and wise men. suppose that most people would say is anything so very won- but because of all the great things that have happened there. all of them most wonderful. some of them most beautiful. But besides that. of Moses. of which Egypt has so many. those beautiful stories of the Old Testament. No other country has so long a history of great Kings. it is a land which has a most strange and wonderful story of its own. and brave soldiers and in no other country can you see anything to compare with the great buildings. I think that Egypt would come next. and of the wonderful exodus of the Children of Israel. the slave-boy who became Viceroy of Egypt .E. But after For Palestine. We have some old and interesting buildings in this country. and above all because of its having been the home of our Lord. far to see cathedrals and castles that are perhaps five or B A. . which tell derful in the land us of Joseph. and people go . Palestine —not because there itself. the Hebrew child who became a Prince of Pharaoh's household .ANCIENT EGYPT CHAPTER If I "A LAND OF OLD RENOWN" we were asked I to name the most interesting country in the world. it is linked very closely to Palestine by all one thing.

and about the kind of life that people lived in it in those days of long ago. For the great temples and tombs of Egypt were. were far older than any building now standing in Europe. properly speaking. ire still for instance. begins. before most other lands had begun First of to waken up. let us try to get an idea of the land itself. and their ships to explore the seas. When Britain was a wild. but in Egypt. Hundreds upon hundreds of years before anyone had ever heard Df the Greeks and the Romans. was called " the least of all 2 . It is a very remarkable thing that so many of the countries which have played a great part in the history of the world have been small countries. The Pyramids. and nobody pays very much attention to them. inhabited only by savages as fierce and untaught as the South Sea Islanders. Our own Britain is not very big. So in this little book I want to tell you something about this wonderful and interesting old country. and its people were wise and learned. and wise men were writing books which we can still read. hundreds of years old before the story of our six buildings of that age are looked Bible. many of them. those huge piles that the wonder of the world. sending out their armies to conquer and the Soudan. upon as almost new. or even more . full of great cities. unknown island.Ancient Egypt hundred years /)ld. with noble palaces and temples. Syria unknown southern all. before Joseph was sold to be a slave in Potiphar's house. Palestine. Egypt was a great and highly civilized country. which has done more than any other country to make the world what it is to-day. though it has had a great story. there were great Kings reigning in Egypt. or to have any history at all.

while. and the real Egyptians . except near the mouth of the river. at last. ran into the sea near Cairo. or looks a fair size wild rocky hill-country. and the Delta at the Nile mouth. not long reclaimed from the sea. whose influence comes. But gradually. century by century. till. bordered on either side by desert hills. just below the flower. is is the flower a little bud — . too. only a little is hilly corner of Southern Europe. sometimes only a mile or two broad altogether. 3 . The long winding of the Nile is the crooked stem of the lily. but you have to remember that nearly all the land which is called Egypt on the map is barren sandy desert. next after that of Palestine. and the land was nothing but the narrow valley of the river. there was no bloom on the lily. This was long before Egypt had any story of its own but even after history begins the Delta was still partly marshy land. It And Egypt."A lands. The Nile. much as we see it now. leaving banks of soil on either side between itself and the hills. and the mud which it brought down in its waters piled up at its mouth and pressed the sea back. Long before even Egyptian history begins. a far bigger river then than it is now. the modern capital of Egypt . the Nile cut its way deeper down into the land. with its wide stretch of fertile soil. there a fertile valley called the Fayum. * Land of Old Renown" is Greece. a small land. The Egypt is just a narrow strip of land on either side of the great River Nile. where it widens out into the fan-shaped plain called the Delta. where no one can real live. never more than thirty miles broad. the Delta was formed. the comparison very true. comparatively when you see it on the map . Someone and valley has compared Egypt is to a lily with a crooked stem. perhaps.

All the lower lands are covered. Almost anything will grow It there. and." And yet Egypt is a land where rain is almost unknown. though there was famine there. year in and year out. the whole country was only about twice as large as Wales. An old Greek historian once said. But the it made the country it keeps alive. she used to get most of the corn to feed her hungry Egypt by the famous Alexandrian and you remember how. the Nile comes down in flood. and a fresh deposit of Nile mud is left upon them . nowadays. and. Sometimes there will come a heavy thundershower . } The fall Every year. with. though there was a great number of people in it for its size. and.Ancient Egypt of the valley despised the people who lived there as mere marsh-dwellers. thousands from corn-ships . the population was only. though 4 . "Egypt is the gift of the Nile. cutting out the narrow valley through the and building up the Nile has not only flat plain of the Delta. . Even after the Delta was formed. You know fertile that lands in Egypt has always been one of the most the world. from which one hills. when the rains in the great lake-basin of Central Africa. How secret is can a rainless country grow anything the Nile. was the same When Rome was the capital of the world. and on the Abyssinian where the other branch rises." and it is perfectly true. about twice as great as that of London. at the most. there was ** corn in Egypt. branch of the great river comes. We have seen how the great river made the country to begin hills. but for month after month. Joseph's brethren came down from Palestine because. in the Bible story. in old days. and it produces wonderful crops of corn and vegetables. there may be no rain at all. of cotton.

of the Knights of the Round Table. Lancelot and Tristram and Galahad if only we could find them. hundreds of years before Saul and the weapons. Jonathan and David began to fight the battles of Israel. not only on there in . and fought bravely for their country. This keeps tlie land fertile. swords and lances. how their houses were built. the water is led into big canals. how they amused themselves. the country itself It is rather a monohas no very striking features. how 5 . again. little and these. Apart from its wonderful river. Think how we should prize an actual building that had been connected with the story of King Arthur. You can see the pictures of how people lived in those far-away days." « A Land of Old Renown the river does not rise to the higher grounds. and gives the old land a never-failing interest. into ones. Out but on the actual faces and forms of great Kings and soldiers who lived. and what wonderful romance would belong to the weapons. till it circulates — In no other land can you see the real people and things of the days of long ago as you can see them in Egypt. how they traded and toiled. — Egypt you can see buildings compared with which King Arthur's Camelot would be only a thing of yesterday and you can look. tonous land a long ribbon of green running through a great waste of yellow desert and barren hills. the actual shields and helmets. But the great charm that draws people's minds to Egypt. if such a thing could be found in our country. is its great story of the past. and makes up for the lack of rain. and all the relics of that story which are still to be seen. as the blood circulates through your arteries and veins. are divided up through the whole land.

Suppose. this old land . want to try to tell you about some of them. Egypt so interesting to us all to-day and I CHAPTER II A DAY IN THEBES If any foreigner were wanting to get an idea of our country. God — all set how they worshipped down by themselves at the very time these things. beyond the days of Jesus 6 beyond even the . and see what is to be seen there. and you can read the which their mothers of and their nurses used to These are the things which make tell them. and so. but that somehow far or other we have got away back Christ. and how people lived there in those faroff days. we must try to get to the capital of the country. into the past.Ancient Egypt they behaved in time of sorrow. because it is the capital of the whole country. I suppose the would go to would be London. then. and to see first how our people live. so that you may be able to have in your mind's eye a real picture of the life of those long past days. games at which the children used to stories and the queer old-fashioned toys and dolls that they played with. if we want to learn something about Egypt. that we are no longer living in place that he Britain in the twentieth century. when they were doing see the You can even play. and its greatest city .

Not far from Memphis. Day in Thebes about 1. and the pilot tells us that these are the tombs of some of the great Kings of long past days. At first we sail along through a broad flat plain. to sell in the markets of Thebes. and for long its capital. . so our weary oarsmen have shipped their oars. and partly covered with marsh and By-and-by the green plain begins to marsh plants. and entering upon the real valley of Egypt. and great obelisks pointing to the sky and our pilot says that this is Memphis.A before Christ. 7 . and are living We We steersmen. and we dtrive steadily southwards under our one big swelling sail. laden with costly bales of cloth dyed with Tyrian purple. with their towering gateways. either side who work of the the two big rudders. three great pyramid-shaped masses of stone rise up on the river-bank. river mouth. gay flags floating from tall flagstaves in front of them. and he stands on a little platform at the bow of the galley. one of the oldest towns in the country. and that ship's stern. . Soon we pass a great city. grow narrower we are coming to the end of the Delta. after narrowly escaping being driven in a storm on the dangerous quicksand called the Syrtis. looking almost like mountains . Carmel and Joppa. one on The north wind is blowing strongly and driving us swiftly upstream. the have coasted along past greatest city in Egypt. and.300 years have come from Tyre in a Phoenician galley. and beautiful vessels wrought in bronze and copper. in spite of the current of the great river . its temples standing out clear against the deep blue sky. we have entered one of the mouths of the We have taken up an Egyptian pilot at the Nile. partly cultivated. and shouts his directions to the times of Moses.

but some are very great and splendid and. it sends back flashes of gold and crimson and blue that dazzle the eyes. But we are bound for a Memphis. It has neither streets nor palaces. the doorways of the tombs where the dead of Thebes for centuries back are sleepOut on the plain. Ancient Egypt all around them lie smaller pyramids and other tombs of Kings and great men. But now our galley is drawing in towards the quay on the east side of the river. which marks a city greater than we have ever seen. river. partly ruined. between the cliffs and the ing. a huge cluster of buildings on both sides of the river. and an endless crowd of houses of all sorts and sizes. On the west bank lies that cluster near the river. temple rises after temple in seemingly endless Some of these temples are small and succession. far ahead of us. and in a few minutes the . hum of busy striking life goes up from its almost more than it . the city of the dead. and to set up a new god of his own and at last we see. but it is neighbour across the The hills and cliffs are honeycombed with long rows of black openings. past city stop. and so we never southward. As we sweep up the river we see that there are really two cities. which our pilot tells us was once the capital of a wicked King who tried to cast down all the old gods of Egypt. with its strong walls and towers. from the gay palaces of the nobles to the mud huts of the poor people.. past many towns ruined city. falling into . and no river. On the east bank lies the city of the living. greater even than Several days but hasten always of steady sailing carry us one mere heaps of stone and brick. its enormous temples. as the sunlight strikes upon them.


Page l6 ..<ltT:->j»»»?' . ^ !&-.Plate 2 =* *-"''•" '** '^ I*.i-aeT..' V-'<B!lf<Mftl»!»» -ll» i|»i «. T'<Wg.P»«. A*"'':'A^t THE GODDESS ISIS DANDLING THE KING.

life. shoulders . officers come on board to examine the cargo. The Egyptian Custom-house . He is almost at his for last gasp. the amount of the tax is settled and paid. and a crowd of men comes rushing up with shouts and oaths. Ahead of them runs a single figure. for they are quite different in appearance from our own hooknosed. folds over and he wears a gilded girdle with fringed ends which hang down nearly to his knees. whose writing-case. and he 9 evidently fleeing the men behind him —rough. and our long voyage is at an end. A great noise is heard from one of the narrow riverside streets. In his right hand he carries a long stick. ' After a good deal of hot argument. he is is stout and not half- accustomed to running for his A. for . which he is not slow to lay over the shoulders of his men when they do not obey his orders fast enough. Most wear nothing but a kilt of white linen but the chief officer has a fine white cloak thrown over his . marks him out as a scribe. some cloaks. We have not gone far before we find that life in Thebes can be quite exciting. the mooring-ropes are thrown and made fast. and. and collect the dues that have to be paid on it and we watch them with interest. and some have their hair cut straight across their brows. with their thick many-coloured These Egyptians are all clean shaven . the ship drifts slowly up to the quay. while it falls thickly behind upon their necks in a multitude of little curls. so that it it stands out almost like a board where in fi-ont. C . of them wear wigs.E. and we are free to go up into the great town. stuck in his girdle. bearded sailors. which must have taken them no small trouble to get into order.A great '«ail Day in Thebes as comes thundering down. his linen kilt is stiffly starched.

He is Prince Paser. and a good deal of stone-throwing. have been working for They have had no wages . In a little while the gate is cautiously unbarred. Bruised and bleeding. He gasps out a word to the porter. and why they have chased and beaten his secretary. He and his mates. we have no clothes. they have not even weeks. to appeal to have been driven here by hunger and thirst . They all shout at once in answer to the Prince's question but by-and-by they push forward a spokesman. but warming up as he goes along." When the Pharaoh. very richly dressed. who form a ring round it. making such a noise. had the corn and oil which ought to be issued as rations to Government workmen. or. and is naked. and followed by half a dozen well-armed negro guards. The gate is slammed and bolted in the faces of his pursuers. he darts up to the gate of a handsome house whose garden-wall faces the street. who has charge of the Works Department of the Theban Government. So they have struck work. to make their complaint to the great man. and the workmen are masons employed on a large job in the cemetery of Thebes. the whole crowd lO .Ancient Egypt working class are chasing him with cries of anger. we have no oil. and asks the workmen why they are here. rather sheepishly at first. Write to our lord the Pharaoh. if his stores are exhausted. ill-fed creatures of the — quickly passed into the garden. " We spokesman has finished his complaint. we have no food. that he may give us something for our sustenance. and now they have come to their lord the Prince to . shouting and shaking their fists. and he begins. and a fine-looking man. entreat him either to give command that the rations be issued. steps forward. he says.

start But they have no and they have no weapons. down the street from which they came . grumbling. Finally they turn. Only the work- men must go back and there must be no more chasing of poor Secretary Amen-nachtu. and have got leader good of them. bold enough to a riot. even so long ago as this. to their at once. however. CHAPTER Having III A DAY IN THEBES— Continued seen the settlement of the masons' strike. The workmen grumble Otherwise. with a shrug of his shoulders. and Prince Paser. see. They have been put little off with promises before.A Day in Thebes volubly assents to what he has said. another matter. Some II . is an old hand at dealing with such complaints. work a little. he can do nothing. and here and there the houses actually meet overhead. you were not unknown. The streets are generally narrow and winding. With a smiling face he promises that fifty sacks of corn shall be sent to the cemetery immediately. with oil to correspond. and sways to and fro in a very threatening manner. Whether is the fifty sacks of corn Strikes. goes indoors again. and the spears and bows of the Prince's Nubians look dangerous. so that we pass out of the blinding sunlight into a sort of dark tunnel. are ever sent or not. and disappear. we wander up into the heart of the town. Prince Paser.

