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EAT HW One

40 min

40 marks

1. A sign at a railway station advises passengers to keep back from the platform edge. This is

because passing trains may cause turbulence.

Explain what is meant by turbulent flow, and suggest why it is dangerous for passengers to

stand near the edge of the platform.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................

(Total 3 marks)

2. Volcanoes vary considerably in the strength of their eruptions. A major factor in determining

the severity of the eruption is the viscosity of the magma material. Magma with a high viscosity

acts as a plug in the volcano allowing very high pressures to build up. When the volcano finally

erupts it is very explosive. Once magma is out of the volcano it is called lava.

(a) How would the flow of high viscosity lava differ from that of lava with a low viscosity?

.....................................................................................................................................

(1)

(b) What would need to be measured to make a simple comparison between the viscosities of

two lava flows?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

(1)

(c) When the lava is exposed to the atmosphere it cools rapidly. What effect would you

expect this cooling to have on the lava’s viscosity?

.....................................................................................................................................

(1)

(d) When lava is fast flowing, changes to its viscosity disrupt the flow, making it no longer

laminar. Use labelled diagrams to show the difference between laminar and turbulent

flow.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

(3)

(e) Different types of lava have different viscosities. The least viscous type has a viscosity of

about 1 × 103 Ns m–2 whereas a silica-rich lava has a viscosity of 1 × 108 Ns m–2.

What type of scale would be used to display these values on a graph?

.....................................................................................................................................

(1)

(Total 7 marks)

Lewis F. Richardson:

Which feed on their velocity,

And little whorls have lesser whorls,

And so on to viscosity.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(1)

Draw diagrams in the boxes below to show laminar and turbulent flow.

Laminar flow

Description:

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(2)

Turbulent flow

Description:

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(2)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(2)

(Total 7 marks)

4. A child’s birthday balloon is filled with helium to make it rise. A ribbon is tied to it, holding a

small plastic mass designed to prevent the balloon from floating away.

Plastic mass

(a) Add labelled arrows to the diagram of the balloon to show the forces acting on the

balloon.

(2)

(b) The balloon is approximately a sphere, of diameter 30 cm. Show that the upthrust on the

balloon is about 0.2 N.

.....................................................................................................................................

(3)

(c) The ribbon is cut and the balloon begins to rise slowly.

(i) Sketch a diagram to show the airflow around the balloon as it rises.

(1)

...........................................................................................................................

(1)

(d) A student suggests that if the balloon reaches terminal velocity, its motion could be

described by the relationship

4 3

mg + 6πrην = πr ρg

3

where η = viscosity of air, m = mass of the balloon, r = radius of the balloon and v = the

terminal velocity reached.

...........................................................................................................................

(1)

(ii) The balloon has a total weight of 0.17 N. Use the equation given above to calculate

the corresponding value for the terminal velocity of the balloon.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

(3)

(iii) Suggest a reason why the balloon is not likely to reach this calculated velocity.

...........................................................................................................................

(1)

(Total 12 marks)

5. After wine has been fermenting it contains many small particles. These particles are allowed to

settle so that they can be separated from the liquid.

Add labelled arrows to this diagram showing the other two forces on a particle falling

downwards within the wine.

Upthrust

(2)

The upthrust can be calculated using the expression U = 43 πr 3 ρ w g where ρw is the density of

wine and r is the radius of the falling particle.

...............................................................................................................................................

(2)

Write down the equation relating the three forces acting on the particle when it reaches terminal

velocity.

...............................................................................................................................................

(1)

Show that the terminal velocity v of a particle of density ρs is given by the following expression:

2r 2 g ( ρ s − ρ w )

v=

9η

...............................................................................................................................................

(2)

Explain how you would expect the velocity of this particle to change if the temperature of the

wine was increased.

...............................................................................................................................................

(2)

Stokes’s law is valid only provided the flow is laminar. Using a diagram, explain what is meant

by the term laminar flow.

...............................................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 11 marks)

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