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Table 1: Properties of the Continuous-Time Fourier Series

+∞
X +∞
X
jkω0 t
x(t) = ak e = ak ejk(2π/T )t
k=−∞ k=−∞
Z Z
1 −jkω0 t 1
ak = x(t)e dt = x(t)e−jk(2π/T )t dt
T T T T

Property Periodic Signal Fourier Series Coefficients


x(t) Periodic with period T and ak
y(t) fundamental frequency ω0 = 2π/T bk

Linearity Ax(t) + By(t) Aak + Bbk


Time-Shifting x(t − t0 ) ak e−jkω0 t0 = ak e−jk(2π/T )t0
Frequency-Shifting ejM ω0 t = ejM (2π/T )t x(t) ak−M
Conjugation x∗ (t) a∗−k
Time Reversal x(−t) a−k
Time Scaling x(αt), α > 0 (periodic with period T /α)
Z ak
Periodic Convolution x(τ )y(t − τ )dτ T ak b k
T
+∞
X
Multiplication x(t)y(t) al bk−l
l=−∞
dx(t) 2π
Differentiation jkω0 ak = jk ak
Z dt t   T 
(finite-valued and 1 1
Integration x(t)dt ak = ak
−∞ periodic only if a0 = 0)  jkω0 ∗ jk(2π/T )

ak = a−k

ℜe{ak } = ℜe{a−k }

Conjugate Symmetry
x(t) real ℑm{ak } = −ℑm{a−k }
for Real Signals 


|ak | = |a−k |

<) ak = −< ) a−k
Real and Even Sig-
x(t) real and even ak real and even
nals

Real and Odd Signals x(t) real and odd ak purely imaginary and odd

Even-Odd Decompo- xe (t) = Ev{x(t)} [x(t) real] ℜe{ak }
sition of Real Signals xo (t) = Od{x(t)} [x(t) real] jℑm{ak }

Parseval’s Relation for Periodic Signals


Z +∞
1 X
|x(t)|2 dt = |ak |2
T T k=−∞
Table 2: Properties of the Discrete-Time Fourier Series
X X
x[n] = ak ejkω0 n = ak ejk(2π/N )n
k=<N > k=<N >

1 X 1 X
ak = x[n]e−jkω0 n = x[n]e−jk(2π/N )n
N n=<N >
N n=<N >

Property Periodic signal Fourier series coefficients

 
x[n] Periodic with period N and fun- ak Periodic with
y[n] damental frequency ω0 = 2π/N bk period N

Linearity Ax[n] + By[n] Aak + Bbk


Time shift x[n − n0 ] ak e−jk(2π/N )n0
Frequency Shift ejM (2π/N )n x[n] ak−M
Conjugation x∗ [n] a∗−k
Time Reversal x[−n] a−k !
 viewed as
x[n/m] if n is a multiple of m 1
Time Scaling x(m) [n] = ak periodic with
0 if n is not a multiple of m m period mN
(periodic with period mN )
X
Periodic Convolution x[r]y[n − r] N ak bk
r=hN i
X
Multiplication x[n]y[n] al bk−l
l=hN i
First Difference x[n] − x[n − 1] (1 − e−jk(2π/N ) )ak
n    
X finite-valued and 1
Running Sum x[k] ak
periodic only if a0 = 0 (1 − e−jk(2π/N ) )
k=−∞ 

ak = a∗−k

ℜe{ak } = ℜe{a−k }

Conjugate Symmetry
x[n] real ℑm{ak } = −ℑm{a−k }
for Real Signals 


|a k | = |a−k |

<) ak = −< ) a−k
Real and Even Signals x[n] real and even ak real and even

Real and Odd Signals x[n] real and odd ak purely imaginary and odd

Even-Odd Decomposi- xe [n] = Ev{x[n]} [x[n] real] ℜe{ak }


tion of Real Signals xo [n] = Od{x[n]} [x[n] real] jℑm{ak }

Parseval’s Relation for Periodic Signals


1 X X
|x[n]|2 = |ak |2
N
n=hN i k=hN i
Table 3: Properties of the Continuous-Time Fourier Transform
Z ∞
1
x(t) = X(jω)ejωt dω
2π −∞
Z ∞
X(jω) = x(t)e−jωt dt
−∞

Property Aperiodic Signal Fourier transform

x(t) X(jω)
y(t) Y (jω)

Linearity ax(t) + by(t) aX(jω) + bY (jω)


