William Sayers

2009
Milestone 3

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
William Sayers (05025397)
Supervised by: Colin W. Morris (BSc, MSc)
Backpropagation neural networks are usually trained using some iterative method derived from a mathematical analysis of the operation of the network. This technique is time consuming and requires understanding of the mathematical principles involved. This project will investigate the application of genetic algorithms to replace the "normal" training of the network. This involves setting up some candidate networks and then picking the best of these. The best of the population are then combined in some way to produce a new population of candidate networks. This procedure is continued until a satisfactory network is obtained.

William Keith Paul Sayers225 Page 1 of Faculty of Advanced Technology 22/04/2009

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3

Contents
Contents ............................................................................................................................ 2 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................... 10 2 - Research .................................................................................................................... 10 2.1 - Neural Networks ................................................................................................. 10 2.1.1 - The Biological Neuron................................................................................. 10 Figure 1 - A human neuron ............................................................................................ 10 2.1.2 - The Artificial Neuron................................................................................... 11 Figure 2 - An artificial neuron ........................................................................................ 12 Equation 1 - Summation of the inputs and weights ........................................................ 12 Figure 3 - The sigmoid function shape ........................................................................... 13 2.2 - The History of Neural Networks ........................................................................ 13 2.3 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Neural Networks ......................................... 14 2.3.1 - Advantages................................................................................................... 14 2.3.2 - Disadvantages .............................................................................................. 15 2.4 - Current Applications of Neural Networks .......................................................... 17 2.4.1 - Neural Networks in Medicine ...................................................................... 17 2.4.2 - Neural Networks in Business ....................................................................... 18 2.4.3 - Object Trajectories....................................................................................... 19 2.4.4 - Robot Control .............................................................................................. 19 2.5 - Back-propagation ............................................................................................... 20 2.5.1 - Back-propagation overview ......................................................................... 20 Page 2 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3 2.5.2 - Back-propagation in depth ........................................................................... 20 2.5.3 - Back-propagation library ............................................................................. 22 2.6 - The FANN neural network library (Nissen, FANN) .......................................... 22 2.7 - Genetic Algorithms ............................................................................................ 22 2.7.1 - History of Genetic Algorithms .................................................................... 23 2.7.2 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Algorithms .............................. 24 Figure 4 - local optimum (units are undefined in this case). .......................................... 27 2.8 - Training Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithms ......................................... 28 2.8.1 - Determining Weight Values with Genetic Algorithms................................ 28 2.8.2 - Representation of a Neural Network within a Genetic Algrithm ................ 28 2.8.3 - Using Genetic Algorithms to Determine Neural Network Structure ........... 29 Figure 5 - A feed-forward neural network ..................................................................... 30 2.9 - Cascade Correlation............................................................................................ 32 2.10 - C# User Interface Programming ....................................................................... 37 2.11 - Writing C++/CLI Wrappers for Unmanaged C++ code................................... 37 2.12 - Application of Research ................................................................................... 38 3 - Design ....................................................................................................................... 38 3.1 - Program Requirements ....................................................................................... 39 3.2 - Design of the Class Structure ............................................................................. 39 3.3 - Linking C# code to managed dll’s...................................................................... 40 3.4 - Design of the User Interface ............................................................................... 40 Page 3 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3 3.4.1 - Main Form ................................................................................................... 40 Figure 9 – Network and output tab design (Main form) ................................................ 41 Figure 10 - Mean squared error tab design (Main form) ................................................ 42 Figure 11 - Dataset tab design (Main form) ................................................................... 42 3.4.2 - New Network Wizard .................................................................................. 43 Figure 12 - Design of the training algorithm tab (Wizard form) .................................... 43 Figure 13 - Design of the network settings tab (Wizard form) ...................................... 44 Figure 14 - Dataset selection tab design (Wizard form)................................................. 44 3.4.3 - Working Form ............................................................................................. 44 Figure 15 - Working form design (Working form) ........................................................ 45 3.4.4 - About Form .................................................................................................. 45 Figure 16 - About form design (About form) ................................................................. 45 Figure 17 - Dataset display design (About form) ........................................................... 46 Figure 18 - Licenses display design (About form) ......................................................... 46 4 - Implementation ......................................................................................................... 46 4.1 - User Interface Implementation ........................................................................... 47 4.1.1 - Main Form ................................................................................................... 47 Figure 19 - Network and Output tab............................................................................... 47 Figure 20 - Mean squared error graph tab ..................................................................... 48 Figure 21 - The dataset tab ............................................................................................. 49 4.1.2 - New Neural Network Wizard ...................................................................... 50 Figure 22 - Learning Algorithm tab ............................................................................... 50 Figure 23 - Network Settings tab.................................................................................... 51

Page 4 of 225

..The mean squared error at testing (XOR)...........1.... 56 4........Genetic Algorithm Implementation ..........Back-propagation and Cascade Correlation Implementation ..............XOR .......................................... 60 5.......................2 .. 59 5........1................................................. Datasets view ...................................................... Licenses view .................About form.................................1.......... main view ............Back-propagation ........ 53 Figure 27 .................About form... 61 Figure 29 ..................................................................................Graphs .......... 51 4..........3 .................................. 54 4.... 57 4..................... 52 Figure 26 .............................................................................Working Form ..................1..........About Form ..................Neural Network Implementation ......Working form .........................6 ...........................William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 24 .......................... 61 Figure 31 ............ 57 5 ..............4 ..........Number of iterations to achieve target (XOR) ............ 58 5................................ 54 4....................1..Passing Information between Forms ................................ 61 Figure 30 .................Cascade Correlation .....About form......................1........................................................................... 55 4.................... 62 Page 5 of 225 ................................... 54 4................2 .........................................................Keeping the User Interface Active whilst Processing is Occurring.........Dataset tab ..........................................4 ..............................1..................4 ..................... 59 5........3 ............................................2.......1...........1 ............................................................................... 56 4........................................................................Genetic Algorithms .......... 52 Figure 25 .........3 ........................................................... 58 5....1 .....Data Parser Implementation ................................................. 54 Figure 28 .....................................Mean squared error upon last training test (XOR) .............Testing Data ........................................1 ..........................................5 .............

......... 63 5.................................................2............................................. 64 Figure 32 ......4 ................1 .................................. 65 5.......................................... 63 5....2 ............3. 68 6............. 63 5..................................................................3 ........................ 63 5...........................................Number of iterations to achieve target (Viruses) .1....................................................................1 ...................Fishers Iris data.............................................................................1..........................Genetic Algorithms .......Cascade Correlation .......... 67 Figure 35 ..Mean squared error at testing (Viruses)...........................................1 ...........................2 ....Graphs .............................. 68 6.......... 68 6 ...............2 ............................................................................................................Cascade Correlation and Genetic Algorithms ...... 68 6....Virus Classification ...........The mean squared error at testing (Iris data) .....Graphs .............Mean squared error upon last training test (Viruses)..............Comparisons .......................3 ...3........3................3.......................................................Back-propagation and Genetic Algorithms .............2................................2............................................................................................................................ 69 6.... 69 6.............. 64 Figure 33......Genetic Algorithms .............................. 67 Figure 36 ...................Back-propagation ....................................XOR .............3 .....................1.... 66 5.............3 .......................Mean squared error upon last training test (Iris data) ........ 66 5..................Back-propagation ...........................Number of iterations to achieve target (Iris data) ......................Virus Classification............................ 67 Figure 37 ................................................. 64 Figure 34..............Cascade Correlation ..........................2......2 ..... 69 Page 6 of 225 .....William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5............................ 66 5......................2 ............4 ..........................1 ..Fishers Iris Data ................................................ 65 5...............................................................

............................................... 204 9.................2.........................4 .............How many of the original objectives were achieved? .............................3 .........Possible Training Algorithm Improvements .........Objectives ................................Controller .............William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 6...........................................................Possible User Interface Improvements .................................................................................. 69 6..........1 ..................... 211 11 .............................................1...................XOR .....................2 .....Source code .........................................Bibliography...............................................................1 ...................................................................................................................................3 ............................................................ 210 10 .............................................2 ..........................................................Possible Improvements ...............................1................................................. 75 9..............1......... 209 9.........................................................................................................5 ........ 214 Page 7 of 225 .........Testing conclusions ......3 ................ 73 8........................... 70 7 ... 73 9 ................2................................ 72 8..................................... 69 6..................Datasets.... 70 7.............................................................................. 70 6.............1................................1 .......... 174 9...........DLL Wrapper for FANN functions ..........1 ................................2..............Works Cited ...................................View ........................................................1 ............................4 ......................................................................2 .....................Appendices ........................................ 71 8 ............. 74 9................ 74 9.................... 158 9....Libraries Researched .Model .................2 .. 109 9..........................................................................3 ......................................... 207 9..................................UML Class Diagram......................Fishers Iris Data ..Virus Classification..............Evaluation .............................

..................Table of Equations ................................ 220 13 ........................Table of tables ...................1 ................ 217 12....................................................William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 12 ..........3 ...............................................................................................Table of Figures .2 .............................. 219 12.............................Diary................................... 222 Page 8 of 225 .......................................................................................Tables .............................................. 217 12.............................

........ has been submitted in candidature for any other award other than this being presently studied. and that neither this project................... nor any part of it..........William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY SCHOOL OF COMPUTING DEGREE SCHEME IN COMPUTING LEVEL THREE PROJECT This is to certify that......... Any material taken from published texts or computerised sources have been fully referenced........ Page 9 of 225 ...... ………………………………...... the work described within this project is the result of the investigation carried out by myself...... Student Name (Printed) Student Signature Registered Scheme of Study Date of Signing ………………………………...... ……………………………….......... ………………………………............... except where specific reference is made..................................... and I fully realise the consequences of plagiarising any of these sources....

1. on the course “Computer Games Development”. Figure 1 . compare and contrast three common learning algorithms that are applicable to neural networks.Research 2.Introduction The purpose of this report is to bring to a conclusion my final year project on neural networks and genetic algorithms. Neurons do not make decisions alone. This report encompasses design.A human neuron Page 10 of 225 . they can produce immensely complex results. 2.The Biological Neuron The human brain is composed of many millions of nerve cells called “Neurons”. the report will investigate. development and final prototyping of the program developed for this project. In addition.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 1 . Although they are simple in concept.Neural Networks Neural networks are networks of small-specialised units that sum the products of their inputs and the weights on those inputs. 2 .1 . but in combination with a network of other neurons within the brain.1 .

with extensions called “Dendrites” which are the neuronal inputs and a single extension called an “Axon” which is the output for that neuron.1. 1. an activation function and a method for representing an output – either to another artificial neuron in the next layer. in order to allow the brain to control cells external to the brain. as mentioned above). (Bourg & Seeman. The usual method for approaching this is to have a number of inputs. a synaptic gap occurs between the axon branch and the synapse. If the inputs from the dendrites to the neuron nucleus when summed are past a certain threshold. in this gap between neurons chemical reactions take place that will inhibit or excite the signal.The Artificial Neuron In order to construct an artificial neuron we need a way of representing the same model in data structures and algorithms. The axon and dendrites both split before terminating into “Axon branches” and “Synapses”. the nucleus will generate an “action potential”. Page 11 of 225 . a number of weights associated with those inputs. This action potential extends down the axon to the cells at the end of the axon branches (often synapses connecting to other neuronal cells. the nucleus of the neuron cell processes them and produces an output. (Barber. 2004). or to another part of the program.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 A neuron is composed of a cell body. In the case of the axon branches connecting to synapses that are part of a second neuron. AI: Neural Network for Beginners pt. 2006) 2. a summing function. Axon branches connect to synapses to form the neural networks within the brain. Axon branches can connect to other types of cells also. Concerning inputs from the dendrites.2 .

a differentiable function of some kind (such as a sigmoid function) which will output values between zero and one depending on the value of the inputs is another possibility. or integer). Page 12 of 225 . A specific input accepts a data item (usually a binary digit. A stepping function can be used which will output zero (or non-activated) if the summed products are below a certain value. Alternatively. or one (activated) if the summed products are above a certain value.Summation of the inputs and weights The next stage depends on the activation function chosen. real number. ℎ = × ℎ Equation 1 .An artificial neuron The system devised with these components is as follows. The product of the data item and its associated weighting is then stored before the summation of all the data items and associated weights occurs.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 2 . The activation function accepts this stored value.

2 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 1.6 0. McCulloch and Pitts formulated the first neural network model which featured digital neurons but the neurons had no capability to learn (McCulloch & Pitts.A sigmoid function (Bourg & Seeman. 1. Frank Rosenblatt developed the perceptron model then.2 1 0. Page 13 of 225 . the work of 19th century psychologists such as Freud.4 0. 2004). 1943). as defined in the graph above.The sigmoid function shape = 1 1+ Equation 2 .2 0 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 3 . (Barber.The History of Neural Networks The foundation of neural network research are in psychology. AI: Neural Network for Beginners pt.8 0. 2004). 1958). in 1958. contributed to the ideas that underpinned early neural network research. (Bourg & Seeman. however he was unable to come up with a reliable mathematically accurate mechanism for allowing multilayer perceptrons to learn (Rosenblatt. In this example “y” is the function output and “t” is the function input. 2006) 2. William James and others.

taking Page 14 of 225 . 2.Advantages Neural networks make possible or practical many things that with conventional solutions would be extremely difficult.3 . perceptrons with “n” hidden layers. The next major advancement in neural networks was not until 1974. The individual neurons in a neural network have no time dependencies on each other and each can therefore be run on a separate processor (or as separate threads on a single processor) if desired without causing the problems often associated with such parallelism. Parker discovered it independently in 1982 whilst performing graduate work at Stanford University in the United States of America and called it “learning logic”. of “n” nodes. Back-propagation allows for the training of multilayer perceptrons and in particular. Werbos discovered the algorithm whilst working on his doctoral thesis in statistics and called it “dynamic feedback”. where “n” is an undefined number. A good example of this is that neural networks have been implemented to run on architecture originally designed for processing three dimensional computer graphics.Advantages and Disadvantages of Neural Networks 2. (Blum. One of the benefits of neural networks when compared with other problem solving techniques in that they are inherently parallel and thus can run very effectively and efficiently on parallel hardware. used on this architecture they become an extremely fast as well as flexible tool.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Two layer perceptrons were the subject of several experiments to determine their usage and effectiveness. 1982)). when Werbos (Werbos.1 .3. 1974) discovered the back-propagation algorithm (independently rediscovered by Parker in 1982 (Parker. 1992).