Here are the townsfolk. packed so closely together that there is only We room for a single foot-passenger to thread his way through the narrow alleys between them. turned up at the and dainty. outer walls are almost absolutely blank. out to buy supplies for their houses. By-and-by we come out into a more open space one of the bazaars of the city where business is in full swing. and all the goods are spread out round the shopkeeper. with bright courts surrounded with trees. peasants from the villages round about. and the heat and smell in them are so overpowering that one wonders how people can live in such places. They will be fine enough inside. These are the workmen's quarters. bringing in vegetables and cattle to barter for the goods which can only be got in the town . The shops are little shallow booths quite open to the front . for a Theban crowd holds representatives of nearly every nation known. and invites the attention of the passers-by by loud explanations of the goodness and cheapness of his wares. men and women. dressed elaborately in the latest Court fashion. brightly -coloured sandals toes. All sorts of people are coming and going. some quarters where there is nothing but a crowd of mud huts. but even the largest make no display towards the street. and with fine rooms decorated with gay hangings but their . with — carefully curled wigs. long pleated robes of fine trans- parent linen. fine ladies and gentlemen. in the midst of which lies a cool pond of water. who squats cross-legged in the middle of his property. At one moment you rub 12 . ready to serve his customers. with nothing pass by but a heavy door breaking the dead line. or to exchange the news of the day .— Ancient Egypt of the houses are large and high .

Besides. and heavy. or whether a load of onions is good value for a chair. and the bargain is clinched. but he loudly protests that this is robbery. and offer. and nearly is done by means of exchange. Here and there one or two traders have advanced a little beyond the old-fashioned way of barter. so many rings of copper. Even then the rings have still to be weighed that he may oe sure he is not being cheated. looks disdainfully at him as he shoulders his way through it. All around us people are buying and selling. and so the clatter of tongues is deafening. as if thinking that He looks round him curiously. the ball and horns on his helmet flashing in the sunlight. you can imagine that there has to comes to be a question be a good deal of argument. sword swinging in its sheath as he and a Libyan bowman. as all Money. the Egyptian dearly loves bargaining for the mere excitement of the thing. the crowd. with shaven head. a conspicuous with his high-peaked cap. with two bright feathers in his leather skull-cap. his big walks . or gold wire. When it of how many fish have to be given for a bed. A peasant who has brought in a bullock to sell is offered 90 copper " uten " (as the rings are called) for it . pointed boots." with 8 more as a luckpenny.A figure. we know the trade has not yet been invented. silver. and after a long argument he screws the merchant up to in "uten. Then a priest of high rank goes by. and a roll of papyrus in his hand. Day in Thebes shoulders with a HIttite from Kadesh. a splendid Thebes would be town to plunder. a panther skin slung across his shoulder over his white robe. So a big pair of balances is 13 . pale complexion. A Sardinian of the bodyguard swaggers along behind him. instead of goods.

Beyond the Tyrian booth. and he is hard at work. made of woven grass. A little farther on. and not quite steady in their gait. the *' uten " are heaped into one scale. glowing with the deep rich colours. most of the copper rings have found their way back again to the merchant's sack. the Tyrian traders. seems to of customers. that young makes no display of wares. with his little furnace and blowpipe. and reappear. a constant secure stream : man. rings . and. Screens. and in the other are piled weights in the shape of bulls' Finally. and picks up his bag of heads." H . but the wily merchant is not done with him yet. He spreads out various tempting bargains before the eyes of the countryman. Workmen slink in at the door. In one corner of the bazaar stands a house which but. one bystander nudges another and remarks " Pentuere is going to have a good day again . with pale and haggard face. before the latter leaves the shop. beautifully inlaid with all kinds of rich colours. hang round him . he is satisfied. for which a lady is patiently waiting.Ancient Egypt brought out . wiping their mouths. to whom the cargo of our galley is consigned. as though half ashamed of themselves. have their shop. putting the last touches to the welding of a bracelet. shop. A young man. after a little. and under their shade all sorts of gorgeous stuffs are displayed. swaggers past and goes in. shelter it from the sun. a goldsmith is busily employed in his Necklets and bracelets of gold and silver. as he enters the door. he will come to a bad end. nevertheless. and. of which the Tyrians alone have the secret since the sack of Knossos destroyed the trade of Crete.

and can see the towering gateways and obelisks of the great temples over the Soon a great crowd comes roofs of the houses. Thy comrades go on drinking. and Pentuere comes He looks vacantly round. what is the meaning of the bustle. man points him out to his young and says : "See this fellow. and it is not so long since two of them had their noses cut off. and say. Thou and break thy limbs. who is drunk. thou art found lying my son. we gradually get near to the sacred quarter of the town." But in spite of much wise advice. the great god of Thebes. and tries to out staggering. towards us. and the sounds of trumpets and flutes Inquiring are heard coming from the midst of it. and learn not to drink beer to excess. 15 . and bespatter thyself with mud. Even sometimes drink too much at their great parties. though generally temperate. The . *Away with this fellow. passers-by jeer and laugh at him as he lies helpless but one decent-looking son. fine ladies Sauntering onwards. Day in Thebes By-and-by the door opens again. dost fall in the dust like a little child. is only too fond of making " a good day. the Egyptian. a pitiful sight. as a warning to the rest against such shameful conduct. in order to have a revel with the criminals whom they were trying . after walk away a stumble or two. he falls in a heap and lies in the road. like a crocodile^ and no one reaches out a hand to thee.' If anyone should seek thee on business. the very judges of the High miserable. and. but his legs refuse to carry him. at the beerhouse. and have to be carried away very sick and Worst of all." as he calls it.A . we are told that one of the images of Amen. Court have been known to take a day off during the hearing of a long case.

by means of two long poles. moment. so as to hide the god from curious eyes. keen-looking men. carefully dressed. their bodies wrapped in pure white robes of the beautiful Egyptian linen. and painted with The revelation of this little doll. in the midst of which rises a little shrine. The shrine is carefully draped round with a veil. and swing their censers. the bark of the god is rested on the top of the pillar. and at which the King is going to preside. and on whom the eyes of all are fixed. On their shoulders they carry. adorned silence. and eatables of various kinds. and a number of women who are dancing as they go. and a few of the bystanders lay before the bark offerings of flowers. a model of a Nile boat. But just in front of the doorway where we are standing a small stone pillar rises from the roadway. wafting clouds of incense round the shrine . plumes. about 1 8 inches high.Ancient Egypt being carried in procession as a preliminary to an important service which is to take place in the afteris noon. They are tall. a priest lifts up his voice. shrine is a little of the slowly drawn aside. to aTheban crowd the most sacred object in all the world. spare. fruit. who form the centre of the whole crowd. Stepping back under the doorway of a house. Then tall i6 . Amid breathless the veil with green and black. and the faithful can see wooden image. Then comes the solemn singers. there comes group of six men. their heads clean shaven. and when the bearers come to this point. loudly intoning a hymn of praise to the great god who creates and sustains all things . we watch the After a group of musicians and procession go past. is hailed with shouts of wonder and reverence. and shaking curious metal rattles. Two censer-bearers come forward.

WITH OBELISK.i.Plate 3 Tl.w wAIK OF THE TEMPLE OF LUXOR. 73 . Pages 74. vjKi^.


we had better lose turn our faces rivcrwards again. as something niore than a man. if before starting out to see Pharaoh passing in procession no time. his people look upon him. we go up to the palace to see him come forth in glory. 17 D . through the endless maze of streets to where our galley is moored at the quay. and the streets are left quiet for awhile. just name . Just as the Turks nowa" Sublime Porte. as we signifies . and he looks upon himself.K. There are the Sultan and his Government." or Pharaoh. which really " Great House. it is not even a word which is used is title it is to describe a person who so great that people his proper scarcely venture to call him by name." when they mean the King. his official is not his . the procession passes on. and so we and wander dowr. let me tell you a little about him and the is kind of real life he leads. so the Egyptians speak of "Per-o. A. We are reminded that. For the King of Egypt is a very great man indeed in fact. of course." when they mean days speak of the call it.Pharaoh the veil is at Home we wish to get a meal drawn again. to the temple. Pharaoh. CHAPTER The and all IV PHARAOH AT HOME time state to the great temple at as his coming on now for the King to go in Karnak to offer sacrifice.

and now. Amen the rest of the crowd of divinities. There all is just one dis- tinction at made between him and the Thebes. and the huge statue of the King. and sacrifices offered to him Divine honours and when he . for there has been so much to do away in Syria. a great temple rises to his memory. which the Hebrews call Zoan. when it is growing almost certain that there will be another war with those vile Hittites in the North of Syria. will see pictures of his childhood. and spends most of his time there. which stands before the temple gate. he has a list of titles that would fill a page. where great goddesses dandle the young god upon dies. like all the other Pharaohs. the people reverence. and called title. and hosts of priests are employed in his worship. is their King. His subjects in Thebes have not seen very much of him for a long time. are takes a different He "the great gods. Ptah at Memphis. But Thebes is still the centre of the nation's life. that is only . other gods. People who have been down the river tell us great wonders about the beauty of the new town. its great temple. and to whom they pay the most . and that a very long time now. Of is one part of his name for. in the temples you 2). that he has built another capital at Tanis. the reigning monarch has been of god manifest in the flesh.Ancient Egypt many gods in Egypt but the god whom know best." Pharaoh is called " the good god. down between the Delta and the eastern frontier. he has come up to the great At present " the good god " course. 90 feet high. their knees (Plate are paid. and goes to join his brother-gods in heaven." Ramses II. looked upon as a kind He calls himself " Son of the Sun " . Ever since there have been is Kings in the country. 18 .

of light materials. The new King might not care for the old King's home. serve his turn. surrounds it . gay with all sorts of flowers. The royal palace is in a constant bustle. Behind the 19 . audience high central door leads into a great glowing with colour. The hall. the palace is not so very imposing. a great Pharaoh of bygone days had to spring from his couch and fight single-handed for his life against a crowd of conspirators who had forced an entrance into the palace while he was enjoying his siesta. and heavy gates. may belong Within the great boundary wall lie pleasant gardens. and an artificial lake shows its gleaming water here and there through the trees and shrubs. palace itself is all glittering white stucco on the outside. his subjects are sometimes rather difficult to keep in order. for. army. Plots against the King have not been unknown in the past . and so each Pharaoh builds his house It will according to his own taste. than in any divinity that to himself. with envoys coming and going. The Outside. So since then Pharaoh has found it better to trust in his strong for gathering his walls. Egyptians built their temples to last for ever . towers. and on at least one occasion. and his successor may build another for himself. but the palaces of their Kings were meant to serve only for a short time. its roof supported A by painted pillars in the either side of this lie form of lotus-stalks . and in the big broadswords of his faithful Sar- dinian guardsmen. A high wall^ with battlements. and on two smaller halls. and to city to take counsel with his brother-god.Pharaoh make arrangements at Home Amen. and counsellors and generals continually passing in and out with reports and orders. though Pharaoh is a god.

The bedroom of the great King himself stands apart from the other rooms.painted wooden pillars which end in capitals of lotus-flowers. and King of the the Snake. and some of the young Princes and Princesses. giving . and it takes no small space to house them all. and to consider these with his great nobles and Generals.Ancient Egypt audience chamber are two immense dining-rooms. and behind these come the sleeping apartments of the numerous household. Ramses has a multitude of wives. and richly decorated with turquoise and lapis lazuli. The folding doors of the audience chamber are thrown open. steps forth with his earlier Lands. a door opens at the back of the balcony. and imploring the help of the Egyptian army and now the King is about to give audience. the provincial governors. homage In the a to their master. the assembled fall Two nobles were expected to on 20 their faces and kiss the . Lord of the Vulture and Queen and family. and is surrounded by banks of flowers in full bloom. He has had many letters and despatches to read and consider. supported on gaily. The front of this balcony is overlaid with gold. At one end of the reception hall stands a low balcony. accompanied by his favourite wife. and the high officers of the army and the State throng in to do writing. covered with their curious arrow-headed news of the advance of the Hittites. The Son of the Sun has had a busy day already. Here the King will show himself to his subjects. and a whole army of sons and daughters. Some of the Syrian vassal-princes have sent clay tablets. Queen Nefertari. whenever the King appeared. few moments the glittering crowd is duly arranged. and the barons. In times.



which tells of the King's greatness. reciting his little hymn. and now the great folks. the King gives orders to his equerry to prepare his chariot for the procession to the temple. and. and then giving his opinion on such matters as his master suggests to him. the nobles if in bow profoundly. a company of spearmen. in prayer to " the good god. they wait until Ramses sweeps his glance over the lord to speak. Instead. and puts a question division him as to the readiness of his — the picked division of the army. and leather skull-caps. "O King. So the audience goes on. steps forward with a of flattery over. but it is not Court manners for him to answer his lord's question directly. at all events. The soldier deep bow . however. the General begins. Fashion has changed." arms as it shall please their silent reverence. crowd. are no longer As Pharaoh enters the required to " smell the earth. and raise their Then. and asserts that wherever his horses tread his This little piece enemies flee before him and perish. his valour and skill in war." balcony. the great gates of the boundary wall of the palace are opened in quilted leather kilts ." and in a few sensible words gives the information required.Pharaoh at Home ground before him. and raise their arms in adoration. and takes position a short distance way. from the gateBehind them comes a company of the Sardinians 21 . counsellor after counsellor coming forward at the royal command. singles out the General in command of to the Theban troops. he begins by reciting a little psalm of praise. as he turns to leave the audience chamber. my master. the council is At last over. After a short delay. marches out. the assembled nobles once more bow profoundly.

Ancient Egypt
of the guard, heavily armed, with bright hehnets, broad round shields, quilted corselets, and long, heavy, twoedged swords. They range themselves on either side of the roadway, and stand like statues, waiting for the appearance of Pharaoh. There is a whir of chariotwheels, and the royal chariot sweeps through the gateway, and sets off at a good round pace towards the temple. The spearmen in front start at the double, and the guardsmen, in spite of their heavy equipment, keep pace with their royal master on either side.


waiting crowd bows to the dust as the sovereign

but Pharaoh looks neither to the right hand

nor to the left. He stands erect and impassive in the swaying chariot, holding the crook and whip which are the Egyptian royal emblems. On his head he wears
the royal

war helmet, in the front of which a golden cobra rears its crest from its coils, as if to threaten the enemies of Egypt. His finely-shaped, swarthy features
by an

are adorned, or disfigured,

beard, which

fastened on by a strap passing


in front of the







covered, above


with a robe of fine white



wonder of pleating ; and round his waist passes a girdle of gold and green enamel, whose ends cross and hang down almost to his knees, terminating in two threatening cobra heads (Plate 4 and Cover Picture). On either side of him run the fan-bearers, who manage, by a miracle of skill and activity, to keep their great gaily-coloured fans of perfumed ostrich feathers waving roimd the royal head even as they run. Behind the King comes a long train of other chariots,

splendid than that of Ramses.

