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Born on Sep.3rd, 1856, Louis was best known for his innovative Chicago skyscrapers. His most elegant & engaging buildings were series of modest bank buildings he designed for several small communities in mid west. His banks such as Merchant’s National Bank, 1914 are masterful compositions of form & ornamentation, compelling examples of spirit of design. He also wrote a book, Kindergarten Chats in 1918. The 2nd of 2 sons, Louis lived with his parents who were dancers. In 1862, his grandparents got a farm in South Massachusetts from where his love for nature developed. He & his father explored Boston on foot from where he learnt to appreciate urban life & architecture. Due to his parents’ occupation he travelled a lot. This array of experiences & exposure made him an exceptionally independent boy. In 1872,he applied for admission in Building & architecture program at MIT, the only Architectural school at that time. He was accepted as 5 yr old special student without high school diploma after passing rigorous battery of tests. But he found MIT program to be too traditional & too little concerned with social & architectural theory. So he left it after his first year. He went to Chicago where he worked under architect William Jenney, where he decided to return to school for theoretical ground. But he found it disappointing & returned to Chicago. He worked for Dankman Adler who was so impressed with his drawing talents and ornamentation that he made him his junior partner in 1881 and full partner in New Firm of Adler & Sullivan organized on May 1, 1883. They built nearly 180 buildings including residences, offices, stores, theatres, music halls, auditoriums, warehouses, stables, mausoleums, rail road stations and libraries. Both of them complemented each other perfectly. Adler had understood his limitation in designing, so he turned over to Sullivan for decoration. Adler took care of mechanical & structure, whereas Sullivan handled the art, together they worked out the program. Their mutual talents were 1st recognized at theatre & concert hall genre. Sullivan was called MASTER SPIRIT DIRECTING & SHAPING THE CREATION. Even more impressive to his coordinated array of colors was his handling of incandescent lights. Their theatres did away with flaming chandeliers in favour of electric light fixtures. Anoop Sharma, Lecturer SALD SMVDU. Page 1
Burnham added the southern most 5 bays along state. truthfully follows its structure.Merchants National Bank(USA).H. Two meanings are associated with this statement: i)Form of the building should not be reconciled & imposed by an architect.Paul’s church. Chicago Carson Building. Building originally crowned by rich overhanging cornice.People’s Savings & loan Association Bank(USA). The tripartite division is present with: 1. earned a well-deserved reputation. Madison(USA). Architecture should not be static over a period of time but should change gradually to adapt changes in lifestyle. In his facades. Page 2 . It was constructed in two phases 1899 and 1903 to 1904. Originally a 9-storey structure.H. 3rd bay and 9 storey phase of this departmental store was erected in 1899 and 2nd bay 12th storey increment of the corner of Madison and straight between 1903-04. Chicago. Riverside(USA). Bradley House. St. The horizontal line rather than vertical is dominating. Anoop Sharma. Lowa(USA). SCHLESINGER & MEYER DEPARTMENTAL STORE Now called Caron. The building has white terracotta facing to the building the steel frame. ii) Most importantly. Babson House. Sullivan’s lighting & ornamentation along with Adler’s acoustics & uninterrupted site lines. Rather form should evolve in a logical manner by solving problems of function. Windows were such placed that horizontal bands come in between window level. Scott & Co. Their private dwellings were also marked by ORIGINALITY & COMMON SENSE. assured them to abounding orders from clients. a 12-storey section added in 1903-04 & further additions done 1960 by D. D. material. Their motto LET THERE BE LIGHT. he articulated the limestone & granite exterior in rhythmic manner befitting both cultural & commercial nature of his interior function. he used thin columns slightly forwarded of the main building mass. Ground Floor Windows encrusted with cast iron frames 2. Farmers & Merchants’ Union Bank(USA). His most important projects are: Auditorium Building. He gave the statement: FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION.Burnham. Pirie. Lecturer SALD SMVDU. In their commercial structures & factories they used isolated footings instead of continuous foundations which widened the span between masonry clad columns. Finally each storey bay measured 22ft x 20ft. Terminating attic and cornices slab 1st. In his Richardson’s Marshall Field Wholesale store in Chicago. site etc.National Farmers Bank(USA). Mid-section 3.
The building is crowned with cornice on top. Lecturer SALD SMVDU. 10 storey steel framed building and cladding in masonry was employed. It has plasters outside and metal columns inside. . The swirling lines and the opalescent glass reveal Sullivan’s interest in Art Nouveau. Reddish brown terracotta adorns the piers. The 1st two floors contain public spaces and they constitute the base and the office area. Page 3 Anoop Sharma. First example of Sullivan’s decorative work that suggested European Art Nouveau Style. Missouri. shaft and capital. Lower two floors and upper facade had horizontal articulation. It has thirteen stories and at that time was the tallest building in New York. Was built in 1890-1891 in S. Capping have been done by deep ornamented frieze and pierced by circular windows lighting the top floor. Middle section consists of red brick plaster with decorated terracotta spandrels. New York. There are windows and panels set within recessed strips between the piers. spandrels. Sullivan seems to have followed the principle division of classical column with a base. The top is rendered with terracotta stone to match spandrels and plasters below. It is similar in general character to Wainwright Building. In it. WAINWRIGHT BUILDING It is an early skyscraper and was a commercial office tower. More ornamentation was done on bottom than on top by Sullivan & George Elmslie. It has bold rectangular form and vertical and horizontal members to balance composition. curtain walled building. Entrances has been made prominent by arches and the arches are also given on top. The second storey base has red sandstone set on 2 feet high string courses of red masonry granite. GUARANTY BUFFALO BUILDING Built in year 1894-1896 in Buffalo. It has flowered design top. It has tall narrow metal columns faced with masonry. arches and columns which gives the building splendid look. Recessed panels between floors are also decorated. It has plinth like base and series of identical floors above. It was one of the first steel supported. It was named Prudential building 2 years after it was completed. Vertical members of the frame are emphasized externally as brick piers. Louis.
