by reducing the use of pumice stone. •Can be applied on cellulose and its blend. giving the woven fabric a darker shade. •Less damage to seam edges and badges. labour intensive operation of stone removal is not required. • Problem of yellowing is very frequent due to residual chlorine. •Easy handling of floor and severs as messy sludge of stones does not interfere. In case of hypochlorite bleaching Lycra containing product affects adversely by loosing the tear and tensile strength. Due to harshness of chemical. • Chlorinated organic substances occur as abundant products in bleaching. •Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to absence of stone. leaving the interior of the fibre as it is. •Cellulase attacks primarily on the surface of the cellulose fibre. by removing the indigo present in the surface layer of fibre. •Puckering effect can also be obtained. When desired level of bleaching reached the time span available to stop the bleaching is very narrow. Advantage of enzyme washing •Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained without severe damage to the surface of yarn. •It allows more loading of the garment into machines. it may cause damage to cellulose resulting in severe strength losses and/or breaks or pinholes at the seam. •More reproducible effect can be obtained. • Harmful to human health and causes corrosion to stainless steel. •Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive.5 and exhibit optimum activity at 50. etc. pocket. Cellulase enzyme is classified into two classes: •Acid Cellulase: It works best in the pH range of 4. •Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster.5-5. difficult to reach the same level of bleaching in repeated runs.• Process is difficult to control i. • The product is so specialised on indigo that it does not attack any other dyes. Advantages: • New Laccase based bleaching technique only affects the indigo and natural raw white of weft yarn is retained.
Breaks down the fibers of jeans and creates white streaks or spots on denim . .Earlier involved the use of pumice stone . Limitations of acid wash: . but came with added dangers.Gives a unique rugged look.Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone wash. indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow after wet processing. washing or rinsing. grey etc.Cellulase enzymes are selective only to the cellulose and will not degrade starch.Come in colors like blue. and pollution Other chemical washes: • Rinse wash • Cellulase wash • Ozone fading • Snow wash • Salt water denim • Flat finish • Over dye • Sun washing • Super dark stone RINSE WASH: .ACID WASH: It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for localized bleaching resulting in a non uniform sharp blue/white contrast. brown.Manganese is effectively removed during laundering with addition of ethelene-diamine-tetraacetic acid as chelating agent.Chemically bleaching jeans so that the color fades away .Presently process involves spraying chemical and removing it immediately . Remedy: .This is done to achieve a wash down appearance without the use of stones or with reduced quantities of stones. . CELLULASE WASH: . black. also called snow wash . In this wash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by optical brightening. .The major cause is residual manganese due to incomplete neutralization. their ability to react with cellulose (cotton) will result in surface .Acid washed. expenses. The advantage of this process is that it saves water as addition of water is not required.Under certain conditions. . green.
Dyeing over the fabric or jeans to add another tone of color .By using this technique.Temperature . but now use mercerization plus calendering processes to achieve the flat surface.This will give the garments a washed appearance and soft hand. Mercerization swells up the cotton fibers and allows the calendering to press flat the surface.In the presence of UV light.fiber removal (weight loss). Factors influencing cellulase performance: . They consider this as an imitation process to the use of ammonia.Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water.Dose .Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber. . FLAT FINISH: It is a special process done to impart fabric with an even wash down effect and very clean surface. which is toxic and not allowed in commercial use in most countries. the garment can be bleached.Mechanical action OZONE FADING: . oxides of nitrogen and oxygen that causes release of ozone. . .Indigo dyestuff tends to fade or turn yellow due to ozone reaction.Time .Most often used is a 'yellowy' overdye to create a 'dirty' look . Originally liquid ammonia was used.pH .Looks as if the sun faded the fabric SUPER DARK STONE: .This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering. there is an interaction between the hydrocarbons. . . OVERDYE: . The advantages associated with this process are: .Color removal is possible without losing strength.Also can be applied with spray gun or paintbrush for local coloring SUNWASHING: . .A very light shade by bleaching and stoning .
It will help garment processor to process garment more economically and with minimum faults. Lesser enzymes and oxidising agent used 5.giving washed look Advantages of quick wash denim: 1. To meet this requirement special denim fabric has been developed which offers flat look after washing.Commercial term for an extra dark indigo color . minimum damage to fabric and minimum use of chemical. low water consumption. Streaks develop in garments after washing process due to differences in dye concentration of denim fabrics are avoided using a modified alkali-ph controlled system giving uniformity of shade.. indigo dye can be removed quickly. effluent load. Back staining is minimised due to less concentration of of indigo dye in the wash liqour.Results from a double-dyeing technique SNOW WASH DENIM: Denim treated with a variation of acid wash that imparts bright white highlights. QUICK WASH DENIM: Quick wash denim fabric is dyed with modified technique of dyeing. less usage of chemicals. 4.indigo dye can be removed quickly. QUICK WASH DENIM: • Aims at minimizing wash cycle time • Results in more economical washes and solving many other washing problems faced by launderes during fashion wash cycles • The yarns are ring dyed using indigo giving 25 to 30% less fixed dye to obtain a given shade • During wash cycle. so that during wash cycle. less time and retaining fabric strength. there are different depth of indigo on denim. TINTED DENIM: . SELECTION OF DENIM FABRIC: The right selection of fabric can help minimize the cost of treatment and to solve environment related issues. Time required for washing is 20-30% less than that required for conventional denim. Environment friendly process 6. For example. one can use lighter shade fabric which will help to cut the process time.e. chemical consumption. giving washed look at shorter washing cycle. in case of ice wash where we remove more than half the dye during washing. This results in more economical washes i. effluent load. 2. FLAT LOOK DENIM: Different chemicals and processes are used to get flatter look on the denim garments. Amount of indigo dye required is less thus making it an economical process 3. DIFFERENT COLOUR DEPTH FABRIC: To cut processing time.
These fabrics require minimum application of softener at the garment stage Conclusion In this report we describe the manufacturing of denim fabric. SOFT FEEL DENIM: To meet such requirement. World-consumption of denim.Generally saying people who don’t know about denim then after reading this report you get a sound knowledge about the whole process which are carried out in denim preparation. different varieties of denim fabric are available. It is also associated with the risk of patches and unevenness on garments. To meet this requirement special denim fabric has been developed which gives grainy look after processing of denim garment.500 million meters per year of denim fabrics. which are having inherent softness. . The demand of denim is increasing day by day. It consumes large quantity of water and chemicals. garment processor is using an additional process of tinting/ overdyeing.With increase in demand of tinted/ overdyed look on garment. which is time consuming. GRAINY LOOK DENIM: Different chemicals and processes are used to get grain look on the denim garments. Now the denim fabric is also available in tinted form which saves processors time and risk.wears today is equivalent of about 4.