In the




Nefertari, languidly sniffing at a lotus-


flower as sne passes on.


others are


by some

of the Princes of the blood, who are going to take part in the ceremony at the temple, chief among them the
wizard Prince

Khaemuas, the greatest





has spells that can bring the dead from

crowd shrink from his keen eye, and mutter that the papyrus roll which he holds so close to his breast was taken from the grave of another magician Prince of ancient days, and that Khaemuas In a few minutes will know no peace till it is restored. the whole brilliant train has passed, dazzling the eyes with a blaze of gold and white and scarlet ; and crowds
their graves.


in the

of courtiers stream after their master, as fast as their You have seen, feet can carry them, towards Karnak.

only for a moment, the greatest

man on



Great Oppressor of

Very mighty and does not dream that the very proud he is ; and he little Hebrew boy whom his daughter has adopted, and




being trained in the priestly college at Heliopolis,

one day humble all the pride of Egypt, and that the very name of Ramses shall be best remembered because it is linked with that of Moses.


Ancient Egypt


you read about the Egyptians in the Bible, it seems as though they were nearly always fighting ; and, indeed, they did a good deal of fighting in their time, as nearly every nation did in those old days. But in


they were not a great soldier people, like their
the Assyrians, or the Babylonians.

We, who

have had so



do with

their descendants, the

modern Egyptians, and have fought both against them and with them, know that the " Gippy " is not fond of soldiering in his heart. He makes a very good, patient, hardworking soldier when he has good officers but he


not like the Soudanese,


love fighting for fighting's
quietly in


He much

prefers to live


of ground. And his forefathers, in these long-past days, were very much of the same mind. Often, of course, they had to fight, when Pharaoh ordered them out for a campaign in the Soudan or in Syria, and then they fought wonderfully well ; but all the time their hearts were at home,

native village, and cultivate his


and they were glad
pleasant race, with

to get back to their

farm-work and

their simple pleasures.

They were

a peaceful, kindly,

of the cruelty and fierceness
the Assyrians.


find continually



the old Egyptian rather despised soldiering

as a profession.



was rather a miserable,

muddled kind of a job, in which, unless you were a great officer, you got all the hard knocks and none of



to drive the soldier. soldier and a high call officer from these who had been both a under Government in what we to us come dowr should the diplomatic service.The the honours . life His great idea of a happy was to get employment as a scribe. a clerk. returns with them to his town. in which the writer. in each of which there were two in the cavalry. to keep accounts and write reports.E. as we should say. if thing in perfect order he has a bad time of he has not everyit. Of gets his seems very nice at first. or. who two horses. new equipment. toiling on the land or serving in the army. for the soldiers did not ride on horses like men — the charioteer. to some big man or to the Government. rather. but an Egyptian who had sons was never so proud as when he could old father get one of them into a scribe's position. But course this wise old friend tells is him that even to be in the chariotry it not by any means a pleasant job. and A. and thinks The young man all the world of himself as he goes ** home rejoices to show off his fine feathers. his even though the young man might look down upon and his brothers. A curious old book has ancient days. And And and exults. and the stood beside the driver and fought with the bow.** But then comes the inspection. has told a young friend his opinion man of soldiering as a profession. Of course the people could not all be scribes . and sometimes with the lance or sword. for he is s 25 . The young had evidently been dazzled with the idea of being Egyptian our cavalry. but drove them in chariots. the chariotry. Life of a Soldier I and am not sure that he was far wrong. He receives beautiful horses. or.

— — . In the barracks he is flogged for every mistake or offence.000 men altogether.Ancient Egypt thrown down on the ground. out. Then. The armies that the Pharaohs led into Syria were not often much bigger than what we should call an army corps nowadays probably about 20. the wise man says. I dare say it was all quite true. his very clothes stolen by the rascals who should have attended on him. till But if the lot of the cavalry soldier is is hard.000. and beaten with sticks he is sore all over. that of the infantry-man harder. Pharaoh had his battles to fight. he gets all the danger and the wounds. while the Generals get all the credit. There would be first the native Egyptian spearmen and bowmen the spearmen with leather caps and quilted leather tunics. carrying a shield 26 . When the war is over. fertile homeland that he loves. But in that number you could find almost as many different sorts of men as in our own Indian army. and he got his soldiers all right when they were needed. when the battle comes. which makes him ill. or read of in some of the old histories. Day after day he has to tramp on foot through the wild hill-country. Far better. Then war breaks and he has to march with his battalion to Syria. so different from the flat. It was nothing like the great hosts that we hear of nowadays. sick and wounded. in spite of it all. just as perhaps it would not be very far from the truth at the present time but. a broken-down man. rarely more than 25. so that he is laden like a donkey . and often he has to drink dirty water. He has to carry all his heavy equipment and his rations. he comes home riding on a donkey. to be a scribe. The Egyptian army was not generally a very big one. and to remain comfortably at home.

and sometimes an axe. and could take a hand in the fighting if his companion was hard pressed.The Life of a Soldier and spear. or a dagger. 27 Be- . and won many a battle for their King. his It was made up of men whom the Egyptians called " Sherden " Sardinians. and were armed with great heavy swords of much the same shape as those which the Norman knights used to carry. bowman to bumped and balance himself in the Round the Pharaoh beautiful chariot. also of native Egyptians. himself. guiding his horses by swaying his body to one side or the other. The two horses were gaily decorated. Then came the chariot brigade. The charioteer sometimes twisted the reins round his waist. skull-cap. Scouts went on ahead to scour the country. or short sword the bowmen. as he stood in marched the royal bodyguard. more lightly equipped. with wild-beast skins thrown over their ebony shoulders and light-coloured Libyans from the West. men probably of higher rank than the foot-soldiers. each with a couple of feathers stuck in his leather — — . Behind the native troops and the bodyguard marched the other mercenaries regiments of black Soudanese. They wore metal helmets. for the Egyptian archers were almost as famous as the old English bowmen. but probably more dangerous enemies. and often wore plumes on their heads. and bring to the King reports of the enemy's whereabouts. carried round bossed shields. as it clattered over rough ground. with a round ball on the top and horns at the sides. and it must have been exceed- — ingly difficult for the narrow car. who had come over the sea to serve for hire in the army of the great King. The chariots were very light. probably.

the frontier garrison town of Egypt. Kadesh came in sight at last. and. and the sun's rays sparkled on the river and on the broad moat which surrounded the walls . Far on the horizon its towers could be seen. the scouts were kept out in every direction. The scouts came in with the report that the Hittites had 28 — . he was in no danger. though Menna was kept busy enough attending to his horses and seeing that the chariot was in perfect order. with the baggage carried on the backs of a long line of donkeys. they could keep up a steady fifteen miles a day for a week on end without side the royal chariot there — being fagged out. but still no enemy was to be seen. and even in the hot Syrian sunshine. marched out from Zaru. Let us follow the fortunes of an Egyptian soldier through one of the great battles of the nation's history. no enemy was seen at all. During all the long march across the desert. The Egyptians were good marchers. through Palestine. which had been trained to guard his master and fight with teeth and Last of all came the transclaws against his enemies. but very useful soldier a great tame lion. and over the northern mountain passes. he was promoted to be driver of the royal war-chariot when King Ramses II.Ancient Egypt padded along a strange. port train. and across a rough country where roads were almost unknown. to fight with the Hittites in Northern Syria. But as the army began to wind down the long valley of the Orontes towards the town of Kadesh. and protected by a baggageguard. Menna was one of the most skilful charioteers of the whole Egyptian army so skilful that. and the whole host was anxiously on the lookout for the Hittite troops. though he was still quite young.

was concealed on the other side of Kadesh. and the poor creatures confessed that the Hittite King. Behind them the whole Hittite chariot force. leaving the other three to straggle on behind him. The first brigade reached its camping-ground to the north-west of Kadesh . while Menna ran and yoked to the royal chariot the two noble horses which had been kept fresh for the day of battle. came clattering and leaping upon the heels of the fugitives. In great haste Ramses. camp the baggage was unloaded and the donkeys. The retreated Life of a Soldier northwards in terror. and he himself hurried on rather rashly with the first brigade. and then. released from their burdens. and King Ramses imagined that Kadesh was going to fall into his hands without a battle. each chariot with three men in it. widely separated from one another (Plate 4). His army was divided into four brigades. rolled on the ground in delight. with a great army. scolding his scouts the while for not keeping a better lookout. But before Pharaoh could leap into his chariot a wild uproar broke out at the gate of the camp. and the scattered fragments of the second brigade came pouring in headlong flight into the enclosure. Just at that moment some of the Egyptian scouts came in. bringing with them two Arabs whom they had caught.500 chariots strong. 2. as the second came straggling up. The Hittite King had waited till he saw the first brigade busy pitching camp. the tired troops pitched . and suspected to belong to the enemy King Ramses ordered the Arabs to be soundly beaten with sticks.. he had launched his chariots upon the flank of the 29 . began to get his soldiers under arms again. watching for an opportunity to attack the Egyptian army.

steady. we are alone m the midst of the enemy. his troops. overturned chariots. and looked at the dense mass of Hittite chariots. he panted to the King " O mighty strength of Egypt in the day of battle. As they swept through. he bade Menna lash his Menna was horses and charge the advancing Hittites. but when he saw the thin line of Egyptian troops. were left with only a few picked chariots of the household troops. The rush of terrified men carried off the first brigade Ramses and Menna along with it in hopeless rout. and calling to the handful of faithful soldiers to follow him. which drew aside as if terrified at upon them so fearlessly. and all together they burst through the chariot trail brigade of the enemy. my charioteer. save us. maddened 30 . he was at least a brave man. bungle of his generalship. He never thought of dishis heart almost failed him. O. men. obedience. no coward. as he stooped over his plunging horses. Leaping into his chariot. leaving a long marked by and dead and wounded horses. and the whole Hittite army was coming But though King Ramses had made a terrible on. Menna had enough to do to manage figures that dashed steeds." said Ramses.Ancient Egypt weary soldiers. who were swept away in a moment as if by a flood. but. my good lord !" "Steady. which were wild with excitement . and at every twang of the bowstring a Hittite champion fell from Behind the King came his household his chariot. but Ramses' bow was bent again and again. Ramses. "I am going among : them and like a In a hawk moment the !" fiery horses his charioteer between the were whirling the King files of the Hittite the glittering chariots.

The Egyptian quivers were nearly all empty now . Great was the confusion and the slaughter. nothing for it possible. scattering death Now — river. and. the Egyptian would be hopeless. and. the little knot of brave men who had saved the day still leading. was. At last a great shout from the rear announced the arrival of the third Egyptian brigade.The Still Life of a Soldier King Ramses had only gained a breathing-space. Again they burst through the opposing on either side as they passed. if back the Hittite chariots on the river. It was too late for him to try to move his spearmen across they would only have been trampled down by the retreating chariots. the Pharaoh dashed upon his enemies once more. on the other bank of the river there hung a great cloud of 8. but lance and sword still remained. time to cross the river. and. and inch by inch the Hittites were forced back upon the river. the Hittite King himself. under the bad There was command of enough as it If these got position. and the struggle was becoming less unequal. Their King stood ingloriously on the opposite bank. So Menna whipped up his horses again. Besides. the army swept the broken Hittites down the bank of the Orontes into the ranks. unable to do anything. with arrow on string. though his orderlies were madly galloping to bring up the third and fourth brigades. As the 31 . it must be some time yet before even the nearest could come into action. drive but to charge again and again. some of the fragments of the first and second brigades were beginning to rally and come back to the field. so as to hinder the spearmen from crossing.000 Hittite spearmen. and. The Hittites far outnumbered his little force.

ashamed of their conduct in the earlier part of the day. and wondering at the grim signs of conflict that lay on King Ramses called Menna to him. the chief of his bodyguard. the Egyptian bowmen. " As for my two horses. spread out along the bank. and a truce was agreed t( upon.Ancient Egypt through the ford. picked up his broken fugitives. and was swept down the river but some of his soldiers dashed into the water. held the half-drowned leader up by the heels. rescued him. the young charioteer came bowing before his master. and moved reluctantly off the field where so splendid a chance of victory had been missed. . The troops stood around. and fastened it round the neck of his faithful squire and. every side. The King of Aleppo missed the ford. and his chief scribe. Pharaoh stripped from his own royal neck a collar of gold. " they shall be fed before me every day in the royal chariots struggled . covered them with his mass of spearmen. handing the reins to a groom. and. and. and how none had stood by him but the young charioteer. were all killed. and the further strife 32 . in rough first aid. picked off the chiefs. palace. and they retired to the camp of the first brigade. and turned into defeat." he said. The Hittites drew off to the north." Both armies had suffered too much loss for any be possible. the King told them how shamefully they had left him to fight his battle alone. his shield-bearer. leaning on their spears. Then Pharaoh called his Captains before him. while the Generals and Captains hung their heads for shame. The two brothers of the Hittite King. The Egyptians were too few and too weary to attempt to cross the river in pursuit. to The Hittite King let the water drain out of him.



there was no one so honoured as the young squire who had stood so manfully by his master in the hour of total destruction danger. and scribes. . 33 F . just as they are now and you would find that they did very much the same things. Boys and girls were boys and girls three thousand years ago. CHAPTER How so VI CHILD-LIFE IN ANCIENT EGYPT did the boys and girls live in this quaint old land years ago? How were they what sort of games did they play at. but you would also have found that there were very many things much the same then as they are now. A. you would have found many differences between your life of to-day and the life that the Egyptian children led . but thankful that they had been saved from the which had seemed so near.Life in Ancient Egypt Egyptians marched back again to Egypt. well aware that they had gained little or nothing by all their efforts. strewing And flowers in the way.Child. and bowing before the King. and what kind of school If you could have lived in Egypt in did they go to ^ those far-off days.E. whose bravery had saved the day. many hundreds of dressed. passed the frontier canal the road was lined on either side with crowds of nobles. A proud man was Menna when he drove the royal As the troops chariot up to the bridge of Zaru. after the Pharaoh himselr. what sort of lessons did they learn. priests.

and the doctor was called in. years at all events. he is bewitched " .Ancient Egypt and even played very much the same games as you do to-day. and decaying things. : ment. " The child is not ill . When you read in your fairy-stories about a little boy or girl. but he made up for ignorance by the nastiness of the doses which he gave to his patients. when little Tahuti or little Sen-sen b was born in Thebes fifteen hundred years before Christ. there were fairy godmothers too. or upon her hip. the medicines that were given were not in the least like the sugar-coated pills and capsules that make medicine- taking easy nowadays. Take a great beetle . cut off his head and his 34 . and foretold what was going to happen to the little babies in after years. carrying either it about with her wherever astride she went. bad fat. on her shoulder. and say. who presided over the great event and there were others called the Hathors. to say nothing of still nastier Often the doctor would look very grave. who foretold all that was going to happen to the little boy or girl as the years went on. I don't think you would like to take pills made up of the moisture scraped from pig's ears. you often hear that they had fairy godmothers who came to their cradles. If baby took ill. and then he would sit down and write out a prescription something like this " Remedy to drive away bewitch- meat. and gave them gifts. The Egyptian his doctor did not know a very great deal about medicine and sickness. The baby was kept a baby much longer in those days than our little ones are kept. lizard's blood. The happy mother nursed the little thing carefully for three . Well.


