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A Report prepared for the Department of Forestry,
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security Freetown Sierra Leone West Africa
Environmental Consultant Email: email@example.com Tel: 232 33 40 71 64
LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sample size of Selected Settlements:……………………………….. Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents:……………… Socio-economic Activities Influencing Loss of Biodiversity ….:………………………………………………… Regression Analysis of Activities Influencing Loss of Biodiversity …:………………………………………………… Summary of Regression Equations for Activities Influencing Loss of Biodiversity:……………………………………………… Livelihood Sustainability Matrix of Plant Species and their Uses:. 27 30 24 23 13 18
8 1. 2.
LIST OF FIGURES 12 11
Conceptual Framework:…………………………………………….. The Study Area: Waterloo Rural District:…………………………..
TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES:………………………………………………………….. LIST OF FIGURES:………………………………………………………… TABLE OF CONTENTS:…………………………………………………… EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:………………………………………………….. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Background:…………………………………………………………… Aim And Objectives Of Study:……………………………………….. Definition Of Terms:…………………………………………………... Biodiversity Loss In Broader perspective:……………………………. Linkage Between Population, Resources Environment And Development……………………………………………………… Study Methodology:…………………………………………………... Study Area:……………………………………………………..……… Data Collection:……………………………………………………..… Demographic characteristic influencing loss of biodiversity…………… 9 13 13 13 16 1 2 3 4/5 6 7 7 8
Exploitation of forest products for livelihood sustainability……………….16 Assessing Environmental Conservation Attitudes………………………….17 RESULTS AND FINDINGS:…………………………………….…… Main Economic Activities:……………………………………….…….. Distribution of income…………………………:……………………. 18 28 24 Demographic Characteristics Influencing Loss of Biodiversity:……………18 Duration of farming and fishing…:…………………………………………22 Resources extracted from and within the WAPFR………………………….25 Benefits derived from the WAPFR………………………………………….26 Socio Economic Activities influencing biodiversity loss in WAPFR………27 Regression Equations for activities influencing the loss of biodiversity…….28/29 Exploitation of forest products for livelihood sustainability………………….29/30
4.10 Assessing environmental conservation attitudes………………………………30/33 4.11 Causes of the lose of the values and services in WAPFR………………………34 4.12 Respondents perception on the causes of lose of biodiversity……………………35 4.13 Threats to the biological diversity in WAPFR………………………………….36/42 4.14 Indirect causes of the threat posed on WAPFR…………………………………42/44
4.15 Conservation wiliness…………………………………………………………45/46 5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendations…………………………………47 5.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….48 5.2 Recommendation…………………………………………………………….49/50 BIBLIOGRAPHY:……………………………………………………………….. 51, 55
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 BACKGROUND The current decline in the status of Sierra Leone biodiversity is alarming. Hundred of species have disappeared and many more are facing the threats of extinction. This situation has resulted largely from human strive to wards improved standard of living. The ecosystems, that are the richest in biodiversity, are so complex that they can never be moved or recreated artificially. They could be lost for ever if unsustainable exploitation is allowed to continue to destroy them. Their conservation depends on making sure that those areas that still exist are managed in a way that maintains their biodiversity. Sierra Leone has mapped out a number of protected areas, including national parks, botanical reserves, wild life sanctuary etc. the land area covered by these designated sites is believed to have dwindled drastically including the flora and fauna that they support due to the increased pressure on these resources. The importance of conserving the Western area peninsular forest reserve and the need for managing these resources for the present and future generations has been given attention in the last twenty seven years. These issues have been emphasised in key documents such as the Brundtland Report (1987) and international conventions such as the Global conventions on Biodiversity which follows the Rio meeting in 1992. The realization of the magnitude of biodiversity loss in the World led to the establishment of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) in 1990 and the establishment of the convention on the Biological diversity in 1993. Since then, conservation of biodiversity world wide has commanded attention as a major component of sustainable development defined in the Brundtland Report. While traditional strategies for biodiversity conservation have existed in many Africa countries, the extensive utilization and degradation of natural resources have far exceeded the rate of conserving these resources. In effect, most countries have experienced extensive degradation of habitat and wild life with severe consequences for biodiversity conservation on the Africa continent. In Sierra Leone, the greatest threat to biodiversity includes habitat loss, fragmentation, quarrying, dynamite explosion and the conversion of forest lands to agricultural lands. In many areas of tropical Africa people obtain their means of livelihood directly or indirectly from the forest ecosystems (IUCN 1988). As a result, complex linkages tend to
exist between population, resources environment and development. These interactions have been studied by scientists in order to find out the extent to which people can sustain their livelihood using the forest ecosystems without depleting the latter (Chambers 1987). Each year farmers fell trees in small areas (tens of hectares) during the dry season and burn the vegetation to liberate nutrients from the soil. The use of fire has a devastating effect on the tree species. Other livelihood activities contributing to biodiversity loss include lumbering, collection of wild fruits, fuelwood collection, charcoal burning, hunting, cutting of poles for settlement establishment (Davies 1989). Sierra Leone which has only 5% of its total land area under high forest is no exception to this concern (Bomah, 2002). In Sierra Leone like many other West African countries, income earning opportunities are closely linked to forest resources exploitation, which are gradually contributing not only to the loss of biodiversity but also to the reduction of forest product supplies. Some elements that lead to this biodiversity loss are: migration, war and use of common property resources. Population increase in the western area Peninsula has been fuelled by the war. During the war, many people migrated from war affected areas to Freetown Peninsula where they thought, is relatively safe. This was followed by the establishment of displaced camps in Waterloo, Jui and Grafton. There was not much control over the surrounding forests. The villagers and the migrant population the name of survival. The Freetown Peninsula forests contain greater biotic diversity than many other biomes in the country (Cole 1994). They probably harbour around half of all species found in the country (Ibid). It is all the more regrettable that the Freetown Peninsula forests are been degraded and destroyed faster than any other biome. Already, sizeable sectors are gone, and if present trends of exploitation, or rather over exploitation persist, these trends are likely to accelerate a major problem in the city, there may be little forest left except isolated remnants. The ultimate consequence will surely be that many plant species will depended on the forest for their livelihood. The forest was used by these rural communities for various purposes all in
become extinct. In terms of the number of species involved and the compressed time scale of the phenomenon, this could be as great a biological debacle. As noted earlier, the activities which have resulted in the greatest loss of biodiversity in the Freetown Peninsula are agriculture, wood fuel production, collection of herbs, wild fruits, poles and hunting (Davies 1989). This study tends to bring out the magnitude of degradation caused by each of these activities. Considering the state of the Freetown Peninsula forest and the ensuing forest clearance by the inhabitants, the following research questions came up: what are the possible situational characteristics influencing loss of biodiversity in the Freetown Peninsula? What are the various forest products exploited and used by the people for their livelihood sustainability in the Freetown Peninsula? Are the livelihood security needs of the people in the study area tied down with environmental conservation in order to achieve sustainable indigenous resource management? What could be recommended as a contribution to the development of policies? This report attempts to find clues to these and other related questions. Against this back drop, the present study aims to investigate the values and services offered at the western area peninsular forest reserve and threats posed on its resources. 1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this report is to examine the role of community livelihood sustainability and biodiversity loss in villages around the Freetown Peninsula forest reserved. The specific objectives are:1 2 3 To evaluate the possible situational demographic characteristics influencing loss of biodiversity in WAPFR. To examine the various forest products that are exploited and used by the people for their livelihood sustainability in the Freetown Peninsula forest. To find out whether or not the livelihood security needs of the people in the WAPFR area are tied down with environmental conservation in order to achieve sustainable indigenous resource management. 4. To make necessary recommendations as a contribution to the development of appropriate policies.
DEFINITION OF TERMS The array of plants, animals and micro-organisms which exist in natural associations within the bio physical environment.
The area separating the forest reserve and that which is to be utilised by the local people. The extent of the area should be determine by the forest policy in relation to forest edge communities and buffer zone management.
Livelihood Sustainability: Agro-Forestry: Means or source of obtaining the necessities of life. Refers to the growing or management of fruit trees. it can also be define as the scientific management of crops and trees on the same unit of land with the objective of optimising production.
Re-afforestation: Afforestation: Woodlots:
The establishment of forest cover over a deforested land. It is the establishment of a forest cover where it has never existed. This refers to a restricted area devoted to the growing of forest trees.
Exotic species: Multipurpose trees:
These refer to species introduced from other countries. These are trees that have several use values.
