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DRUG study

Nomenclature of the Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects, adverse effect Nursing responsibilities
drug/dosage, route, frequency

Generic Name: Sodium Action of the Drug: Indications; Adverse Effects: ♣ Asses for history of
bicarbonate NaHCO₃ allergy to
Brand Name: ♣ Increase plama ♣ Treatment of ♣ GI: gastric rupture component of
Classification/s: Antacid, bicrbonate; metabolic acidosis, ff ingestion. preparation, low
Electrolyte, Systemic buffers excess with measures to ♣ Hematologic: serum chloride,
Alkalinizer, Urinary hydrogen ion control the caue of sytemic alkalosis metabolic &
Alkalinizer concentration; acidosis. (headache, respiratory alkalosi,
raise blood pH; ♣ Adjunctive nausea, irritability, hypocalcemia,
DOSA ROUT FREQU reverses clinical treatment in evere weakness, tetany, impaired renal
GE E ENCY manifestation of diarrhea with confusion), function, HF,
1.0 acidosis; accompanying los of hypokalemia edema, oliguria or
mEqs SIVTT increases the bicarbonate. secondary to anuria, potassium
+ 10 excretion of free ♣ Treatment of certain intracellular depletion,
cc of base in the urine, drug intoxications shifting of pregnancy.
sterile effectively raising that require potassium, ♣ Assess skin color,
H₂O the urinary pH; alkalinization, of the hypernatremia. turgor, injection
neutralize or urine, prevention of ♣ Local: chemical site, peripheral
reduces gastric methotrexate cellulitis, tissue rhythm, peripheral
acidity, resulting nephrotoxicity by necrosis, edema, bowel
to an increase in the alkalinization of ulceration and sounds, abdominal
pH, which inhibits the urine. sloughing at the exam, urinary
the proteolyrtic ♣ Minimization of uric site of infiltration. output, serum
activity of pepsin. acid crystalluria in electrolytes, erum
gout, with uricosuric bicarbonate, ABGs,
agents. urinalyis, renal fxns.
♣ Minimization of ♣ Monitor ABG and
ulfonamide calculate base
crystalluria. deficit when
♣ Oral: symptomatic administering
relief of stomach parenterally. Adjust
upset from dosage based on
hyperacidity response.
associated with Administer slowly.
peptic ulcer, ♣ Check potasium
gastritis,, peptic level before IV
esophagitis, gastric adminitration, risk
hyperacidity, hiatal of metabolic
hernia. acidosis is increased
♣ Oral: prophylaxis of in states of
GI bleeding, tress hypokalemia,
ulcers, aspiration requiring reduction
pneumonia. of NaHCO₃.
♣ To reduce ♣ If infiltration occur,
incidences of promptly elevate
chemical phlebitis, the site, apply warm
and patient compress.
discomforts due to ♣ Instruct to chew
vein irritation at/or tablet thoroughly,
near the infusion site and follow with a
by raising the pH of IV
acid solutions.
glass of full water.
Do not use within 1-
Contraindications: 2 hours of any other
drugs to decrease
risks of drug
♣ Contraindicated with
allergy to
component of ♣ Advise to have
preperation, low periodic blood tests
serum chloride and medical
(secondary to evaluations.
vomiting, ♣ Monitor cardiac
continuous GI arrythmias. Report
suction, diuretics irritability,
associated with headache, tremors,
hypochloremic periopheral edema,
alkalosis); metabolic DOB, blac or tarry
and respiratory tools, and pain at IV
alkalosis, site.
(alkalosis may
precipitate tetany).


♣ Among patient with

impaired renal
function, HF,
edematous or
states, oliguria,
anuria, potassium
depletion (may
predispose to
metabolic alkalosis),
pregnancy, lactation

Nomenclature of the Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects, adverse effect Nursing responsibilities
drug/dosage, route, frequency