Time-shifting x(t − t0 ) e−jωt0 X(jω)
Frequency-shifting ejω0 t x(t) X(j(ω − ω0 ))
Conjugation x∗ (t) X ∗ (−jω)
Time-Reversal x(−t) X(−jω) 
1 jω
Time- and Frequency-Scaling x(at) X
|a| a
Convolution x(t) ∗ y(t) X(jω)Y (jω)
1
Multiplication x(t)y(t) X(jω) ∗ Y (jω)

d
Differentiation in Time x(t) jωX(jω)
Zdt t
1
Integration x(t)dt X(jω) + πX(0)δ(ω)
−∞ jω
d
Differentiation in Frequency tx(t) j X(jω)
 dω

X(jω) = X ∗ (−jω)

ℜe{X(jω)} = ℜe{X(−jω)}

Conjugate Symmetry for Real
x(t) real ℑm{X(jω)} = −ℑm{X(−jω)}
Signals 


|X(jω)| = |X(−jω)|

<) X(jω) = −<) X(−jω)
Symmetry for Real and Even
x(t) real and even X(jω) real and even
Signals
Symmetry for Real and Odd
x(t) real and odd X(jω) purely imaginary and odd
Signals
Even-Odd Decomposition for xe (t) = Ev{x(t)} [x(t) real] ℜe{X(jω)}
Real Signals xo (t) = Od{x(t)} [x(t) real] jℑm{X(jω)}

Parseval’s Relation for Aperiodic Signals


Z +∞ Z +∞
2 1
|x(t)| dt = |X(jω)|2 dω
−∞ 2π −∞
Table 4: Basic Continuous-Time Fourier Transform Pairs

Fourier series coefficients


Signal Fourier transform (if periodic)

+∞
X +∞
X
ak ejkω0 t 2π ak δ(ω − kω0 ) ak
k=−∞ k=−∞
jω0 t a1 = 1
e 2πδ(ω − ω0 )
ak = 0, otherwise
a1 = a−1 = 12
cos ω0 t π[δ(ω − ω0 ) + δ(ω + ω0 )]
ak = 0, otherwise
1
π a1 = −a−1 = 2j
sin ω0 t [δ(ω − ω0 ) − δ(ω + ω0 )]
j ak = 0, otherwise
a0 = 1, ak = 0, k 6= 0
!
this is the Fourier series rep-
x(t) = 1 2πδ(ω)
resentation for any choice of
T >0
Periodic
 square wave
1, |t| < T1 +∞  
x(t) = X 2 sin kω0 T1 ω0 T 1 kω0 T1 sin kω0 T1
0, T1 < |t| ≤ T2 δ(ω − kω0 ) sinc =
k π π kπ
and k=−∞
x(t + T ) = x(t)
+∞ +∞  
X 2π X 2πk 1
δ(t − nT ) δ ω− ak = for all k
n=−∞
T T T
 k=−∞
1, |t| < T1 2 sin ωT1
x(t) —
0, |t| > T1 ω 
sin W t 1, |ω| < W
X(jω) = —
πt 0, |ω| > W
δ(t) 1 —
1
u(t) + πδ(ω) —

δ(t − t0 ) e−jωt0 —
1
e−at u(t), ℜe{a} > 0 —
a + jω
1
te−at u(t), ℜe{a} > 0 —
(a + jω)2
tn−1 −at u(t), 1
(n−1)! e —
ℜe{a} > 0 (a + jω)n
Table 5: Properties of the Discrete-Time Fourier Transform
Z
1
x[n] = X(ejω )ejωn dω
2π 2π
+∞
X

X(e ) = x[n]e−jωn
n=−∞

Property Aperiodic Signal Fourier transform


x[n] X(ejω ) Periodic with
y[n] Y (ejω ) period 2π
Linearity ax[n] + by[n] aX(e ) + bY (ejω )

Time-Shifting x[n − n0 ] e−jωn0 X(ejω )


Frequency-Shifting ejω0 n x[n] X(ej(ω−ω0 ) )
Conjugation x∗ [n] X ∗ (e−jω )
Time Reversal x[−n]  X(e−jω )
x[n/k], if n = multiple of k
Time Expansions x(k) [n] = X(ejkω )
0, if n 6= multiple of k
Convolution x[n] ∗ y[n] X(eZjω )Y (ejω )
1
Multiplication x[n]y[n] X(ejθ )Y (ej(ω−θ) )dθ
2π 2π

Differencing in Time x[n] − x[n − 1] (1 − e−jω )X(ejω )


n
X 1
Accumulation x[k] X(ejω )
k=−∞
1 − e−jω
X+∞
j0
+πX(e ) δ(ω − 2πk)
k=−∞
dX(ejω )
Differentiation in Frequency nx[n] j

 jω

X(e ) = X ∗ (e−jω )

