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It is a combination of Greek words that literally means to increase measurement. (Plio = more; metric = to measure) y It is a quick, powerful movement using a prestretch, or countermovement, that involves the Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC). Purpose of Plyometrics y To increase the power of subsequent movements by using both the natural elastic components of muscle and tendon and the stretch reflex
THREE IMPORTANT THINGS TO UNDERSTAND TO EFFECTIVELY USE PLYOMETRICS AS PART OF A TRAINING PROGRAM: 1. Mechanics and Physiology. 2. Principles of Program Design. 3. How to safely and effectively perform specific exercises.
PLYOMETRIC MECHANICS AND PHYSIOLOGY: y y When used correctly, plyometric training has been consistently been shown to improve the production of muscle force and power. It is best explained by two models:
1. Mechanical 2. Neurophysiological y MECHANICAL MODEL Elastic energy in the musculotendinous components is increased with a rapid stretch and then stored. When immediately followed by a concentric muscle action, this stored elastic energy is then released, increasing the total force production.
Involves the potentiation (change in the force-velocity characteristics of the muscle s contractile components caused by stretch) of the concentric muscle action by use of the stretch reflex. y y y y y The stretch reflex is the body s involuntary response to an external stimulus that stretches the muscles. The reflexive component of plyometric exercise is primarily comprised of muscle spindle activity. Muscle spindles are proprioceptive organs that are sensitive to the rate and magnitude of a stretch. During plyometric exercises, the muscle spindles are stimulated by a rapid stretch, causing a reflexive muscle action, thereby increasing the force the muscle produces. The Stretch-Shortening Cycle combines Mechanical and Neurophysiological mechanisms and therefore, the basis of plyometric exercise. A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increase the force produced during the subsequent concentric action. STRETCH SHORTENING CYCLE PHASE
PHYSIOLOGICAL EVENT Elastic energy is stored in the SEC. Muscle spindles are stimulated. Ia afferent nerves synapse with alpha motor neurons. Alpha motor neurons transmit signals to agonist muscle groups.
Stretch of the agonist muscle
II - AMORTIZATION
Pause between phases I and III
MODE A. Upper-Body C. Catches 3. Bounds 5. Depth Jumps UPPER-BODY PLYOMETRICS: 1.III . Lower-Body B. Box Drills 6. Medicine Ball Throw 2. FREQUENCY 4. Jump in Place 2. VOLUME 6. INTENSITY 3.CONCENTRIC Shortening of agonist muscle fibers Elastic energy is released from the SEC. MODE LOWER-BODY PLYOMETRIC DRILLS: TYPE OF JUMP 1. Standing Jumps 3. Trunk 2. WARM-UP a. PROGRAM LENGTH 7. Push-Ups TRUNK PLYOMETRICS: 1. PROGRESSION 8. PLYOMETRIC PROGRAM DESIGN 1. RECOVERY 5. Multiple Hops and Jumps 4. Alpha motor neurons stimulate the agonist muscle groups. Medicine Ball Sit-Ups .
as intensity increases. RECOVERY y Refers to the time between repetitions. PROGRESSION y Progressive overload is the systematic increase in training frequency. e. VOLUME y Typically expressed as the number of repetitions and sets performed during a given training session. vertical jump height does improve as quickly as 4 weeks after beginning a plyometric training program. however. volume should decrease. c. PLYOMETRIC EXPERIENCE Beginner (no experience) Intermediate (some experience) Advanced (considerably experienced) BEGINNING VOLUME 80 to 100 100 to 120 120 to 140 f. y Currently. and intensity in various combinations. volume. y Work-to-rest ratio ( 1:5 to 1:10) y Example: Recovery for depth jumps may consist of 5 to 10 seconds of rest between repetitions and 2 to 3 minutes between sets. y Generally. most programs range from 6 to 10 weeks. y Typically. and workouts. INTENSITY y Refers to the amount of stress placed on involved muscles. y Lower-Body: Number of foot contacts per workout.b. PROGRAM LENGTH y Research has yet to determine an optimal plyometric training program length. typically ranges from 1 to 3. y Upper-Body: Number of throws or catches per workout. FREQUENCY y Refers to the number of training session per week. as intensity increases. d. . sets. volume decreases. g.
pattern. Speed d. Technique b.h. Physical Characteristics . Based on the lunge exercise May be multidirectional Jogging Skipping Footwork Lunging SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 1. and butt kickers Exaggerated form of reciprocal upper and lower extremity movements. Toe jogging. WARM. Preparation of changes of direction. Balance e.UP PLYOMETRIC WARM-UP DRILLS DRILL Marching EXPLANATION Mimics running movements. Enhances proper lower body movements for running. Strength c. Prepares for impact and high intensity plyo drills. Shuttle. Target change of direction. Age f. Emphasis on quick take off and landing. and stride drills. Emphasize posture and movement technique. shuffle. Pre-Training Evaluation of the Athlete a. Straight leg jogging.