The statistical approach to deciding relevant data Another advantage of neural networks is that noisy data is not a real problem for them to learn to interpret. Page 15 of 225 . 5 Build a system that incorporates what we have learned. where explaining why you have arrived at a particular diagnosis is an important part of the process. Neural networks can excel at determining what data in a particular set is relevant. as irrelevant data will simply end up weighted so that it has zero or close to zero actual effect on the solution produced by the network. This is a large disadvantage in areas such as medical diagnosis. We can simply present the neural network with all the data as opposed to following the circuitous and overly complex (by comparison) statistical approach demonstrated in “Table 1 . Table 1 . 1 Decide on relevant data. to attempt to provide a more robust post-training network.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 advantage of the massively parallel architecture of this hardware and the programmable sections of the graphics pipeline (vector and fragment shaders) to produce extremely fast neural networks (Davis. When using a neural network there's no need to establish before attempting problem solving which data is relevant. 4 Analyze the results. 2 Formulate a statistical model.Disadvantages One disadvantage to neural networks can be that it is very difficult for a human being to analyse a trained neural network and describe why it may come up with one answer over another. noisy data is utilised during training upon occasion. 3 Run the formulated model.3.2 . in fact. 2. 2001).The statistical approach to deciding relevant data”.

it can also be hard to tell how well (or how badly) trained a neural network is. there is no formal methodology with which to choose the architecture. Page 16 of 225 . for obvious purposes. A classic example is that in the 1980s. Therefore. only to find that on this round of testing. The US military then tested the neural network with a further set of one hundred images. or even to verify the quality of the training. When using neural networks is that. then a further one hundred images without. After the neural network’s training was complete. Eventually the original data set was re-examined. train the neural network. they tested the network with the remaining fifty images that the neural network had not seen before and the neural network correctly identified most of the tanks. requires largely heuristic construction and preparation. Fifty pictures of each set were set aside and the neural network trained with the remaining one hundred images with and without tanks. They collected one hundred images with a concealed tank. the network came up with apparently random answers. the US military wanted to use a neural network to analyse images and determine whether they contained a concealed tank. A tool used to solve heuristic problems. All the photographs with tanks were from a cloudy day and all the images without.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Once a neural network’s training is complete it is hard to tell why it is coming up with a particular solution. although the length of time the problem would take to solve without employing a neural network must be taken into account when deciding how much of a disadvantage. a sunny day. asked to differentiate between the two sets of pictures. with and without tanks. The training times on neural networks can also be a disadvantage. the network had trained itself to recognise whether the sky was cloudy or not.

Current Applications of Neural Networks 2. Neural networks make it more apparent however because (as in the previous US Military example) it can be difficult sometimes to decide what constitutes good data. covering as many relevant situations as possible. 2. Testing may then take place with the “testing” set to determine accuracy with unseen data.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Another possible criticism is that neural networks are extremely dependant on the quality and content of the original training data set. One of the main research areas is using neural networks to recognise diseases/conditions via scans. this has to be done within reason however.4 .Neural Networks in Medicine There is a large amount of research now covering the applications of neural networks in medicine. Fortunately since neural networks are (as has been mentioned above) good at ignoring irrelevant data. This drawback is however one that is generally universal to computing (and many other areas) often referred to as “GIGO” or “Garbage in. Garbage out”. lies in their ability for generalisation. This is generalisation and it is far more useful than it at first appears and similar from a very high-level perspective to how the human brain and brains in general function.1 . The real strength of neural networks. The more time spent training the neural network on quality data sets. “training” and “testing”. the more accurate and in line with expectations and desires.4. or it does exacerbate the problem with the time spent training the neural network. The network training first takes place using the appropriate “training” set. in the opinion of the author. the usual best approach is to simply feed them as much data as can be obtained. Page 17 of 225 . the eventual result will be. Data sets for training neural networks generally separate into two sub-sets.

merely a variety of scans covering all possible permutations of the disease or condition. 1997) Page 18 of 225 . Businesses have used neural networks in the past for applications such as assisting the marketing control of airline seat allocations in the AMT (Airline Marketing Tactician).Neural Networks in Business Neural networks. research on using neural networks to diagnose diseases took place. being good at analysing patterns and predicting future trends. (Stergiou & Dimitrios. A back-propagation neural net is integrated with the airline marketing tactician which monitored and recommended on booking for each flight. can fit very well into most business situations. However. In the 1980s. mortgage screening. (Stergiou & Dimitrios. 1997) 2.4. and assessing borrowers have all incorporated neural networks as an integral part of the system.2 . for example the human cardio-vascular system. Credit scoring.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 This is particularly suitable work for neural networks because you do not need perfect examples of how to recognise the diseases and conditions. a clear problem with this approach is that when using a neural network it would be difficult to tell how a neural network reached its conclusion. The main reasons for using a neural network to model the human cardio-vascular system are that a neural network is capable of adjusting itself to be relevant to a particular individual and also to adapt by itself to changes in that individual. You can also use the technology to model parts of the human biological system in order to better understand it. thus supplying information more or less directly linked to the airlines main income.

The position.Robot Control Controlling manipulators (such as robotic arms in a car manufacturing plant) is usually how robotics and neural networks connect. When a robot arm is one hundred percent accurate that is a simple task. Adjust the arm to the appropriate joint angles and close the effecter.4.e. compensating automatically for wear and tear on Page 19 of 225 . 1999) 2. A neural network allows the robotic arms to be very flexible in their operation and perform self-adjustments as time goes by.4.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 2. (relatively speaking) involving the following steps (Robot Control. 2008): • • • Determine the target coordinates relative to the robot. velocity and acceleration of the object being estimated in those implementations by several neural networks using several of the most recent measurements of the object coordinates. (Marshall & Srikanth.3 .Object Trajectories Predicting the trajectory of an object in real time is another area where neural networks have been utilised.4 . 2008): • • • • Forward Kinematics Inverse Kinematics Dynamics Trajectory generation The ultimate goal of course is to position the “effecter” (I. a robotic hand or any other similar manipulator) in the appropriate position to grasp or otherwise manipulate an object or part of an object. When controlling manipulators a neural net must deal with four major problems (Robot Control. Calculate the joint angles required for the arm to be in the appropriate position.

Adjust the weight of the output neurons to lessen the error.1 -“Network.Back-propagation in depth In a single layer neural network (or with a single node) the perceptron rule is applicable. In order to use a back-propagation training algorithm you must have a non-linear activation function for your artificial neuron.1 . Adjust the weight of the neurons to minimise the responsibility. Page 20 of 225 . The sigmoid function is in the source code at 9. This rule essentially describes adjusting the weight using the difference between the expected and actual outputs.1. allowing us to apply our learning algorithm.Back-propagation 2.2 -The Artificial Neuron.1. 2. The advantage of using a function like this is that it allows us to differentiate how close we came to the correct result. A commonly used function is the sigmoid function as described in section 2.3. based on the strength of the weights connecting them to the output neurons. training by back-propagation involves the steps: • • • • • Present a set of training data Compare the network’s output to the desired output at each output neuron and calculate the error.5. This is far preferable to having to perform lengthy and expensive re-calibrations on any regular basis (Robot Control. Assign responsibility to each of the neurons in the previous level. the disadvantage of a differentiable function is that it is by the use of these functions that local optima become apparent in the search space.Back-propagation overview In essence.2 . 2. 2008).5.cs” lines 130-133.5 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 themselves.

2002) However. 2002) Therefore. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated.1. 2002) In this equation “w” and “x” are as before. 2002) Calculating the hidden layer deltas is a little more complicated.Altered delta calculation rule for the output layer (Matthews. The other two values “di and yi” are the actual and desired outputs.Altered perceptron learning rule (Matthews.2 -The Artificial Neuron) an alteration can be made to the perceptron learning rule allowing this difficulty to be overcome. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated. Assuming the sigmoid activation function is in use. 2002): ∆ = ℎ = − Equation 5 . respectively. as the effect that the change in the weight will have on the rest of the network is a missing factor. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated. ℎ : = [1 − ] . “n” is the learning rate of the neural network. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated. this rule has no positive effect in a multi-layer neural network. Equation 3 – The delta rule (Matthews.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 ∆ = ℎ = − . The sigmoid function differentiates very neatly. the output layer nodes training function can be written as: = 1− − Equation 6 . such as the sigmoid function (see 2. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated. = 1− Equation 4 . The effect that the change will have on the following neurons in the network is an extra factor. the following alteration to the perceptron learning rule would serve our purposes (Matthews.differentiated sigmoid function (Matthews. Page 21 of 225 . Provided you are using a differentiable function.

to calculate the delta for a hidden layer requires the deltas for the following layers. Most organisms evolve by means of sexual reproduction and natural selection (Darwin. saving me finding a separate library.6 . it is fast.3 . 2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Equation 7 .The FANN neural network library (Nissen. it is possible to “breed” solutions to problems. easy to implement. 2. 2002) As demonstrated above. Therefore. Natural selection (Darwin. against which to compare the genetic algorithm trained neural network. 1859) very neatly avoids one of the larger problems involved in software design: how to specify in advance all the possible permutations of the original problem and how the program should react to those permutations. in a language that can be linked to C# fairly easily and it also supports cascade neural networks. FANN) The FANN library (see (9. although as it turned out I did not).7 . in order to apply this learning mechanism you start at the output of the network and work your way towards the inputs.3 -Libraries Researched) for other libraries investigated) implements a back-propagation solution and this library will be used in the project to implement a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. By using similar techniques to natural selection. The FANN library was decided upon for several reasons.5.Altered delta calculation rule for the hidden layer(s) (Matthews. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated. 1859) Page 22 of 225 . open-source (allowing me to alter it if I needed too.Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms attempt to copy natural laws to a certain extent in order to apply a random search pattern to a defined search space.Back-propagation library 2.

to alter slightly in a random way. simulating processes of biological evolution. swapping genetic material. the publication of the book “Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems” occurred. many researchers had independently developed evolution-inspired algorithms for function optimisation and machine learning but did not get much follow up to their work. then of the technical University of Berlin introduced a technique he named evolution strategy. This book presents the concepts of adaptive digital systems using mutation. during this process. 2. genetic Page 23 of 225 . by the author John Holland. this mixing leads to much faster evolution than if off-spring simply copied the genetic material as it is in the parents. but this variety helps to prevent stagnation in the gene pool.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Sexual reproduction ensures mixing and recombination of genes. however. Mutation plays a part in this as well. During the process chromosomes line up together and then cross over partway along their length. By 1962. or indeed multiple genomes in a population. At first.1 . across a range of subjects. although this technique involved no crossover. In 1965 one Ingo Rechenberg. By the early 1980s. In 1975. occasionally causing the genetic information.History of Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms first appeared on computers in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. mostly designed to help evolutionary biologists’ model aspects of natural evolution. a dissertation by Kenneth De Jong established the potential of genetic algorithms by showing that they perform well on a wide variety of data. selection and crossover. including noisy and discontinuous data. genetic algorithms were becoming more widely used. Also in 1975.7. This could result in either an effective or defective solution. this application was largely theoretical. built on papers both by himself and by other researchers.

(Marczyk. they are very well suited as a means of exploring search spaces too large to be effectively searched in a reasonable amount of time by other.1 .7. can be used to fairly accurately predict national trends. This leads to the exploration of a large proportion of the search space.Advantages The primary advantage of genetic algorithms is their inherent parallelism. Many other algorithms are largely serial and can only explore a search-tree so far in any one direction before abandoning all progress and starting again from the beginning. with processing power exponentially dedicated to better areas as the exploration progresses.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 algorithms soon moved into commercial territory and nowadays help solve many problems in many different areas. in the same way that the average response of a relatively small percentage of the population of any given country. more conventional. 2004) 2. methods. or further up the hierarchy. 2004). This is “Schema Theorem” and allows a genetic algorithm to move towards the searchspace with the most promising individuals in a timely fashion and then select the best member of that group (Marczyk. The real advantage of parallelism however is that by evaluating the relatively small search-space that it does. These are “non-linear” Page 24 of 225 .2.2 . Thanks to the parallelism that is a genetic algorithms main advantage. a genetic algorithm is implicitly evaluating a much larger group of individuals.Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Algorithms 2. proceeding with other more likely candidates.7. Genetic algorithms effectively explore many different branches of the tree at once and when a certain branch turns out to be non-optimal. abandon that search.

