DRUG study Nomenclature of the drug/dosage, route, frequency Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects, adverse

effect Nursing responsibilities

Generic Name: Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO₃ Brand Name: Classification/s: Antacid, Electrolyte, Systemic Alkalinizer, Urinary Alkalinizer DOSA GE 1.0 mEqs + 10 cc of sterile H₂O ROUT E SIVTT FREQU ENCY

Action of the Drug:

Indications; ♣ Treatment of metabolic acidosis, with measures to control the caue of acidosis. ♣ Adjunctive treatment in evere diarrhea with accompanying los of bicarbonate. ♣ Treatment of certain drug intoxications that require alkalinization, of the urine, prevention of methotrexate nephrotoxicity by the alkalinization of the urine. ♣ Minimization of uric acid crystalluria in gout, with uricosuric agents. ♣ Minimization of ulfonamide crystalluria. ♣ Oral: symptomatic relief of stomach upset from hyperacidity associated with peptic ulcer, gastritis,, peptic

Adverse Effects: ♣ ♣ GI: gastric rupture ff ingestion. Hematologic: sytemic alkalosis (headache, nausea, irritability, weakness, tetany, confusion), hypokalemia secondary to intracellular shifting of potassium, hypernatremia. Local: chemical cellulitis, tissue necrosis, ulceration and sloughing at the site of infiltration.

♣ Increase


bicrbonate; buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration; raise blood pH; reverses clinical manifestation of acidosis; increases the excretion of free base in the urine, effectively raising the urinary pH; neutralize or reduces gastric acidity, resulting to an increase in pH, which inhibits the proteolyrtic activity of pepsin.

Asses for history of allergy to component of preparation, low serum chloride, metabolic & respiratory alkalosi, hypocalcemia, impaired renal function, HF, edema, oliguria or anuria, potassium depletion, pregnancy. ♣ Assess skin color, turgor, injection site, peripheral rhythm, peripheral edema, bowel sounds, abdominal exam, urinary output, serum electrolytes, erum bicarbonate, ABGs, urinalyis, renal fxns. ♣ Monitor ABG and calculate base deficit when administering parenterally. Adjust dosage based on response. Administer slowly. ♣ Check potasium level before IV

Report irritability. Do not use within 12 hours of any other drugs to decrease risks of drug interactions.esophagitis. headache. continuous GI suction. low serum chloride (secondary to vomiting. ♣ Monitor cardiac arrythmias. blac or tarry tools. Contraindications: ♣ Contraindicated with allergy to component of preperation. and patient discomforts due to vein irritation at/or near the infusion site by raising the pH of IV acid solutions. ♣ Oral: prophylaxis of GI bleeding. metabolic and respiratory alkalosis. and follow with a glass of full water. requiring reduction of NaHCO₃. Caution: ♣ Among patient with . hypokalemia (alkalosis may precipitate tetany). tremors. ♣ If infiltration occur. tress ulcers. risk of metabolic acidosis is increased in states of hypokalemia. apply warm compress. DOB. adminitration. diuretics associated with hypochloremic alkalosis). periopheral edema. and pain at IV site. hiatal hernia. ♣ Instruct to chew tablet thoroughly. aspiration pneumonia. promptly elevate the site. gastric hyperacidity. ♣ Advise to have periodic blood tests and medical evaluations. ♣ To reduce incidences of chemical phlebitis.