Page 75 Pages 68.Plate 6 GRANITE STATUE OF KAMSEb Note the hieroglyphics on base of II. 69 statue- .

shaking all over. a narrow girdle. I daresay. but wrote a few magic words on a scrap of old paper. when you pall a string. put Then cook his Very often the was troubling her child. and lay him out. boil him. boil. and so the little boy and girl play about with nothing at all on their little brown bodies except. just like a baker rolling out dough." to kiss this child to quiet to to ? I suffer thee not to kiss him ." I think you would almost rather take the risk of being bewitched than drink a dose like that Sometimes the doctor gave no medicines at all. head and his wings . Hi s sister has 35 . He and his sister are not bothered to any great extent with dressing in the mornings. clothes much. he begins to run about and play. really sickness that : " Comest Comest Comest Comest thou thou thou thou away. who. works a roller up and down upon a board. perhaps. but that a ghost was coming and hurting him . Tahuti has got a wonderful man. put them in snake-fat. so when his cries showed that the ghost was in the room. and escaped the ghosts. and let the patient drink the mixture. wings. take him away ? I suffer thee not to take him .! Child-Life in Ancient Egypt him in oil. him ? I suffer thee not to quiet him harm him ? I suffer thee not to harm him . or even a single thread tied round the waist. and besides are not needed very he has a crocodile that moves its jaws. the mother would rise up. They are very particular about washing. They have their toys just like you. and I daresay tied it round the part where the pain was. and would repeat the verse that she had been taught would drive ghosts away it did as much good as his mother believed that it was not pills. but as Egypt is so hot. When little Tahuti has got over his baby aches.

learned. still wearing no more clothes than the thread tied round his waist. for a great deal of the writing consisted in the copying out of wise words of the men of former days. and what they liked to read . and a frizzy. though it is very beautiful all master. the time came when he had to become ** a writer in the house of books. The first thing that he had to learn was how to read and write. there are far more old copy-books than any others. when he was four years old." which is what the Egyptians called a schoolboy . For about four years this would go on. have proved most valuable in telling us what the Egyptians which had to be learned a boy was going man of learning." Then. but if they could speak in another. rolling the ball through a gate. and these books.haired. and with his black hair plaited up into a long thick lock. as long as Tahuti was what the Egyptians called " a wise little one. for Egyptian writing. so little Tahuti set off for school. and this was no easy task. These old copy-books can speak to us in one way. which hung down over his right ear. and rough sketches scratched in here and there among the writing. and of 36 . with the teachers' corrections written on the margins. is rather difficult to more as there were two different styles if a to become you think your old copy-books of much importance when you are done with them but the curious thing is that among all the books that have come down to us from ancient Egypt.Ancient Egypt dolls : a fine Egyptian lady faced Nubian girl. blackSometimes they play together at little ninepins. I don't suppose that . and sometimes of stories of old times. the when well done. I daresay they would tell us of many weary hours in school.

and he hears when he is beaten. in all these don't think they had any home lessons to do. shouting for joy. and when came to an end the boys all ran out of the school. Sometimes the boys. hast in a letter to his old master. and so. When Tahuti grew a little older. perhaps." One of the former pupils at his school writing to his teacher. partly to keep up his handwriting. and recalling his school- " I was with thee since I was brought up thou didst beat my back. I anyway. says as a child : the cane. his teacher set him to write out copies of different passages from the best known Egyptian books. if tions went into my ear. and had fairly mastered the rudiments of writing. when his careful mother regularly brought him three rolls his master "A boy's ears. That custom has not changed much. manv floggings and tears Tahuti used to look forward to his daily flogging. their school-time was not quite so bad as we might imagine from the rough punishments they used to get. and partly to teach him to know good Egyptian 37 . it Lesson-time occupied about half the day." they were stubborn. hundreds of years. " Thou made me buckle I to since the time I was one of thy pupils. and used master beheved Little it with great vigour and as often as he could." am afraid our schoolboys would think the old Egyptian teachers rather more severe than the masters with whom they have to do nowadays.Child-Life in Ancient Egypt for the Egyptian school." of bread and two jugs of beer. says that : Another boy. with all his heart in the cane. and thine instruc. and in bound the temple. used to say. and was sentenced to three months. got punishments even worse than days. much as he did to his lunch in the middle of the day. " are on his back. I spent my time in the lock-up.

you may be sure. Tahuti's letters. And when he had learned these things. Sometimes it was a piece of a religious book that he was set to copy. But generally the piece that was chosen was one which would not only exercise the boy's hand. sometimes a poem. Enough of mensuration was taught him to enable him to find out. sometimes a fairy-tale. for the very simple reason ideas. the Crown Prince. and a very slow and clumsy form of multiplication . And sometimes the exercises would be in the form of letters which the master and his pupils wrote as though they had been friends far away from one another. and fill his mind with right him Very often Tahuti's teacher would dictate to from the wise advice which a great King of long ago left to his son. When it came to Arithmetic. If he was going to be only Of course a great deal would depend on the profes- sion he was going to follow. 38 . Tahuti was so far lucky that the number of rules he had to learn was very few. were full of wisdom and of good resolutions. or from some other book of the same kind. but he could not teach him division. His master taught him addition and subtraction. and teach him a good style. perhaps. we may hear some of their stories. though rather roughly.Ancient Egypt and to use correct language. the oldest fairy-stories in the world. a passage that he did not properly understand it himself. what was the size of a field. and how much corn would go into a granary of any particular size. and I dare say he was just about as fond of writing them as you are of writing the letters that your teacher sometimes sets as a task for you. his elementary education was pretty well over. and later on. but would also help to teach him good manners. For the Egyptians were very fond of fairy-tales.

Plate 7 NAVE OF THE TEMPLE AT KARNAK. Pages 75. 76 .

-m*^ .

she might lift up her hands to God. whether his schooling was carried on to what we should call a University training or not. never to sit down while an older person was standing in the room. and arithmetic. for the Egyptians reverenced their mothers more than anyone else in the world. like Moses. had to join one of the colleges which belonged to the different temples of the gods. and above all. and always to be very Chief of the older people to careful in his manners. she came daily to thy master with bread and beer from her house. She bare thee. she might blame thee .Child-Life in Ancient Egypt a common the scribe. whom he had to show respect were his parents. and there. She brought thee up. writing. Here is a little scrap of advice that a wise old Egyptian once left to his son " Thou shalt never forget what thy mother has done for thee. his mother. and the life after death. where the souls of men lived after they had finished their lives on earth. But. work he would have If he was going to be an officer in the army. and wast instructed in the writings. he royal stables. and that was to be very respectful to those who were older than himself.' for greater do would need no learning than reading. and was taught all the strange ideas which they had about the gods. She nursed thee for three years. and nourished thee in all manner of ways. there was one thing that Tahuti was taught with the utmost care. above and below. If thou forgettest her. his education would go no farther to ." Children nowadays might as a cadet in a military school : 39 . and the wonderful worlds. he entered which was attached to the But if he was going to be a priest. and when thou didst enter the school. he was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. and He would hear her complaint.

and instead. When people go shooting nowadays. the Egyptians with them to retrieve the game. and in among the reeds where the wild ducks and other waterfowl lived. Sen-senb and her mother holding on to the tall papyrus plants and pulling them aside to make room for the boat. But. had different kinds of dogs. and the party paddled away. But you are not to think that the Egyptian children s life was all teaching and prim behaviour. and launch their spears at them.Ancient Egypt do a great deal worse than remember these wise words of the oldest book in the world. the or fowling expedition. and then there was great excitement. he would sometimes go out with his father and mother and sister on a fishing If they were going fishing. But still more interesting was the fowling among the The spears were laid aside on this kind of marshes. they had with them a rather unusual helper. besides the throwsticks. Tahuti and his father were armed with curved throw-sticks. of . When Tahuti got his holidays. if he was lucky. Sometimes. which the Egyptians were so fond. too. little papyrus skiff was launched. expedition. Tahuti's father would pierce a fish with either prong of the spear. which they used for hunting but when they went fowling they took with them a cat which was trained to catch the wounded The little skiff birds and bring them to her master. shaped something like an Australian boomerang. or plucking the beautiful lotus-lilies. they take dogs Well. they could see the fish waters of swimming beneath them. the marshy lakes. When the birds 40 . was paddled cautiously across the marsh. which had two Drifting over the quiet shallow prongs at the point. armed with long thin spears.



" and I want in this chapter to tell you some of the tales that Tahuti and Sen-senb used to listen to in the evening when school was over and play was done the oldest of all wonder-tales. grown folks. on the whole. stories that were old and had long been forgotten. CHAPTER The little VII SOME FAIRY-TALES OF LONG AGO brown boys and girls who lived in Egypt three thousand years ago were just as fond as you are of hearing wonderful stories that begin with "Once upon a time . ages before The Sleeping Beauty and Jack and the Beanstalk were first thought of. — A. I think that. they had a very bright and happy life in these old days. 41 • . which had been sitting quietly in the bow of the boat. the cat. it Altogether. and Tahuti and Sen-senb liked nothing so well as skiff when the gaily-painted little was launched for a day on the marshes. the boys and girls of three thousand years ago managed to enjoy themselves in their own simple way quite as well as you do now. and a bird was knocked down. and that.1. as well as for the was great fun for the brother and sister. though they had not many of the advantages that you have to-day. Tahuti and his father let fly their throw-sticks. dashed forward when among before the reeds and secured the fluttering creature it could escape.Child-Life in Ancient Egypt rose.

I called his sons his wise you of a wonder that happened in the days of your father. had nothing men together. in the sunshine to the song of the " But as the boat turned.Ancient Egypt One day. of the water-birds. Nine rowed on this side. and set the rowing his palace for Then he .' came. And when the magician the magician Zazamankh. And the King's heart grew glad and light. stood up and said. and all the rowers on her side 42 . and knocked her coronet of turquoise into the water . and I have found none. the top of the steering-oar struck the hair of one of the maidens who steered. he " Is there anyone among you who can tell me the said. the King said to him. "Your Majesty. *Let thy Majesty go in thy boat upon the lake of the palace. when King Khufu. I have sought through all my palace for some delight. and the great King who else to built the biggest of the Pyramids. and let their oars be of ebony. and do. and the green grass will cheer thy heart.' So the King and the wizard went down to the lake. * O Zazamankh. inlaid with gold and And I myself will go with thee and the sight silver.' Then said Zazamankh. tales of the old magicians?" Prince Baufra. and the two fairest stood by the two rudders at the stern. and the fair shores. and she stopped her song. King Seneferu. * Bring to me nothing. but found said to his officers. Then the King's son. It fell on a day that the King grew weary of everything. and nine on that. each for her own side. and let twenty beautiful girls be brought to row thee. as the boat sped hither and thither. song. and sought through can tell all something to please him. and the oars flashed rowers. and the twenty maidens rowed them about in the King's pleasure-galley.

* It is because my jewel of turquoise has fallen into the water. and the water sank down. I have done as you advised.Some Fairy-Tales of Long Ago stopped rowing. Prince Hordadef. and spoiled the rowing of her side . And. stood up. Then his Majesty said. and my heart is light .' I * Row as I on. And it there. and said. but I will show thee a magician of When men of olden times. 43 . And he spake wonderful words again. " O King. Then Zazamankh leaped down and picked up. Zazamankh. lo the water of one half of the lake rose up. and heaped itself upon the top of the water of the other half.' But the had it answered. And the King's bark rode upon the top of the piled-up waters . the coronet of this little one has fallen into the water. and no one knows whether it is true or a lie . he praised the But another of his sons. again. little one?' And the maiden answered." King Khufu heard that story. that is only a story of bygone days. and brought to the King. so that it was twice as deep as it was before. lay the little rower's coronet. but wants the old one back want my own one back.' said the girl King. * Now. and spoke wonderful words.* " Then Zazamankh the wizard stood up in the King's boat. and gave great rewards to the wizard Zazamankh. So his Majesty spent a joyful day.' Seneferu called Zazamankh to come to him. and she will not have a new jewel. before. upon a broken it shell. behold. but. and she has stopped singing. with the shells and ! pebbles shining in the sunlight. ' and * will give you another. *Why have you stopped rowing. I So King and said. and covered the whole bed of the lake. as it had done at first. but beyond It the bottom of the lake lay bare.