CHAPTER II 2.0 BIODIVERSITY LOSS IN BROADER PERSPECTIVE
The World Bank (1994) defines biodiversity loss as the loss of the array of plants, animals and micro-organisms which exist in natural associations within the physical environment. For this study biodiversity loss refers to the disappearance of plant species within the physical environment. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature IUCN (1988) reports that there is a growing consensus scientifically that species are disappearing at rates never before witnessed on the planet. The report further indicates that many ecosystems, which are biologically rich and promising in material benefits, are severely threatened. Further more ,UNDP (1996) report state that the vast stocks of biological diversity are in danger of disappearing, just as science is learning how to exploit genetic variability through the advances of genetic engineering. According to World Bank (1994), Sierra Leone has already lost several animal species due to forest clearance (e.g. Lion and Situtungo). Several of these are endangered (e.g. the Pygmy Hippopotamus, forest elephant, Jenticks, Duiker); and other are threatened (e.g. species of chimpanzee and the Leopard). The report further indicated that six of Sierra Leone's forest interior bird species that require mature close canopy forest to survive, are threatened by habitat loss, including the rare white necked picarthartes. In the Hastings - Allen Town and Kossoh Town which are the principal charcoal producing area, the principal firewood trees parinari excelsa, dialium guineense and parkiabiglobosic are becoming increasingly scarce. In Sierra Leone, agriculture and timber exploitation have greatly depleted the area under forest and by 1976 only 5% of the country was covered in primary forest; another 3.5%
was under secondary forest (Gordon et al, 1979; Davies, 1987). The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1988) estimated that 60sq km of forest is lost each year but the most serious problem is the progressive deterioration that is occurring in all forests. Slash and burn agriculture has been the main cause of forest degradation in Sierra Leone (Cline-Cole, 1994). Kingston (1986) estimated that at least 2340sq km of woody vegetation is burned annually for farms, of which 44sqkm is in closed forest and 14sqkm in mangroves. However, livelihood sustainability through the exploitation of forest resources is expected to lead to environmental degradation. 2.1 LINKAGES BETWEEN POPULATION, RESOURCES, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Cline-Cole (1995) indicated that the low socio-economic status of forest resource users is characterized by the high dependence on the forest for their livelihood security. Lebbie (1998) in his study found out that the local people around the Freetown Peninsula forest reserves are dependent on the forest products for their income. In another study, Oyono (1998) revealed that in order to increase their low incomes and to survive, production groups that have no alternatives but to intensify or to put pressure on the forest ecosystems. In an effort to understand the linkage between population, resources, environment and development, a conceptual framework is produced (fig 1). The national political economy is characterized by recession, IMF restructuring, weak political structures, internal conflict, and lack of policies. This national political economy is further divided into the urban and rural communities. In the urban community there is increased demand for fuel, increased demand for urban expansion and increased demand for other forest products. The rural community on the other hand is characterized by (a), dependence on open/access to private land for its livelihood (b), income diversification (c), commercial value of forest products (d), profitability of forest products. Both the rural and urban communities depend on private and public lands which are used for production and protection. Both public and private lands are meant to protect the flora, fauna, soil water and aesthetics. They are also used to provide trees, fruits, herbs, meat, hides, ecotourism,
education, recreation, and nature conservation. These activities lead to deforestation and biodiversity loss (species extinction, fragmentation, loss of natural heritage). Responses to these issues can be addressed as follows.
2.2 The urban community should respond as follows: Shift from wood fuel to other energy sources Use improved stoves Substitute stones for construction for wooden ones 2.3 The Rural Community should: Withdraw from common property resources (CPR's) Seek government subsides Support programmes Introduce agro-forestry practices
2.4 The Government should: Institute a forest action plan Designate protected areas Introduce biodiversity inventories Participate in agreements and treaties Preserve or set aside areas for local people Have institutional strengthening and capacity building.
Figure 1: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK LINKAGES BETWEEN POPULATION, RESOURCES, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT THE NATIONAL POLITICAL Restructuring, Weak Political Structures, mean enforcement of policies
THE URBAN Increased demand for fuel Increased demand for urban expansion Income diversification Increased demand for other products
The Rural Community -Dependence on open/access or private lands - Commercial value of forest products - Profitability of forest products
PROTECTION - Flora - Fauna - Soil - Water Conservation - Species extinction - Fragmentation - Loss of biodiversity
PRODUCT - Tree - Ecotourism - Fruits - Education - Herbs –Recreation - Hides- Nature
DEFORESTATION AND BIODIVERSITY
Urban Community - Shift from wood fuel to Other energy source - Use of improved stoves - Substitute stone for - Construction
National Political Economy Rural Community - There should be a forest - Withdraw from common action plan poverty rights - Designate protected areas - Seek government subsides - Introduction biodiversity inventories - Support programme - Preservation i.e set aside areas - Introduce indigenous for local people - should have institutional strengthening and capacity building
CHAPTER THREE STUDY METHODOLOGY 3.0 STUDY AREA This study was carried out in the Freetown Peninsula Forest, in the western area of Sierra Leone. twenty villages were randomly selected, namely Angola Town, Sussex, Number two river, Kent village, Bureh town Hamilton, Regent village Tombo village, Tokeh village ,Ogoo farm, Deep Eye Water, Devil Hole, Rokel, Yams Farm, Hastings, Jui, Kosso town, Grafton , Lakka village and Mongegba. This area consists of mountains and hills ranging between 2000 to 3000 feet above sea level. From the Sierra Leone River estuary and Waterloo - Songo low lands in the east and south of the Atlantic coast in the west, the land rises steeply to a maximum height of 971 at Picket hill. Several other summits are in excess 600m (Clarke 1966). The relief is generally fairly steep and the hills are drained by a number of rocky seasonally flowing streams. The land scape is found on an exposed part of a large igneous intrusive Precambrian body of layered basic and ultra basic rock called Gabbros. The vegetation comprises primary forests, bush regrowth, grasses. The hills are covered by moist forest between 150 to 900 meters and form the westernmost closed canopy forest remaining in Sierra Leone (Clarke 1966). The forests along the middle and lower slopes appear luxuriant when viewed from the Peninsula villages such as Hastings and Rokel. The climate is mainly tropical marked by the incidence or departure of rain. There are two distinct seasons, the rainy season that lasts from April to October and the dry season matching with the rest of the year with occasional over lapping characterized mainly by rainfall towards the beginning or the end of the dry season. Temperature varies from 220 depending on time and location of the year. The combination of high temperature and heavy rainfall accounts for the prevailing high humidity which in the rainy season goes up to over 100%. Most of the human activities include farming, hunting, fuel wood collection, charcoal burning, extraction of poles, timber extraction, fruit extraction, medicinal herbs, collection, setting of traps, fishing, carving, palm wine tapping, weaving, and mining, all of which have adverse effects on plant species. Lebbie (1998) indicates that slash and burn method of farming is wide spread around the margins of the reserves and fallow
periods have dropped considerably due to population increase. These have contributed greatly to the degradation of the forest in these areas. Hunting is a human activity practiced mainly by the local inhabitants and people belonging to ''hunting societies'' in and around Freetown. Illegal cutting of timber based on chain saw operation is presently increasing significant habitat destruction. 3.1 Data Collection Data for this work was obtained through primary and secondary sources. Secondary data was collected from journals, technical reports and periodicals. Primary data was collected through interviews by the use of a structured questionnaire, observation with focus on the following objectives of the study. 3.2 Sampling technique The target population for the study consisted of all adults engaged in socio-economic activities reflecting forest resources exploitation. To arrive at the sample frame an area listing survey was done in May, June and July 2009. A total of 1250 rural people were enumerated and this figure was used as the sample frame. A twenty percent of this sample frame was used as sample size for this study. Therefore a total of 250 respondents were interviewed through the use of structured questionnaires. The table below shows the distribution of respondents and the sample size for each of the twenty settlements. Table 1 Settlement Deep Eye Water Devil Hole Rokel Yams Farm Hastings Jui Kossoh Town Grafton Monge-gba Lakka community Total Sample size of selected settlements. Sample size 4 10 4 5 15 6 12 60 3 6 125 Settlement Angola Town Sussex Number 2 River Kent village Ogoo Farm Bureh town Hamilton Regent village Tombo village Tokeh village Total Sample size 6 3 5 10 7 4 5 20 50 15 125
The sampling used in selecting the objects and subjects for the purpose of this research was the ''snowball'' sampling technique. In this technique one respondent identifies another until the target is reached. The ''Snow ball'' sampling technique was used because it eases the problem of identifying villagers carrying various socio-economic activities. The sample size of the target communities were chosen based on the population size of each community visited. The population size of the communities was chosen on the 2004 housing and population census. The major research instruments used were a structured questionnaire, a measuring tape, field note book, pencil and digital camera.