This non-linearity results in a huge increase in the search space. such as crossover and mutation. However. due to their strength in navigating large search spaces (Marczyk. In infinite or very large search spaces. the random nature of the various starting points of the initial population and the other methods they employ. they tend towards non-linearity where altering one component's fitness positively may make other components less fit and cause a ripple effect across the whole system. or never contained in their search space in the first place. making genetic algorithms an effective way to search them. each searching their own space for the best solution. A third advantage of genetic algorithms is that they do not tend to be easily trapped by local optima. Without crossover. due again to the parallelism of their approach. 2004). A good example of this is the concept Page 25 of 225 . Selection allows the pruning of the least promising searches. genetic algorithms tend to give good results compared to other search strategies. Many real life problems are not like this. This allows them to discover solutions that other algorithms may have over-looked. crossover allows promising solutions to share their success and mutation allows random changes in the local search space of a given solution. One of the largest strengths of genetic algorithms can at first glance appear to be their largest weakness. In a linear problem. selection and mutation a genetic algorithm is metaphorically similar to a large number of parallel depth first algorithms. it is hard to know whether we have reached the global optimum. Genetic algorithms have no prior knowledge about the problem they are trying to solve. they produce random changes to their candidates and then use the objective function to determine whether those changes are positive or negative overall.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 problems. each component’s fitness is individual and any improvement to individual component's fitness is necessarily an improvement to the whole. or merely very good local optima.

the system will never converge towards a suitable solution. If the mutation is too high. population size.7. therefore no gradual increase can lead you to it. or adjust them. Generally. genetic algorithms use strings of binary. 2. a comparatively smaller segment of the search space will be covered and the eventual solution may take longer to reach or never be reached as a result. however if it is too low. Page 26 of 225 . For example in the diagram below. A third issue is setting the correct mutation rate. 2004). however that is only one point. there is no slope leading to it.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 of negative feedback. the investigation may cover too little of the search space to find the optimum solution (Marczyk. then genetic algorithms (and most other search techniques) are no better than a random search for finding the solution. the global optima is at the far right. rediscovered by genetic algorithms. or real-valued numbers. integer. Likewise. Another method is to use genetic programming. but denied a patent for several years because it ran counter to established beliefs (Marczyk. the genetic algorithm may end up solving an entirely different problem from the originally intended one. where the actual code of the program forms the genomes in the genetic algorithm and it can swap portions in or out. 2004). with each number representing some distinct part of the solution (Marczyk. in a form that the genetic algorithm can use. etc.2 . if the size of the population is too low.2. A further problem is that fitness functions can be deceptive. If you have a poorly written fitness function. A second disadvantage of genetic algorithms is that the fitness function is crucial to the development of a suitable solution for the problem.Disadvantages One of the disadvantages of a genetic algorithm is the necessity of representing the problem the genetic algorithm is trying to solve. 2004). if the solutions to various problems are in areas of the search space that the fitness function would not consider likely.

which will then reproduce abundantly. In this example a properly constructed genetic algorithm would be likely to settle on the marginally less optimal. where analytical solutions exist they should be take precedence over genetic algorithms. 1996). unless by random chance it discovered the point with the most optimum solution. local optima in the centre of the diagram. lowering the diversity of the population and resulting in genetic algorithms possibly falling into the local optima that the mutation represents. including sigma scaling and Boltzmann selection (Mitchell. 2004). There are various methods for solving this. This is because analytical solutions usually produce more accurate results faster than a genetic algorithm (or any heuristic method) is capable of (Marczyk. 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Figure 4 . Page 27 of 225 .local optimum (units are undefined in this case). but altogether easier to find. Finally. A further problem is premature convergence: this occurs when a mutation early in the process produces a large leap in the fitness of that particular genome.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 you either have the solution or you don’t.

8 . the only information genetic algorithms require to train a neural network is an objective function (as described in 2.7 -Genetic Algorithms).1 . 1995). involving finding the optimum values for a set of real numbers (connection weights) which will produce the least error in the results from the neural network. In addition.8. to test the appropriateness of a given genome. 2. these are not a complete solution (Blum.Representation of a Neural Network within a Genetic Algrithm As a rule. The error surfaces associated with these problems tend to be highly variable and contain many local optima. however the method of choice for training neural networks is usually back propagation (see 2. 1992). to try to help it move beyond local optima. such as adding a “momentum” to the algorithm.Training Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithms Training neural networks is a form of problem solving.5 -Back-propagation) which is a gradient descent algorithm and as such can be easily trapped in local optima (Branke.2 . 2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 2.7 -Genetic Algorithms) are good at avoiding being stuck on local optima due to their searching several regions of search space simultaneously. not altering them besides that in any way. Page 28 of 225 . however. a neural network representation within a genetic algorithm is a concatenation of all the weighs in the neural network.Determining Weight Values with Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms (as described in 2.8. since you are merely increasing the size of the genomes being worked with. There are methods to try to avoid this problem when using back propagation. Genetic algorithms also have the benefit that they do not place any restrictions whatsoever on the architecture of the neural network.

it is also possible to use a genetic algorithm to evolve a structure for a neural network. however representing a large number of real valued numbers as a binary string. can lead to very large strings (thousands of bits) (Branke. outputs to inputs.3 .8. The average neural network has an input layer. Because of this it is helpful to keep functional units close together (I. The problem at hand dictates the input and output layer structures.Using Genetic Algorithms to Determine Neural Network Structure As well as using a genetic algorithm to evolve the weight set for a fixed-structure neural network. but is less likely to do so for genes close together.e. a nodes input weights and the nodes of a layer. side by side). one or two hidden layers of an indeterminate number of nodes and one output layer. 1995). Page 29 of 225 . Standard genetic algorithms use binary strings. 2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Crossover can disrupt genes far apart. to form a feed forward network. place a neurons input and output weights. These are all connected. One of the most important decisions when deciding how to represent a neural network within a genome is whether to use binary strings or real number strings.

there is currently no method by which to establish. There is also no method to check how optimal your solution is (Branke. a neural network topology to deal with that problem.0. number of hidden layers) by trial and error and intuition to establish a neural network that performs well for the problem at hand. a neural networks generalisation is its main strength and therefore you do not wish to lose it. As mentioned in section 1. the neural network will learn fast but will generate too specific a solution and will not generalize between similar inputs. Page 30 of 225 . given a specific problem. Although network architecture plays such a large role in network performance.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 5 . If neural network architecture is too simplistic for the problem at hand. On the other hand.A feed-forward neural network This architecture is then altered (number of nodes in each hidden layer. However. 1995). if the neural network architecture is too complex. the neural network will never learn to solve the problem (or come close enough to suggest a solution). this is not necessarily the most efficient form for a network for any given problem and the trial and error method is an inefficient method for determining the correct architecture for an optimally performing neural network for the problem at hand.

or high-level encoding (Branke. thus meaning that in order to remove a node completely. the strong.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 2. being able to contain the most optimum solution for the problem at hand. In cases where a genetic algorithm determines the number of hidden layers and the number of nodes per hidden layer and the network itself is interconnected fully.3. Back propagation learning rate is also a parameter for one of these areas. thus eliminating the searching of meaningless space and by definition. the network is divided into areas and for each area the number of nodes and the density of connections to other nodes is determined (Branke.8.1 . In one version of high level encoding of a neural network. an exception is possible. direct. 1995). whereas high-level encodings group together connections and/or nodes. or low-level encoding and the weak. the genetic algorithm represents the neural network by means of its connections. There are two methods for representing neural network topologies within a genetic algorithm. you must remove all connections to or from that node completely. Page 31 of 225 . Low-level encodings specify each connection individually.Representing neural network structure Representing the structure of a neural network within a genetic algorithm is not as straightforward as representing the weight values of a neural network within a genetic algorithm. 1995). a representation is required which can accommodate all networks that will work for the problem but none that will not. indirect. Ideally. In direct encoding.

9 . by limiting the potential size of the networks evolved and preventing the generation of overly large and complex networks but on the other hand. as the size of the neural network increases. This section largely drawn from information in: “Curved trajectory prediction using a self-organizing neural network” (Branke. 1995). A problem with high level encoding is that regular networks are favoured but not every network is equally probable. will not ever succeed in learning the problem. it is impossible to know whether these large and complex networks may be the most suitable way to solve the problem at hand. This can lead to human bias entering the system and affecting the outcome.Cascade Correlation The cascade learning architecture is a method by which the training algorithm builds the neural network as it proceeds. 2. These mapping methods are therefore more suitable for small networks or networks with a small number of connections. The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture. 1991). Neural networks that are too small on the other hand. Therefore. and the moving target problem (Fahlman & Lebiere.2 neural networks that are too large will solve a problem fast but will not generalize well and therefore their usefulness is limited severely. a balance between speed of learning and generalisation exhibited in the trained network is necessary. As mentioned in section 5. Page 32 of 225 . The algorithm attempts to solve the issues associated with back-propagation that produce slow learning. These are the Step-size problem. This could be useful.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 One of the reasons why alternatives to low-level encoding arose is the exponential rise in the number of connections. which is obviously undesirable.

with the aim of getting as close to a solution as possible. 1988). 'v' is the candidate unit's value.The definition of 's' given that 'o' is the network output at which the error is measured. The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture. Page 33 of 225 . the candidate unit’s value. After a number of training cycles pass with no substantial improvement (the precise number being determined by a user-supplied “patience” parameter). the quantities ‘`v ’ and ‘`Eo’ are the values of v and Eo averaged over all patterns (Fahlman & Lebiere. and “Eo”. The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture. An Empirical Study of Learning Speed in BackPropagation Networks. 1991). the residual output error at “o” (Fahlman & Lebiere.2 -Back-propagation in depth).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 The system begins with a basic neural network of inputs and outputs (numbers of each dictated by the task as usual) and no hidden layer. = −` −` . If a trigger occurs for the addition of a unit. 'p' is the training pattern. the partial derivative of "s" with respect to each of the candidate unit’s incoming weights "wi" is a necessity.5. An Empirical Study of Learning Speed in Back-Propagation Networks. plus the outputs of any previously created units. 1991).2 -Back-propagation in depth) or the quick prop rule (Fahlman. or sometimes the quick prop rule (Fahlman. or if the networks output is of sufficient quality the training is ended.5. The output units may use either a linear or differentiable activation function. The “candidate” nodes take the neural net inputs. There is also a bias input. 1988). The connection between each input and output is via an adjustable weight. Equation 8 . either an extra node is added. It then trains the adjustable weights using the perceptron rule (as described in 2. the initiation of a number of “candidate” units takes place and trained using either the perceptron rule (2. and attempt to maximise “s” the sum overall output units “o” of the magnitude of the correlation between “v”. with a value of one. In order to maximise "s".

−` ′ . Expansion and differentiation of this calculation can then take place. or the completed training epochs reaches a maximum level. where ‘oo’ is the sign of the correlation between the candidates value output ‘o’. = . and the inputs for that node are frozen.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Equation 9 . 1991). The training iterations for these adjustable weights in the main network then continue.The partial derivative of ’s’ (Fahlman & Lebiere. Equation 10 . The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture. ‘f'p’ is the derivative for pattern 'p' of the candidate unit's activation function with respect to the sum of it’s inputs and ‘Ii. Once the correlation on a candidate has reached an acceptable level. Adjustable weights link the outputs for this node and all the output nodes inputs. a gradient descent to maximize "s" can take place. . Page 34 of 225 . The connection of the best of the candidates to the neural network as it stands takes place.The partial derivative of ‘s’ with respect to each of the candidates incoming weights ‘wi’. After these computations are complete.p’ is the input the candidate receives from unit ‘i’ for pattern ‘p’.

A first node has been added. 1991) Cascade-Correlation 1991). Page 35 of 225 . 1991) Cascade-Correlation 1991). The Cascade Correlation Learning Architecture. The circular connections are adjustable weights (Fahlman & Lebiere.The second state of a cascade correlation neural network.The initial state of a cascade correlation neural network. The Cascade Correlation Learning Architecture.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Neural Milestone 3 Figure 6 . The square econd connections are locked weights (Fahlman & Lebiere. Figure 7 .

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 8 . 1991). The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture. Page 36 of 225 . with two nodes added (Fahlman & Lebiere.The third state of a cascade correlation neural network.

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Milestone 3

2.10 - C# User Interface Programming
C# uses the Winforms API to create user interfaces. It allows you to “draw” objects on a form in a visual manner to design your layout and then access and alter properties and subproperties of those objects in your programming code. A separate thread for each Window in Winforms exists, in order to facilitate performance on modern multi-core machines, although it does make it more difficult to move data between the forms. A method using “delegate functions” (similar to “function pointers” in C++) and “events” (Lysle, 2007) is the method I will use. Another challenge is making the neural network training independent of the user interface, in order to avoid the interface freezing whilst training a neural network. The solution I plan for this is to use the background worker object provided with C#, which allows you to assign a delegate function to be your background task, and will trigger events upon completion, for which event handlers will be executed (Microsoft, BackgroundWorker Class, 2009). Making a C# user interface interact with C++/CLI dll’s simply involves adding a reference to the dll in your project, via the Visual Studio® user interface.