The King came out. and every day he eats five hundred loaves of bread. Then Dedi rose. and Dedi was led before him. and the goose stood up and cackled (Plate 8). Let us try a bird or an animal. and he brought Dedi back in the royal boat. and sat in the colonnade of the palace. and the head came to meet the body. " Life. " Long life to your Majesty . that you can fasten on a called. health. behold the body of the goose waddled to meet the head. Then said his Majesty." Then King Khufii sent Prince Hordadef to bring Dedi to him. strength Majesty A man can only come when he is " Is it true. King Khufu said to him. He is a hundred and ten years old. " Is it true." is "Who he. They joined together before his Majesty's throne. and drinks He knows how to fasten on a hundred jugs of beer. your to your ! Majesty. Dedi. He knows how to make a head that has been cut off. " Why have I never seen you before. Dedi ?" And Dedi answered. O Dedi. And. and let his head be struck off. a lion of the desert follow him. "Let a prisoner be brought from the prison. and the body at the west." So a goose was brought . and the head was laid at the east side of the hall. Then. do not try it on a man. its head was cut off. and a side of beef." But Dedi said. and the ox followed him lowing." head which has been cut off?" " Certainly I can. that you know the plans of the house of ! 44 . and spoke wonderful words." Then said the King. " His name is Dedi. so long. when Dedi had joined to its body again the head that had been struck off from an ox.Ancient Egypt Hordadef?" said King Khufu. and he knows the plan of the house of God that you have wanted to know for to-day. And Hordadef answered.

then thy son's son. born to the lady Rud-didet. what wages didet's husband said to them. And Ra has promised that these three sons shall reign over this kingdom of thine. attired like travelling dancing-girls . " There is a bushel. and went away again. God ?" " It is true. his heart was troubled but Dedi said. and lies in the storeroom. dressed like a porter. Some Fairy-Tales of Long Ago your Majesty. an ox. the chief of them." A 45 . and that every day there should be given to him a thousand loaves. " So he gave them a bushel of barley. shall I give you ?" and they went away with their wages. but it is not I who "Who. then?" said the shall give them to you. Isis. sealed with their seal. and made crowns. said. So the lady said to her maid. the red crown and the white crown of Egypt. wife of the priest of Ra. a hundred jugs of beer. Thy son shall reign first. and a hundred bunches of onions When came the three sons of Rud-didet were born." So the King commanded that Dedi should live in the house of Prince Hordadef . Rudladies. "Let not your Majesty's heart be troubled. there was no barley. and hid them in the bushel of barley. and put it in Rud-didet's store-chamber. My " Why have we not done a wonder for these children?" So they stopped. and sealed the sack. when Rud-didet was going to brew the household beer. And her maidservant said. sent four goddesses to be their godmothers. the Sun-God." " It is the eldest of three sons who shall be King. Ra They and one of And the gods came with them.! . fortnight later. when they had nursed the three children awhile. but it was given to the dancing-girls. But when they had gone a little way." When King Khufu heard that word. and then one of these.

and told him of her plot . and he beat her with a scourge of flax. and all such music as should be heard in a King's Court. And as she went away by the side of the river a great crocodile came out of the water. and the weeping maid said to her after a But fellow-servants. are absolutely the oldest fairy-stories [in the world." So she stole . So in fear she crept back to her mistress and told her. ! . and gave her a beating. King Khufu. then. when they need she came to and we shall give them more The maid went down. like all the Kings of Egypt after them." borne three Kings. but he was angry because she wished to betray the children to King Khufu. . 46 . . These. and if they do not seem very wonderful to you." it. alas our story breaks off the rest of the book is lost. " Shall she do this to I me ? She has go and tell it to his away first to her uncle. Kings. but when lo ! from within there came a sound of singing and dancing. and she told her husband when he came home at night. and carried her off. know that the first three Kings of the race which do succeeded the race of Khufu bore the same names as Rud-didet's three babies.Ancient Egypt " Go down and fetch it. and that the people who made these tales hadn't had very much practice in the art of story-telling. and their hearts were glad because their sons were to be the store-room. But here. " Sons of the Sun. time the lady Rud-didet quarrelled with her maid. and were called. and will Majesty. you must remember that everything has to have a beginning. and we cannot tell whether King Khufu Only we tried to kill the three royal babies or not. and Ruddidet went down and heard the royal music. as ladies sometimes did in those days .

with all manner of birds. men whose hearts were as bold as They all foretold a happy voyage. There was plenty on every hand figs and grapes. the sea rose in terrible waves. 47 ." and the sailor himself tells it to a noble Egyptian.Some Fairy-Tales of Long Ago CHAPTER Our the VIII {Continued) SOME FAIRY-TALES OF LONG AGO next story belongs to a time I several as hundred years later. berries and corn. came near the shore a great storm blew. but not one was left of all my shipmates all perished in the " I was going. I lay down in the shade of some bushes. When my hunger was satisfied. and made an offering Suddenly I heard to the gods who had saved me. " to the mines of Pharaoh. wrecked Sailor. He was nearly 50 feet long. I lit a fire. I saw a great serpent approaching me. and our ship was fairly overwhelmed. Clinging to a piece of wood. a noise like thunder the trees shook. and had ** I — . and we set sail in a ship of 150 cubits long and 40 cubits wide (225 feet by 60 feet quite a big ship We had a crew of 150 of the best for the time). I was washed about for three days. I looked about me for food. sailors of Egypt. and little dare say it seemed wonderful to Egyptians as the story of Sindbad the Sailor It is called "The Story of the Shipdoes to you. and at last tossed up on an island . and the earth quaked. but as we lions. — — waves. and when had recovered a little." he says. Looking round.

As for me. it is God who has brought thee to this isle. ' Thou hast nothing that I need. never again see this isle. and thou shalt go home to thy country. and die in thine own town. when thou departest. I am here with my brethren and my children. and promised to tell of him to Pharaoh. and then a ship of thine own land shall come. thou shalt yet embrace thy children and thy wife. who came here by But if chance. and how I alone had escaped from the fury of the waves? Then said he * Fear not. what has brought thee ? If tell me quickly what has brought thee thee vanish like a flame. and to bring him ships full of all the treasures of Egypt . he took . If thou hast come to me. and when he reared himself up from his coils before me I fell upon my face.* ** Then I bowed low before him. and laid me down unhurt and again he said. for it shall be changed into waves. thou art strong and patient. and let not thy face be to me sad.' 48 . " Then the serpent began to speak * What has a beard 3 feet in length : brought thee. which is filled with all good And now. thou dost not to this little one. brought thee to this isle of the sea ?' So I told him the story ot our shipwreck. little one. what has saying. besides a young girl. months in this isle. : : and said. but he smiled at my speech. There are seventyfive of us in all. see thou shalt dwell for four things. and all its perfumes are Moreover. and was burned by fire from heaven. for I am Prince of the Land of Punt. and return to thy home.' isle. 'What has brought thee. little one.Ancient Egypt His body shone in the sun like gold. I shall make So me up in his mouth. thou shalt mine. carried me gently to his lair.

ATE !). n \N . JUNTRY HOUSE. .I' I.


and he prayed to the gods for a son . where all grandfathers And this story kinds of strange things might happen. and all kinds of precious things. see again thy children. and offer the gifts which I have brought from this isle into Egypt. who founded a great empire. as he had near.Some Fairy-Tales " Now. sweet woods. farewell So I low before him. and Pharaoh shall thank me before the great ones of the land.I. and he loaded me with precious bowed gifts of perfume.500 years before the Shipwrecked Sailor. or as far as the great River Euphrates. but became to them what America was to the Elizabeth's time. which I have to tell you. and I embarked in the And now. belongs partly to Naharaina. as you will see. as the Egyptians called it. we are ship. Naharaina. cassia. little go and let thy name be good ! And to thy unknown it land to them before this time .' good serpent home." Our last story belongs to a later age than that of About 1. of the Doomed Prince. in thy town . these arc my wishes for thee. and. behold foretold. so in caurse of time a son was born to him. and the Fates now men of Queen — A. the ship ! of Long Ago the when drew the time was come. which stretched from the Soudan right through Syria and Mesopotamia Mesopotamia. and I shall go in before Pharaoh. * Farewell. baboons. ivory. coming to the house of Pharaoh. 49 H . His heart was grieved because he had no child. said to me. Once upon a time there was a King in Egypt who had no child. or the heart of Africa to your the wonderful land of romance. Christ there arose in Egypt a race of mighty soldierKings. after a voyage of two months. had been an one. some of our own fairy-stories have been made out of very much the same materials as are used in it.

" heard When the King was sore for his little son. and take it to him. saying. (like fairy or by the serpent. with faithful servants to guard him. "What is this that walks behind the man who is coming along "It is a dog." So he went northward through 50 . But it fell on a day that the young Prince looked out from the roof of his house. with a dog following him.Ancient Egypt godmothers) came to his cradle to foretell what should happen to him. and sent him away to the eastern frontier. and it grew this." said the page." So the King agreed. let me have my desire. So he said to the servant who was with him. when the boy had grown to be a strong young man.'' Since I am doomed to three evil Fates. "Go wherever you will. Therefore he sent a message to his father. Then the King said. and his dog went with him. so he built for him a beautiful house away in the desert. and to see that he came So the boy grew up quietly and safely in to no hurt. and he resolved that he would put the boy where no harm could come to him ." So they brought him a little dog. and sent the boy there. and they said to him. lest his heart be sad. happened that. " Why am I always to be shut up Now. they said. his heart up along with him. " Get a little puppy. and let God do what is in His heart. and they gave the young Prince arms. or by the dog. "You must bring me one like him. and he saw a man walking across the desert. and furnished it with all kinds of fine things. And when they saw him." and the page went and told His Majesty. " His doom is to die either by the crocodile. he grew weary of being always shut up in his fine house. it h'bre . Then the the road?" boy said. his house in the desert.


Plate 10 .

when she had children. and when she saw him. So they took him company. had and the chief of the one beautiful daughter.. Then. trying always to climb this rock ?" And they told him of the beautiful Princess who lived in the house on the top of the rock. My father " married a second wife. until he came to the land land of Naharaina had no ot Naharaina. for the rock was very steep and high. she hated me. and it came to pass that at last he climbed to the window of the Princess . Now. Therefore thfc young Prince of Egypt climbed along with them. Some Fairy-Tales of Long Ago Ae desert. the young Prince of Egypt rode by with his dog and the Princes welcomed him. but none of them succeeded. and said to them. one day when they were climbing as they were wont. and drove 'jito me away from my home their 51 . and.?" He did not wish to tell them that he was the son of Pharaoh. " Why do you stay here. and said to him. save built a I the land camped around the house. and kissed him. and for her he wonderful house. bathed him. It had seventy windows. he and his dog. she fell in love with him. so he answered. and fed his horse." So all the young Princes of children. it fell on a day that he asked them. and tried every day to climb to the window of the beautiful Princess . thou goodly youth . " Whence comest thou. and how the man who could climb to her window should marry her. and he stayed with them many days. And the chief summoned the sons of all the chiefs of the country round about. " I am the son of an Egyptian officer. It stood on a great rock more than loo feet high. "The Prince who can climb to my daughter's window shall have her for his wife. Now.

*' I am not going to kill my faithful dog. when the evening came. and the messenger said. 52 . and fell his wife went back to the land of Egypt and him. it happened in course of time that the Prince . but the son of an Egyptian officer." said he." And his wife answered." Then the chief sent men to kill the youth where he was in the house. went with And one day." But. and said. Now. and said. which I have brought up since the time that he was a puppy." So the Princess feared greatly for her husband. and slaves." So the chief was obliged to agree to the marriage . and the young Prince was married to the Princess. who has been driven away from Egypt by his stepmother. " Shall I give my daughter to an Egyptian fugitive ? Let him go back to Egypt. But after a time the young Prince said to his wife. and his dog. ** If you kill him. he grew drowsy. I will not drink . do you keep this dog always with you ? Let him " Nay. and he dwelt in Egypt. " Why. I shall be dead before the sun goes down. But the Princess said. I will not eat . " It is not a Prince. or by a serpent.Ancient Egypt Then was word sent to the Chief ot Naharaina that one of the young men had climbed to his daughter's window. either by a crocodile. when the messengers came to tell the young man to go away. be killed. " If you take him from me. and her father gave them a house. and all sorts of good things. I shall die in that same hour." Then the Chief of Naharaina was very angry. and would never let him go then. and fields. the Princess seized his hand. and he asked which of the Princes it was. I will not live an hour if I am parted from him. " I am doomed to die." out of her sight. or by a dog.

. and she made the servants give the milk to the serpent. and But his wife praised Him. by some accident. And as they walked. in some way or other. and the Prince followed the dog. At least. and sat bowl with milk. and he drank till he could not move. it looks as if the end of the story must have been something like that ." written But just here the old papyrus roll on which the story is torn away. and he was astonished to see the serpent lying dead. and the dog went into the river. his dog would save him from the crocodile. and that later. followed him. the poor faithful dog would be the cause of his master's death. but had to suffer it sooner or later." And the Prince made sacrifice to God. . He will also give the others. and his faithful wife said to him. and placed to watch him as he slept. and the Prince fell Now. the dog ran after some game. Perhaps. following after thee. I fancy that. walk in his estate. for the Egyptians believed that no one could escape from the doom that was laid upon him. am thy doom. Fairy-Tales of his wife filled a Long Ago and by his side. a great serpent came out of was watching. " . " Behold. Then a great crocodile rose in the river. They came to the River Nile. Then his hole to bite the youth. and we do not know what happened to the Doomed Prince. and then we may come on S3 . So she woke her husband.Some asleep it . God has given one of thy dooms into thy hand . I and laid hold on the youth. one of the explorers who are searching the land of Egypt for relics of the past papyrus roll another with the end of the story. it on a day that the Prince went out to and his dog went with him. Then the Princess killed the serpent with blows of her dagger. and said. some is day.

and they can still be read. when they were told in those old days. But did you ever think what a long story it is. written in the quaint old picture writing which 54 . you have heard the oldest stories in all the world the fathers and mothers.Ancient Egypt shall find out whether the dog did all kill the Prince. and how very early it begins ? It is in Egypt that we find the first chapters of the story . of all the great family of wonder-tales that have delighted and little — terrified children ever since. Anyhow. and clumsy to you . the black eyes of the Egyptian boys and girls used to grow very big and round. as his These are some of the stories that little Tahuti and Sen-senb used to listen to in the long evenings when Perhaps they seem very simple they were tired of play. and made to yield up its secrets. and the wizard who could fasten on heads which had been cut off seemed a very wonderful person. and the talking serpents and crocodiles seemed very real and very dreadful. CHAPTER There is IX EXPLORING THE SOUDAN that which tells no more wonderful or interesting story than how bit by bit the great dark continent of Africa has been explored. his dooms into his hand. so to speak. but I have no doubt that. or whether God gave wife hoped.