3.3 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY The variables used to examine demographic factors influencing loss of biodiversity include age, level of education, house hold size, land tenure, years spent in the village, years on human activity, and income level. Age was measured in years and the respondent’s categories for further analysis were young, medium and old. Education was measured by the number of years for formal schooling. Household size comprised the total number of wives, children and relatives of respondents living with the respondent at the time of the study. Land tenure was measured by the means of land acquisition. All categorical data were treated as metric measure permitting the use of MSTAT-C statistical package version. The independent variables i.e. the demographic characteristics listed and the dependent variables such as farming, hunting, fuelwood collection, charcoal burning, extraction of poles, timber extraction, fruits extraction, medicinal herb collection, setting of traps, fishing, carving, palm wine tapping, weaving, mining, and ecotourism were subjected to a simple correlation and regression analysis given a four point scale consisting of never used, occasionally used, frequently used and always used. F (Fischer) values and coefficient of correlation values (r) were obtained. The coefficient of correlation values were then subjected to a 5% (0.05) and 1% (0.01) significant tests respectively. At the 5% level r values greater than tabular r values were considered significantly different and designated. Similar comparism was done at the 1% level which was designated * and r values not significant at both levels (1%and 5%) were designated ns. Best equations were then obtained from the results. 3.4 EXPLOITATION OF FOREST PRODUCTS FOR LIVELIHOOD SUSTAINABILITY To achieve this objective, forest products were categorized into a. Food, b. Fuelwood, c. Charcoal, d. medicinal, e. Carving wood, f. weaving materials, g. Poles h, Timber (e, f, g, h. are all under utility wood). Further more, all the species from which forest products are derived were recorded using both biological and local terminologies. The use value of these species are defined below.
Fuel wood and charcoal -: These are wood species with high energy value and some with low energy values. There is therefore a possibility that those with high energy value will be exploited more than those with low energy values. A list of tree species were made and respondents were required to indicate which of these they use for either fuel wood or charcoal.
Utility wood :- These are woods used by both rural and urban people as poles, raffers, construction of houses, hand grips as hoes, matches, axes, basket making, winnowers and traps. List of plants species were also made for the respondents to indicate which of these they use for each of the purposes .
Food:- Fruits of some plants are used as food, and tubers serve as food while still the stems and leaves of others serve as food. A list of plant species was also made and respondents were asked to indicate which of them they consume.
Medicines: Various parts of plants are extracted to cure diseases; plant parts such as leaves, fruits, stem roots are used. The prevalence at a particular disease in a community will lead to the over exploitation of a plant species that cures that disease. A list of species produced was also made and respondents were asked to indicate which of these are used as medicine.
While those species may tend to be use for one purpose, some are used for various purposes and there by increasing their rate of exploitation. For example the fruits of certain wood fuel species such as parlcia biolobosa, dialium guineense are over exploited. Analysis was also done on the basis that the depletion of certain plant species are tied down to their use values.
3.5 ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ATTITUDES To achieve this objective, it was assumed that communities practice the following environmental conservation practices; a, control of fire, b, reforestation or afforestation c, fuel wood plantation or wood lot d, and agroforestry. Control of fire was defined as regulating or guiding the use of fire. Fire control was measured by the level of technique and skill in the use of fire. Reforestation or afforestation was measured by various tree planting methods in a bid to afforest an already degraded area. Fuelwood plantation on the other hand was measured by various plant species used by the community people to establish wood lots. Agro-forestry was measured by various programmes and practices carried out by the community to enhance successful environmental conservation. The data so collected was analysed to determine the extent to which these strategies are practiced. Further, descriptive statistics were used to examine the extent to which these practices are utilized.
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND FINDINGS 4.0 The results of this study comprise of various information on livelihood sustainability and loss of biodiversity. They are presented and discussed under sub-headings that are reflective of the objectives of the study. 4.1 Demographic Characteristics influencing loss of biodiversity This section discusses the demographic characteristics influencing loss of biodiversity. The characteristics are further used in a regression analysis to assess the extent to which socio-economic activities in the study area are influencing loss of biodiversity. Table 2 Demographic characteristics of Respondents. Demographic characteristics Sex Total sample Male Female Age range (years) 10 26 34 17 33 41 18 - 25 250 183 67 56 98 46 28 14 8 101 33 52 21 25 10 8 100 73.2 26.8 22.4 39.2 18.4 11.2 5.6 3.2 40.4 13.2 20.8 8.4 10 4 3.2 Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
42 - 49 50 - 59 Educational Level No formal schooling Class 6 or less Form 1 - 3 For 5 Technical/Vocational Teacher Training University
House hold size 1-5 6-10 11-15 16+ Land Tenure Own Hold Rent Years Spent in Village Less than 1 year 1 - 5 years 6 - 10 years 11 - 15 years 16 - 20 years 20+ Years on activities Less than one year 1 - 5 years 6 -- 10 years 11 - 15 years 16 - 20 years 20+ Income Level Less than Le20,000 Le20,000-Le35,000 Le36,000 - Le50,000 Le51,000 - Le75,000 Le76,000 - Le100,000 More than Le100,000 68 116 30 36 48 82 120 36 70 116 12 6 10 38 44 112 30 20 6 56 36 72 14 32 40 27.2 46.4 12 14.4 19.2 32.8 48 14.4 28 46.4 4.8 2.4 4 15.2 17.6 44.8 12 8 2.4 22.4 14.4 28.8 5.6 12.8 16
The results in table 4.1 reveal that the people who exploit forest resources are 73.2% males and 26.8% females. The average house hold size ranges between 6 to10 people with a percentage of 46.4% males being the majority. More than half had attained at least some schooling with a significant proportion below fourth form level. It is also revealed that people who exploit forest resources mostly fall within 18 to 25 years with a percentage of 39.2%. On the average about 28.8% of forest exploiters earns between Le36 to Le50,000. In other words out of every 5 households one would expect to find a person economically active. A particular explanation to this unrealistic situation is the relatively high number of displaced persons observed to be residing around the forest reserves particularly Grafton during the survey. On the average about 46.4% of the respondents have spent at least 6 to 10 years in this villages and about 44.8 percent of them had being carrying out various socio-economic activities in those villages. Meanwhile, on the average about 48% of the people rent the land they work on. The above results have implications on loss of biodiversity. The dominance of males over females indicates that more forest resource exploiters as men can endure the rigours of forest resources exploitation especially when most methods are labour intensive. Furthermore, the results support earlier findings by Kgathi et al (1977) that men play a key role in wood fuel production although it is generally believed that women are the main collectors of wood fuel in developing countries. Another implication is that the low economic status of the respondents characterised by the dependence on the forest for livelihood security increases forest resources exploitation and a subsequent loss of biodiversity (Cline-Cole 1995). It is also a common belief that the more educated the individual is, the greater is the likelihood for him to opt for off forest employments. Therefore the low educational level of the people implies that they depend more on forest resources for their survival. Similarly, the size of the household may force rural people to exploit forest resources. The existing land tenure may be directly related to the kind of activity carried out in the forest and its subsequent effect on loss of biodiversity.
The results from this section also support the proposition that due to the lack of alternative income generating sources the forest resources are ultimately the major source of income for the communities. Table reveals that farming is always practiced by 28.8% followed by charcoal burning at 24.8%. However, only 0.8% of the respondents practice weaving and set traps. Respondents frequently use fuel wood collection 27.2% (see plates 1 and 2) and charcoal burning 27.2% than other activities. This is followed by medicinal herb collection 12.8% and setting of traps 12.8%. The table also reveals that 70.4% of the respondents occasionally do fruit extraction followed by medicinal herb collection at 54.4%. The table also reveals that the respondents have never practiced weaving, mining, carving, timber extraction. The implication is that activities that are always and frequently used have negative effects on biodiversity loss than those that are occasionally or never used. Results of regression analysis are presented in table 4.2 MAIN ECONOMOC ACTIVITIES Fishing, farming , quarrying and construction works are the main economic activities in the western area Peninsular forest reserve (Table ). Although fishing and farming have a moderately positive relationship, majority of the respondents supported by the functional characteristics of the forest are fishermen. Fishing for now is low because of low catch. This functional implication makes the same fishermen to engage in farming activities up to a particular period. Mostly, the fishermen’s and farmers’ wives are involved in petty trading as their second main economic activities. Most of what they trade in includes fish catch, vegetables, legumes and other provisions. It is out of these monies that they hired people to work for them and go fishing. The rest of the money is used for paying, eating, school fees, hospital bills etc. The aforesaid findings are in concert with Sierra Leone government (the low fish catch and low crop yield, could be attributed to the fact that, there is a growing awareness on the loss of biodiversity on the western area peninsular forest reserve and its water shed. The forest is being affected by continuous farming fishing and dynamites explosions along the reserve in general, which endangers biodiversity and the over all quality of the forest. The afore said findings are in concert with Sierra Leone government (1980) that 47% of the population of Sierra Leone directly depended on the forest for their livelihood.