2.11 - Writing C++/CLI Wrappers for Unmanaged C++ code
The cleanest method of connecting a native C++ or C dll or piece of code to a managed C# interface is via a C++/CLI bridge class. The VC++ compiled can swap between managed and unmanaged code on the fly whilst compiling and allows you to have both managed and unmanaged code (in C++) as part of the same project. Thus, a managed class can communicate with the unmanaged class (performing appropriate marshalling of the non-primitive data types (Microsoft, Using C++ Interop (Implicit PInvoke), 2009)) and the C# code can then access it directly.

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Milestone 3 Although it is possible for a C# program to interact with an un-managed dll directly, this method is less error-prone and more likely to be robust and stable, as well as making for cleaner code.

2.12 - Application of Research
The research presented here will help to produce the deliverables for milestone two and milestone three of my final year project: I plan to combine C# for the user interface and C++ for the neural network back-ends in order to create an efficient, powerful and fast solution. Section 2.11 -Writing C++/CLI Wrappers for Unmanaged C++ code, covers the combination of C# and C++ so I will not bother to cover it here, I plan to use the DLL method, with one DLL combining managed and unmanaged C++ linked into my C #user interface code. The user interface will then have methods to adjust parameters such as the genetic algorithms population size, number of generations, etc. In order to test and see what kind of genetic algorithm learns and develops fastest. It will also allow you to specify the number of back-propagation iterations. The use of this application will be in evaluating the difference in performance between a genetic algorithm, back-propagation algorithm and cascade correlation algorithm as neural network training algorithms.

3 - Design
The purpose of this application will be to allow the user to run a back-propagation trained neural network, or a genetic algorithm trained neural network and present the results of the network in such a fashion as to allow analysis and comparison of the training methods and their suitability in different situations.

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3.1 - Program Requirements
The program must be able to: • • • • • • Run a genetic algorithm on a feed forward fully interconnected neural network to train the network. Run a back propagation algorithm on a similar network to train the network. Run a cascade algorithm on a similar network to train the network. Allow the user to set appropriate variables (see 3.4.2 -New Network Wizard) to adjust the execution of the learning algorithm selected for the neural network. Allow the user to select which learning algorithm they wish to use. Display the results of running that algorithm on a neural network in a meaningful fashion.

3.2 - Design of the Class Structure
Before I discovered a simple to program and effective design, I tried and discarded two designs. I eventually used the third design and it is that third design documented here. The two prior designs to this involved representing neural networks via objects and compositions of objects in vectors, which lead to flexible, but slow and overly complex code upon experimentation. The final solution, the solution documented here, is a far simpler one (in terms of the neural network representation, it is far more detailed in the other areas than the initial designs were). This solution loosely follows a model, view, controller architecture. The solution enables easy replacement of sections of code as long as the interfaces and outputs remain the same. For more information on the class structure, see section 9.2 -UML Class Diagram.

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3.3 - Linking C# code to managed dll’s
Linking C# code and managed dll’s is a simple process (in Visual Studio) as explained in (2.11 -Writing C++/CLI Wrappers for Unmanaged C++ code) of selecting the references section in the C# project in question and adding the dll you wish to refer too. Then you can simply add a “using” directive to use the dll namespace and create, destroy, and use the classes within as if they were native C# classes. This can be seen in (9.1.2.6 “Algorithms\BackProp.cs”) and (9.1.2.4 -“Algorithms\CascadeCorrelation.cs”) with the “using FANN_Wrapper;” directive. This is superior to the direct C# to unmanaged code linking that used in milestone two, since it makes for cleaner and thus more easily maintainable code and the code is more robust in this fashion. The robustness comes from the fact that C++/CLI is far better at interacting with unmanaged C++ code than C# is. Indeed – they can even be in the same source file and compiled into one object. Therefore, by using a C++/CLI wrapper to interface to the unmanaged C++ and then interacting with the C++/CLI wrapper/s errors are less likely to arise.

3.4 - Design of the User Interface
The construction of the user interface utilised the Winforms based tools in visual studio 2008 (see 2.10 -C# User Interface Programming). I also used the ZedGraph control (ZedGraph) to display the graph of my results.

3.4.1 - Main Form
The main form is the crux of the application (as is default in C# Winforms programming) and if the main form is closed, all other forms and classes are disposed and the application terminates.

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along with two displays.Network and Output tab This tab needs a method by which to initialise the adding of a new network (3.4.2 .1.1. Three buttons will therefore be present. which simply needs to display the graph of the mean squared error over the current epoch/generation. Figure 9 – Network and output tab design (Main form) 3.1 .4.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 3. Page 41 of 225 .4.2 -New Network Wizard) a method to train the current network and a method to test that training.Mean Squared Error Graph tab The mean squared error graph tab is a simple tab. One display will show network details and one display will show the training and testing output.

to show the training data and to show the testing data.4.3 .Dataset tab This tab needs two display sections.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 10 .Mean squared error tab design (Main form) 3. Figure 11 .1.Dataset tab design (Main form) Page 42 of 225 .

Verification of all data takes place before the form passes control back to the main form and triggers a main form event with a parameter that takes a specially constructed class to transfer the data from the wizard. The user can progress through the steps via the “previous” and “next” buttons or via the tabs at the top in whatever order you choose.New Network Wizard The new network wizard is the form that appears when the user selects the creation of a new network.2.Learning Algorithm tab On the learning algorithm tab you select the learning algorithm for the neural network you are creating.4.7 Genetic Algorithms.4.5 -Back-propagation. 2.4.4.9 -Cascade Correlation).1 -Learning Algorithm tab (if no algorithm has yet been selected. Figure 12 .2 .Network Settings tab This tab allows you to set appropriate settings for the network and training algorithm you have selected in 3. out of three choices previously mentioned (2. 3. Page 43 of 225 .1 . 2. It allows you to move in a logical progression through the set up process of a new neural network and associated training algorithm.2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 3.2 .Design of the training algorithm tab (Wizard form) 3.2. the default is genetic algorithm).

Working Form The working form is merely a small display shown as a dialog (lock out access to displaying form) which shows whilst a neural network is training.3 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 13 . Figure 14 . Page 44 of 225 .3 .Dataset tab The dataset tab allows you either to select from two pre-setup datasets. both to protect the main form from data inputs that may cause training problems and to provide a visual indicator of work taking place. or to choose custom data sets from your hard disk for training and testing data (appropriately formatted in the FANN style).Dataset selection tab design (Wizard form) 3.4.2.4.Design of the network settings tab (Wizard form) 3.

4. project supervisor.About form design (About form) 3.4. clicking the same button again hides that information.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 15 . Page 45 of 225 .1 . displays licensing information and displays information on the pre selected datasets. one tab with XOR information and one tab with Fishers Iris Data information. Figure 16 .About Form The about form displays information about the application (author. Clicking the datasets button or the licenses button displays the appropriate information.Working form design (Working form) 3.4.Datasets display Clicking the data sets button displays a tabbed interface.4 . project description).

depending on your selection.Implementation The implementation is largely in C#.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 17 .Licenses display Clicking the licenses button displays a small information panel with selection methods.Licenses display design (About form) 4 .Dataset display design (About form) 3.4. Page 46 of 225 .2 . it will display the appropriate license. with small portions in C++/CLI and the back-end FANN (Nissen. Figure 18 .4. FANN) library written in C and linked as a static library to the managed FANN_Wrapper dynamic link library.

2 -“FrmMain. 4.1.1.Network and Output tab Figure 19 .1 .User Interface Implementation The implementation of the user interface is mainly in C#.Network and Output tab Page 47 of 225 .1 .1.1.1 . 4.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 4.cs”.Main Form The main forms code is in section 9. mostly via the visual design tools found in visual studio 2008.1.

Mean Squared Error Graph tab Figure 20 .Mean squared error graph tab Page 48 of 225 .1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 4.2 .1.

1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 4.1.3 .Dataset tab Figure 21 .The dataset tab Page 49 of 225 .

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Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3

4.1.2 - New Neural Network Wizard
4.1.2.1 - Learning Algorithm tab

Figure 22 - Learning Algorithm tab

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Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
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4.1.2.2 - Network Settings tab

Figure 23 - Network Settings tab

4.1.2.3 - Dataset tab

Figure 24 - Dataset tab

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Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3

4.1.3 - About Form

Figure 25 - About form, main view

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Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3

4.1.3.1 - Datasets View

Figure 26 - About form, Datasets view

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Passing Information between Forms Passing the data between the wizard form and the main form takes place as previously described (2.About form.10 -C# User Interface Programming) via events and delegate functions.5 .2 .Licenses View Figure 27 .4 .Working Form Figure 28 .1.1.1.Working form 4. Licenses view 4. Page 54 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 4.3.

cs”.1.6 . Events. 4.1.cs”.1.1. This leads to a user interface that is much more accessible (Microsoft.1.1.1.cs” lines 120-129). The declaration and association of a delegate and an event takes place in the form that needs to generate an event (9.1. 2007).2 -“FrmMain. lines 29-44). lines 29 – 31).Keeping the User Interface Active whilst Processing is Occurring The user interface delegates the processing to a background worker class.1 -“NetworkUpdatedEventHandler”).cs”. The two-event handling functions are at 9. The declaration of a new event handler in the main form takes place prior to displaying the new neural network wizard form (see 9. lines 306-353.1. when instantiated.cs” lines 145-163).2 “FrmMain.1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 An event is a method of notifying a listening object that something has occurred.1.1.cs”. lines 266-281).2 -“FrmMain. (See 9.1.1.1. BackgroundWorker Class. Page 55 of 225 . are associated with a delegate function to respond to that event (Lysle. The trigger of a new event takes place in the Wizard form when you are on the last tab and the user clicks “next” (see 9. the background worker class is instantiated and supplied with the event handler references functions (see 9.cs” lines 70-119). Firstly.2 -“FrmMain. 2009).3 -“Wiz1.1. Then the runworkerasync function executes and then shows the working form.1. In the event handler in the main form.3 -“Wiz1. the processing of the class sent from the Wizard form takes place (see 9. The “NetworkUpdatedEventArgs” class is a storage class for passing data (see 9.2 -“FrmMain.

cs that links into the . The neural network specific functionality added to the network model in the network specialisation class GANetwork (see 9.1. and didn’t suffer from the memory leaks (being managed code) so that’s the version that exists in the application today (see 9.2 -“GANetwork.5 “Algorithms\GeneticAlgorithm. FANN) which is a C programming language based neural network library. but had issues with memory leaks and was slow. when the C++ implementation of genetic algorithms that I wrote functioned.4.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 4.3 Page 56 of 225 .1.2 .1. and the Dll linked to this to allow access to the functionality.3.1 .2. Once this implementation was complete.Genetic Algorithm Implementation Although the original design was to implement genetic algorithms in C++. The compilation of the FANN library is static.cs” lines 32-44). Therefore. I decided to try re-implementing it in C#.2. • • The sorting implementation in GANetwork.cs” lines 51-126) 4.2 -“GANetwork. it was both faster than the C++ implementation (due mostly to my use of build in .NET built in functionality (see 9.cs” for the C# implementation) The main points to note in the code as it stands are: • The crossover (single-point) and mutation (random increment or decrement) implementations (see 9.NET sort methods in the sorting part of the genetic algorithm).3. There is an unmanaged C++ wrapper (9.5 -“Algorithms\GeneticAlgorithm.1.Back-propagation and Cascade Correlation Implementation The FANN library implements both cascade correlation and back propagation (Nissen.cs” lines 176204).2. after having used C# extensively in the UI I felt more confident about the performance loss and the use of the programming language itself.1.

will also be the coordinates for its corresponding weight (lines 17-19). these arrays form parameters for the other functions. the initialisation of all the arrays to their correct sizes takes place and then the initialisation of the weights to a random double between zero and one. The inputs and weights are structures so that the coordinates for an input.4. which allows it to manipulate the FANN functions in the static library through this class.cpp”. 9. into arrays of strings.1.1 -“FANN_Wrapper.Neural Network Implementation Although two previous attempts made at programming a neural network. and nodes) the eventual implementation turned out to be basic yet effective (9.cpp”) for the Cbased FANN functions in the DLL and a C++/CLI wrapper (9.h”.4.4 “UnManaged_FANN_BackProp.3. 9.1. which using the data from the heading (number of epochs of data.4. 4.cpp”) for the unmanaged C++ classes.4.2 -“DatasetParser. via references to these objects passed down via the hierarchy (references are passed to avoid the necessity of passing entire strings down the hierarchy). number of inputs. In the initialisation routines (lines 28-124). Three jagged arrays are utilised.h”. the inputs. 9. the weights. followed an object-based structure (network. Page 57 of 225 . layers.1.1. and the outputs. C# accesses the C++/CLI class directly.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 “UnManaged_FANN_BackProp.1 -“Network.Data Parser Implementation The data parser (9. In the constructor (lines 41 – 77).5 -“UnManaged_FANN_CasC.4 . 4. the separation of the textual inputs takes place.6 -“UnManaged_FANN_CasC. which store respectively. via a number of designated separator characters.4.cs”).h”. number of outputs) separates the data into two-dimensional arrays suitable to be passed to other functions.1.2. From there. 9.2 -“FANN_Wrapper.3 .1.1.cs”) parses data directly from the rich text boxes that they’re displayed upon on the main form.