The Pharaohs and their adventurous barons never used the safely. Yet they knew of the wild country of Nubia beyond and.Exploring the Soudan the Egyptians used. in very early times indeed. For. engineers have made a great dam across the Nile just at this point. began at the First Cataract.000 years ago. But in those for miles above the dam. Near the First Cataract there lies the island ot Elephantine. the desert themselves. In early days the land of Egypt used to end was called the First what Cataract of the Nile. a place where at the river came rocky islets. to see that they allowed the trading caravans to pass and sometimes to lead these caravans through A caravan was a very different thing then from the long train of camels that we think of now when we hear the name. though there are some very old pictures which show that. It was their duty to keep in order the wild Nubian tribes south of the Cataract. called Elephantine. days the Egyptians used to believe that the Nile. 55 . to which they owed so much. somehow that useful animal seems to have disappeared from the land for many hundreds of years. into a lake. the camel was known in Egypt. about 5. they used to send exploring expeditions into that halfdesert land which we have come to know as the Soudan. on the rock tombs of a place in the south of Egypt. for British down in a series of rapids among a lot of The First Cataract has disappeared now. just as the Percies and the Douglases were the Lords of the Marches in England and Scotland. before Egyptian history begins at all. and when the Egyptian kingdom was young the great barons who owned this island were the Lords of the Egyptian Marches. and turned the whole country.

and was away for seven months. On his third journey he went farther than before. called Herkhuf. The barons of Elephantine bore the proud title of " Keepers of the Door of the South. to whiten among the desert sands . to be buried with all due honours. gold-dust. us of no fewer than four separate expeditions which he made into the Soudan. has told explorers sleep. and one of them has told us how.Ancient Egypt queer." and. and those of his companions. the title " Caravan Conductors. carved on the walls of the tombs where the brave One baron. and ebony that came from the Soudan had to be carried on the backs of hundreds of asses. On his first journey. hearing that his father had been killed on one of these adventurous journeys. may still be read. he went in company with his father. but to leave his bones. in addition. as he was still young. and the ivory. he mustered his retainers. and gathered so large a quantity of ivory and gold-dust in that three hundred asses were required to bring 56 his ." In those days it was no easy task to lead a caravan through the Soudan. they display. seemingly just as proudly. The next time he was allowed to go alone. More than one of the barons of Elephantine set out with a caravan never to return. ungainly creature that carries the desert postman our picture (Plate 12). and bring it back safe with its precious load through all the wild and savage tribes who inhabited the land of Nubia. punished the tribe which had been guilty of the deed. and brought back his caravan safely after an absence of eight months. marched south with a train of a hundred asses. Some of the records of these early journeys. and brought his father's body home. the first attempts to explore the interior of Africa.



on at least one occasion. the bold set out again for the Herkhuf Soudan. and this time. the forefathers of these little dwarfs must have been living in the heart of the Dark Continent.Exploring the Soudan treasure So rich a caravan was a tempting prize on the way but Herkhuf persuaded one of the Soudanese chiefs to furnish him with a large escort. and the King was so pleased with his success that he sent a special messenger with a boat full of delicacies to refresh the weary traveller. living by themselves. The King who had sent him on the other journeys had died. along with brought back something that his boy-King valued far more than gold or ivory. he A. ninety years — the longest reign in the world's history. and who reigned for more than home. and bring him down as a present to his master. and was succeeded by a little boy called Pepy. In early days they evidently lived not so far away from Egypt as when Stanley found them. Well. Herkhuf brought his treasures safely back to Egypt. for. He managed to secure a dwarf from one of these pigmy other treasures. greatly to the delight of the King and Court. for all these thousands of years. he discovered in the Central African forests a strange race of dwarfs. who was only about six years old when he came to the throne. when Stanley went in search of Emin Pasha. and the caravan was so strongly guarded that the other tribes did not venture to attack it. You know how. Herkhuf was equally fortunate. But the most successful of all his expeditions Was the fourth. In the second year of Pepy's reign. one of Pharaoh's servants had been able to capture one of the little men. 57 I . and very shy of strangers. for the wild tribes . but were glad to help its leader with guides and gifts of cattle.E.

" (This was the man who had brought back the other dwarf in earlier days. that they may be sure that nothing has gone wrong. telling him of his delight. King heard of the present which his brave servant was bringing back for him. than if they had left him more to himself . The thought of this new toy was far more to the little eight-year-old. and these guards are to watch behind the place where he sleeps. than all the rest of the treasure which Herkhuf had gathered and he caused a letter to be written to the explorer. " My Majesty. and look into his bed ten times each night. that he might please the young King with his quaint antics and his curious dances.) Little King Pepy then gives careful directions that Herkhuf is to provide proper people to see that the precious dwarf does not fall into the Nile on his way down the river .. Perhaps there was more danger of killing him with kindness and care. The poor little dwarf must have had rather an uncomfortable time of it. And if thou comest to Court having this pigmy with thee sound and whole. is very much the kind of letter that any boy might send on hearing of some new toy that was coming to him. and giving him all kinds of advice as to how careful he should be that the dwarf should come to no harm on the way to Court. the When The letter. " wisheth to see this pigmy more than all the tribute of Punt. he was wild with delight. and brought him back with his caravan. King though he was. Ancient Egypt tribes." says the little eight-year-old Pharaoh. through all its curious old phrases. one fancies. My Majesty will do for thee more than King Assa did for the Chancellor Baurded. if his sleep was to be broken so often. but Pepy s anxiety was very 58 .

on the walls of the tomb which he hewed out for himself at Elephantine. tell us how old is the story of African and how a boy was always just a boy. who have ruled kingdoms. even though he lived five thousand years ago. there reigned a great Queen was not usual for the Egyptian throne to be occupied by a woman. whose fame deserves to be remembered. and reigned over a great kingdom. However. CHAPTER X A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY About 3. Egypt. Herkhuf evidently succeeded little in bringing his dwarf safe and sound to the King's Court. though great respect was always shown to women in Egypt. and the rank of a King's mother was considered quite as important as that of his father. and there to this day the words can be read which exploration. and who takes honourable rank among the great women. But once at least in her history Egypt had a great Queen.Exploring the Soudan like a boy.500 vn years ago. Herkhuf was so proud of the King's letter that he caused it to be engraved. word for word. and no doubt the quaint toy for the young King. like Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria. It 59 . savage proved a splendid One wonders what he thought of the great cities and the magnificent Court of Egypt. ind whether his heart did not weary sometimes for the wild freedom of his lost home.

that the ways which lead to Punt should be explored. she was at prayers in Thebes. in search of the Divine Land. when the world was young. Centuries before her time. when she felt inspiration. One day. command was heard in the sanctuary. and that the roads to the Ladders of Incense should be trodden. and sent them out. with picked crews.Ancient Egypt During latter part of her life Queen Hatshepsut was only- joint sovereign along with her husband. the temple of the at Amen A and a royal envoy laden with all in command. the Queen god tells us. But long time these voyages had ceased. and by the stories of ancient days. well. the Queen at once equipped a little fleet of the quaint old galleys that the Egyptians then used (Plate i ). of this wonderful country that lay away for a very people only by the Southern Sea." In obedience to this command. The ships were kinds of goods to barter with the 60 . but sole twenty years was the ruler of Egypt. a sudden The god was giving her a command to send an expedition to this almost forgotten " land." Probably it was part of country that we now know as Somaliland. and knew by hearsay. the Egyptians had made expeditions down the Red Sea which they sometimes called Punt. a behest of the god himself. and governed the land wisely and Perhaps the most interesting thing that happened in her reign was the voyage of discovery which she caused to be made by some ships of her fleet. to sail down the Red Sea. for at least who she succeeded her really . and in the part of her reign she was joint sovereign with her half-brother or nephew. to a land and some- times " the The Divine Land.

and placed on piles." astonished at the arrival of such a fleet. though some negroes lived among them . and were " How is it. but dismounted to see the strangers. were slow and dangerous. he spread out on a table some presents for the chief of the two gold necklaces. the royal envoy. a dagger. and eleven strings of glass beads much such a present as a European The explorer might give to-day to an African chief. landed with an officer and eight soldiers. We do not know how long it took the little squadron Sea voyages in those days to reach Its destination. and. hitherto Punites five bracelets. Aty rode down on a donkey. some of them made of wicker-work. natives came down in great excitement to see the strangers who had brought such treasures. and a guard of Egyptian soldiers was placed on board. they said. came down with his wife Aty. — — unknown Sea?" to men you chief. The who was 6i . They found that the Punites lived in curious beehive-shaped houses. to show that he came in peace. with belt and sheath. But at last the ships safely reached the mouth of the Elephant River in Somaliland. which reached halfway between the knee and ankle. so that they had to climb into them by ladders.A Voyage of Discovery Punites. The men were not negroes. and. wore pointed beards. while the women wore a yellow sleeveless like the much dress. and were dressed only in loincloths. a battle-axe. and his daughter. Nehsi. " that you have reached this country. or have sailed on the waters of the Divine called Parihu. and went up the river with the tide till they came to the village of the natives. they were very Egyptians in appearance. ? Have you come by way of the sky.

62 arrival The . Altogether the voyage home must have been no easy undertaking. The cargo was a varied and in valuable one. gum very difficult to handle. and her daughter. was an exceedingly fat lady. of the Punites accompanied the expedition back to Thebes. till the ships were laden as deeply as was safe. and the country people brought down their treasures. and also thirty-one of the incense sycamores. ebony. with their heavy cargoes. showed every intention of indeed. they drew a guard of soldiers round the tent. all were crowded into the galleys. Elephants' tusks. The Egyptians pitched a tent which they stored their goods for barter. Great quantities of the from which the incense was made were placed on board. though so young. for the ships. must have been incense. to see what life was like in the strange new world which had been revealed to them. and protected by baskets.Ancient Egypt donkey must have been greatly relieved. the poor for the chieftainess being as fat as her mother. For several days the market remained open. which they must have reached by a canal connecting the Nile with the Red Sea. was made the occasion of a great holiday Long lines of troops in gala attire came out festival. the apes sitting gravely on the top of the bales of goods. But the most important part of the cargo was the and the incense-trees. apes. leopard skins. After the envoy and the chief had exchanged compliments. and to put temptation out of the way of the natives. business began. and looking longingly at the land which they were leaving. greyhounds. of the squadron at Thebes. their roots carefully surrounded with a large ball of Several young chiefs earth. gold.

The precious incense gum was stored in the temple. and the temple was now growing into a most beautiful building. to measure it out with. each platform bordered with rows of beautiful limestone Ihe cliffs. not far from Thebes. the god who had told her to send out the ships. made of a mixture of gold and silver. until at last it reached and the most sacred chamber of it. Hatshepsut had been gradually completing his work. But Queen Hatshepsut's purpose was only In a nook of the limestone cliffs. the incense. and an escort of the royal fleet accompanied the exploring squadron up to the temple quay where the ships were to moor. above all. the ivory. and the Queen herself gave a bushel measure. very different from ordinary^ Egyptian temples. her father before her had begun to build a very wonderful ruins of an older sanctuary temple. pillars. the Holy of Holies. From the desert sands in front it rose terrace above terrace. So the voyage of discovery had ended in a great success. How the poor creature was stowed away on the little Egyptian ship it is hard to see . at a giraffe which had been brought home. with his spots and his long neck. was hewn into the solid wall of rock behind. This temple the Queen resolved to make into what she called a Paradise for Amen. So she planted on the terraces the sacred incense-trees which had been brought 63 . wondering at the natives. half fulfilled as yet. but there he was. the most wonderful creature that the good folks of Thebes had ever seen. Then the Thebans feasted their eyes on the wonderful treasures that had come from Punt. close beside the which had stood there for hundreds of years. and.A to Voyage of Discovery meet the brave explorers.

along the walls of the temple. and the long procession of Theban soldiers going out to meet the returning explorers. Sen-mut. And then. book with many but no explorer ever published the account of a voyage of discovery on such a scale as did Queen Hatshepsut. for the story of the voyage is told in pictures on the walls of artists to We this just as wonderful temple. . though we know that of the architect. the meeting with the natives. and how people lived in savage lands in that far-off time. and realize that explorers dealt with the natives in foreign countries in those days very as they deal with much them now. to light again 64 . so that everything can be seen it actually happened more than three thousand years ago. You can see the ships toiling along with oar and sail towards their destination. is missed. the palaver and the trading. she caused her carve and paint the whole story of the voyage. when she carved the voyage to Punt on the walls of her great temple and no pictures in any modern book as long.Ancient Egypt from Punt ing. and. we can go back over all these years. thanks to careful tending and water- they flourished well in their all new home. they generally tell the story of their adventures in a big pictures . whoever they were. are likely to last much as these pictures that have during the last few years. who planned the building. and. thanks to the Not a single detail Queen and her artists. do not know the names of the artists who did the work. or to tell so at Deir-el-Bahri. the loading of the galleys. they must have been very skilful sculptors . When our explorers or to-day come back from their journeys. after come being buried for centuries under the desert sands. But. and see how sailors worked.




Voyage of Discovery

left other memorials of her temple with its story of her voyage. She has told us how one day she was sitting in her palace, and thinking of her Creator, when the

Queen Hatshepsut has

thought came into her mind to rear two great obelisks Temple of Amen at Karnak. So she gave the command, and Sen-mut, her clever architect, went
before the


the Nile to Aswan, and quarried

two huge granite

blocks, and floated

them down the



Needle, which stands on the

Thames Embankment,


feet high,


to handle.


seems to us a huge stone for men own engineers had trouble enough in

to this country, and setting it up. But two great obelisks of Queen Hatshepsut were 984 feet high, and weighed about 350 tons apiece. Yet Sen-mut had them quarried, and set up, and carved all over from base to summit in seven months from the time when the Queen gave her command One of them still stands at Karnak, the tallest obelisk




in the

temple there


while the other great shaft has

companion. They tell us their own plain story of the wisdom and skill of those far-oflF days ; and perhaps the great Queen who thought of her Creator as she sat in her palace, and longed to honour Him, found that the God whom she ignorantly worshipped was indeed not far from His



broken, close to

servant's heart.