Table 3 Economic Activity on the Western area Peninsular Forest Activities Number Percentages Farming 48 19.2 Quarrying 69 27.6 Fishing 43 17.6 Construction 55 22 Ecotourism 17 6.8 Entertainment 18 7.2 Total 250 100.00 4.3 Duration of farming and fishing Table 4 shows the number of years respondents have engaged in farming and fishing as major occupations. The table indicates that all respondents (farmers) in the Western Area Peninsular forest have above five years farming experience. Majority of them have more than twenty years. With these farming and fishing periods, the farmers and fisherman have increased the loses of biodiversity of the WAPFR and can not in any way replaced these loses to maintain a steady flow of biodiversity genes, clean air, species nestling places etc at the forest. As for the fishermen, 20% of them have less than fives year in the fishing activity. This according to them was as a result of poor yields in farming and the reigning problems of black ants, crabs, mite plus salt water intrusion in some portion of the forest areas. A bulk of these farmers have over 20 years of farming experience, which is a greater rate of biodiversity lose of WAPFR in finding their daily living. Also, these loses according to the respondents have increased their farming area and the decrease of forest product they caught and hence a greater loses of biodiversity of the WAPFR. Tables 4 Duration of farming and fishing Number of year Farming (X) <4 6-10 11-15 16-20 >20 Total 0 2 2 5 11 20 Fishing (Y) 4 2 1 5 8 20
Table 5 shows the Correlation Coefficient between Farming and Fishing Activities Number Number of respondent’s frequency Of years Farming Fishing Rank Rank D d2 (X) (Y) (X) (Y) <5 0 4 5 3 2 4 6-10 2 2 3.5 4 -0.5 0.25 11-15 2 1 3.5 5 0 0 16-20 5 5 2 2 0 0 >-20 11 8 1 1 ∑d2 = 6.5 Formula for spearman rank correlation coefficient Pr = 1 - 6? d2 N3-n Where n is number of observation (i.e. farming and fishing) D = difference ranked of observations farming (x) and fishing (y) From formula ? d2 = 6.5, n = 5 Pr = 1 – 6x6.5 (5)3 – 5 r = 1 – 39 135-5 r = 1 – 39 120 r = 1 0.325 r = 0.675 r = 0.68 (moderate positive correlation) The relationship between farming and fishing in WAPFR is a moderate positive one. That is, the regression revealed that the relationship between farming and fishing is known to be cordial and compromising. Therefore, the rate of biodiversity lose is increasing separately. That is, to say if one activity is deprived by any circumstance the other is operational. This is indicated in my findings, that now because of low fish catch the respondents are embarking on clearing the forest for rice cultivation and others grow garden eggs, pepper, krain-krain, vegetables etc. The recently released ecosystem assessment chillingly report by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) concluded that, unless we take action to mitigate the decline in ecosystem services, the cost to society will be substantial, the necessary actions are not feasible, unless they are being backed up by political will and targeted financing. International union of Conservation of the Netherlands (IUCN) contends that investments in biodiversity conservation will help maintain the flow of ecosystem services and in turn will yield both immediate and long term dividends to human will being. There by achieving the internationally agreed development goals.
4.4 Distribution of income From table 5, the distribution of income earned from fishing and farming goes mostly on petty trading (31,25%), rent on the other hand, is the lowest (12.5%) as most of the respondents are care takers of the dwelling houses. Table 6 Distribution of income Income Use Eat it Pay fees Pay rent Hospital bills Petty trading Total No 53 36 49 48 64 250 Percentage 25.00 18.75 12.50 12.55 31.25 100.00
4.5 Resources Extracted from and Around the WAPFR The economic services or values attached to the western area peninsular forest are as a result of the various activities that occur in the area such as game watching, trading, outing, gardening, coal burning, quarrying , dynamite explosion , etc. Each of such activities results in the production of certain resources with varied uses. And as table 7 shows, quarrying accounts for the highest amount of resources available to people around the forest (100). Herbs account for the least (12). Sand, stone, mangrove, medicinal plants, poles and coal burning account for the exploited resources around the WAPFR. There could be serious implications for the use of these resources. Excessive extraction of mangrove, sand and stones leads to the destruction of the natural habitat for many forest plants and animals leading to biodiversity loss. Sand extraction also causes the forest and the beach to be despoiled and as Cunningham et al. (1992) suggested that, examples abound of business fold up as a lake, wetlands or beach polluted or despoiled. Table 7 Resources Extracted from and Around the WAPFR Resources Number of Total number of Percentage Users interviewers Fish 25 25 100 Mangrove 11 25 45 Medicinal plants 20 25 Sand mining 16 25 64 Stone mining 13 25 52 Coal burning 10 25 40 Earth 8 25 32 Herbs 3 25 12 poles 9 25 36 palm wine 5 25 25 TOTAL 120 250 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.6 Benefits Derived from the Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserve Respondents were asked about what benefits/values they derived from Western area peninsular forest reserve and the following statements were recorded. Results revealed that majority of the farmers, and fishermen benefit from the sale of their crops grown on the reserve, when fish catch is low during the early raining season along the reserve. Availability of crops for consumption, fish in the form of food protein, income from the sales of crops and fish catch variety. Stability in both crops trade and fish trade however, leads them to better standard of living. The growing population of WAPFR Area and it environs hardly crumbled for lack of their daily meal. This can be attributed to the fact that there are growing benefits/values that are been derived from the forest both in their homes and the society at large. Herbs, other animals, wild fruits, mentalator trees and the mangrove trees etc are the other great benefits/values the people of WAPFR derived. Apart from rice cultivation and fishing, there are other crops grown in reserve which serve as benefit of the study area. These crops are recorded in a table .
Tables 8 Benefits Derived by locals from the WAPFR Benefit No Potato Leaves 65 Cassava leaves 67 Okra 17 Garden Eggs 13 Pepper 4 Tomatoes 9 Onions 5 Krain-krain 28 Green 13 Marijuana 19 Salad leaves 6 Cucumber 4 Total 250
Percentage 18.75 22.60 8.70 11.25 5.00 11.25 3.75 12.50 5.2 7.6 2.4 1.6 100.00
This section discusses regression analysis between the independent variables and dependent variables. Table shows the dependent variables with which the demographic characteristics are regressed. 4.7 TABLE 9 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES INFLUENCING LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Practices or activities Never % 28 79,2 20.8 32 40.8 84.4 15.2 25.6 69.6 79.2 87.2 75.2 91.2 88.8 12 Occasiona lly used 27 21 45 20 50 17 88 68 21 19 9 9 5 13 8 % 21.6 16.8 36 16 40 13.6 70.4 54.4 16.8 15.2 7.2 7.2 4 10.4 6.4 Frequent ly used 27 05 34 34 13 2 18 16 16 7 2 15 5 1 % 21.6 4 27.2 27.2 10.4 1.6 14.4 12.8 12.8 5.6 1.6 12 4 0.8 Alway s used 36 20 31 11 9 1 5 7 1 2 % 28.8 16 24.8 8.8 7.2 0.8 4 5.6 0.8 1.6
used Farming 35 Hunting 99 Fuelwood collection 26 Charcoal burning 40 Extraction of pole 51 Timber extraction 106 Fruits extraction 19 Medicinal herb 32 collection Setting of traps Fishing Carving Palm wine taping Weaving Mining Ecotourism 87 99 109 94 114 111 15
According to table age is significant and has high positive correlation for activities such as farming, fuel wood collection and extraction of poles, with values 0.67*, 0.81*, 0.85* at the 5% level. This implies that adults are highly involved in these activities. Education is another factor which is non significant for activities such as farming (0.55), hunting (0.46), fuel wood collection (0.25), charcoal burning (0.11), fruit extraction (0.64). The implication of this is that most people who carry out these activities have very low or no educational background and therefore destroy the biodiversity unconsciously. Household size on the other hand has strong positive correlation at 5% level with farming 0.78, fuel wood collection 0.72, extraction of poles 0.91; This may be due to the fact that child labour is highly required for these activities. On the other hand, the data shows that the number of years spent in the village is only significant for fruit extraction with a high positive correlation of 0.98. For all the other activities, number of years spent in the village is not significant, possibly because most of the respondents were internally displaced persons.