adverse effect Nursing responsibilities Generic Name: Penicillin G sodium Brand Name: Harbipen Classification/s: Antibacterial DOSA GE 550. Listeria monocytogenes. urinalysis. hallucinations. cast. diarrhea.impaired renal function. adventitious sounds. frequency Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects. Leptotricia buccalis. ♣ Treatment of severe infections caused by enitive organism e. and tetani. Actinomyces israelii. abdominal pain.0 00 “u” as drip ROUT E IV FREQU ENCY q°6 Action of the Drug: ♣ Bactericidal: inhibits syntheis of cell wall of sensitive organisms. enterocolitis. pregnancy. Triponema pallidum. serum electrolytes. lesions. LFTs. and other allergens. and normal output: CBC. vomitting. betalactaminase inhibitors. cephalosporins. route. imipenem. pseudomembranou s colitis. Adverse Effects: ♣ ♣ CNS: lethargy. causing cell death. seizures GI: glossitis. meninggococci. pneumococci. oliguria. stomatitis. furry tongue. Spirillum minus or Streptobacillus moniliformis. gastritis. bowel sound. HF. bloody diarrhea. lactation & pregnancy. Fusobacterium fusiformisans. anuria. lactation Nomenclature of the drug/dosage. edematous or sodium-retaining states. black “hairy” tongue. hematuria. nausea. potassium depletion (may predispose to metabolic alkalosis). Neisseria gonorrhoeae. skin rashes. sore mouth.g. renal fxn test. proteinuria. streptococci. Clostridium perfringens. Assess for culture infections. skin test with benzylpenicyllolpolylysine if . straphylococci. nonpecific hepatitis GU: nephritis--oliguria. Hct. pyuria axotemia ♣ ♣ ♣ Assess hitory of allergy to penicillins. renal diease. Indications.

Proteus mirabilis. gonococcal infection. Erysipelothrix insidiosa. Alkaligenes faecalis. JarichHercheimer rxns when used to treat syphilis Others: superinfection. lactation. leukopenia. Continue treatment for 48-72 hr after the patient is assymptomatic. ♣ ♣ ♣ Contraindications: ♣ Contraindicated among with allergy to penicillins. reculture if respone is not as expected. Keep epinephrine. thrombocytopenia. wheezing. rash. fever. . and other allergens. cephalosporins. Advise to eat frequent meals to counteract nausea & vomiting. prolonged bleeding time Hypersensitivity reactions. IV fluids. anaphylaxis Local: pain. Enterobacter aerogenes. Corynebacterium diptheriae. Salmonella. or candidiasi in infants) ♣ ♣ hypersensitivity rxns to penicillin hace occurred. betalactaminase inhibitors. oxygen. odium overloadleading to HF ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ Caution: ♣ In patients with renal diease. Monitor serum electrolytes and cardiac status. imipenem. Arrange for cortcosterod or antihistamine for kin rxns. Culture infection prior to treatment. bronchodilators. Use the smallest volume possible for IM injections to avoid pain & discomfort.♣ ♣ Pasteurella multocida. Lyme disease (unlabeled use). phlebitis. vasopressors. ♣ Hematologic. do frequent oral care for mouth sores. Bacillu anthrax Treatment of syphillis. coli. pregnancy. thrombosis at injection ite. neutropenia. anemia. (may cause diarrhea. and emergency equipment readily available in case of serious hyperenitivity rxn. Shigella. E.

discontinue the infusion. ♣ Check IVF bottles. Adverse Effects: ♣ Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response. venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection. carbohydrate and electrolytes. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance. severe diarrhea. infusion & discontinuation of IV fluid solutions. frequency Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects. evaluate the patient. in patients with ♣ Maintain sterility throughout preparation. ♣ Monitor serum electrolytes prior and closely during recurrent administrations. extravasation and hypervolemia. and cannula set for integrity and optimal functioning. ♣ Adjust rate according to an individual’s tolerance/per doctor’s order. Cautions: ♣ Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care. Contraindications: None known. these solutions provide a source of water. route.♣ Report unusual bleeding. ♣ Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. ♣ If an adverse reaction does occur. ♣ Intravenous solutions containing dextrose and sodium chloride are indicated for parenteral replenishment of fluid. sore throat. rash. if at all. DOB. ss ♣ When administered intravenously. adverse effect Nursing responsibilities Generic Name: 5% Dextrose in 1/3 NaCl sol’n Brand Name: Classification/s: IV fluid (hypertonic solution) DOSAG E 80 µgtts/ min or 20 gtts/mi n (-) ANST ROUT E IV FREQU ENCY Action of the Drug: Indications. ♣ Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended. and sodium chloride as required by the clinical condition of the patient. fever. minimal carbohydrate calories. hives. institute . ♣ Solutions which provide combinations of hypotonic or isotonic concentrations of dextrose and of sodium chloride are suitable for parenteral maintenance or replacement of water and electrolyte requirements with minimal carbohydrate calories. infection at the site of injection. Nomenclature of the drug/dosage.