Ancient Egypt



Egyptians were, if not quite the earliest, at least among the earliest of all the peoples of the world to
find out
in other


to put

down their thoughts

in writing, or

their old ; advice from a father to his son, is, books, full of wise

words, to make a book

and one of

perhaps, the oldest book in the world. Two words which we are constantly using might help to remind us of how much we owe to their cleverness. The one is " Bible," and the other is " paper." When we talk or the Bible, which just means " the Book," we are using

one of the words which the Greeks used to describe the plant out of which the Egyptians made the material on which they wrote ; and when we talk of paper, we are using another name, the commoner name, of the same plant. For the Egyptians were the first people to make paper, and they used it for many centuries before other people had learned how much handier it was than the other things which they used. Yet, if you saw an Egyptian book, you would think it was a very curious and clumsy thing indeed, and very different from the handy volumes which we use When an Egyptian wanted to make a nowadays. book, he gathered the stems of a kind of reed called the papyrus, which grew in some parts of Egypt in This plant grew to a height of marshy ground. from 12 to 15 feet, and had a stalk about 6 inches The outer rind was peeled off this stalk, and thick. 66

Egyptian Books
was separated, by means These layers were joined to one another on a table, and a thin gum was spread over them, and then another layer was laid The double crosswise on the top of the first. sheet thus made was then put into a press, squeezed together, and dried. The sheets varied, of course, in breadth according to the purpose for which they were needed. The broadest that we know of measure about 17 inches across, but most are much narrower than that. When the Egyptian had got his paper, he did not
then the inner part of

of a


needle, into thin layers.







volume with the



together at the back, as
to end, adding




joined them end



on sheet after sheet as he wrote, and book as he went along so when the

book was done it formed a big roll, sometimes many feet long. There is one great book in the British


would think
to handle a

which measures 135 feet in length. You it very strange and awkward to have


book like that. But if the book seemed curious to you, the writing it would seem still more curious for the Egyptian

writing was certainly the quaintest, and perhaps the
It is called that has ever been known. " hieroglyphic," which means " sacred carving," and it


nothing but



from beginning to end.

The Egyptians began by
to use, and,



a picture of the

thing which was represented by the

word they wanted though by-and-by they formed a sort of alphabet to spell words with, and had, besides, signs that represented the different syllables of a word, still, these signs were all little pictures. For instance, one of

and were careful to make it look as beautiful as 68 finely-coloured hangings. and from these we can gather some idea of how wonderfully beautiful were these stone books of ancient Egypt. but there are still some temples and tombs where they can be seen. of men and women and boats. they did not trust them to papyrus rolls.Ancient Egypt was the figure of an eagle . but used another kind of book altogether. When last for a frail the Egyptians wanted any of their writings to very long time. When that the the hieroglyphics were cut in stone. their sign was a lion. . so whole writing was a blaze of beautiful tints. The scribes and carvers knew very well how beautiful their work was. and all sorts of other things. marching across their signs for a for m .obelisk. You have heard of " sermons in stones " ? the Well. and there they remain to this day for scholars to read. the lines were often filled in with pastes of different colours. and for u a little chicken so that when you look at an Egyptian book written in the hieroglyphic character. almost as fresh as when they were first laid on. When one of the Kings came back from the wars. or on a pillar set up in the court of a temple. you see column after column ot birds and beasts and creeping things. or -in the limestone of a temple wall. the page. he generally published the account of his battles and victories by carving them on the walls of one of the great temples. carved deep and clear in the hard granite of a great . a great many of the Egyptian books that tell us of the great deeds of the Pharaohs were written on stone. the colours have mostly faded now . and the walls looked as if they were covered with Of course.

rather than spoil the appearance of their picture-writing. and two or three shallow round ones. I dare say. The long hollow holds a few pens.Egyptian Books possible . and lays it down beside him. when he comes to some specially important part. in gay colours. that if they found that the grouping of figures to make up a particular word or sentence was going to be ugly or clumsy. How does he go about it To begin with. with one long hollow in it. rather a different kind of palette from the one which artists use.? — 60 . he draws. they would even prefer to spell the word wrong. cross-legged. and begins. so much so. Now and then. he draws from his belt a long. It is a piece of wood. The shallow round hollows are for holding ink black for most of the writing. and that our friend the scribe is going to write upon it. but I fancy it isn't because you think they look prettier that way. and perhaps one or two other colours. which are made out of thin reeds. red for special words. you can understand that this picture-writing was not very easy work to do when you had nothing . But now let us turn back again to our papyrus roll. Suppose that we have got it. clean and fresh. dips a reed-pen in the ink. if the scribe is going to do a very fine piece of work. spell words wrong now and again . narrow wooden case. Some of you. a little picture of the scene which the words describe. So he squats down. This is his palette . As he writes he makes his little figures of men and beasts and birds face all in the one direction. so that their points are almost like little brushes. bruised at the ends. and his readers will know that they must always read from the point towards which the characters face. Now.

But some of the finest and costliest books were still written in the beautiful old style. stories like the fairywhich we have been hearing. which is called " hieratic. but neither of these names is histories." or priestly writing. They called it "The Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. they would escape all the dangers of the other world. and would be able in heaven to go in and out just as they had done upon earth. Bible. It is nearly always called the " Book of the Dead " now. is the right one. — papyrus rolls the Egyptians wrote all sorts with and poems ." and the reason they gave it that name was because they believed that if their dead friends knew all the wisdom that was written in it. and at last the old hieroglyphic broke a lion. legends of the gods. and some people call it the Egyptian Bible. And very many of the Egyptian books are written in this kind of broken-down hieroglyphic. it is not in the least like the and the Egyptians themselves never called it the Book of the Dead. but the book that is oftenest met one of their religious books. and keep them in stocky with blank places for the names of the persons who is The book full of against the serpents 70 .Ancient Egypt but a bruised reed to drawj all sorts of animals with. down into a kind of running hand. where a stroke or two might stand for an eagle. Certainly. The scribes used to write off copies of it by the dozen. and to be happy for ever. On tales their of things books of wise advice. or a man. all kinds of magical charms and dragons and all the other kinds of evil things that sought to destroy the dead person in the other world. Gradually the pictures grew less and less like the creatures they stood for to begin with.

Some of these rolls of the Book of the Dead are very beautifully written. book is dreadful rubmore unlike the noble and beautiful bish. no more sense in it than the " Fee fi foh fum !" of our fairy-stories. and often they missed out parts of the book altogether. and that book was going to be buried nobody was likely ever to see it again . and see all their blunders. and the scribe filled in the name of the dead person in the blank places. he would know how to drive them away. believed about the judgment after death. and it is from these we have learned a great deal of what the Egyptians are very carelessly done. went away to a scribe. Here is one little chapter from it. I ! Chapter of Repulsing Serpents. you had only to recite this verse. and heaven. scholars would dig up their writings again. Then the book was buried along with his mummy. and the serpent would be powerless to It is called "The 71 . they made mistakes or not. after They little thousands of years they were dead. so that when he met the demons and serpents on the road to heaven.^ that scribes Egyptian Books When anyone died. or rivers that had to be crossed. representing different in the other world. his friends were to use them. and read them. and illustrated with most wonderful scenes of little life coloured pictures. a great deal of this ! Of course. he would know the right magical words to use." and the Egyptians supposed that when a serpent attacked you on your way to heaven. and when he came to gates that had to be opened. But the common ones The knew that the at once. and bought a roll of the Book of the Dead. and anything It has teaching of the Bible you can scarcely imagine. so they did not care much whether thought that.

thou serpent Rerek advance Stand still now. But. and there are the great buildings. sometimes partly palaces and partly fortresses.'' many can things quite as scarcely silly as this in the book. that surely came to these men of ancient days from God Himself. churches or castles. CHAPTER XII TEMPLES AND TOMBS Anyone travelling through our own land. or through any European country. There plenty of . are a difference. Well." And there are It sounds very silly. you find really wonderful and noble thoughts. and thou shalt eat the : ! not rat which is an abomination unto Ra (the Sun-God). telling them how every man must be judged at last for all that he has done on earth. and loved mercy. then. if you were you would travelling in find Egypt 72 to see its great buildings. will be accepted by Him. would find that they were nearly all either There are the great cathedrals. to see the great buildings ot long ago. like You the imagine how wise people Egyptians could ever have believed in such drivel. and walked humbly with God. where Kings and nobles lived in bygone days.Ancient Egypt harm you hither. side by side with this miserable stuff. and thou shalt crunch the bones of a filthy cat. and how only those who have done justly. doesn't it. " Hail. very beautiful and wonderful .


Plate 14 .

They built their houses. rather. much attention to their and But why did they tombs ? The reason is. great temples Egypt. because they live in knew that they were only to them for a few years. and scarcely give you any more idea of their former glory and beauty than a the beauty of a living that human woman. is you would find tombs. but they are now only the skeletons of what the temples once were. that you will hear more fully in there never was a nation which believed so firmly as did the Egyptians that the life after death was far more important than life in this world. one can temples give so as . at least. coming up to the gates of a great Egyptian temple in the days when it was still the house of a god who was worshippql by hundreds of thousands of are we people. in fact. why the Egyptians built great for they were a very religious nation. partly of wood and partly of clay.a 73 . see a land of Now. and great tombs. see even the ruins of these buildings. skeleton does of man or Suppose. very lightly. and they have made them so wonderfully that^ they have lasted long after all the other buildings of the land. there are next to none. or. But they called their tombs "eternal dwelling-places".Temples and Tombs churches. let me try to give you an idea of what an Egyptian temple must have been like in the days of its People come from all parts of the world to splendour. and they are altogether the most astonishing buildings in the world . have passed away. or temples. Instead of palaces and castles. then. paid great honour to their gods. but there are no castles or palaces left. and even their palaces. A. and very wonderful they are . except the temples. First of all. another chapter.

carved all over with hieroglyphic figures. Some of the sphinxes. and these statues are in the form of what we call sphinxes ^that is to say. which may be from 70 to 100 feet high. till They are hewn out ot single blocks of stone. and on the lion-body there is set the head of a different creature. there are huge statues. whole the statue must have been about 57 feet high. upon They also are hewn out of single blocks of his head. have human heads . Before one of the temples of Thebes still lie the broken When it was fragments of a statue of Ramses II. with the double crown of Egypt. tapering shafts of red granite. These King as sitting upon his throne. like Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment. polished they shine like mirrors. and when you look at the huge figures you wonder how human hands could ever get such stones out of the quarry. like the Great Sphinx. slender. and the great block of granite must have weighed about 1. tall rise before us. this way is bordered by a row of statues. red and white.000 tons the largest single stone that was ever built the temple.Ancient Egypt pass out of the narrow streets of the city which the temple belongs. On either side. and their pointed tops are gilded so that they flash brilliantly in the sunlight. perhaps two. which stretches before us for hundreds of yards. stone. two high towers a great gateway. sculpture them. but those which border the temple avenues have oftener to As we — either ram or jackal heads. of the King statues represent the who — 74 . perhaps four. they have bodies shaped like crouching lions. and between them is In front of the gate-towers are two obelisks. we find ourselves standing upon a broad paved way. Beside the obelisks. As we pass along the avenue. and set them up.

At the farther side of this court. and sparkles with precious stones. Temples and Tombs handled by idea of human beings. while beings. Its two leaves are made of cedar-wood brought from Lebanon . and lapis-lazuli. hair. are mere human All these carvings are brilliantly painted. Now we stand in front of the gate. tall In the middle of the court there stands a pillar of stone. inscribed with the story of the great deeds of Pharaoh. 75 . Fastened to the towers are four tall flagstaves two on either side of the gate and from them float gailycoloured pennons. Look around you. for it is overlaid with Passing plates of silver chased with beautiful designs. and the whole front of the building glows with colour . whose roof is supported upon the tall pillars. we find ourselves in a court. but you cannot see the wood at all.. he is seizing a group of captives by the and raising his mace or his sword to kill them in his chariot . him charging here. their capitals carved to represent curving leaves of the palm-tree. All round it runs a kind of cloister. but whatever he his foes is doing. Plate lo will give you some what these huge statues looked like. another pair ot towers and another gateway lead you into the second court. he helpless is always gigantic. It is inlaid with turquoise. for this court it is entirely roofed over. and his gifts to the god of the temple. The walls of the towers are covered — — with pictures of the wars of the King. it is really a kind of pictorial history of the King's reign. malachite. and no light enters slits except from the doorway and from grated in the roof. broad open through the gateway. Here you see upon his fleeing enemies again. Here we pass at once out of brilliant sunlight into semi-darkness .

The chamber. hewn into a dwelling-place for the figure of It is closed with cedar doors covered with gold plates. telling of the great gifts which Pharaoh has given Finally light to the temple.Ancient Egypt and you chamber that was the centre run two lines of gigantic pillars which hold up the roof. their capitals bending outwards in the shape of open flowers. and beyond these on either side are the aisles. whose roofs are supported by a perfect forest of smaller columns. endless inscriptions. but if we could "6 . Instead. Look up to the twelve great pillars of the nave. and laid in their places ? Each of the great sculptured with figures and gaily painted. find that it But when you look at the pictures. and columns is will see the biggest single ever built by the hands of man. the god. smaller Here stands the shrine. still more. . the surrounding walls of the hall are all decorated in the same way. and form the nave of the hall . The inside of the temple is too holy for you have pictures of the gods. you is no longer the wars of the King that are represented. They soar above your head. How were they ever brought to the place? And. we pass into the of day ever enters at and lower than either of the others. is in darkness except for the dim light of the lamp carried by the attendant priest. Holy of Holies. how were they ever swung up to that dizzy height. a great block of granite. and of the King making all kinds of offerings to them and these pictures are repeated again and again. On each capital a hundred men could stand safely and the great stone roofing beams that stretch from pillar to pillar weigh a hundred tons apiece. Down . with such things. seventy feet into the air. and the doors are sealed . Here no all.