This supports the view of Squire (2000) that internally displaced persons take to the forest in search of food since their food supplies are always inadequate. Meanwhile, years spent practicing particular activities is non significant to all practices but fruit collection with a high positive correlation of 0.98 at 5% level. The implication is that intensive or extensive practices of these activities leading to biodiversity loss do not necessarily increase with years spent on the activity. Income level has strong positive correlation with farming 0.70, hunting 0.95, but strong negative correlation with fuel wood collection -0.80, extraction of poles -0.90. However for all the other activities such as charcoal burning, timber extraction, fruit extraction, medicinal herb collection, setting of traps, mining, carving, palm wine tapping, fishing, weaving and ecotourism non-significant correlation with income level. The implication is that those practicing farming and hunting have higher income levels while those undertaking fuelwood collection, extraction of poles have very low income levels. Table shows the summary of the best equations for socio-economic activities influencing loss of biodiversity, presented in standardized regression coefficient form (N=125). Fvalues are presented in parentheses. 4.8 TABLE 10 REGRESSION EQUATIONS FOR ACTIVITIES INFLUENCING LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY IN STUDY AREA. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PRACTICE Farming Hunting Fuel wood collection Charcoal burning Extraction of poles Timber extraction Fruit extraction Medicinal herb collection BEST EQUATION Y=0.59x1- 0.44x2+ 0.86x3 + 0.65x7 (1.64) (0.86) (3.16) (1.93) Y=0.48x1 - 0.85x2 + 0.09x6+ 1.50x7 (0.15) (0.55) (.0.00) (0.50) Y=0.35x1 - 0.10x2 + 0.39x3 - 0.80x7 (3.74) (0.13) (2.11) (3.64) Y= - 0.21x1-0.03x2 0.27+ 0.36 (1.32) (0.02) (1.41) (0.55) Y= 0.76x1 - 0.80x2+ 0.82x3 - 1.85.x7 (5.06) (28.04) (9.85) (8.33) Y= 0.46x1 - 1.62x2 + 0.61x3 - 1.70x7 (0.11) 5.94) (0.12) (0.31) Y= 0.63x2 - 1.03x5 +1.30x6 - 1.61x7 (1.38) (30.76) (59.74) (418.12) Y = 1.23x2 - 0.56x5 + -.03x6 - 1.37x7 (5.64) (0.30) (0.00) (0.35)
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .
Setting of traps Fishing Carving Palm wine tapping Weaving Mining Ecotourism
Y = 1.49x2 - 0.69x5 + 0.03x6 - 1.56 (0.06) (0.32) (0.00) (0.31) Y = 1.57x2 - 0.57x5 - 0.26x6 - 1.17x7 (3.79) (0.16) (0.02) (0.00) Y = 0.10x1 - 1.20x2 - 0.35 - 0.78x7 (0.00) (2.81) (0.06) (0.08) Y = 0.21x1 - 1.63x2 - 0.36 - 1.16 (0.02) (3.32) (0.03) (0.11) Y = 0.21x1 - 1.63x2 - 0.36x5 1.16x7 )0.02) (3.33) (0.03) (0.11) Y= 0.40x1 - 1.69x2 +0.71x5 - 0.01x7 (0.07) (4.95) (0.24) (0.00) Y = 0.25x2 - 0.18x5 + 0.12x6 - 0.38x7 (43.38) (1.65) (0.28) (1.14)
4.9 EXPLOITATION OF FOREST PRODUCTS FOR LIVELIHOOD SUSTAINABILITY Exploitation of forest products for livelihood sustainability is best explained using the matrix presented in Table Forest resource exploiters all express clear preferences for and dislikes for various forest products and tree species for a whole range of use and non use values. Individual trees and shrubs, like (sub) species and whole vegetation communities, are credited with identifiable characteristics, which influence their desirability for goods and services. Therefore multi purpose trees and shrubs, which are more desirable are liable to depletion than others. From the above matrix, Adansonia digitata, spondius mombin, Hannoa klainearna, ochthrocosmos africanus, bambusa vulgaris, rhizophora spp, avicennia africa, lophira alata, elaes guinensis are all multi purpose plant species. Adnansonia digitata for instance is used as food, fuel wood, charcoal, medicine and pole. Parinarixcelsa is also used for the following purposes; food, fuelwood, charcoal, medicinal, carving and poles. Both Tamarindus indica and dialium guineense are used for the following purposes foods, fuelwood charcoal, medicine, and poles. Parkia biglobosa is also used as food, fuel wood charcoal, medicinal and poles. The matrix reveals that most of the trees serve more than one purpose except morinda geninata, mareya micrarntha, lophira lanceslata, memosa pudica, afromomum
melegueta, bryophylum pinnatum, cestor afer, ''kuthende'' (L), ''Kundunkueta' (L) which serve only as medicinal plants. The implication of this result is that multi purpose trees are more exploited than those with only one use value(see plate 5). Nicole (1981) expresses that Hastings and Kossoh towns where charcoal production is a major source of forest resource exploitatin, the principal local fire wood trees, parinari excelsa, dialilum guineense and parkinbiglobosa are becoming increasing scarce. Therefore if preference and use of such plant species continue in this manner, these plant species may be over exploited leading to loss of biodiversity. The results are in support of the findings of Nicole (1981) that use value of plant species and supply responses to preference. Patterns influence spatial and structural vegetation exploitation patterns at the local scale. The results in this section further support the expected result that biodiversity loss of particular plant species are tied down with their use value and preference pattern 4.10 Assessing Environmental Conservation Attitudes In assessing the conservation attitudes of the communities respondents were asked about their attitudes towards fire control, reforestation or afforestation, fuel wood plantations, agro forestry. A summary of the results is presented in Table 11 Table: 11 Conservation practices in the study area. Environmental Conservation Practices Fire Control Yes No Prohibit all fires Control burning by authorities Restrict burning to certain times of the 49 30 38 55 29.6 24 26.4 24 year/environmental conditions Remove excess amount of brush from time to time Create fire breaks of at least 15m width Alter vegetation to a form that is less vulnerable to fire 146 104 13 65 58.4 41.6 5.6 43.2 Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
Reforestation or Afforestation Yes No Replacement of plant species Small patches (in corners of fields) Strips (wind breaks and hedges possibly as part of an agroforestry system, for stabilization of banks, road sides, hill sides) Buffer zones/belts between conservation areas and possibly incompatible land use Large or medium size plantations Mixtures of native species Pure stand of one or a few native species Mixture of native and exotic species 8 16 31 25 54 3.2 7.2 14.4 12 21.6 12 4.8 112 138 88 16 44.8 55.2 39.2 10.4
Pure stand of one or a few exotic species Fuel Wood Plantations Yes No Acasia species Eucalylptus Therminalia catapa Giamelina arboreal Parinari excelsa Others Agro-Forestry Yes
28 116 134 114 28 28 18 32 30 70
22.4 46.4 53.6 45.6 11.2 11.2 7.2 12.8 12 28 72 8 8.8 25.6 3,2
No 180 New land for farmers to adopt agroforestry 40 programme Trees like acasia are spaced out with crops and or 35 grazing between and beneath The local people fully involved and have more 67 commitment to planting, protecting and carving for 25
trees Land less people involved in agroforestry practices Access to loans to cover cost of planting Seedlings supplied by institutions and private farmers with a buy back arrangement to keep cost down
From the above results, 58.4% of the respondents are involved in fire control, 44.8% involved in reforestation or afforestation, 46.4% in fuel wood plantations(see plate 7) and 28% in agro-forestry. On the average 43.2% of fire control is done by authorities although only 5.6% of them prohibits all fires. This is because some activities like charcoal burning cannot go on without the use of fire. Therefore people who always burn charcoal often set fire. Similarly about 39.2% of respondents reforest replacement areas and only 3.2% reforest buffer zone/belts between conservation areas and possibly incompatible land use. The results also reveal that 45.6% of respondents use acasia species for fuel wood plantations (see plate 8) while only 7.2% of Gamelina arboreal is used for this same purpose. Results for agro-forestry shows that 25.6% of the local people are fully involving agro forestry and have more commitment to planting and protecting. The above results have implications. The poor conservation attitude of the people implies that more areas will be cleared with very little efforts to replenish the forest and this may lead to forest resources depletion and subsequent loss of biodiversity. The inability to prohibit fire may be highly responsible for most wild fire incidences in the study area. The inability to reforest belts between conserved areas and possibly incompatible land use implies that protected plant species which are most endangered will be exposed to extinction. Acasia species as an exotic species when matured use considerable quantity of water per day leading to the reduction of the water table in that particular area. It also dominates other local plants that may be found in the area. Even though 25.6 percent of the local people are involved in agro-forestry practices only 3.2 percent of landless people are involved but this group form the bulk of people that exploit forest resources. The above result supports UNDP (1996) report that most species have been driven to the edge of extinction as a result of inadequate environmental conservation efforts . 34
Causes of the lose of the Values and Services in Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserved The results and findings from the above calculations reveals that, farming with an average source of water during early and late dry season for the growing of vegetables and logging in to the reserved are the main causes of biodiversity loses in the Western area peninsular forest reserved. It is observed that the cutting of tree bunks for boats making, branches and leaves for medical purposes is also predominant within the reserve. Cutting of both mangroves and mentalator trees for settlements, sources of rural materials for crafts and sources of biological specimen are seeing taking place in western area peninsular forest in particular and its environs along the coast. And hence a high rate of biodiversity loss. The rate of loss of biodiversity as a result of collection of fuel wood revealed that the loss has been taken place for quite a long time. The people of WAPFR Areas deeply depended on mangrove and mentalator trees trunks as their fuel wood. Although fuel wood collection is taken place in an extensive rate within the western area peninsular forest, huge attention is given towards fuel wood collection. Other crops grown which this study has reveals is that, farmers or residents along the of WAPFR also grow other crop apart from rice cultivation on the reserve, especially on the coastal swamps. Crops such as potatoes leaves, cassava leaves, krain-krain , vegetables, okra, corns, Marijuana, etc are grown mostly by residence adjacent to the forest reserve. Greens and garden eggs are the next most widely grown crops, pepper, onions with Akenyb (1972) and Dey (1984) who maintained that women are primarily responsible for food production. Now at the system services level of the Millennium Assessment Report (2005), it was reported that 605 of the world’s ecosystem services are degraded to the point where they no longer provide what we need in the name of food, water, clean air, fuel and many other services. Human exploitation of ecosystem has resulted in increased production of a small number of services, such as crops and live stock. Unfortunately, that is not the case across the spectrum of other services provided by nature (Millennium) Ecosystem Assessment 2005. The 150 yrs from 1700-1850. Since 1960 flow of relative nitrogen has double and that of phosphorus have tripled. During the last several decades of the 20th century, 20% of coral reefs and 35% of mangrove forests where lost or severely degraded (MEA, 2005). Although nothing that evidence remains incomplete, the M.A. expect warned that, the on going degrading of 15 of the 24 ecosystem services examined is increasing the livelihood of serious impact on human being. This impact may include the emergence of new diseases, sudden changes in water quality, creation of dead zones along the coast, the collapse of fisheries, and shifts in regional climate. The four findings of the millennium assessment included that,
Human have changed ecosystem more rapidly and extensively in the past 50 yrs than any other period. Ecosystem changes that have contributed substantial net gains in human well being and economic development have been achieve at growing cost in the from degradation of others services. The degradation of ecosystem services could grow significantly worsen during the first half of this century and is a barrier to achieving the millennium development goals The challenge of reversing the degradation of ecosystems while meeting increasing demands can be met under some scenarios involving significant policy and institutional changes at the ecosystem level.