3. five times for Virus classification and Fishers iris data). As the program presented the data in each case.XOR In the XOR dataset. 1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 The main functionality of the neural network class can be found in the “internal” region (lines 126-235). The target error was 0. 5. I tested the neural network implementation by creating a neural network with structure 2. the dataset is too small to split.4 -Datasets) (ten times for XOR. so repetition is instead used. 5 . and hidden layer which are all called by the public “run()” function (lines 241-270). there are three functions.1 . and creating a neural network with a similar structure on an excel spreadsheet. Page 58 of 225 . All nodes determine their outputs using the sigmoid function (lines 130-133).02 for Fishers iris data and the virus classification data.01 for XOR and 0. recording took place for analysis. Then entered the weights from the neural network program (by means of using the visual studio debugger to check variable values) into the spreadsheet and checked that the outputs coincided. input layer. The genetic algorithm and back-propagation neural networks each had four hidden nodes for each dataset. to run the output layer.Testing Data Testing took place several times for each algorithm and dataset (see 9.

Genetic Algorithm testing data (XOR) 5. Iterations (BP) 345 287 319 327 301 323 421 315 362 325 332.009566951 0.009969323 Testing MSqE (BP) 0.00992081 0.00992291 0.009248076 0.00998027 0.Genetic Algorithms Iterations (GA) 591 407 500 466 499 534 675 557 357 939 552.009888967 0.00997699 0.00998959 0.009888967 0.009962559 0.5 Result MSqE (BP) 0.1 .1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.00990161 0.00989974 0.Back-propagation testing data (XOR) Page 59 of 225 .009829335 0.009829335 0.006150786 0.00957518 0.0098402 0.006150786 0.00991907 0. the mean squared error from the network result and the testing mean squared error are different despite the data being the same.00881867 0.Back-propagation In the back-propagation testing data.009375132 0.009157809 Table 2 .1.00983181 0.009962559 0.009375132 0.00995716 0.0099765 0.009157809 Testing MSqE (GA) 0. because of floating point inaccuracies converting between double precision floating-point numbers in my code and single precision in the FANN code.009248076 0.00957518 0.009162436 0.00990403 0.00999069 0.00881867 0.00999799 0.009162436 0.00987211 0.5 Result MSqE (GA) 0.009566951 0.009885499 Table 3 .0099113 0.00998032 0.00988649 0.00988863 0.2 .

99E-13 1.00585159 0. the network is trained more after that point (output weight training).02E-13 2. but in the case of cascade training.3 . Nodes (CC) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Result MSqE (CC) 0.43545E-13 Table 4 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.Cascade Correlation In the cascade correlation data.1. the testing result differs quite widely from the network result.Cascade Correlation testing data (XOR) Page 60 of 225 .86E-14 1.02E-13 1. At each node addition.18E-13 7. which is when the program records the mean squared error.00798691 0.00960884 0.00863005 0.0086449 0. the call back function triggers.00855044 0.00992534 0.14E-14 2.00889787 0.78E-14 1.32E-13 2.00573252 0.00656719 0.83E-13 2.22E-13 1.008039565 Testing MSqE (CC) 7.

008 0.012 0.01 0.Graphs 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Iterations (GA) Iterations (BP) Nodes (CC) Figure 29 .4 .004 0.002 0 0 5 10 15 Result MSqE (GA) Result MSqE (BP) Result MSqE (CC) Figure 30 .1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.006 0.Number of iterations to achieve target (XOR) 0.Mean squared error upon last training test (XOR) Page 61 of 225 .

012 0.002 0 0 5 10 15 Testing MSqE (GA) Testing MSqE (BP) Testing MSqE (CC) Figure 31 .01 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 0.The mean squared error at testing (XOR) Page 62 of 225 .004 0.008 0.006 0.

019719802 0.019751257 0.Cascade Correlation Nodes (CC) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean squared error (CC) 0.018789438 0.0199972 0.0199916 0.Cascade correlation testing data (Iris data) Page 63 of 225 .2.0141406 0.014144 0.0199918 0.0143778 0.019775896 0.Genetic Algorithms Iterations (GA) 1928 1834 1277 2835 8716 3318 Mean squared error (GA) 0.01950238 Testing mean squared error (CC) 0.0189456 0.0140669 0.019763877 0.2.0141935 Table 6 .0193595 0.2 .0143806 0.0199719 0.0195853 0.2 .Fishers Iris data 5.01998996 Testing mean squared error (BP) 0.1 .2.0196297 0.Back-propagation testing data (Iris data) 5.014116 0.0160925 Table 7 .01956255614 Testing mean squared error (GA) 0.0199892 0.019719802 0.01956255614 Table 5 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.018789438 0.Genetic algorithm testing data (Iris data) 5.019751257 0.019763877 0.019775896 0.0198416 0.0199999 0.0139982 0.3 .Back-propagation Iterations (BP) 434 529 474 391 527 471 Mean squared error (BP) 0.0158679 0.0164964 0.

Graphs 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 Iterations (GA) Iterations (BP) Nodes (CC) Figure 32 .02 0.0202 0.Number of iterations to achieve target (Iris data) 0.0194 0.0196 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.019 0.0188 0.4 .2.0198 0.0192 0.0186 0 2 4 6 Mean squared error (GA) Mean squared error (BP) Mean squared error (CC) Figure 33.Mean squared error upon last training test (Iris data) Page 64 of 225 .

The mean squared error at testing (Iris data) 5. and others.025 0. which are the number of amino acid residues per molecule of coat protein.015 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 0. There are 18 measurements on each virus.005 0 0 2 4 6 Figure 34.02 Testing mean squared error (GA) Testing mean squared error (BP) Testing mean squared error (CC) 0. The dataset is in order: • • • • Hordeviruses x3 Tobraviruses x6 Tobamoviruses x39 Furoviruses x13 Page 65 of 225 .01 0.Virus Classification This dataset covers 61 viruses affecting several crops including tobacco. tomato.3 . cucumber.

2 .00979968 0.011585152 Table 10 .0105845 0.00980208 0.017723052 0.3.0111416 0.017043 0.01870197 0.017723052 0.Cascade Correlation testing data (Viruses) Page 66 of 225 .1 .0196959 0.Back-propagation testing data (Viruses) 5.4 Mean Squared Error training (CC) 0.0350318 0.0197935 0.019927361 0.0199621 0.0391179 0.Back-propagation Iterations (BP) 3275 10922 2800 3744 6295 5407.019861371 0.01983722 Mean Squared Error testing (BP) 0.8 Mean Squared Error training (GA) 0.0190612094 Mean Squared Error testing (GA) 0.0393106 0.Genetic Algorithms testing data (Viruses) 5.0185152 0.3.Genetic Algorithms Iterations (GA) 1818 1421 896 11676 1068 3375.0199916 0.00640291 0.0347797 0.0165979 0.019092293 0.0195173 0.01870197 0.0194383 0.019092293 0.016183342 Mean Squared Error testing (CC) 0.3 .019927361 0.Cascade Correlation Nodes (CC) 1 2 1 2 1 1.0434423 0.3.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.0190612094 Table 8 .03833646 Table 9 .2 Mean Squared Error training (BP) 0.019861371 0.019743 0.

01 0.4 .02 Mean Squared Error training (GA) Mean Squared Error training (BP) Mean Squared Error training (CC) 0.Number of iterations to achieve target (Viruses) 0.025 0.Graphs 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 2 4 6 Iterations (GA) Iterations (BP) Nodes (CC) Figure 35 .005 0 0 2 4 6 Figure 36 .3.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 5.Mean squared error upon last training test (Viruses) Page 67 of 225 .015 0.

04 0.035 0. but to a negligible degree in this scenario. Genetic algorithms take around five hundred iterations on average to produce a workable solution when aiming for a mean squared error of below 0. Page 68 of 225 .1 .1 . genetic algorithms and back-propagation offer similar performance in solving the problem. versus backpropagations 333 iterations on average.005 0 0 2 4 6 Mean Squared Error testing (GA) Mean Squared Error testing (BP) Mean Squared Error testing (CC) Figure 37 .05 0.01 0.Mean squared error at testing (Viruses) 6 .045 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 0.01.015 0. or possible inefficiencies in my programming.03 0. Genetic algorithm solutions are slightly more accurate. The back-propagation implementation seems to be slightly faster in real-time but this is possibly attributable to managed code inefficiencies versus unmanaged code.Comparisons 6.1.Back-propagation and Genetic Algorithms 6.XOR As regards to the XOR problem.02 0.025 0.

FANN)) this is around 300 epochs to solve the problem. Page 69 of 225 . The back-propagation generated networks were also more accurate overall (in fact on this particular problem analysed the testing data more effectively than the training data). At a maximum of 150 epochs per node added (the default (Nissen.1 .2 epochs for backpropagation. 6.XOR This problem was solved more effectively by the Cascade algorithm than by genetic algorithms.1.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 6. The genetic algorithm solutions also held their effectiveness through to the testing data with extreme consistency.2.Virus Classification The solution of this problem was more effective by genetic algorithms than by backpropagation. 6.2 . With an average of 3318 generations for genetic algorithms versus 471 epochs for back-propagation this became clear.1. with an average of 3375.3 .8 generations versus 5407. whilst the cascade algorithm used 2 nodes to solve the problems.2 .2 .Fishers Iris Data Genetic algorithms clearly found this a difficult problem to solve as opposed to backpropagation. whereas the back-propagation solutions lost effectiveness on the training data. The cascade algorithm also achieves a higher degree of accuracy.Fishers Iris Data Again. on this data set cascade training came to a satisfactory solution faster and more accurately than genetic algorithms.Cascade Correlation and Genetic Algorithms 6. 6.2. genetic algorithms taking 550 generations on average to solve the problem to a suitable accuracy.

although there are further investigations I would like to continue with given more time (and may continue with in my own time). They are roughly as effective as back-propagation training and although back-propagation is faster for the most part.3 . Compared to cascade correlation however. solutions developed using genetic algorithms tend to hold their effectiveness through to the data set effectively. the unavoidable conclusion is that cascade training is the most effective of the three training methods examined. Page 70 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 6. however. genetic algorithms fall down as a solution.3 . 7 .Testing conclusions Genetic algorithms are a valuable and effective means of training neural networks. I feel the project has been a success. more in-depth testing using more varied datasets a clearer comparison and possibly drawbacks associated with cascade training may become evident. With more time.Evaluation Overall.Virus Classification With this data set cascade training again came to a satisfactory solution faster and more accurately than genetic algorithms did on the same data.2. with the information presented and discussed here. 6.

and in which cases these methods are suitable. Page 71 of 225 . Research current information on training neural networks using genetic algorithms. “Identify the most effective ways of training neural networks using genetic algorithms.” With more time more advanced tests could be undertaken using larger data sets. The only objective that I feel could be improved upon is the final objective. Identify the most effective ways of training neural networks using genetic algorithms. as well as previous research. leading to a more solid conclusion and more information on the various strengths and weaknesses of the various learning algorithms examined. and that allows manual adjustment of relevant variables. evaluate training methods for neural networks. Using above application.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 7. Build an application that is capable of training a neural network with a genetic algorithm and with a backpropagation system. and in which cases these methods are suitable.5 -Objectives): Research the fields of genetic algorithms and neural networks.1 .How many of the original objectives were achieved? The original objectives were as follows (9. Build a user-interface for the aforementioned application allowing for easy alteration of appropriate variables.

Testing with datasets that would take large amounts of time to train.Possible Improvements More advanced testing would be the biggest improvement that more time would make possible. These could be resolved fairly simply (I believe) by implementing the iDispose interface in my managed code to allow it to be destroyed upon demand instead of waiting for the garbage collector. Due to small conflicts between managed and unmanaged memory.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 8 . Some forms of testing that would be possible are: • • • • • Testing with datasets with larger numbers of inputs Testing with large datasets that attempt to train the network to distinguish between small differences in data. Testing both with and without scaling and utilising different scaling methods. Improve memory management. the program occasionally causes an exception (most specifically when creating cascade or back-propagation networks in quick succession). Page 72 of 225 .

Possible User Interface Improvements The main improvements to the user interface that I would make if I had more time are: • • Increased number of variable options presented to the user (with appropriate defaults set). Page 73 of 225 .Possible Training Algorithm Improvements With more time. (the new network wizard and the working form) lock out the rest of the program.2 . Having the back-propagation algorithm in C# similar to the genetic algorithm would also allow a more “apples to apples” comparison. I would experiment with the following training algorithm improvements: • Improve the genetic algorithms crossover and mutation algorithms. as well as implementing roulette wheel selection. experimenting with multiple point crossover and other crossover forms. Contrary to my opinion before undertaking extensive usage of C# I now believe the reduced development time. is worth the possibility of reduced performance. • • Attempt to improve the speed of the genetic algorithm. allowing more to be undertaken successfully. for the reasons stated above. Implement the back-propagation algorithm in C# instead of C++. but still minimize instead of blocking other computer programs. 8.1 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 8. • Implement the cascade training algorithm in C# instead of C++. Making the forms shown as dialogs.

Page 74 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9 .Appendices 9. so that this listing contains only code I have personally written for the project.1 . The earlier attempts at genetic algorithm and neural network implementations are not included. This section also contains only the final draft of the code. The code contains line numbering for pinpointing the precise lines in question within the body-text when crossreferencing. Although there was another section of the program compiled from source (the FANN library). which this code is partially based upon. and neither is the code for the prototype constructed in milestone two. I have not included it in the source code listing.Source code The source code in this section is organised first by which part of the application it represents and then by what source file it originally resided in.