Temples and Tombs persuade the priest to a small let us look within. mighty as he is. Very early in their history the Egyptians began to show their sense of the importance of the life after death by raising huge buildings to hold the bodies of their great men. Such was an Egyptian temple 3. and surrounded by offerings of meat. JThe god is a great proprietor. He has a revenue almost as great as that of Pharaoh himself.000 years ago. an army which obeys no orders but his. 77 . holding more land than any of the nobles of the country. I Behind the sanctuary lie storehouses. dressed and painted. He has troops of his own. which hold corn and fruits and wines enough to supply a city in time of siege. offers sacrifices and attends upon it sings hymns in its praise. dresses and spreads food before it. On the Red Sea he has one fleet. had great underground chambers scooped out . drink. would think twice before offending a band of men whose hatred could shake him on his throne. Even the earliest Kings. we should see wooden figure something like the one that we saw carried through the streets of Thebes. and costly stuffs from Tyre. and of flowers. and Pharaoh. His priests have far more power than the greatest barons of the land. paints created an army day by day. when Egypt was the greatest power in the world But if the temples of ancient Egypt are wonderful. the tombs are almost more wonderful still. For this little figure all the glories that : we have passed through have been priests it. who lived before there was any history at all. bringing to his temple the spices and incense of the Southland and from the Nile mouths another fleet sails to bring home cedar-wood from Lebanon.

and before the peak was destroyed. or if you broke up the stones of which it is built. You would have some trouble in breaking up the stones. pointed buildings rises against the sky on the edge of the desert. the line would reach a good deal more than halfway round the world at the Equator. Not very far from Cairo. it was about 30 feet higher. But you will get the best idea of how tremendous a building it is when I tell you that if you used it as a quarry. Cheops is Khufu. and it covers more than twelve acres of ground.000 years before Christ. we must look at them. the King who was so much put out by Dedi's prophecy about Rud-didet's three babies. for many of the great blocks weigh from 40 to 50 tons and they are so beautifully fitted to one another you could not get the edge of a sheet of paper into apiece. that the joints 7» . that y^ begin to understand what a wonderful thing an Egyptian tomb might be. however . It stands. you could build a town. even now. the tombs of the great Kings of Egypt in early days. the size of a pretty large field. But it is when we come to that King Khufu. Each of its four sides measures over 750 feet in length. out of the Great Pyramid . Take the largest of them. called the Pyramid of Cheops. and if we want to know what Egyptian builders could do 4. a line of strange. the Great Pyramid. who figures in the fairy-stories of Zazamankh and Dedi. These are the Pyramids. No such building was ever reared either before or since. 450 feet in height. the modern capital of Egypt.! Ancient Egypt and furnished with all sorts of things for their use in the after-life. big enough to hold all the people of Aberdeen. and laid them in a line a foot broad and a foot really deep.

"Not a pinch of dust remains of Cheops. or whose face it bears.r Temples and Tombs Inside this great mountain of stone there are long passages leading to two small rooms in the centre of the Pyramid . robbers mined their way into the Pyramid ages ago. of King Khufu. keeping watch and ward over the empty tombs where the Pharaohs of Egypt once slept. It is a huge statue. Near the Second Pyramid sits the Great Sphinx. we do not certainly as it know but there the great figure crouches. if the Great Pyramid had not been built. Round about Thebes. its head towering seventy feet into the air." The other pyramids are smaller. human-headed and lion-bodied. and scattered to the winds the remains of the King. though. in many cases. Who carved . has crouched for countless ages. they began to hew out caverns in the rocks in which to lay their dead. the Second and Third would have been counted world's wonders. its vast limbs and body stretching for two hundred feet along the sand. in spite of all precautions. are decorated with bright and cheerful 79 . Instead of raising huge structures above ground. so that no one should ever disturb the sleep But. it. as Byron says. carved out of limestone rock. and the fashion changed. called " the King's Chamber. Their walls. Later on in Egyptian history the Kings and great folk grew tired of building pyramids. plundered the coffin. so that. the of the Nile are honeycombed rocks on the western side with these strange houses of the departed. the strangest and most wonderful monument ever hewn by the hands of man (Plate 1 1 ). Then the passages were closed with heavy plug-blocks of stone." the body of the greatest builder the world has ever seen was laid in its stone coffin. and in one of these rooms.

you so much. happy. or sits. tradesmen working. townsfolk buying and selling in the bazaars.Ancient Egypt showing scenes of the life which the dead man There he stands. and to-day their tombs are one of the sights of Thebes. placid and lived on earth. hunt- or you are taken into the town. their master (Plate 15). sow and reap . descend through passage after passage and hall after hall." 470 feet from the entrance. with his wife beside him. where the great King was laid in his magniThe walls and pillars of each ficent alabaster coffin. The pillars show pictures of the King making offerings to thr gods. . gather the grapes from and hoe. they or they the vines and put them into the winepress bring the first-fruits of the earth to present them before pictures. In one wild rocky glen. the whole of life in Ancient Egypt passes before your eyes as you go from chamber to chamber. until at last you reach the fourteenth chamber. called the " Valley of the Kings. 80 ." nearly all the later Pharaohs were buried. or being welcomed by them^ but the pictures on the walls are very strange and weird. fishing. — of whom: we have heard Entering the dark doorway in the cliff. "the gold house of Osiris. or fowling see the in those long-past days. Let us look at the finest of them the tomb of Sety I.. and . while all around him They plough his servants go about their usual work. and it is from these old tomb-pictures that we have learned the most of what we know of how people lived and worked ing. and the merchants and In fact. chamber are wonderfully carved and painted. In other pictures you see the great man going out to his amusements. They represent the voyage of the sun through the the father of that Ramses II.

Pages 80. 81 .Plate 15 WALL-PICTURES IN A THEBAN TOMB.


proud features not so very much changed. the greatest soldier of Egypt . end of his long journey. Serpents. London. When it was discovered.. the oppressor of the Israelites and.200 years ago. where he. perhaps most interesting of all.. from what they were when he reigned 3. and difficulties all the dangers and which the soul of the dead man has to he accompanies the sun-bark on its journey. and it was not till 1872 that some modern tomb-robbers found the body of the King. A. Gradually the soul all these dangers into the brighter scenes of the Fields of the Blessed. of Ramses II. their hearts are torn out . along with other royal mummies. pursue the wicked.E. now in the which the mummy Soane Museum. they are boiled in caldrons. we can well believe. fine.. too. nearly a century it was empty. or hung head downwards over lakes of fire. 81 M . at the Finally. to let the Hebrews go. and crocodiles. Now it lies in the museum and you can see the face of this great King. In the same museum you can look upon the faces of Tahutmes III. Temples and Tombs realms of the under-world. the Pharaoh who hardened his heart when Moses pled with hinr. dwells as a god in everlasting life. their encounter as heads are cut off. the King is arrives. hidden away in a deep its pit among the cliffs. and whose picked troops were drowned in the Red Sea as they pursued their at Cairo. The unfortunates who fall into their power are tortured in all kinds of horrible ways . purified. welcomed by the gods into the Abode of the Blessed. and The beautiful alabaster coffin in is of King Sety was laid ago. escaping slaves. where the justified sow and passes through reap and are happy. spitting fire. bats. or armed with spears. of Merenptah.

Ancient Egypt
actual features

very strange to think that one can see the and forms on which the heroes of our The reason of such a thing Bible story looked in life. is that the Egyptians believed that when a man died,

which passed to the life beyond, loved to its old home on earth, and find again the body in which it once dwelt ; and even, perhaps, that the soul's existence in the other world depended in some way on the preservation of the body. So they made the bodies of their dead friends into what we call " mummies," steeping them for many days in pitch
his soul,

return to




they were embalmed, and then wrapping

them round
at last in a

in fold


fold of fine linen.

So they

have endured
live in

these hundreds of years, to be stored

lands which
a great

museum, and gazed upon by people who were savage wildernesses when
and mighty Empire.

Egypt was

this chapter I


want to tell you a little about what what it was, where the Egyptians thought of heaven it was, how people got there after death, and what kind of a life they lived when they were there. They had iome very quaint and curious ideas about the

heavens themselves.


believed, for instance, that

the blue sky overhead was something like a great iron


Egyptian's Heaven


and supported at the four and west, by high mountains. The stars were like little lamps, which hung down from this plate. Right round the world ran a great celestial river, and on this river the sun sailed day after day in his bark, giving light to the world. You could only see him as he passed round from the east by the south to the west, for after that the river ran behind high mountains, and the sun passed out of sight to sail through the world of darkness. Behind the sun, and appearing after he had vanished, It was procame the moon, sailing in its own bark. tected by two guardian eyes, which watched always over it (Plate 13), and it needed the protection, for every month it was attacked by a great enemy in the form of a sow. For a fortnight the moon sailed on safely, and grew fuller and rounder ; but at the middle of the month, just when it was full, the sow attacked it, tore it out of its place, and flung it into the celestial river, where for another fortnight it was gradually
plate spread over the world,

corners, north, south, east,

extinguished, to be revived again at the beginning of

That was the Egyptians' curious way of accounting for the waxing and waning of the moon, and many of their other ideas were just as quaint as
the next month.

do not mean to say anything of what they believed about God, for they had so many gods, and believed such strange things about them, that it would only confuse you if I tried to make you understand it all. But the most important thing in all the Egyptian religion was the belief in heaven, and in the life which people lived there after their life on earth was ended. No other nation of these old times ever believed so


Ancient Egypt
firmly as did the Egyptians that men were immortal, and did not cease to be when they died, but only began a new life, which might be either happy or miserable, according to the way in which they had lived on earth. They had a lot of different beliefs about the life after death, some of them rather confusing, and difficult but I shall tell you only the main to understand things and the simplest things which they believed. They said, then, that very long ago, when the world was young, there was a great and good King called Osiris, who reigned over Egypt, and was very good to his subjects, teaching them all kinds of useful knowBut Osiris had a wicked brother named Set, ledge. who hated him, and was jealous of him. One day Set invited Osiris to a supper, at which he had gathered a number of his friends who were in the plot with him. When they were all feasting gaily, he produced a beautiful chest, and offered to give it to the man who fitted



after another they lay


in the chest,




wicked brother and the other plotters fastened the lid down upon him, and threw the chest into the Nile. It was carried away by the river, and at last was washed ashore, with the dead body of the good King still in it. But Isis, wife of Osiris, sought for her husband everywhere, and at last she found the chest with his body. While she was weeping over it the wicked Set came upon her, tore his brother's body to pieces, and scattered the fragments far and wide ; but the faithful Isis traced them all, and buried them wherever she found them. Now, Isis had a son named Horus, and when he

none of them. Then at and as soon as he was inside,

last Osiris lay



mark down the while forty-two terrible creatures. not all at once. which was the Egyptian sign If it was not of the right weight. and . And then. where was the Hall of Truth. was false. the man for truth. beside the scales stood a god. and the soul went in. The of soul had to make confession to these avengers he had not been guilty of the sins which then. the Egyptians Osiris died. his heart was taken. and defeated him. when he had made his confession. when a man died on earth. and Set in They raised Osiris up from the dead. Then the gods all assembled. then. and his heart was thrown to a dreadful sin that they had power to punish . the wrong. and lived death. ready to result of the j udgment . Within the Hall there stood a great pair of scales. and gave judgment that Osiris was in the right. his soul went on to the gates of the palace of Osiris in the other world. and weighed in the scales against a feather. dwell for ever with Osiris. 85 . The soul had to know the magic names of the gates before it could even enter the Hall but as soon as these names were spoken the gates opened. is You see some strangely like that of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. and appointed him to be judge of all men after death. but gradually. fought with him. in which souls were judged. after his body was mummified and laid in its tomb. came to believe that because and rose again from the dead. for ever after therefore all those that men who and in believed in Osiris respects the story would live again after death.An Egyptian's Heaven grew to manhood he challenged Set. they supposed that. round the Hall sat who had authority to all punish particular sins. Well. made him a god.

to this beautiful And there the dead man. and he was pronounced just. it came. and the ears of corn were a yard long. happiness. There the corn grew three and a fish. and led him into the presence of Osiris the Judge. sowing and reaping. by strange. and admitted to heaven. shining down for ever upon the world. and through great dangers. full of and bordered with reeds and bulrushes. but living for ever. But the idea that most believed in and loved was several different ideas about that somewhere away in a mysterious land to the west. took the man by the hand.Ancient Egypt monster. the sun sails round the world day by day. One rather pretty one was that the souls which were pronounced just were taken up into the sky. and devoured the hearts of the unjust. the Egyptians had it.ilong the canals. in which. there lay a wonderful and beautiful country. half yards high. paddling in his canoe •. dead now no more. who had been accustomed all their days to hard work and harder fare j but by-and-by the great nobles came to think 86 . and there became stars. then Horus. but if it was right. part crocodile. Another was that they were permitted to enter the boat. as I told you. the son of Osiris. I suppose that all this seemed quite a happy sort of heaven to most of the common people. spent his time in endless peace and country. Now. called the Field of Bulrushes. or resting and playing draughts in the evening under the sycamore-trees. Through the fields ran lovely canals. When the soul had passed the Judgment Hall. But what was heaven ? Well. and to keep company with the sun on his unending voyage. which sat behind the balances. part hippopotamus. hard roads.

kindhearted people. and they quickly grew disgusted with the idea of such cruelty." so on. another with a basket in his hand. lot of these when he reached heaven. So. Egyptian's Heaven was not quite good enough earth . first they actually tried to take them by killing the slaves at their master's grave. — and when a man was buried. some of and work his servants killed beside the tomb. so they found another way out of the difficulty. him had worked for him on earth. and was summoned to do work in the Field of Bulrushes. they buried a clay servants along with him. But the Egyptians were always a gentle. all ready to has this got : to do in the other world.An for them. so that they for would be might go with there. when I am called. the Answerers would rise up and answer for him. and take the task off his shoulders. thou 87 . and am required at any time to cause I " Oh. They got numbers of little clay figures made in the form of servants one with a hoe shoulder. and asked to do any kind of work that is am done in heaven. They have sometimes a little verse written upon them. as they their lord into heaven. and on his They called these little figures " Answerers. along with the mummies of the dead Egyptians. When the funeral of a great man took place. that a heaven of this sort They had never done any work on they have to do any in heaven ? why should So they thought that they would find out a way of taking their I fancy that at slaves with them into the other world. so that. to tell the Answerer what he there is often figures. found quite a number of these tiny make heaven easy for their master when he gets there. It runs like when Answerer.

Remember that these men of old. even if we think that very ridiculous. is a thing that God will surely punish at last. reaching out their groping hands through the darkness to a Father whose love they felt. we need not forget that the Egyptians had a wonderfully clear and sure grasp of the fact that it is a man's character in this world which will make him either happy or unhappy in the next. like children. It all ? not And most .' seems rather a curious idea of heaven. and that evildoing. even if it escapes punishment in this life. We may wonder far more at the way in which He taught them so many true and noble things and thoughts. We need not wonder if at times they made mistakes. or to convey the sand from east to west. does it curious of all is the idea of dodging work in the other world by carrying a bundle of china dolls to heaven with you." Ancient Egypt the field to flourish. never leaving Himself without a witness even in those days of long ago. But. though they could not explain His ways. too. ' Here am I. forming many false and even ridiculous ideas about things they could not understand . and went far astray. thou shalt say. PRINTED AT THE COMPLETE PRESS WEST NORWOOD LONDON . wonderfully wise and strong as they were in many ways. were still the children of the time when the world was young like children.



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