Carbohydrate in the form of dextrose may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. chloride ions may cause a loss of bicarbonate ions. frequent monitoring of electrolyte levels is essential. overhydration. resulting in an expanded extracellular fluid volume. appropriate therapeutic countermeasures and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.♣ Solutions containing carbohydrate in the form of dextrose restore blood glucose levels and provide calories. Sodium (Na+) is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and plays a large part in the therapy of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. If infused in large amounts. In patients with diminished renal function. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of administered ♣ Symptoms may result from an excess or deficit of one or more of the ions present in the solution. ♣ Hypernatremia may be associated with edema and exacerbation of congestive heart failure due to the retention of water. resulting in an acidifying effect. ♣ Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl¯) ions. severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention. congested states or pulmonary edema. administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention. . The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations. Dextrose injected parenterally undergoes oxidation to carbon dioxide and water. therefore. ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ congestive heart failure. Excessive administration of potassium-free solutions may result in significant hypokalemia.

♣ Water is an essential constituent of all body tissues and accounts for approximately 70% of total body weight. parenteral solutions.Chloride (Cl¯) has an integral role in buffering action when oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the red blood cells. Average normal adult daily requirements range from two to three liters (1. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of such solutions.0 to 1. The distribution and excretion of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl¯) are largely under the control of the kidney which maintains a balance between intake and output. . Water balance is maintained by various regulatory mechanisms.5 liters each for insensible water loss by perspiration and urine production).

regional enteritis. Nomenclature of the drug/dosage. frequency Mechanisms of action Indications & contrainications Side effects. ♣ For the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in infants and children.Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes in the body compartments and sodium (Na+) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium. Do not administer parenteral iron together with oral . route. Do not administer therapeutic iron doses longer than 6 months except under the supervision of a physician. Absorption is aided by the acid secretion of the stomach or by the dietary acids and is more readily Indications. or ulcerative colitis. peptic ulcers. produces GI irritation and abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting (these irritant side effects are usually related to the elemental iron taken rather than the type of ♣ Contraindications: ♣ Primary hemochomatosis. due to its astringent action. ♣ ♣ Monitor history of anemia. adverse effect Nursing responsibilities Generic Name: Iron+Vitamin B Complex Brand Name: Ferlin Classification/s:Hematinic DOSA GE 5ml ROUT E PO FREQU ENCY OD Action of the Drug: ♣ Iron is irregularly and incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Side Effects: ♣ Orally administered iron. Do not use iron to treat hemolytic anemias unless an iron deficient state also exists. the main sight of absorption being the duodenum and jejunom.

naIls and hair. Prolonged folic acid therapy may cause a decrease in vitamin B12 serum concentration. only trace amounts of ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ preparation). ♣ Advise to drink with straw to prevent staining on teeth. To promote better absorption. Ferrous iron passes through GI mucosa directly into the bl. Absorption is also increased in conditions of iron deficiency or in fasting state but is decreased if the body stores are overloaded. Other effects may include either diarrhea or constipation (side effects may be reduced by administration with or after food or by starting therapy with a small dose and increasing gradually). May cause staining of teeth. ♣ Inform that straining with defecation is . Most of the iron liberated by the struction of hemoglobin is conserved and reused by he body. ♣ Administer with food or after meals to minimize irritation.ood and is immediately bound to transferrin. Iron excretion occurs primarily as desquamation of cells such as skin.♣ ♣ effected when the iron is in the ferrous state. ♣ Do not administer iron to patients receiving repeated blood tranfusions. Transferrin transports iron to the bone marrow where it is incorporated into hemoglobin. take along with vitamin C or citric juices and NO to milk within and 1-2 hours after intake. ♣ Folic acid should be administered with caution to patients with undiagnosed anemia since it may obscure the diagnosis of pernicious anemia resulting to progression of neurologic complications. GI mucosa. Stools may appear darker in color. iron to avoid iron overload. since there is considerable amount of iron in the hemoglobin of transfused erythrocytes.

. Excretion is through the urine as metabolites or in the original form expected with prolong therapy and that stools may appear darker (greenish black) in color.♣ iron are excreted in the bile and sweat. They are also widely distributed in the body tissues. The B complex vitamins are generally readily absorbed from the GI tract.

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