System.Classes { public class NetworkUpdateEventArgs : System. System.Collections.1 . private int _CC_MaxNeurons.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. namespace _05025397. System.EventArgs { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //Training Algorithm Identifier private int trainingalg. private int _CC_Reports.View 9. //Dataset identifier private int _TrDataSet.Generic.Controller.1.Linq.1 .1. private bool _CC_ITerr.Text.1. private double _CC_LearningRate. //Cascade Correlation private double _CC_Terr.“NetworkUpdatedEventHandler” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 using using using using System. Page 75 of 225 .

double CCLearningRate. #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ //Constructor to accept all necessary data public NetworkUpdateEventArgs (int Algorithm. private double _BP_LearningRate.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 //Genetic Algorithm private int _GA_PopSize. private int _GA_GenLimit. int CCReports. Page 76 of 225 . private double _GA_Terr. private int _GA_Crossover. private int _BP_Reports. private double _BP_Terr. int GAPopSize. //BackProp private int _BP_EpochLimit. double CCTerr. private int _GA_HiddenL. bool CCITerr. private int _GA_Reports. int CCMaxNeurons. private bool _GA_ITerr. private bool _BP_ITerr. private int _BP_HiddenL. private int _GA_Mutation.

_GA_HiddenL = GAHiddenL. _GA_Terr = GATerr. int GAMutation. int TrData_Set) { //Algorithm trainingalg = Algorithm. _GA_Crossover = GACrossOver. int BPEpochLimit. double BPLearningRate. //Genetic Algorithm _GA_PopSize = GAPopSize. bool GAITerr. _GA_ITerr = GAITerr. _GA_Reports = GAReports. _CC_ITerr = CCITerr. Page 77 of 225 . //Cascade Correlation _CC_Terr = CCTerr.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 int GAGenLimit. _CC_MaxNeurons = CCMaxNeurons. double GATerr. bool BPITerr. _GA_Mutation = GAMutation. int GAReports. double BPTerr. _CC_Reports = CCReports. int GACrossOver. int GAHiddenL. //Backpropagation Algorithm _BP_EpochLimit = BPEpochLimit. _GA_GenLimit = GAGenLimit. _CC_LearningRate = CCLearningRate. int BPReports. int BPHiddenL.

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 _BP_HiddenL = BPHiddenL. } } #endregion #region genetic_algorithms //Genetic Algorithm public int GA_PopSize { get { return _GA_PopSize. } } public int CC_Reports { get { return _CC_Reports. _BP_Terr = BPTerr. _TrDataSet = TrData_Set. } } public int GA_GenLimit Page 78 of 225 . _BP_ITerr = BPITerr. } } public int CC_MaxNeurons { get { return _CC_MaxNeurons. } } public bool CC_ITerr { get { return _CC_ITerr. _BP_LearningRate = BPLearningRate. } } public double CC_LearningRate { get { return _CC_LearningRate. _BP_Reports = BPReports. } #endregion #region getters/setters #region cascade_correlation //Cascade Correlation public double CC_Terr { get { return _CC_Terr.

} } public int BP_Reports { get { return _BP_Reports. } } public int GA_HiddenL { get { return _GA_HiddenL. } } public double BP_LearningRate { get { return _BP_LearningRate. } } public int GA_Crossover { get { return _GA_Crossover. } } public double BP_Terr { get { return _BP_Terr. } } public double GA_Terr { get { return _GA_Terr.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 { get { return _GA_GenLimit. } } public int GA_Mutation { get { return _GA_Mutation. } } public int BP_HiddenL { get { return _BP_HiddenL. } } public bool GA_ITerr { get { return _GA_ITerr. } } #endregion #region back_propagation //Back propagation public int BP_EpochLimit { get { return _BP_EpochLimit. } } #endregion Page 79 of 225 . } } public int GA_Reports { get { return _GA_Reports. } } public bool BP_ITerr { get { return _BP_ITerr.

System.Forms. } } #endregion } 9.“FrmMain. System. System.IO.ComponentModel. System. using _05025397.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 using using using using using using using using using System.Linq. System. namespace _05025397.2 .Text.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000147 00000148 00000149 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 } #endregion #region external //General public int TrDataSet { get { return _TrDataSet.Controller { public partial class FrmMain : Form Page 80 of 225 . System.Windows.Collections.1.Data. } } public int TrainingAlgorithm { get { return trainingalg.1.Generic. using ZedGraph. System.Drawing. System.

Working().Algorithms. //Working dialog Controller. #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public FrmMain() { InitializeComponent(). bw.Resources.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //The neuralnetwork Controller. bw.icon.Icon = Properties. } #endregion #region internal_functions /********************\ Page 81 of 225 .TrainingAlgorithm network.RunWorkerCompleted += new RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(bw_RunWorkerCompleted). this.DoWork += new DoWorkEventHandler(bw_DoWork).Working workingdialog = new Controller. //Background thread static BackgroundWorker bw = new BackgroundWorker().

Classes.NetworkUpdateEventArgs e) { LoadDataset(e. Color.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private void plotgraphsMSE(PointPairList MSE) { this.zedGraphControl1.CurveList.TrDataSet).AxisChange(). GraphPane MSEpane = this. MSEpane. MSEpane.TrainingAlgorithm == 0) { Page 82 of 225 .IsVisible = false. this.zedGraphControl1. MSEpane. SymbolType.Title.Red.Clear().Title.zedGraphControl1. // Hide the legend MSEpane.GraphPane.Circle).AddCurve("".Text = "Iteration".Legend. } private void updatenetwork(object sender.Title.Text = "Mean Squared Error". //Titles MSEpane.XAxis.Text = "MSE".YAxis.GraphPane. MSE. try { if (e.

txtTrainData.BP_ITerr.BP_Terr.GA_Reports. txtTestData). txtTrainData.BackProp (e.Algorithms.GA_GenLimit.GA_ITerr.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 network = new Controller. e. e.GA_Mutation.Algorithms. txtTestData).BP_HiddenL.BP_EpochLimit.CascadeCorrelation (e.Algorithms. e. e. e.BP_Reports. } } catch { Page 83 of 225 .CC_LearningRate. e. e. } if (e.TrainingAlgorithm == 2) { network = new Controller.GeneticAlgorithm (e. e. txtTestData). } if (e. e.GA_HiddenL. e. e. e.CC_MaxNeurons.CC_Reports. e.CC_ITerr. e. txtTrainData. e.GA_PopSize.CC_Terr.TrainingAlgorithm == 1) { network = new Controller. e.BP_LearningRate.GA_Terr.GA_Crossover.

Wiz1.Exit().Show("Error creating new network".Text = Properties.Wiz1 wizard = new Controller.XORtrain. "Error".Resources.ShowDialog(). wizard. wizard.OK.Error).XOR: txtTrainData. MessageBoxButtons.Resources.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 MessageBox.NetworkUpdated += new Controller. } if (network != null) { txtNetSettings. Application.NetworkUpdateHandler(updatenetwork).network_details().Text = Properties. MessageBoxIcon. } } private void new_network() { Controller.Text = network.Wiz1(). txtTestData.XORtest. Page 84 of 225 . } private void LoadDataset(int Data_set) { switch (Data_set) { case (int)Dataset.

txtTestData. } catch { MessageBox.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 break. string train = "". "Select Training Data").OK. MessageBoxButtons. break.Resources.FISHERtest.Resources. } Page 85 of 225 .Text = Properties.\\".\\". break. case (int)Dataset. string testpath = SelectTextFile(". } } private void LoadCustomDataSet() { string trainpath = SelectTextFile(". "Error!". MessageBoxIcon.FISHER: txtTrainData. string test = "".Show("Error: Problem loading training data". try { train = LoadTxtFile(trainpath).CUSTOM: LoadCustomDataSet(). "Select Testing Data").Text = Properties.Error). case (int)Dataset.FISHERtrain.

Error).Error).Text = test. } private string LoadTxtFile(string path) { string data = "".William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 try { test = LoadTxtFile(testpath). MessageBoxIcon.Read).OK. FileStream File = null. txtTrainData.OK. Page 86 of 225 . data = Reader.ReadToEnd(). MessageBoxIcon. Reader = new StreamReader(File).Show("Error reading selected file: " + path. } catch { MessageBox. } catch { MessageBox. "Error!". FileAccess. try { File = new FileStream(path. "Error!".Show("Error: Problem loading testing data".Text = train. } txtTestData.Open. StreamReader Reader = null. MessageBoxButtons. MessageBoxButtons. FileMode.

} finally { if (Reader != null) Reader.Title = title.FileName : null. dialog. dialog.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 00000217 00000218 00000219 00000220 00000221 00000222 00000223 00000224 00000225 00000226 00000227 data = "". } private string SelectTextFile(string initialDirectory. } #endregion #region menu_items /********************\ |* MENU ITEMS *| \********************/ Page 87 of 225 . return (dialog.InitialDirectory = initialDirectory. dialog.ShowDialog() == DialogResult. string title) { OpenFileDialog dialog = new OpenFileDialog().*". if (File != null) File.Close().*)|*.Close().OK) ? dialog.Filter = "txt files (*.txt)|*.txt|All files (*. } return data.

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000228 00000229 00000230 00000231 00000232 00000233 00000234 00000235 00000236 00000237 00000238 00000239 00000240 00000241 00000242 00000243 00000244 00000245 00000246 00000247 00000248 00000249 00000250 00000251 00000252 00000253 00000254 00000255 00000256 00000257 private void newNetworkToolStripMenuItem_Click(object sender. } private void runToolStripMenuItem_Click(object sender.Trained != false) { network. About.Test().Close().Show(). EventArgs e) { FrmAbout About = new FrmAbout(). } #endregion #region buttons Page 88 of 225 . EventArgs e) { new_network(). EventArgs e) { this. } } } private void aboutToolStripMenuItem1_Click(object sender. EventArgs e) { if (network != null) { if (network. } private void exitToolStripMenuItem_Click(object sender.

ShowDialog().William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000258 00000259 00000260 00000261 00000262 00000263 00000264 00000265 00000266 00000267 00000268 00000269 00000270 00000271 00000272 00000273 00000274 00000275 00000276 00000277 00000278 00000279 00000280 00000281 00000282 00000283 00000284 00000285 00000286 00000287 /********************\ |* BUTTONS *| \********************/ private void btnNew_Click(object sender. if (!bw.Trained) { bw. } } } } private void btnTest_Click(object sender. EventArgs e) { if (network != null) { if (network.Trained) Page 89 of 225 .RunWorkerAsync(). EventArgs e) { new_network(). } private void btnTrain_Click(object sender. workingdialog. EventArgs e) { //Shouldn't be busy if the user managed to click this //but just make 100% certain.IsBusy) { if (network != null) { if (!network.

} Page 90 of 225 . if (network != null) { success = network.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000288 00000289 00000290 00000291 00000292 00000293 00000294 00000295 00000296 00000297 00000298 00000299 00000300 00000301 00000302 00000303 00000304 00000305 00000306 00000307 00000308 00000309 00000310 00000311 00000312 00000313 00000314 00000315 00000316 00000317 { if (!network.Clear(). txtOutput.Tested) { bool success = network.Test(). DoWorkEventArgs e) { bool success = true.SelectionStart = txtOutput.Length.Text.Refresh().Train(). } } } } } #endregion #region bg_worker /********************\ |* BG WORKER *| \********************/ private void bw_DoWork(object sender.ScrollToCaret(). if (success) { txtOutput.Text = network. txtOutput. txtOutput. txtOutput.ReportData.

ToString(). //Check for errors if (e. txtOutput.Error != null) { MessageBox.Clear(). txtOutput. "Error training network!". MessageBoxIcon. plotgraphsMSE(network.SelectionStart = txtOutput. MessageBoxButtons.Result. } private void bw_RunWorkerCompleted(object sender. if (success) { txtOutput. txtOutput. } Page 91 of 225 .OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000318 00000319 00000320 00000321 00000322 00000323 00000324 00000325 00000326 00000327 00000328 00000329 00000330 00000331 00000332 00000333 00000334 00000335 00000336 00000337 00000338 00000339 00000340 00000341 00000342 00000343 00000344 00000345 00000346 00000347 e.Show("Error during network train: " + e.Length. } success = (bool) e.Show("Error training network!".OK. MessageBoxButtons. "Error".Error).Text.ReportData.ScrollToCaret().Result = success. RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e) { bool success.Error. MessageBoxIcon. } else { MessageBox.Text = network.getGraphData()).Error).

Data.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 using using using using using using System. System.Collections. } #endregion } 9. System. Page 92 of 225 .3 .1.“Wiz1. EventArgs e) { //Run the new neural net wizard new_network().Generic.Hide(). System. } #endregion #region misc /********************\ |* MISC *| \********************/ private void FrmMain_Shown(object sender.Linq.ComponentModel. System.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000348 00000349 00000350 00000351 00000352 00000353 00000354 00000355 00000356 00000357 00000358 00000359 00000360 00000361 00000362 00000363 00000364 00000365 00000366 } //Remove the dialog locking out the main form //and showing that we're currently working workingdialog.1.Drawing. System.

using _05025397. FISHER. BP.NetworkUpdateEventArgs e). #endregion public partial class Wiz1 : Form { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ public delegate void NetworkUpdateHandler(object sender. namespace _05025397. using System. Classes.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 using System. private int Trainset.Controller { #region enums /********************\ |* ENUMS *| \********************/ enum Training { GA. Page 93 of 225 . enum Dataset { XOR. CC }.Text. public event NetworkUpdateHandler NetworkUpdated. private int algorithm. CUSTOM }.Windows.Forms.