Supervision f. SPEED y y d. or 100kg Or y c. Equipment d. Proper Footwear e.2. Depth Jumping PRE-TRAINING EVALUATION OF THE ATHLETE a. STRENGTH y Lower Body = 1RM Squat = 1. b. or 100kg And y Upper Body = 1RM Bench Press = 1.5 times his/her BW. VARIATION Double-leg Single-leg Double-leg Single-leg Ability to perform five clap push-ups in a row TEST Standing Quarter Squat . Training Area c.5 times BW of athletes who weigh less than 220lbs. Landing Surface b. y Upper Body = 1RM Bench Press = 1 times BW of athletes who weigh over 220lbs. Equipment and Facilities a. each test position must be held for 30 seconds. TECHNIQUE y To maximize the drill s effectiveness and to minimize the risk of injury. BALANCE y y Lower Body = 5 reps Squat w/60% BW in 5 sec or less Upper body = 5 reps Bench Press w/60% BW in 5 sec or less The maintenance of a position without moving for a given period of time. Three Balance Tests are provided and are listed in order of difficulty.
e. TRAINING AREA y Bounding and running drills = 30m-100m y Standing. y Jumping from such a height increases the possibility of injury. Evaluate the Athlete.Half Squat Double-leg Single-leg e. Equipment and facilities provide a safe environment. AGE Research has yet to determine the age. and should also not perform depth jumps from heights greater than 18 inches. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS y Athletes who weighs more than 220lbs may be at an increased risk for injury. y y f. y The recommended height for depth jumps ranges from 16 to 42 inches. good lateral stability. f. box. . EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES a. DEPTH JUMPING y A height of 48 inches would provide a significant overload on the muscles. 2. PROPER FOOTWEAR y With good ankle and arch support. Physical maturity should not be the sole determinant of plyometric preparedness. d. LOADING SURFACE y Must possess adequate shock-absorbing properties such as grass field. should avoid high volume high intensity plyometric exercises. IMPLEMENTING A PLYOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM 1. with 30 to 32 inches being the norm. and a wide. psychological maturity is a necessary component before beginning plyometrics. EQUIPMENT y Box height should range from 16 to 42 inches with landing surfaces of at least 18 by 24 inches. b. and depth jumps = minimal surface area but an adequate height of 9. suspended floor or rubber mat.8 to 13. nonslip sole.1 feet c. SUPERVISION y Must be closely monitored to ensure proper technique.
3. BOUNDS y Skip y Power skip y Backward skip y Single-arm alternate leg-bound y Double-arm alternate leg-bound e. Properly progress the program. 5. 4. Determine program design variables. 6. Teach the athlete proper technique. LOWER BODY y Jumps in Place y Two-foot ankle hop y Squat jump y Jump and reach y Double-leg tuck jump y Split squat jump y Cycled split squat jump y Single-leg tuck jump y Pike jump b. Establish sport-specific goals. PLYOMETRIC DRILLS a. STANDING JUMPS y Double-leg vertical jump y Jump over barrier y Single-leg vertical jump c. MULTIPLE HOPS AND JUMPS y Double-leg hop y Double-leg zigzag hop y Single-leg hop y Front barrier hop y Lateral barrier hop d. BOX DRILLS y Single-leg push-off y Alternate-leg push-off y Lateral push-off y Side-to-side push-off .
UPPER BODY >THROWS y y y y y Chest pass Two-hand overhead throw Two-hand side-to-side throw Single-arm throw Power drop PLYOMETRIC PUSH-UPS y TRUNK y 45° Sit-up Depth push-up *Plyometrics falls under the power phase of resistance training.f. . y Jump to box y Squat box jump y Lateral box jump y Jump from box DEPTH JUMPS y Depth jump y Depth jump to second box y Squat depth jump y Depth jump with lateral movement y Depth jump with standing long jump y Single-leg depth jump g.
muscle cross sectional-area. muscle length Power refers to a muscle exerting maximal force at the shortest time possible Endurance refers to the capacity of the muscle to do a lot of repetitions with submaximal contraction y y ANATOMICAL/GENERAL ADAPTATION o o o o Load: 30% of 1 RM Sets: 2 to 3 Repetitions: 10 to 12 Rest Period: 2 to 3 minutes MUSCULAR ENDURANCE o o o o Load: 30 to 40% of 1 RM Sets: 3. Super Set. Quad-set.RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM FLOW Anatomical/General Adaptation Muscular Endurance Hypertrophy Strength Power y y y Anatomical/General Adaptation general conditioning Hypertrophy increase in the cross-sectional area of the muscle. arrangement of sarcomeres. determined by muscle fiber recruitment. Circuit. increase in muscle fiber size Strength refers to how much force the muscle can exert on a weight. Dual Set. active rest . Tri-set. until failure Rest Period: minimal rest to 1 minute. force velocity. Drop Set Repetitions: 12 to 20. timed. muscle pennation.