ℜe{X(ejω )} = ℜe{X(e−jω )}

Conjugate Symmetry for x[n] real ℑm{X(ejω )} = −ℑm{X(e−jω )}

Real Signals 

|X(ejω )| = |X(e−jω )|

<) X(ejω ) = −<
) X(e−jω )

Symmetry for Real, Even x[n] real and even X(ejω ) real and even
Signals
X(ejω ) purely
Symmetry for Real, Odd x[n] real and odd
imaginary and odd
Signals
Even-odd Decomposition of xe [n] = Ev{x[n]} [x[n] real] ℜe{X(ejω )}
Real Signals xo [n] = Od{x[n]} [x[n] real] jℑm{X(ejω )}

Parseval’s Relation for Aperiodic Signals


+∞ Z
X
2 1
|x[n]| = |X(ejω )|2 dω
n=−∞
2π 2π
Table 6: Basic Discrete-Time Fourier Transform Pairs

Fourier series coefficients


Signal Fourier transform (if periodic)

+∞  
X
jk(2π/N )n
X 2πk
ak e 2π ak δ ω − ak
N
k=hN i k=−∞
2πm
(a) ω0 = N
+∞
X 1, k = m, m ± N, m ± 2N, . . .
ejω0 n 2π δ(ω − ω0 − 2πl) ak =
0, otherwise
l=−∞
(b) ω 0
2π irrational ⇒ The signal is aperiodic
2πm
(a) ω0 =  N
+∞ 1
2 , k = ±m, ±m ± N, ±m ± 2N, . . .
X
cos ω0 n π {δ(ω − ω0 − 2πl) + δ(ω + ω0 − 2πl)} ak =
0, otherwise
l=−∞
(b) ω 0
2π irrational ⇒ The signal is aperiodic
2πr
(a) ω0 =  N1
+∞
π X  2j , k = r, r ± N, r ± 2N, . . .
sin ω0 n {δ(ω − ω0 − 2πl) − δ(ω + ω0 − 2πl)} ak = − 1 , k = −r, −r ± N, −r ± 2N, . . .
j  2j
l=−∞ 0, otherwise
(b) ω 0
irrational ⇒ The signal is aperiodic
+∞ 2π
X 1, k = 0, ±N, ±2N, . . .
x[n] = 1 2π δ(ω − 2πl) ak =
0, otherwise
l=−∞
Periodic
 square wave
1, |n| ≤ N1 +∞   sin[(2πk/N )(N1 + 12 )]
x[n] = X 2πk ak = , k 6= 0, ±N, ±2N, . . .
0, N1 < |n| ≤ N/2 2π ak δ ω − N sin[2πk/2N ]
2N1 +1
N ak = , k = 0, ±N, ±2N, . . .
and k=−∞ N
x[n + N ] = x[n]
+∞ +∞  
X 2π X 2πk 1
δ[n − kN ] δ ω− ak = for all k
k=−∞
N
k=−∞
N N
1
an u[n], |a| < 1 —
 1 − ae−jω
1, |n| ≤ N1 sin[ω(N1 + 12 )]
x[n]
0, |n| > N1

sin(ω/2)
sin W n
 1, 0 ≤ |ω| ≤ W
=W
π sinc
Wn
X(ejω ) =
πn π 0, W < |ω| ≤ π —
0<W <π
X(ejω )periodic with period 2π
δ[n] 1 —
+∞
1 X
u[n] + πδ(ω − 2πk) —
1 − e−jω
k=−∞
δ[n − n0 ] e−jωn0 —
1
(n + 1)an u[n], |a| < 1 —
(1 − ae−jω )2
(n + r − 1)! n 1
a u[n], |a| < 1 —
n!(r − 1)! (1 − ae−jω )r
Table 7: Properties of the Laplace Transform

Property Signal Transform ROC

x(t) X(s) R

x1 (t) X1 (s) R1

x2 (t) X2 (s) R2

Linearity ax1 (t) + bx2 (t) aX1 (s) + bX2 (s) At least R1 ∩ R2

Time shifting x(t − t0 ) e−st0 X(s) R

Shifting in the s-Domain es0 t x(t) X(s − s0 ) Shifted version of R [i.e., s is


in the ROC if (s − s0 ) is in
R]
1 s
Time scaling x(at) X “Scaled” ROC (i.e., s is in
|a| a
the ROC if (s/a) is in R)

Conjugation x∗ (t) X ∗ (s∗ ) R

Convolution x1 (t) ∗ x2 (t) X1 (s)X2 (s) At least R1 ∩ R2


d
Differentiation in the Time Domain x(t) sX(s) At least R
dt
d
Differentiation in the s-Domain −tx(t) X(s) R
Z ds
t
1
Integration in the Time Domain x(τ )d(τ ) X(s) At least R ∩ {ℜe{s} > 0}
−∞ s