} private void rBtnBackprop_CheckedChanged(object sender.Icon = Properties.Resources. Trainset = (int)Dataset. this.icon.XOR.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 #endregion data #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public Wiz1() { InitializeComponent(). algorithm = (int)Training. EventArgs e) Page 94 of 225 . } #endregion #region control_events /********************\ |* CONTROL EVENTS *| \********************/ #region buttons /********************\ |* BUTTONS *| \********************/ private void btnCancel_Click(object sender.Close(). EventArgs e) { this.GA.

Visible = false.Checked == true) { picAlg.Image = _05025397. lblBP.Visible = false. Page 95 of 225 . algorithm = (int)Training.Visible = true. lblCC.Resources. algorithm = (int)Training.CC. panCC.Visible = false.Visible = false.Visible = false.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 { if (rBtnBackprop.Visible = false. EventArgs e) { if (rBtnCascadeCorrelation.IMAGEBackProp.Resources.Visible = true. panGeneticAlgorithm.Checked == true) { picAlg. } } private void rBtnCascadeCorrelation_CheckedChanged(object sender.IMAGECascadeCorrelation. lblGA. panCC.Properties. lblBP.Visible = true. panGeneticAlgorithm.BP.Image = _05025397.Visible = false.Properties.Visible = false. panBackprop. lblCC. panBackprop. lblGA.Visible = true.

lblBP. panGeneticAlgorithm.Visible = false. EventArgs e) { if (rBtnGeneticAlgorithm.Properties.SelectedIndex > 0) { tabControl1.Image = _05025397.Visible = true.Checked == true) { picAlg.Visible = false. } } private void btnBack_Click(object sender.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 } } private void rBtnGeneticAlgorithm_CheckedChanged(object sender.SelectTab(tabControl1. } } private void btnNext_Click(object sender.IMAGEGeneticAlgorithm. lblGA. lblCC. EventArgs e) { if (tabControl1. panCC.GA.1).Resources. panBackprop. algorithm = (int)Training.Visible = true.Visible = false.SelectedIndex .Visible = false. EventArgs e) { Page 96 of 225 .

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 if (tabControl1.Verified) { Classes.GA_Terr. check.CC_ITerr. } else { VerifyData check = new VerifyData (algorithm.TrainingAlgorithm. check.Text.CC_Reports.Text. txtBP_EpochLimit.Checked. txtGA_PopSize. if (check.NetworkUpdateEventArgs (check.Text.Text. check.GA_HiddenL.GA_PopSize. txtBP_HiddenNodes.SelectedIndex < tabControl1.Text. check. check.GA_GenLimit. chkGA_IgnoreTarget. check.Text. check.NetworkUpdateEventArgs args = new Classes.Checked.Text.TabCount .SelectTab(tabControl1.Text.Text.Text. check.Text. txtCC_MaxNeurons.Text. CC_ITerr. txtGA_Terr.GA_Mutation.1) { tabControl1. txtBP_LearnRate. txtBP_Terr. txtGA_ProbM. txtCC_TargetError. Page 97 of 225 .BP_EpochLimit. check. Trainset). check.Text. check. txtGA_MaxGen.Text. txtGA_HiddenNodes. txtGA_ProbX.Checked. check.GA_Reports.BP_HiddenL.SelectedIndex + 1). txtCC_LearningRate. check.CC_Terr.GA_Crossover.Text.GA_ITerr. txtCC_Report.CC_LearningRate. check.Text. txtGA_Report. check.CC_MaxNeurons. chkBP_IgnoreTarget. txtBP_Report.

Checked) { picDataset.BP_Reports. EventArgs e) { if (chkDatasetFisher.BP_LearningRate.Resources. check.Image = _05025397. } } } #endregion #region checkboxes /********************\ |* CHECKBOXES *| \********************/ private void chkDatasetFisher_CheckedChanged(object sender.BP_Terr. args).FISHER. MessageBoxIcon.TrDataSet).IMAGEIrisFlowers.Properties.BP_ITerr.Exclamation). check.Show("Error Checking Data: Data could not be verified". Trainset = (int)Dataset.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 check. } } private void chkDatasetXOR_CheckedChanged(object sender.OK. check. check. this. MessageBoxButtons. NetworkUpdated(this. EventArgs e) Page 98 of 225 .Dispose(). } else { MessageBox. "Error Checking Data".

CUSTOM.IMAGEXOR. } } #endregion #region misc /********************\ |* MISC *| \********************/ private void tabControl1_SelectedIndexChanged(object sender. } Page 99 of 225 .Visible == true) { txtCC_TargetError.SelectedIndex == 1) { if (panCC.Resources. EventArgs e) { if (chkDatasetCustom.Image = _05025397. Trainset = (int)Dataset.Properties. EventArgs e) { if (tabControl1.XOR.Image = _05025397. Trainset = (int)Dataset.Properties.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 { if (chkDatasetXOR.IMAGEQuestionMark.Resources. } } private void chkDatasetCustom_CheckedChanged(object sender.Focus().Checked) { picDataset.Checked) { picDataset.

} #endregion #endregion } Page 100 of 225 . } } } private void Wiz1_Load(object sender.icon.SelectTab(0).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000217 00000218 00000219 00000220 00000221 00000222 00000223 00000224 00000225 00000226 00000227 00000228 00000229 00000230 00000231 00000232 00000233 00000234 00000235 00000236 } if (panBackprop.Icon = Properties.Resources. EventArgs e) { this.Visible == true) { txtBP_EpochLimit.Focus(). tabControl1.Visible == true) { txtGA_PopSize.Focus(). } if (panGeneticAlgorithm.

1.ComponentModel.“FrmAbout.Collections. namespace _05025397.Forms.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 using using using using using using using using System. } #endregion #region form /********************\ |* FORM *| \********************/ private void FrmAbout_Load(object sender.4 .Text. EventArgs e) { Page 101 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. System.Generic. System.Windows. System.Controller { public partial class FrmAbout : Form { #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public FrmAbout() { InitializeComponent(). System. System.Data.Drawing. System.Linq. System.1.

LinkLabelLinkClickedEventArgs e) Page 102 of 225 .Diagnostics. } catch { MessageBox.linkLabel1.Information).Text). } #endregion #region linklabels /********************\ |* LINKLABELS *| \********************/ private void linkLabel1_LinkClicked(object sender. MessageBoxButtons.OK.Icon = Properties. LinkLabelLinkClickedEventArgs e) { // Specify that the link was visited.LICENCE_LGPL21.Text = Application.Resources. MessageBoxIcon.". try { // Navigate to a URL. "Undefined Application".Show("No e-mail program defined. label5.LinkVisited = true.icon. } } private void linkLabel4_LinkClicked(object sender. textBox5.Process.Start("mailto:" + linkLabel1.ProductVersion. System.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 this.Text = Properties. this.Resources.

Start (linkLabel5. "Error". MessageBoxIcon.Text). MessageBoxButtons.Process. MessageBoxButtons.Show("Error opening link. } } private void linkLabel6_LinkClicked(object sender.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 { try { System. "Error".".Process. LinkLabelLinkClickedEventArgs e) Page 103 of 225 .Text).OK. } } private void linkLabel5_LinkClicked(object sender. MessageBoxIcon. } catch { MessageBox.Diagnostics.Error).Diagnostics.". LinkLabelLinkClickedEventArgs e) { try { System.Error).OK. } catch { MessageBox.Start (linkLabel4.Show("Error opening link.

Diagnostics.Start (linkLabel6. "Error". "Error".OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 { try { System. } catch { MessageBox.Show("Error opening link.co. MessageBoxIcon.". MessageBoxButtons.OK.Process. } catch { MessageBox. LinkLabelLinkClickedEventArgs e) Page 104 of 225 .".Start ("http://www. MessageBoxButtons. MessageBoxIcon.Process. } } private void linkLabel7_LinkClicked(object sender. LinkLabelLinkClickedEventArgs e) { try { System.Show("Error opening link.uk").Text).Error).snikks.Diagnostics.Error). } } private void linkLabel2_LinkClicked(object sender.

Show("Error opening link.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 { try { System.Diagnostics.Visible = false.Visible = false.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/lgpl-2.Start ("http://www. } } #endregion #region buttons /********************\ |* BUTTONS *| \********************/ private void btnDatasets_Click(object sender. tabControl1.Process. MessageBoxButtons.Visible = false.OK.Error). MessageBoxIcon. } catch { MessageBox.html").Visible != true) { groupBox1. pictureBox1. groupBox2.1. EventArgs e) { if (tabControl1.". } else Page 105 of 225 .Visible = true. "Error".

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 { groupBox1. groupBox2. pictureBox1.Visible = true.Visible = false.Visible = false.Visible != true) { groupBox2.Visible = false.Visible pictureBox1. tabControl1.Visible } } private void btnLicences_Click(object sender. } else { groupBox1. tabControl1.Visible = true.Visible = tabControl1. false. = true. EventArgs e) { this.Visible = true. } } private void btnOkay_Click(object sender. pictureBox1. } true. groupBox1. EventArgs e) { if (groupBox2.Visible = groupBox2. Page 106 of 225 . = false.Visible = false.Dispose().Visible = false.

Checked == true) textBox5. EventArgs e) { if (radioButton1.LICENCE_LGPL21. } private void radioButton3_CheckedChanged(object sender.Text = Properties.LICENCE_LGPL30.Checked == true) textBox5.Text = Properties.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 } #endregion #region radiobuttons /********************\ |* RADIOBUTTONS *| \********************/ private void radioButton1_CheckedChanged(object sender.Resources.LICENCE_GPL30. } private void radioButton2_CheckedChanged(object sender. EventArgs e) { if (radioButton2. EventArgs e) { if (radioButton3.Resources.Resources.Checked == true) textBox5. } #endregion } Page 107 of 225 .Text = Properties.

this.“Working.5 . namespace _05025397. System.Resources. System.Icon = Properties.Linq.Collections. System.Beep. System. System.1.icon.Data.Play().Controller { public partial class Working : Form { #region functions /********************\ |* FUNCTIONS *| \********************/ public Working() { InitializeComponent().Media.Forms.Generic. EventArgs e) { System. } #endregion } Page 108 of 225 .cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 using using using using using using using using System.SystemSounds.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. System.1.Drawing.ComponentModel. } private void Working_Click(object sender.Text. System.Windows.

System. namespace _05025397. System.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 using using using using using System.2.“VerifyData.Generic. //Dataset identifer //0 = XOR Page 109 of 225 . System.1 .Collections.1.2 . System.1.Controller { public class VerifyData { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //Dataverified variable private bool verified.Text.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 } 9.Linq.Windows. //Training Algorithm Identifier //1 = genetic algorith //2 = backprop //3 = cascade correlation private int trainingalg.Controller 9.Forms.

private int _GA_Reports. //BackProp private int _BP_EpochLimit. private int _CC_Reports. private int _CC_MaxNeurons. private double _BP_LearningRate. private int _GA_Mutation. private int _GA_GenLimit. private double _BP_Terr. private bool _BP_ITerr. private bool _GA_ITerr. private double _GA_Terr. #endregion Page 110 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 //1 = FISHERS IRIS DATA //2 = CUSTOM private int _TDataSet. private int _BP_Reports. private double _CC_LearningRate. private bool _CC_ITerr. //Cascade Correlation private double _CC_Terr. private int _GA_Crossover. private int _BP_HiddenL. //Genetic Algorithm private int _GA_PopSize. private int _GA_HiddenL.

string BPReports. string GACrossOver. string GAMutation. string BPTerr. //DataSet _TDataSet = TData_Set. string BPLearningRate. string CCMaxNeurons. if (_TDataSet != (int)Dataset. string GATerr. will be changed to //false if any data verification errors occur verified = true.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public VerifyData (int Algorithm. string BPHiddenL. string GAGenLimit. int TData_Set) { //Initially set to true.XOR && _TDataSet != Page 111 of 225 . string GAReports. string BPEpochLimit. string CCLearningRate. bool BPITerr. string CCTerr. string GAHiddenL. string GAPopSize. //Algorithm trainingalg = Algorithm. bool CCITerr. string CCReports. bool GAITerr.

FISHER && _TDataSet != (int)Dataset.CUSTOM) verified = false. if (verified) { if (trainingalg == 2) { try { //Cascade correlation _CC_Terr = Convert.ToInt32(CCMaxNeurons).Show ("Parsing Error: Please check supplied cascade" + "correlation data values". _CC_MaxNeurons = Convert. "Parsing Error".William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 (int)Dataset. MessageBoxButtons.OK.Error). MessageBoxIcon.ToInt32(CCReports). } } } Page 112 of 225 . verified = false.ToSingle(CCTerr). _CC_ITerr = CCITerr.ToSingle(CCLearningRate). _CC_Reports = Convert. } catch (FormatException) { MessageBox. _CC_LearningRate = Convert.

_GA_HiddenL = Convert.ToSingle(GATerr).OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 if (verified) { if (trainingalg == 0) { try { //Genetic algorithm _GA_PopSize = Convert.ToInt32(GAMutation).ToInt32(GAHiddenL).Error). } catch (FormatException) { MessageBox. _GA_GenLimit = Convert. MessageBoxIcon. _GA_Crossover = Convert. "Parsing Error". _GA_Terr = Convert. } } } if (verified) Page 113 of 225 .ToInt32(GACrossOver).ToInt32(GAPopSize).ToInt32(GAGenLimit). _GA_ITerr = GAITerr.ToInt32(GAReports). _GA_Reports = Convert. verified = false.Show ("Parsing Error: Please check supplied" +" genetic algorithm data values". _GA_Mutation = Convert. MessageBoxButtons.