HYPERTROPHY o o o o STRENGTH o o o o POWER o o o o Load: 80% of 1 RM Sets: 1 to 3 Repetitions: 5 to 8 Rest Period: 4 to 5 minutes Load: 90% of 1 RM Sets: 3 to 5 Repetitions: 5 Rest Period: 2 to 3 minutes Load: 65 to 75% of 1 RM Sets: 3 Repetitions: within the range of 20 Rest Period: 30 sec. to 2 minutes EXERCISE ORDER Agonist/Antagonist Push and Pull Big Muscle Groups/Small Muscle Groups Power Exercises/Resistance exercises SAMPLE TRAINING PROGRAMS General Adaptation Frequency 3 x a week Intensity light Mode whole body Rest Period 2 to 3 minutes Duration 4 to 6 weeks .
Exercise Order Agonist/Antagonist Warm-up: 10 minutes jogging Active Dynamic Stretching Exercise Legs y y y Leg Extension Leg Curl Calf Press Sets Repetitions Load 30 of 1 RM 3 3 3 10 10 10 Shoulders y y Chest y y y Back y y Lat Pull Down One-arm DB Row y Biceps y y Biceps Curl Hammer Curl 3 3 10 10 10 lbs DB 10 lbs DB Seated back Hyperextension 3 3 3 10 10 10 50 lbs 10 lbs 11 lbs Flat Smith Press Inclined DB Press Supinated Raise 3 3 3 10 10 10 Bar Alone 10 lbs 5 lbs Lateral Raise Front Raise 3 3 10 10 10 lbs DB 10 lbs DB Triceps y Overhead Triceps Extension y Triceps Pull 3 10 10 lbs 3 10 15 lbs DB .
30 seconds active rest (jogging) in between sets Duration 4 to 6 weeks Exercise Order: Agonist/Antagonist Warm-up: 10 minutes jogging Active Dynamic Stretching Exercise Legs Smith Squats Conventional Lunges Step-ups Body Weight 3 20 Two 10 lbs plates 10 lbs DB Sets Repetitions Load .down ABS: 3 sets of 15 reps Crunches Oblique Crunches Reverse Crunches Cardio: 20 to 30 minutes jogging Cool Down: 5 minutes walking Passive Stretching ENDURANCE Frequency 3 x a week Intensity high Mode whole body/ tri-set Rest Period no rest in between exercises.
circuit type Crunches Jackknife .Shoulders DB Shoulder Press 4 ± way raise Upright Row Chest Flat Bench Press Inclined Bench Press Declined Bench Press Back Lat Pull Down Reverse Flyes Conventional Deadlift Biceps Supinated Super 21 Pronated Super 21 Hammer Super 21 Triceps Overhead Triceps Extension Bench Dips Triceps Kickback Body Weight 5 lbs DB 3 20 10 lbs DB 10 lbs DB 10 lbs DB 3 20 10 lbs DB 3 20 50 lbs 5 lbs DB Olympic Bar 10 lbs plates 3 20 10 lbs plates 10 lbs plates 5 lbs DB 25 lbs plate 3 20 10 lbs DB ABS 3 Sets. 20 reps.
passive stretching HYPERTROPHY Frequency 4-day split Intensity moderate Mode upper/lower Rest Period 1 minute and 30 seconds Duration 4 to 6 weeks *increasing weight in between sets Exercise Order Agonist/Antagonist Warm-up: 10 minutes jogging Active Dynamic Stretching Exercise Legs y Smith Squats y Shoulders y Military Press Shoulder Width Wide Externally Rotated 1st set = 12 2 set = 10 nd Sets 3 Repetitions 1 set = 12 2 set = 10 3rd set = 8 nd st Load 65 to70 % of 1 RM Smith Calf Raise 3 65 to 70 % 1 RM .Oblique Crunches Russian Twists Scissor Kicks Reverse Crunches Cardio: 20 to 30 minutes jogging Cool Down: 5 minutes walking.