4.12 Table 12: Respondents Perception on the causes of lose of Biodiversity Respondents Rate
Cause of loss of biodiversity
Low F %
Medium F % 0 8 0 0 15 8 0 0 20 0 0 37.5 20 0 0
High F% 0 40 40 40 40
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Collection of fuel wood 40 0 Cutting tree trunks for boats Making and leaves for 2 5 Medicinal purpose Cutting of both mangrove and Mentalator tree for settlements 40 100 Source of rural material for crafts eg. Hoes and cutlass 0 handles Rice cultivation (swamp rice) 0 Source of fishing 0 Source for constructions and Entertainment complexes 40 0 0 0 100
30 75 0 0
40 100 25 32 0
62.5 80 40
4.13 Threats to the Biological Diversity in Western area peninsular forest reserve. Sierra Leone’s biological diversity faces a broad spectrum of anthropogenic threats. The varied threats affect different taxa and regions to different degrees. In some cases, the damage to the western area peninsular forest and some other reserve areas along the forest edge communities as a result of logging and farming for example, is seen. The threat are discrete, readily identifiable and of short term economic consequences in any given eco system. However, a combination of interrelated threats is usually present, affecting the general health of the system in often subtle ways. Poor management and over grazing from the surrounding hills of Freetown, has led not only to a lost of floral and soil biotic diversity in the forests them selves, but also to soil erosion, siltation and eutrophication in down stream waters and wetlands. The major causes of threats in the western area peninsular forest ecosystem is deforestation, which is the removal of forest and other forms of vegetative cover from a site without its replacement. The main causes of deforestation in Sierra Leone are population growth and the increase in socio-economic activities including Farming Logging or timber exploitation Firewood collection Bush burning Unregulated livestock production Urbanisation Mining Road construction by mobile companies to erect their poles. Charcoal burning Species attrition Habitat loss and degradation Forest fragmentation Fishing Hunting and trapping Shifting cultivation a) Habitat Loss and Degradation The degradation and out right destruction of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats along and within the Freetown Peninsular forest areas are the most significant threats to biological diversity in Sierra Leone. The deterioration of habitats affects all ecosystems, in some cases the threats are site specific and acute. In other cases, the threats issue from general patterns of land use and the effects are wide spread across the landscape including: • Pollution from household, agricultural and wastes dumping. • Eutrophication as a result of intensified land uses, sedimentation, waste water influx and over loading with organic inputs. • Channelization of river beds in the mangrove areas, affect both the biota of the streams and rates of water and sediment flow into the reserve. • poorly plan construction and development projects, mining of Sand and quarries, as well as urban expansion in general.
Especially vulnerable are those areas often biologically fragile, that are developed for increased tourism and beaches, such projects have not been undertaken with expert evaluation of their environmental impacts. Genetic isolation as a result of habitat fragmentation. This is known to affect the populations in the WAPFR areas, both the resident and migratory birds. Other plant and animal species not only in the forests or mangroves areas but in a remnant low land communities may also be affected. The destruction of mangrove plants will also lead to the destruction of both phytoplankton and zooplankton in the lakes and wetlands which will lead to starvation of the aquatic organisms and hence wider fish kills. Dynamite explosion at the reserve for housing construction will force the forest birds and mammals to migrate to other countries. Sand extraction from along the reserve will lead to the destruction and quality of the forest and hence force the forest and water birds to extinction.
These factors have led to substantial alterations and in some cases, the complete disappearance of birds populations and other fauna in the forest and wetland environments of the WAPFR. b) Logging for Timber: During the colonial period, the lowland rain forest of Sierra Leone provided the bulk of high quality timber for Britain to the extent that before independence, much of the timber resources along the coast had already been severely depleted. Whatever timber remained was in the interior and this also came under severe assault as logging companies pushed further into those areas with no proper management after felling the timber, slash-andburn agriculturists were quick to move into the areas vacated by the logging companies. Most of these sites received little or no attention in terms of replanting or engaging in regeneration activities. In recent times the level of illegal logging activities has become unprecedented. During the civil conflict, most of the timber needs of Freetown were met from the Western Area Forest Reserve as access to the interior was effectively restricted by the rebels. Two timber species were the focus of intense exploitation and included Heritiera utilis and Terminalia ivoriensi. Even though illegal logging activities still go on in the Western Area forests, attention has been directed to the forest Reserves in the interior, most of which lack effective management. Because forest reserves offer limited protection for most wildlife, logging activities coupled with hunting is a potentially devastating combination for forest biological diversity c) Fuel Wood, Charcoal and Poles Extraction: The lack of cheap and affordable electricity and fuel (kerosene) in the Urban as well as in the rural areas, mean that energy needs have to be met from alternative sources. The most common and frequently utilized energy sources are fuel wood and charcoal and the bulk of these come from the exploitation of preferred species from lowland rain forests, mangrove swamp forests and the Lophira savannah in the North of the country. An estimated 85 percent of the Sierra Leonean population is dependent on the use of fuel 38
wood and charcoal for domestic heating and cooking. This percentage is expected to rise as the population increases and no investment is made in the production of modern electricity needs. On a daily basis, one can see many heavy-laden truckloads of fuel wood and charcoal being brought to the city of Freetown from the western area peninsular forest and some part of the country. Most of the coastal mangrove swamp forests along WAPFR have being depleted as demand for wood for fish smoking and evaporation of salt has laid to waste vast areas of former prime mangrove swamps. This practice has been identified as detrimental to the breeding of marine biological diversity. Construction poles also form a significant portion of the non-timber forest products extracted from the lowland rain forest ecosystem. Farm bush form the preferred sites for the exploitation of poles with Anisophyiles laurina and Pentadesma bulyraceae comprising the bulk of poles brought into Freetown for sale. d) Bush meat and Pets: Bush meat is an important protein source from wildlife, and forms an integral part of the diet of rural and urban populations in Freetown. All manner of wildlife is hunted for the increasing bush meat trade and in all the forest edge communities along the reserve, there is increasing demand for the meat of wild animals, which generates a considerable amount of income. Even threatened and endangered wildlife have not been spared from this trade and throughout many of the protected areas, hunting pressures are on the rise. Recent surveys point to the near extinction of the red colobus monkey (piliocolobus badius badius). Perhaps more devastating to the wildlife population of this country is the taking of wild animals for trading as pets. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) are endangered in West Africa, but form the bulk of wild animals captured in the reserve for the pet trade. Even though there is legislation against the capture of chimpanzees as pets, the laws are not strictly enforced and continue to deplete the wild population. . e) Slash-and-burn Agriculture: Slash-and-burn agriculture has been blamed for the large-scale deforestation of Sierra Leone’s forests and continues to degrade the remaining forest as fallow periods fall with increasing human population. On some of the most difficult terrains (steep slopes), farmers perilously stake claims to land for the cultivation of crops. Such sites are prone to erosion and are known to lead to the impoverishment of biological diversity. Most farming activities nowadays, extend very close to the riverbanks, and potentially result in siltation of freshwater streams and rivers. The by-product of slash-and- burn agriculture is farm bush and is increasingly becoming the dominant vegetation in most areas in the country. This is occurring at the detriment of species dependent on high / thick forest. f) Human Encroachment and Habitat Fragmentation Fragmentation refers to the direct loss of forest and the division of the remainder into smaller pieces. Although the actual extent of forest has increased in some areas of the reserve, the spatial patterns indicate extensive forest fragmentation, which affects the habitat quality for mammal, reptile, bird, and amphibian species found in forests. Some species are adapted to edges or other disturbed habitats. However, changes in forest spatial patterns more often result in decreased habitat suitability, reduced ability of wildlife to move through the landscape, and the spread of invasive species from disturbed edges. Even small perforations, areas of non forest within forested areas, introduce these impacts deeper into the forest. 39