Generic Name: Penicillin G Action of the Drug: Indications; Adverse Effects: ♣ Assess hitory of
sodium allergy to
Brand Name: Harbipen ♣ Bactericidal: ♣ Treatment of severe ♣ CNS: lethargy, penicillins,
Classification/s: inhibits syntheis infections caused by hallucinations, cephalosporins,
Antibacterial of cell wall of enitive organism seizures imipenem, beta-
sensitive e,g. streptococci, ♣ GI: glossitis, lactaminase
DOSA ROUT FREQU organisms, pneumococci, stomatitis, inhibitors, and
GE E ENCY causing cell straphylococci, gastritis, sore other allergens,
550,0 IV q°6 death. Neisseria mouth, furry renal diease,
00 “u” gonorrhoeae, tongue, black lactation &
as Triponema pallidum, “hairy” tongue, pregnancy.
drip meninggococci. nausea, vomitting, ♣ Assess for culture
Actinomyces israelii, diarrhea, infections, skin
Clostridium abdominal pain, rashes, lesions,
perfringens, and bloody diarrhea, adventitious
tetani, Leptotricia enterocolitis, sounds, bowel
buccalis, Spirillum pseudomembranou sound, and normal
minus or s colitis, nonpecific output: CBC, LFTs,
Streptobacillus hepatitis renal fxn test,
moniliformis, ♣ GU: nephritis--- serum electrolytes,
Listeria oliguria, Hct, urinalysis, skin
monocytogenes, proteinuria, test with
Fusobacterium hematuria, cast, benzylpenicyllol-
fusiformisans, pyuria axotemia polylysine if
Pasteurella ♣ Hematologic; hypersensitivity
multocida, anemia, rxns to penicillin
Erysipelothrix thrombocytopenia, hace occurred.
insidiosa, E. coli, leukopenia, ♣ Culture infection
Enterobacter neutropenia, prior to treatment,
aerogenes, prolonged bleeding reculture if respone
Alkaligenes faecalis, time is not as expected.
Salmonella, ♣ Hypersensitivity ♣ Use the smallest
Shigella, Proteus reactions; rash, volume possible for
mirabilis, fever, wheezing, IM injections to
Corynebacterium anaphylaxis avoid pain &
diptheriae, Bacillu ♣ Local: pain, discomfort.
anthrax phlebitis, ♣ Continue treatment
♣ Treatment of thrombosis at for 48-72 hr after
syphillis, gonococcal injection ite, Jarich- the patient is
infection. Hercheimer rxns assymptomatic.
♣ Lyme disease when used to treat ♣ Monitor serum
(unlabeled use). syphilis electrolytes and
♣ Others: cardiac status.
Contraindications: superinfection; ♣ Keep epinephrine,
odium IV fluids,
♣ Contraindicated overloadleading to vasopressors,
among with allergy HF bronchodilators,
to penicillins, oxygen, and
cephalosporins, emergency
imipenem, beta- equipment readily
lactaminase available in case of
inhibitors, and other serious
allergens. hyperenitivity rxn.
♣ Arrange for
Caution: cortcosterod or
antihistamine for
♣ In patients with kin rxns.
renal diease, ♣ Advise to eat
pregnancy, frequent meals to
lactation, (may counteract nausea
cause diarrhea, or & vomiting; do
candidiasi in frequent oral care
infants) for mouth sores.
♣ Report unusual
bleeding, sore
throat, rash, hives,
fever, severe
diarrhea, DOB.

Nomenclature of the drug/dosage, Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects, adverse effect Nursing responsibilities
route, frequency

Generic Name: 5% Action of the Drug: Indications; Adverse Effects: ♣ Maintain sterility
Dextrose in 1/3 NaCl sol’n throughout
Brand Name: preparation, infusion
♣ When ♣ Intravenous ♣ Reactions
Classification/s: IV fluid solutions containing which may occur & discontinuation of
(hypertonic solution) dextrose and because of the IV fluid solutions.
these solutions sodium chloride are solution or the ♣ Check IVF
DOSAG ROUT FREQU indicated for technique of bottles, and cannula
provide a source
E E ENCY of water, parenteral administration set for integrity and
80 IV carbohydrate replenishment of include febrile optimal functioning.
µgtts/ and fluid, minimal response, infection ♣ Monitor serum
min or electrolytes. carbohydrate at the site of electrolytes prior
20 calories, and sodium injection, venous and closely during
♣ Solutions
gtts/mi chloride as required thrombosis or recurrent
which provide
n by the clinical phlebitis extending administrations.
combinations of
hypotonic or condition of the from the site of ♣ Adjust rate
isotonic patient. injection, according to an
(-) ANST extravasation and individual’s
concentrations of
dextrose and of hypervolemia. tolerance/per
sodium chloride Contraindications: ♣ Too rapid doctor’s order.
are suitable for None known. infusion of ♣ Use of the
parenteral hypertonic largest peripheral
maintenance or Cautions: solutions may vein and a small
replacement of cause local pain bore needle is
water and and venous recommended.
♣ Solutions containing
electrolyte irritation. Rate of ♣ If an adverse
sodium ions should
requirements with administration reaction does occur,
be used with great
minimal should be adjusted discontinue the
care, if at all, in
carbohydrate according to infusion, evaluate
patients with
calories. tolerance. ss the patient, institute
♣ Solutions ♣ Symptoms appropriate
containing congestive heart may result from an therapeutic
carbohydrate in failure, severe renal excess or deficit of countermeasures
the form of insufficiency and in one or more of the and save the
dextrose clinical states in ions present in the remainder of the
restore blood which there exists solution; therefore, fluid for examination
glucose levels edema with sodium frequent if deemed
and provide retention. monitoring of necessary.
calories. ♣ Excessive electrolyte levels is
Carbohydrate in administration of essential.
the form of potassium-free ♣ Hypernatremia
dextrose may aid solutions may result may be associated
in minimizing in significant with edema and
liver glycogen hypokalemia. exacerbation of
depletion and ♣ In patients with congestive heart
exerts a diminished renal failure due to the
protein-sparing function, retention of water,
action. Dextrose administration of resulting in an
injected solutions containing expanded
parenterally sodium ions may extracellular fluid
undergoes result in sodium volume. If infused
oxidation to retention. in large amounts,
carbon dioxide ♣ The intravenous chloride ions may
and water. administration of cause a loss of
♣ Sodium these solutions can bicarbonate ions,
chloride in water cause fluid and/or resulting in an
dissociates to solute overloading acidifying effect.
provide sodium resulting in dilution
(Na+) and of serum electrolyte
chloride (Cl¯) ions. concentrations,
Sodium (Na+) is overhydration,
the principal congested states or
cation of the pulmonary edema.
extracellular fluid ♣ The risk of dilutional
and plays a large states is inversely
part in the proportional to the
therapy of fluid electrolyte
and electrolyte concentrations of
disturbances. administered
Chloride (Cl¯) has parenteral solutions.
an integral role in The risk of solute
buffering action overload causing
when oxygen and congested states
carbon dioxide with peripheral and
exchange occurs pulmonary edema is
in the red blood directly proportional
cells. The to the electrolyte
distribution and concentrations of
excretion of such solutions.
sodium (Na+) and
chloride (Cl¯) are
largely under the
control of the
kidney which
maintains a
balance between
intake and output.
♣ Water is an
constituent of all
body tissues and
accounts for
70% of total body
weight. Average
normal adult daily
range from two to
three liters (1.0 to
1.5 liters each for
insensible water
loss by
perspiration and
urine production).
Water balance is
maintained by
various regulatory
Water distribution
depends primarily
on the
concentration of
electrolytes in the
and sodium (Na+)
plays a major role
in maintaining