y y Chest y y y y Back y y y y Upright Row Bent Lateral Raise 3 3rd set = 8 1st set = 12 2nd set = 10 3rd set = 8 65 to 70 % 1 RM Flat Bench Press Inclined DB Press Declined DB Press Flat DB Flyes 3 Lat Pull Down Barbell Row Reverse Flyes Deadlift (conventional) 1st set = 12 2 set = 10 3 set = 8 rd nd 65 to 70 % 1 RM Biceps y y y Hammer Curl Pronated Curl Preacher Curl 3 1st set = 12 2nd set = 10 3 set = 8 rd 65 to 70 % 1 RM Triceps y y y Overhead Triceps Extension Triceps Pull Down Triceps Kickback 3 1st set = 12 2 set = 10 3 set = 8 rd nd 65 to 70 % 1 RM ABS: 3 sets of 20 with medicine ball Hanged leg Crunches Russian Twists Weighted leg raise Cool Down: 5 minutes walking. passive stretching Sunday Monday Rest Legs and Shoulders Workout Tuesday Chest and Back Workout Wednesday 30 to 40 minutes jogging Thursday Legs and Shoulders Workout Friday Chest and Back Workout Saturday Rest .
active/dynamic stretching Resistance training (hypertrophy) 1 set = 12 repetitions 2nd set = 10 repetitions 3 set = 8 repetitions Increasing load each set Cool down of 5 minutes slow-pace jogging. active/dynamic stretching minutes jogging.Warm-up of 10 Warm-up of 10 minutes jogging. passive/static stretching rd st STRENGTH Frequency 3 x a week Intensity high . active/dynamic stretching Resistance Resistance training (hypertrophy) training (hypertrophy) 1st set = 12 1st set = 12 repetitions 2nd set = 10 repetitions 3rd set = 8 repetitions repetitions 2nd set = 10 repetitions 3rd set = 8 repetitions Increasing load Increasing load each set each set Cool down of 5 Cool down of 5 minutes slowpace jogging. passive/static stretching minutes slowpace jogging. active/dynamic stretching Resistance training (hypertrophy) 1 set = 12 repetitions 2nd set = 10 repetitions 3 set = 8 repetitions Increasing load each set Cool down of 5 minutes walking. passive/static stretching minutes jogging. passive/static stretching rd st Warm-up of 10 Warm-up of 10 minutes jogging.
Mode upper/lower Rest Period 3 minutes Duration 4 to 6 weeks Exercise Order Agonist/Antagonist Warm-up: 10 minutes jogging Active Dynamic Stretching Exercise Legs y Olympic Bar Squats y Shoulders y y y y y Chest y y y y y Back y y y Lat Pull Down Stiff Arm Pull Down Reverse Flyes Flat Bench Press Inclined Bench Press Declined Bench Press Flat DB Flyes Inclined DB Flyes 5 5 90% 1 RM Military Press Arnold Press Upright Row Shoulder Shrugs Bent Lateral Raise 5 5 90% 1 RM Shoulder Width Wide Externally Rotated Narrow Sets 5 Repetitions 5 Load 90% 1 RM Olympic Bar Calf Raise 5 5 90% 1 RM .
passive stretching Schedule: Monday: Legs and Shoulders Tuesday: rest Wednesday: Chest and Back . 1 minute Plank Side Plank Superman Cool Down: 5 minutes walking.y y Barbell Row Deadlift (conventional) Biceps y y y y y Lying Biceps Curl Concentration Curl Hammer Curl Pronated Curl Preacher Curl 5 5 90% 1 RM Triceps y y y y y Lying Triceps Extension Overhead Tricep Extension Triceps Pull Down Triceps Kickback Bench Dips 5 5 90% 1 RM ABS: 3 sets of 25 reps V-ups Side Bends Roman Chair Core: 3 sets.
Thursday: rest Friday: Biceps and Triceps Saturday: rest Sunday: rest POWER Frequency 3 x a week Intensity high Mode upper/lower Rest Period 4 to 5 minutes Duration 4 to 6 weeks Warm-up: 10 minutes jogging Active Dynamic Stretching Marching Skipping Power Skipping Jumps Front and Back Side to Side Diamond Shuffle PLYOMETRICS y 3 sets of 8 Reps .
You can only increase intensity. Jump to Box Jump to box then Depth Jump Lateral Jump to Box Single leg Drop Jump Depth Jump then Countermovement Jump Upper Body 1. 5. Lunges with Trunk Rotation 2. 5. 4.Lower Body 1. Leg Raise with Push Core 1. *Strictly follow rest periods. END . you can still progress it to strength and power. and in proper order. 3. *Exercises must be done in proper form with no compensation of other muscles. Wood Chop 3. *Avoid overtraining. 2. meaning their bodies need more time to adapt. choose between muscular endurance and hypertrophy. If you choose hypertrophy. 2. 4. 3. Medicine Ball Chest Pass Overhead Medicine Ball Throw Power Drop Side Arm Medicine Ball Throw Clap Push-ups Trunk Plyometrics 1. meaning their bodies can adapt to the training program fast and some are low responders. If you choose muscular endurance. Single Leg standing on mat medicine ball throws Cool Down: 5 minutes walking. *Some clients are high responders. From general adaptation. Sit-ups with Medicine Ball Throw 2. passive stretching *When undergoing resistance training. it stops there. choose what path to follow.
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