Sullivan admired Richardson’s clean work. He 1stly helped him in the Auditorium Building. Theatre had moving panels & balconies that closed off. Narrow piers give an upward thrust to the building. He greatly revered Louis whom he called his Leiber Meister(Beloved Master).T. without hampering its acoustic quality-one of the marvelous aspect of this Auditorium. AUDITORIUM BUILDING The Peck group first approached Richardson to design the Auditorium. Main problem occurred in rising tower seven stories above rest of the building. techniques that were so dramatically changing architecture in the late 19th century. Anoop Sharma. Ten storey structure Load bearing walls in exterior & interior Tower rises nearly 30 ft higher than main building Interiors are of higher order.. Lecturer SALD SMVDU. Sullivan created the archetype of the modern skyscrapers which look like column holding up or scraping the sky. but he died & they approached Sullivan. but had a soft corner for ornamentation Finally built in 1886-89. Combined an opera house with hotel & office accommodation & resembles its elevation with Richardson's Marshall Field Wholesale Warehouse in Chicago. turrets & pyramidshaped tower with cupola on top-a completely fractious mass that failed in proportions & rhythm. It was he who introduced Wright to engg. Thus The Peck requested them to take inspiration from Richardson's’ designs.W. The light run down these arches illuminating the entire room softly and completely. It features wide three elliptical arches. Consultant chosen for this project was Sullivan’s old teacher in M. William Ware. To ensure settlement of foundation of tower & rest of building at same rate Adler added load to base of tower during construction. Elaborate cornice and oculus windows were provided on the street sides.I. many from Byzantine in character & many designed by the famous draftsman F. Immense stained glass skylight was placed at rear of hall.L. HOW SULLIVAN INFLUENCED WRIGHT? Adler & Sullivan’s partnership was seminal to Wright’s career. Page 4 . Arches were not structural but decorative elements. Original design was a 9 storey building with high pitched roof. Mr.
Wright had now become the chief assistant and was made responsible the firm’s domestic building. Sullivan’s dearest wish was to fulfill the romantic vision of the architect as universal artist. He desired to create architecture exclusively for his motherland. In 1889. Page 5 . During most of the second half of the 19th century an interesting dispute. which came to be known as ‘the Battle of Styles ‘provided architects and critics with a platform for dissension which was eventually to have a healthy impact on subsequent architectural thinking. America. refusing to compromise with the reigning orthodoxies of his day. Wright remained with Adler & Sullivan for nearly 6 years (1888-1893). not one that copied past. that too logical & not static designs. As his personal reputation increased he undertook commissions on his own account. He left in 1893 after which he set his own practice & begun his astonishing progress to fame HIS IMPACT Sullivan wanted to give a heroic image to the architect. Illinois. He was known for his Chicago skyscrapers.what he described as ‘bootlegging’. Wright said. Lecturer SALD SMVDU. Ornamentation & decoration had become his distinguishing trademarks. Sullivan’s buildings were of a piece with the other intellectual influences that were shaping Wright’s aesthetic sensibility In the realm of ideas. Anoop Sharma. “Sullivan was first & foremost a model of the artist striving for original style. When Sullivan discovered what Wright was doing he understandably felt badly betrayed by someone he fully trusted. heroic individual & profit of democracy while also embodying the no less romantic role of the artist as cultural critic. Winslow House in River Forest. He adopted full freedom in designs. His most distinguishing trademark was erotically florid vegetative surface decoration.” Both of them contributed to the new urban landscape of late 19th century America. One sees the echo’s of this ornamental influence in Wright’s William H. he built his own home in Oak Park thro’ an advance in salary with help of Sullivan. Sullivan was engaged on major architectural projects in & around Chicago & unprofitable designs of smaller houses were largely undertaken by the juniors in the office. The argument centered on what could or should be considered a correct style for the developing industrial society. He always pushed for an architecture that truly represented people in present.
He used mechnomorphic & biomorphic inventions to satisfy architectural needs. The argument further extended to whether the medieval Christian was to continue to be the style for the future. in which rectangular forms. derived at least from Ruskin’s deep sense of ornamentation. new building materials like iron and steel emerged which engineers and architects were quick to exploit. Lecturer SALD SMVDU. which proliferated over his buildings and became a highly visible feature of his architecture. As such. the increasing industrialization resulted from the technological advances. in which the various architects tried to materialize their fantasies. Actually it was regarded as the bedrock of the Western conscience or the Classical tradition which traced its origin through the Renaissance to the Great civilizations of Greece and Rome and formed the greatest part of the Western architecture. Due to its impact. curtain walls in glass & concrete appeared. His strong decorative sense. The great arched doorway in Romanesque style and other decorative elements represented an essentially American aspect fin de siècle style of Art Nouveau movement. Along with the stylistic struggle. Sullivan was the main contributor of Art Nouveau style in America which was slightly different from its European version. ‘the White Box’ style too emerged. Page 6 . engaged the architects. led to a rich form of decoration in a variety of materials from iron to terracotta. This finally led to the emergence of the Art Nouveau movement. Anoop Sharma.