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Play is the work of childhood. Moms and Dads play with little babies. Older infants explore their immediate surroundings by playing with toys. Toddlers like to run, jump, and climb - a form of sensorimotor play. Young children learn to relate to peers using simple games such as Simon Says. The text lists 6 criteria that define the nature of play in childhood. 1. Child's play is intrinsically motivated because youngsters find it enjoyable. 2. Child's play is pragmatic. Children are more interested in the process of playing than in the product of play. 3. Child's play is creative; it resembles real-life activities but is not bound by reality. 4. Rules govern most of children's play, but they are implicit. When children are playing "school" they all seem to understand the rules, but seldom are they stated as in a game of chess.
One of the earliest theoretical positions on play was the surplus energy theory. 6. William James: The instinct theory of play -attributes play to a set of preexistent structures that are bestowed upon a child by the parents. play is possible only when the biological system builds up an excess or surplus of energy. Eg: a child bouncing a ball would be responding to that ball (in play) with a set of motoric behaviors available to him or her from the structures of heredity. they differ in explaining why children play. Play is a behavior that is free of emotional distress. the organism engages in play behavior to dissipate or release this surplus energy. the relaxation theory of play uses the energy concept and characterizes play as necessary for the replenishment of lost energy in the discharge of daily activities. While all developmental theorists agree that play is essential to the socialization process. . After such an accumulation of energy within the system. According to this theory.5. Spontaneity is an important element of child's play. it occurs freely and is under the control of the child. Similar to the surplus energy theory.
So a little boy can "kill" an action figure that is a soldier and then bring him back to life. Many play activities afford children the opportunity to learn (acquire information) that will be useful to them later in childhood or in adult life.e. Psychoanalysis believes that play allows the child to gain mastery over objects and social situations by manipulating them in play. allows the child to gratify wishes and desires that are not possible to fulfill in reality. Functional play involves simple. requiring understanding of rules and logic). less intellectually challenging) to complex (i. ranked from simple (i. copying the behaviors of others (observational learning) or through the experience of setting goals and working towards them. repetitive movements that do not require constructing reality in symbolic ways.The psychoanalytic theory of play emphasizes the importance of play in social and emotional life.e. The learning theory of play assumes that the child acquires new behaviors or ways of relating to others by being praised (reinforcement). Piaget and other cognitive theorists believe that play is very important in enhancing the intellectual processes of the child. The cognitive theory of play assumes that there are four types of play. The infant who continues to drop objects from the highchair and laughs at the sound each one makes .
is participating in functional play. It is a direct result of the child acquiring figurative thought. In 1932. each of which is more complex than the previous one. Constructive play may occur with peers. constructive play follows functional play. Many times they enjoy arguing about the rules more than they enjoy the social interaction of the game. Constructive play involves manipulation of physical objects to build or construct something. At the beginning of Middle Childhood. In the preoperational stage of development. According to the cognitive theory of play. as children enter Piaget's concrete operational stage. they engage in rule-governed play and games. Often during this stage of development children's creative energy and fantasies create imaginary playmates. Mildren Parten proposed that children progress through 6 social levels of play. . circular reactions. Piaget calls those repetitive behaviors. Most often its importance is in teaching the child the mastery motive or that he or she can conquer a challenge. Pretend play. pretend or symbolic play appears. from which the young child derives pleasurable. also referred to in developmental psychology as fantasy or dramatic play substitutes imaginary situations for real ones.
org/r/lsdev/ply/plyd/ply_types. http://psyed.Parten's Social Levels of Play are unoccupied play. associative play and cooperative play. At each of these levels of play more social skills are required for the child to interact successfully with his or her peer group. onlooker play. parallel play. solitary play.html .