The researcher used land cover maps derived from satellite images to model forest fragmentation across the reserve (USFS 2008, Tobban and STEWARD). The findings indicate that forest fragmentation is pervasive and extensive, with three-fourths of all forest found in or near the edges of large, heavily fragmented areas within the forests. Most of the interior of the forests are suitable for agriculture or urban development. Fragmentation caused by roads is of special interest because the effects of roads extend tens to hundreds of yards from the roads themselves, altering habitats and water drainage patterns, disrupting wildlife movement, introducing exotic plant species, and increasing noise levels. The land development that follows roads out into rural areas usually leads to more roads, an expansion process that only ends at natural or legislated barriers. High human populations lead residents to seek out land for farming within the forest. This leads to a highly fragmented landscape, in which habitat areas are isolated and form islands in formerly connected forest. Habitat fragmentation disrupts the movement and territory patterns of animals, while interrupting ecological processes such as nutrient flow and seed dispersal. It also causes the forest to become more vulnerable to invasive species. g) Civil Conflict: The war was equally damaging to the environment, as the breakdown in law and order led to unprecedented exploitation of both land and marine resources. Illegal logging activities in all protected areas increased and brought with it the attendant problem of creating easy access to remote parts of the forest for hunters. Trade in wild animal pets involving chimpanzees rose as did the demand for bush meat in most urban centres. The large number of displaced and unemployed refugees eked out a living by exploiting forest resources at unsustainable levels. Marine Resources were also over exploited by foreign fishing vessels as resources needed for patrolling the vast ocean expanse were lacking. In the Outamba Kilimi National Park, a large herd of buffalos, primates and hippos were reported slaughtered, while in the WAPFR, illegal logging activities were reported to be going on at an alarming rate. h) Over-fishing of Marine Resources: Sierra Leone’s marine resources, particularly fishes and shrimps, are under immense pressure for over-exploitation, with many raising concern about the long-term sustainability of current exploitation levels. Sardinella Maderensis and Ethmalosa fimbriation are reported to be the most exploited fish species in the marine ecosystems and Penaeus notalis being the most exploited shrimp species. Most foreign trawlers are not effectively patrolled to avoid over exploitation. Artisanal fishing has also come under fire for unsustainable practices involving the use of beach seine netting. The mesh sizes involved are small (usually less than 25 mm diagonal stretch length) are considered illegal by Sierra Leonean law. They are extremely detrimental to marine resources as they take even the smallest fishes and shrimps that could have grown up to form the next breeding population. Around the mama beach another 15 unsustainable exploitation of marine resources involving the defining of sharks has been observed.
i) Ill-conceived Policies: In the early 1940s and throughout the 1950s, the Agricultural Department in the colonial administration implemented a pest control policy that became known as “monkey drive”. Numerous complaints by farmers of crop damage by monkeys resulted in a bounty being offered for the head of every dead monkey. This laid the foundation for migrant hunters from Liberia to move into Sierra Leone and killed an estimated 254,000 monkeys of all species in just under a ten year period. By the time this policy was brought to a halt, severe damage had already been caused to most wildlife to the extent that their populations never fully recovered. In recent time, the Department for International Development (DFID) provided a dozen power-saws to several Paramount Chiefs throughout Sierra Leone under a Good Governance Program. The aim was to allow them to exploit timber resources for reconstruction efforts in their chiefdoms. This is an unfortunate and ill-conceived idea and policy as most of these saws could end up being used in illegal logging activities in the forest reserves. k) Conflicting Mandates: The Forestry Division in the Ministry of agriculture, Forestry and Food Security has overall jurisdiction for managing the biological diversity in four of the five ecosystems including lowland rain forest, montane , savannah and wetland ecosystems. The management of marine resources is under the Ministry of Marine Resources and Fisheries. The ministry of lands and country are in charge of states lands. So they also have the right to issues building permit to state lands be if on forest reserved or not. The same thing applied to the ministry of marine resources for giving mining and exploration licenses to companies in government reserves. There is a small understaffed Wildlife Conservation Branch (WCB) under the direct control of the Forestry Division. Most of the resources are disproportionately allocated to the forestry sector and in terms of staffing, technical support, logistics and national recognition; the Forestry Division is by far ahead of its subsidiary. There is a complete lack of professional staff in the Wildlife Conservation Branch that is contrary to what obtains in the Forestry sector. The difference in the level of training of staff members is very striking, with most senior staff in the Forestry sector having the equivalence of graduate degree (M.Sc.) while the most senior staff at (WCB) has the equivalence of a two-year diploma. l) Poverty: Poverty is of the biggest indirect threat to biological diversity in Sierra Leone. The majority of the population depends entirely on natural resources for their livelihood, which are often exploited emotionally. Such high demands coupled with unsustainable practices of exploitation and utilization has placed undue pressure on the natural resource base thereby considerably impacting negatively on biological diversity in the western area peninsular forest reserved. Plant Species that are of Threats at the Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserved . Adansonia digitata Spondius mombin Hannoa klainearna Ochthrocosmos africaus bambusa vulgaris 41
rhizophora species avicennia africa Lophira alata Elaes guinensis Parinarixcelsa Tamarindus indica Dialium guineense Parkia biglobosa (locust bean) Morinda geninata Mareya micramtha Lophira lanceslata Memosa pudica afromomum melegueta Bryophylum pinnatum Castor afer Kundunkueta (L) Elaesis guineensis (oil palm) Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) Avicennia nitida (white mangrove)
Mammals that are of threats in the Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserve. Class Rodentia Common name Scaly-tailed flying squirrel Ground squirrel Cane rat Crested porcupine Primates Common name Green monkey Western baboon Black and white colombus Patas monkey Antelopes The giant eland Western harbebeest Reptilia Black cobra Spitting cobra Green mamba Marine Crocrodiles Turtle green Turtle loggerhead 42 scientific name Anomalurus derbianus Xerus erythropus Thryonomys winderianus Hystric cristata scientific name Cercopithecus papid papio Colombus polykomos Erythrocebus patas
Melanoleuca Nja nigricollis Denroospis viridis cardiglos aureole
Turtle hawksbill Amphibians Toad endangered Invertebrates Dragon fly Dragon fly Bufo cristiglans Aargiagrion leonium Allorhizucha campioni
4.14 INDIRECT CAUSES OF THREATS TO THE WESTERN AREA PENINSULAR FOREST RESERVE a) POLICY FAILURES One of the most frequently noted indirect causes of threats in the western area peninsular Lack of forest reserve proper is policy failure by governments. adequate policy, implementation,
enforcement of law with legal frame and legislation on the proper management of forest and other ecosystems has led to the misuse and mismanagement of the flora and faunal species. Agricultural practices and housing construction are not well defined and there have been problems with the central division or Ministry coordinating the activities of these ecosystems. b) POPULAITON POLICY AND BIODIVERSITY The links between population and biodiversity is another example. The government of Sierra Leone has adopted a general population policy in (GOSL 1989) and the implementation of this policy has over the years been inadequate. The link between population, policy and the conservation of biodiversity can be seen from two perspectives. Firstly, at the general policy level, the main decisions regarding access to and use of Sierra Leone natural resources can be at times strong. Secondly, at the land use policy level, the decision about state land and forest reserve can be seen (conflict) based on population increase and human carrying capacity, where decisions are made to conserve biodiversity through legislation and the protection an selling of state lands which subsidies the forestry laws and some aspect of the mineral act.
c) MARKET FAILURES Another indirect cause of threats can be seen from market failures by governments over the years. This can be seen from the World Bank Report (2005a) on the Gross Domestic Product. By far the most important sector is the joint item entitled Agriculture, Forestry, Hunting and Fisheries, which accounted for about 45% of the G.D.P in 2005/2006. The most frequently noted is that government intervenes in the economy in a way that distorts incentives to manage the natural environment rationally. In actual practice, major governmental attention in the agricultural sector has often been devoted to the food self-sufficiency programme. The aim of the programme is to increase the land area under food production without making provision for biological conservation. The governments’ control over state forestland is not effectively enforced. The extend of encroachment has been significant and it is observed that this sub sector also harbours an important part of nonmarketed biodiversity. The fisheries sector is also an example, of which the fisherman may increase his profit at the expense of others, because of an absence of common property resources management strategies. All these sectors are examples of indirect causes of threats to the nation’s biodiversity population growth and biodiversity. d) LAND TENURE AND LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Though complicated and varied, the issues of land tenure in Sierra Leone are considered to be an indirect cause of threats to biodiversity. There is lack of well defined, enforced and transferable property right for the use of trees in spite of the increasing demand for fuel wood and timber.