Nomenclature of the Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects, adverse effect Nursing responsibilities
drug/dosage, route, frequency

Generic Name: Action of the Drug: Indications; Side Effects: ♣ Monitor history of
Iron+Vitamin B Complex anemia. Do not use
Brand Name: Ferlin ♣ Iron is irregularly ♣ For the prevention ♣ Orally iron to treat
Classification/s:Hematinic and incompletely and treatment of administered iron, hemolytic anemias
absorbed from the iron deficiency due to its unless an iron
DOSA ROUT FREQU gastrointestinal anemia in infants astringent action, deficient state also
GE E ENCY tract, the main and children. produces GI exists.
5ml PO OD sight of absorption irritation and ♣ Do not administer
being the Contraindications: abdominal pain therapeutic iron
duodenum and with nausea and doses longer than 6
jejunom. ♣ Primary vomiting (these months except
Absorption is hemochomatosis, irritant side under the
aided by the acid peptic ulcers, effects are usually supervision of a
secretion of the regional enteritis, or related to the physician.
stomach or by the ulcerative colitis. elemental iron ♣ Do not administer
dietary acids and taken rather than parenteral iron
is more readily the type of together with oral
effected when the preparation). iron to avoid iron
iron is in the ♣ Other effects may overload.
ferrous state. include either ♣ Do not administer
Absorption is also diarrhea or iron to patients
increased in constipation (side receiving repeated
conditions of iron effects may be blood tranfusions,
deficiency or in reduced by since there is
fasting state but is administration considerable
decreased if the with or after food amount of iron in
body stores are or by starting the hemoglobin of
overloaded. therapy with a transfused
♣ Ferrous iron small dose and erythrocytes.
passes through GI increasing ♣ Folic acid should be
mucosa directly gradually). administered with
into the bl;ood ♣ May cause caution to patients
and is staining of teeth. with undiagnosed
immediately ♣ Stools may anemia since it may
bound to appear darker in obscure the
transferrin. color. diagnosis of
Transferrin ♣ Prolonged folic pernicious anemia
transports iron to acid therapy may resulting to
the bone marrow cause a decrease progression of
where it is in vitamin B12 neurologic
incorporated into serum complications.
hemoglobin. concentration. ♣ Administer with food
♣ Most of the iron or after meals to
liberated by the minimize irritation.
struction of To promote better
hemoglobin is absorption, take
conserved and along with vitamin C
reused by he or citric juices and
body. Iron NO to milk within
excretion occurs and 1-2 hours after
primarily as intake.
desquamation of ♣ Advise to drink with
cells such as skin, straw to prevent
GI mucosa, naIls staining on teeth.
and hair; only ♣ Inform that straining
trace amounts of with defecation is
iron are excreted expected with
in the bile and prolong therapy and
sweat. that stools may
♣ The B complex appear darker
vitamins are (greenish black) in
generally readily color.
absorbed from the
GI tract. They are
also widely
distributed in the
body tissues.
Excretion is
through the urine
as metabolites or
in the original