Initial- and Final Value Theorems

If x(t) = 0 for t < 0 and x(t) contains no impulses or higher-order singularities at t = 0, then

x(0+ ) = lims→∞ sX(s)

If x(t) = 0 for t < 0 and x(t) has a finite limit as t → ∞, then

limt→∞ x(t) = lims→0 sX(s)


Table 8: Laplace Transforms of Elementary Functions

Signal Transform ROC

1. δ(t) 1 All s
1
2. u(t) ℜe{s} > 0
s
1
3. −u(−t) ℜe{s} < 0
s
tn−1 1
4. u(t) ℜe{s} > 0
(n − 1)! sn
tn−1 1
5. − u(−t) ℜe{s} < 0
(n − 1)! sn
1
6. e−αt u(t) ℜe{s} > −ℜe{α}
s+α
1
7. −e−αt u(−t) ℜe{s} < −ℜe{α}
s+α
tn−1 −αt 1
8. e u(t) ℜe{s} > −ℜe{α}
(n − 1)! (s + α)n
tn−1 −αt 1
9. − e u(−t) ℜe{s} < −ℜe{α}
(n − 1)! (s + α)n
10. δ(t − T ) e−sT All s
s
11. [cos ω0 t]u(t) ℜe{s} > 0
s2 + ω02
ω0
12. [sin ω0 t]u(t) ℜe{s} > 0
s + ω02
2

s+α
13. [e−αt cos ω0 t]u(t) ℜe{s} > −ℜe{α}
(s + α)2 + ω02
ω0
14. [e−αt sin ω0 t]u(t) ℜe{s} > −ℜe{α}
(s + α)2 + ω02
dn δ(t)
15. un (t) = sn All s
dtn
1
16. u−n (t) = u(t) ∗ · · · ∗ u(t) ℜe{s} > 0
| {z } sn
n times
Table 9: Properties of the z-Transform

Property Sequence Transform ROC

x[n] X(z) R
x1 [n] X1 (z) R1
x2 [n] X2 (z) R2

Linearity ax1 [n] + bx2 [n] aX1 (z) + bX2 (z) At least the intersection
of R1 and R2

Time shifting x[n − n0 ] z −n0 X(z) R except for the


possible addition or
deletion of the origin

Scaling in the ejω0 n x[n] X(e−jω0


  z) R
z-Domain z0n x[n] X zz0 z0 R
n
a x[n] X(a−1 z) Scaled version of R
(i.e., |a|R = the
set of points {|a|z}
for z in R)

Time reversal x[−n] X(z −1 ) Inverted R (i.e., R−1


= the set of points
 z −1 where z is in R)
x[r], n = rk
Time expansion x(k) [n] = X(z k ) R1/k
0, n 6= rk
for some integer r (i.e., the set of points z 1/k
where z is in R)

Conjugation x∗ [n] X ∗ (z ∗ ) R

Convolution x1 [n] ∗ x2 [n] X1 (z)X2 (z) At least the intersection


of R1 and R2

First difference x[n] − x[n − 1] (1 − z −1 )X(z) At least the


intersection of R and |z| > 0
Pn 1
Accumulation k=−∞ x[k] 1−z −1
X(z) At least the
intersection of R and |z| > 1

Differentiation nx[n] −z dX(z)


dz
R
in the z-Domain

Initial Value Theorem


If x[n] = 0 for n < 0, then
x[0] = limz→∞ X(z)
Table 10: Some Common z-Transform Pairs

Signal Transform ROC

1. δ[n] 1 All z

1
2. u[n] 1−z −1
|z| > 1

1
3. u[−n − 1] 1−z −1
|z| < 1

4. δ[n − m] z −m All z except


0 (if m > 0) or
∞ (if m < 0)

1
5. αn u[n] 1−αz −1
|z| > |α|

1
6. −αn u[−n − 1] 1−αz −1
|z| < |α|

αz −1
7. nαn u[n] (1−αz −1 )2
|z| > |α|

αz −1
8. −nαn u[−n − 1] (1−αz −1 )2
|z| < |α|

1−[cos ω0 ]z −1
9. [cos ω0 n]u[n] 1−[2 cos ω0 ]z −1 +z −2
|z| > 1

[sin ω0 ]z −1
10. [sin ω0 n]u[n] 1−[2 cos ω0 ]z −1 +z −2
|z| > 1

1−[r cos ω0 ]z −1
11. [rn cos ω0 n]u[n] 1−[2r cos ω0 ]z −1 +r 2 z −2
|z| > r

[r sin ω0 ]z −1
12. [rn sin ω0 n]u[n] 1−[2r cos ω0 ]z −1 +r 2 z −2
|z| > r