Land Tenure systems in Sierra Leone like most of Africa are “Common ownership of all resources, and collective production, which are rarely found (Consins, 2000). Communal here means, a degree of community control over who is allowed into the group, thereby qualifying for an allocation of land for cropping as well as rights of access to and use of the shared resources. What is thus characteristic of Sierra Leone is “communal tenure” which infact is “mixed tenure” regime, comprising individual, family, subgroup and larger group rights and duties in relation to a variety of natural resources (Bruce, 1988).The precise definition and articulation of these very between ecosystems and regions in the country. It can also evolve in response to the social and economic changes (e.g. population resources). In most parts of Sierra Leone taking the western area peninsular forest reserve as an example, family held farm fields are defined as individual property in the cropping season, but becomes a common during fallow. Such process has evolved over the years leading to In other fragmentation of forest lands and loss of biodiversity. density, economic opportunities and degradation of
circumstances, tenure regimes may be viewed as mixed when land is legally owned by the state, and occupants have, in law, only a secondary right of access and use of biological resources. When the resources become valuable (e.g. wildlife) or new high value resources are discovered (e.g. minerals), then often the state asserts its primary rights to benefits. However, while some of the forests are state property, the government has practically, found it difficult to regulate their use. Mixed tenurial regimes in Sierra Leone have thus resulted from the character of many and their use by different groups.
The groups biological resource tenures for all the uses previously described may thus vary considerably from place to place and can be disaggregated using the typology produced by Consins (2000) as follows: Resource type such as, grass, shrubs, trees and wild animals. Resource use such as grazing, cutting of thatch grass, harvesting of fruit, tree felling and lopping of branches and hunting. Resources users such as individuals, families, sub-groups, primary holders, secondary holders or temporary users. A wide variety of habitants in Sierra Leone can constitute common property components-grasslands, forests, mixed savannahs, wetlands, lakes, coastal areas and marine fisheries. These ecological bases have contributed to the livelihoods of the people in diverse ways. 4.15 Conservation Willingness From table 13 majority of the population agreed with conservation activities except for one activity considering selling more unprocessed fish stock. Approximately 93.75% of the individuals agreed that mangroves are extensively used, and there is the need to replant them. These mangroves help to hold the weak sand and mud flats together, there by maintaining the integrity of the reserve. Table 13 Willingness to conserve the Western area peninsular forest reserve Activity Attitudes Agree Disagree No % No % NO % The mangrove vegetation is Extensively use, therefore, it is Important to replant it Consider forestry to be introducing Activities of tree planting Cooling units can be introduced To preserve their fish Provide incentives to individuals 75 93.75 4 5 1 1.25
29 45 77 46
36.25 56.25 96.25
31 31 3
38.75 38.75 3.75
20 4 0
25 5 0
That under take conservation activities There is need for an environmental Awareness programme Consultant Response to These Threats Ensure that the recognized boundaries of WAPFR are clearly and permanently marked and that suitable and prominent signage regarding their special status is placed at key access points. In cases where the limits may be in dispute, work with the local authorities and community leaders to re-establish the limits, registering them in the field with a GPS and later plotting them on official maps. The director of forestry and deputies should prepares habitat restoration manual as a guide to the rehabilitation of areas within the Protected Area in need of urgent improvement. Restoration and watershed management activities get underway with community assistance in designated forest compartments where they are required for watershed management and biodiversity conservation purposes should be considered. Determine the potable water supply circumstances of forest villages and consider development of safe, piped water in return for their agreement to protect watersheds and the forest reserve. Forest resource development, agricultural improvement, soil and water conservation activities get underway in the forest edge communities, including with private sector interests in order to begin to ensure the sustainability of the watershed. Develop a methodology for transparently quantifying human impact on the protected areas as a key to gauging the compensatory measures that may be required to achieve conservation imperatives. NGO personnel , perhaps with technical assistance, undertakes feasibility studies for alternative income and employment generation activities. Companion studies on the micro-economics or business planning and market access elements are carried out to ensure that participants are fully likely to benefit from their participation in these activities. The forestry division should develop an annotated action-research oriented issues agenda as the basis for a modest program of research grants to be contracted with institutions like ENFORAC, Njala University and Biosalone, they should focused on forest ecology, natural forest management, biodiversity assessment, watershed management, co-management and other germaine topics. 79 98.75 0 0 1 1.25
Alternative income and employment activities get underway among the target communities. Lead participants in each of the categories of AIG activities are chosen and their efforts monitored carefully as an indicator of successful performance for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Possible community support and working credit program elements are operationalized (e.g. water supply, seed supply, etc.). Identify keystone forest tree and plant species that might be re-introduced or whose populations need enhancement within the WAPFR. Study the methods for their regeneration including the possibility of direct seeding and the feasibility of planting seedling.
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 SUMMARY The results from the study revealed that loss of biodiversity in the Freetown Peninsula forest is highly influenced by the demographic characteristics upon which the livelihood security of the respondents depends. It was found out that 79.2% of the people who carry out these activities fall within the ages of 18 and 45 years and 49.6% of them have no formal education although 15.6% have at least form five education. It was also found out that 46.4% have house hold sizes ranging from 6 to 10 people and about 48% rent the land they work on. Income level of the people is very low. The result revealed that about 28% of them earn between Le36,000 to Le50,000 out of their proceeds. The result also revealed that about 27.2% of the respondents always fetch fuel wood and burn charcoal, 70% occasionally extract fruits. Meanwhile 11.2% of them have never practiced weaving. It was also found out that age has high positive correlation with farming 0.67*, fuel wood collection 0.81* and extraction of poles 0.85*. Education was found to be non significant
with farming (0.55ns). Income level on the other hand has strong positive correlation with farming 0.70*. The results further revealed that there are preferences for some plant species and from observation, the slash and burn method of agriculture have cleared large areas. Plant species are threatened in some areas and in other areas extinct. With reference to conservation, 58.4% control fire, 44.8% participate in afforestation, 46.4% undertake fuel wood plantation and 28% practice agro-forestry.
5.1 CONCLUSION The following conclusions are made from the findings of the study 1. Livelihood sustainability is the main driving force to loss of biodiversity in the Freetown Peninsula forest. However, the existing socio-economic activities depend on varying demographic variables. 2. Use value or preference for certain plant species for food, fuel wood, charcoal, medicine carving, weaving, poles, timber, are responsible for the loss of plant species in the study area. In addition to farming, biodiversity loss is more serious in the production of fuel wood charcoal and poles. 3. From the findings of the study the conservation attitude of the respondents could generally be referred to as slightly below average for practices like afforestation, fuel wood plantations, agro-forestry with the exception of fire control. 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations are suggested based on the findings of the study.
It is recommended that the livelihood security needs of the people be shifted from forest to off-forest activities such as animal husbandry, gara dyeing, tailoring. The various sectors of government including agriculture and environment should have the political will, to enforce laws that will minimize anthropogenic activities in the forest reserve.
Subsides and incentives must be provided for farmers which will and encourage them to shift from upland farming to the cultivation of swamps.
Sustainable utilization of forest resources should be ensured at the rural, urban and national levels. The rural, community should withdraw from common property resources, support programme and introduce indigenous agro-forestry practices. The urban community should shift from wood fuel to other energy sources, use improved stones, substitute stones for wooden ones. At national level there must be a forest action plan, designate protected areas, introduce biodiversity inventories, participate in agreements and treaties, set aside areas for local people.
Institutional strengthening and other educational programmes like public lectures, adult education, seminars should be introduced to educate rural people on environmental management
Government should encourage the participation of rural people in all forest management activities to ensure the sustainability of such activities. Afforestation, fuel wood plantation should be done in consonant with the rural people.
Further research should be carried out on a) b) c) The rate of biodiversity loss in the Freetown Peninsula The establishment of fast growing multi-purpose trees Thoroughly investigate the social effects of loss of biodiversity on the rural and urban communities.
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