Error). MessageBoxIcon.ToInt32(BPReports). } } } if (verified) { verified = checkforsanity(). MessageBoxButtons. _BP_Terr = Convert.Show ("Parsing Error: Please check " + "supplied back propagation data values". _BP_Reports = Convert.ToDouble(BPTerr). _BP_LearningRate = Convert.OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 { if (trainingalg == 1) { try { //Back-propagation _BP_EpochLimit = Convert. "Parsing Error". } Page 114 of 225 . _BP_HiddenL = Convert. } catch (FormatException) { MessageBox.ToInt32(BPHiddenL).ToDouble(BPLearningRate). verified = false. _BP_ITerr = BPITerr.ToInt32(BPEpochLimit).

} if (_GA_Mutation < 0 || _GA_Mutation > 100) { sanity = false. if (_GA_GenLimit < 1) sanity = false.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 } #endregion #region internal /********************\ |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private bool checkGAsanity() { bool sanity = true. Page 115 of 225 . if (_GA_PopSize < 3) sanity = false. } if (_GA_Terr < 0 || _GA_Terr > 1) sanity = false. if (_GA_Crossover < 0 || _GA_Crossover > 100) { sanity = false.

Show ("Sanity Check Fail: Please check supplied " + "genetic algorithm data values". if (_GA_HiddenL < 1) sanity = false. "Sanity Check Fail". return sanity. MessageBoxIcon. if (_BP_HiddenL < 1) sanity = false. if (!sanity) MessageBox. if (_BP_EpochLimit < 1) sanity = false.OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 00000217 00000218 00000219 00000220 00000221 00000222 00000223 00000224 00000225 00000226 00000227 00000228 00000229 00000230 00000231 00000232 00000233 00000234 00000235 if (_GA_Reports < 1 || _GA_Reports > _GA_GenLimit) sanity = false. Page 116 of 225 . if (_BP_Reports < 1 || _BP_Reports > _BP_EpochLimit) sanity = false. MessageBoxButtons. } private bool checkBPsanity() { bool sanity = true.Error).

MessageBoxButtons. if (_CC_MaxNeurons < 1) sanity = false. if (_CC_Terr < 0 || _CC_Terr > 1) sanity = false.OK. if (!sanity) MessageBox. if (_CC_Reports < 1 || _CC_Reports > _CC_MaxNeurons) sanity = false. "Sanity Check Fail". MessageBoxIcon.Show ("Sanity Check Fail: Please check supplied " + "back propagation data values". if (_BP_LearningRate < 0 || _BP_LearningRate > 1) sanity = false. return sanity. Page 117 of 225 . } private bool checkCCsanity() { bool sanity = true.Error).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000236 00000237 00000238 00000239 00000240 00000241 00000242 00000243 00000244 00000245 00000246 00000247 00000248 00000249 00000250 00000251 00000252 00000253 00000254 00000255 00000256 00000257 00000258 00000259 00000260 00000261 00000262 00000263 00000264 00000265 if (_BP_Terr < 0 || _BP_Terr > 1) sanity = false.

however I don't want to prevent any flexibility. } private bool checkforsanity() { //Some of the values that are allowed through here would not produce //good results . sanity = true. only //halt any values from proceeding that are so wrong they could cause //serious errors later down the line. return sanity. if they're greater than 1 but less than 100 scale them appropriately. MessageBoxButtons. if (!sanity) MessageBox.Error).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000266 00000267 00000268 00000269 00000270 00000271 00000272 00000273 00000274 00000275 00000276 00000277 00000278 00000279 00000280 00000281 00000282 00000283 00000284 00000285 00000286 00000287 00000288 00000289 00000290 00000291 00000292 00000293 00000294 00000295 if (_CC_LearningRate < 0 || _CC_LearningRate > 1) sanity = false.OK. // // // // // bool Basically we're making sure the data is clean before it goes anywhere near a DLL. MessageBoxIcon.Show ("Sanity Check Fail: Please check supplied " + "cascade correlation data values". "Sanity Check Fail". if (trainingalg < 0 || trainingalg > 2) Page 118 of 225 . We're also doing some very minor processing of the probability values.

Error). } } return sanity. MessageBoxButtons. } if (trainingalg == 1) { sanity = checkBPsanity(). } Page 119 of 225 . "Sanity Check Fail".William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000296 00000297 00000298 00000299 00000300 00000301 00000302 00000303 00000304 00000305 00000306 00000307 00000308 00000309 00000310 00000311 00000312 00000313 00000314 00000315 00000316 00000317 00000318 00000319 00000320 00000321 00000322 00000323 00000324 00000325 { sanity = false.OK.Show ("Sanity Check Fail: Training Algorithm not " + "selected or selected incorrectly". } if (sanity) { if (trainingalg == 0) { sanity = checkGAsanity(). MessageBox. } if (trainingalg == 2) { sanity = checkCCsanity(). MessageBoxIcon.

} } public int GA_Mutation Page 120 of 225 . } } public int GA_Crossover { get { return _GA_Crossover. } } public int CC_MaxNeurons { get { return _CC_MaxNeurons. } } #endregion #region genetic_algorithm //Genetic Algorithm public int GA_PopSize { get { return _GA_PopSize. } } public double CC_LearningRate { get { return _CC_LearningRate. } } public int GA_GenLimit { get { return _GA_GenLimit.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000326 00000327 00000328 00000329 00000330 00000331 00000332 00000333 00000334 00000335 00000336 00000337 00000338 00000339 00000340 00000341 00000342 00000343 00000344 00000345 00000346 00000347 00000348 00000349 00000350 00000351 00000352 00000353 00000354 00000355 #endregion #region getters/setters /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ #region cascade_correlation //Cascade Correlation public double CC_Terr { get { return _CC_Terr. } } public int CC_Reports { get { return _CC_Reports. } } public bool CC_ITerr { get { return _CC_ITerr.

} } public int BP_HiddenL { get { return _BP_HiddenL. } } public double BP_Terr { get { return _BP_Terr. } } #region back_propagation //Back propagation public int BP_EpochLimit { get { return _BP_EpochLimit. } } _GA_Terr. } } _GA_HiddenL. } } _GA_Reports. } } _GA_ITerr. } } #endregion #endregion #region external //Verification Page 121 of 225 . } } public bool BP_ITerr { get { return _BP_ITerr. } } public int BP_Reports { get { return _BP_Reports.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000356 00000357 00000358 00000359 00000360 00000361 00000362 00000363 00000364 00000365 00000366 00000367 00000368 00000369 00000370 00000371 00000372 00000373 00000374 00000375 00000376 00000377 00000378 00000379 00000380 00000381 00000382 00000383 00000384 00000385 { get { return public double GA_Terr { get { return public int GA_Reports { get { return public int GA_HiddenL { get { return public bool GA_ITerr { get { return #endregion _GA_Mutation. } } public double BP_LearningRate { get { return _BP_LearningRate.

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000386 00000387 00000388 00000389 00000390 00000391 00000392 00000393 00000394 00000395 00000396 00000397 00000398 } public bool Verified { get { return verified. } } //Dataset public int TrDataSet { get { return _TDataSet. } } //TrainingAlgorithm public int TrainingAlgorithm { get { return trainingalg. } } #endregion } Page 122 of 225 .

private string[] data.Collections. System.2 . private ArrayList altest.Text. namespace _05025397. System.“DatasetParser.Linq. private ArrayList troutputs.1.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 using using using using using using System.2. System. private string[] test.Collections.Controller { public class DatasetParser { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ private bool _Verified. Page 123 of 225 . private ArrayList teinputs. System.Windows.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. private ArrayList teoutputs. System.Generic.Forms. private ArrayList trinputs. private ArrayList aldata.

Trim(). '\r'.Replace("\r". private double Niterations.Text.Text. teinputs = new ArrayList(). txtTest.'.Text. RichTextBox txtTest) { //Data init bool Verified = true. #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public DatasetParser(RichTextBox txtData.Text = txtData. //Strip carriage returns and trim txtData. Page 124 of 225 .Text.Trim(). troutputs = new ArrayList(). ""). ""). '\t'. txtData.Text = txtTest.Text = txtData.' }. ' '. altest = new ArrayList(). char[] delimiterChars = { '\n'. aldata = new ArrayList(). private double Noutputs. txtTest. '.Text = txtTest. private double Ninputs. teoutputs = new ArrayList(). trinputs = new ArrayList(). '.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 //private Scaler scale.Replace("\r".

//Get the number of iterations. try { for (int i = 3.ToDouble(data[1]).Convert.Split(delimiterChars). Ninputs = System. //parse the data into appropriately //structured arrays Verified = parseTrainingData(). test = txtTest.Convert. i++) Page 125 of 225 . number of inputs //and number of outputs Niterations = System. _Verified = Verified.Split(delimiterChars). i < data.Text.ToDouble(data[2]). } #endregion #region internal_functions /********************\ |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private bool parseTrainingData() { bool success = true. Verified = parseTestingData().ToDouble(data[0]).Convert.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 //Split at the chars specified above data = txtData.Text. Noutputs = System.Length.

OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 { aldata.Show("Error parsing training data".RemoveAt(0).Count > 0) { for (int i = 0. } } } catch { MessageBox. i < Ninputs. i++) { trinputs. Page 126 of 225 . success = false.Add(aldata[0]). "Error". MessageBoxButtons. } return success. } private bool parseTestingData() { bool success = true. } while (aldata.RemoveAt(0).Add(System. aldata.Error). j < Noutputs.ToDouble(data[i])).Add(aldata[0]). aldata. } for (int j = 0. MessageBoxIcon.Convert. j++) { troutputs.

} while (altest. } for (int j = 0.ToDouble(data[i])). success = false.RemoveAt(0). "Error".Convert. MessageBoxButtons.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 try { for (int i = 3. i < data. i < Ninputs.Count > 0) { for (int i = 0.Error). i++) { teinputs.Show("Error parsing testing data".Add(altest[0]). } return success.Add(altest[0]).Add(System. MessageBoxIcon.Length. altest. } Page 127 of 225 .RemoveAt(0).OK. altest. j++) { teoutputs. j < Noutputs. i++) { altest. } } } catch { MessageBox.

for (int j = 0. k < Ninputs. for (int i = 0. Nout = Noutputs. i < (trinputs. l = 0.Count. j < trinputs.Count / (int)Ninputs).Count / (int)Noutputs). out double Ninp. out double Nout) { Ninp = Ninputs. troutputdata = new double[troutputs. j+=(int) Ninputs. l++) { for (int k = 0. k++) { Page 128 of 225 . for (int i = 0. i++) troutputdata[i] = new double[(int) Noutputs].William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 #endregion #region external_functions /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public void GetStructure(out double iter. i < (troutputs. i++) trinputdata[i] = new double[(int) Ninputs].Count / (int) Ninputs][]. iter = Niterations.Count / (int) Noutputs][]. } public void GetTrainingData (out double[][] trinputdata. out double[][] troutputdata) { trinputdata = new double[trinputs.

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 trinputdata[l][k] = (double) trinputs[j + } } for (int j = 0. k++) { troutputdata[l][k] = (double)troutputs[j + k]. k++) { teinputdata[l][k] = (double)teinputs[j + k]. k].Count / (int)Noutputs). l = 0. out double[][] teoutputdata) { teinputdata = new double[teinputs. Page 129 of 225 .Count. for (int i = 0. j < troutputs. l++) { for (int k = 0.Count / (int)Ninputs). j += (int)Ninputs. for (int j = 0. l++) { for (int k = 0. i < (teinputs. teoutputdata = new double[teoutputs. j += (int)Noutputs. for (int i = 0. i++) teinputdata[i] = new double[(int)Ninputs]. i < (teoutputs. j < teinputs. l = 0. } } } public void GetTestingData (out double[][] teinputdata.Count / (int)Ninputs][]. k < Ninputs. k < Noutputs.Count.Count / (int)Noutputs][]. i++) teoutputdata[i] = new double[(int)Noutputs].

l = 0. l++) { for (int k = 0. } public bool Verified { get { return _Verified. Page 130 of 225 . k < Noutputs.cs” 00000001 using System. teoutputdata = teoutputs.Count.1. } } } public void GetTestingDataAL (out ArrayList teinputdata. } } #endregion } 9. j += (int)Noutputs.“Algorithms\TrainingAlgorithm. j < teoutputs. k++) { teoutputdata[l][k] = (double)teoutputs[j + k].2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 00000217 00000218 00000219 00000220 00000221 00000222 00000223 00000224 00000225 00000226 00000227 00000228 00000229 00000230 00000231 00000232 00000233 00000234 00000235 00000236 } } } for (int j = 0. out ArrayList teoutputdata) { teinputdata = teinputs.3 .

Windows. System.Collections.Text. private string _ReportData. protected bool _Trained. private int _IterMax.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 using using using using using using System. System.Linq.Forms. ZedGraph.Controller. protected int CurIt. private int _ReportInterval. namespace _05025397. System. protected bool _ITerr.Algorithms { public abstract class TrainingAlgorithm { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ private double _TargetError.Generic. Page 131 of 225 . _05025397. protected bool _Tested. protected PointPairList BestErrList.

RichTextBox txtTest. _ITerr = ITerr. _IterMax = Iter_Max. RichTextBox txtData. txtTest). int Iter_Max.00. getdata = new DatasetParser(txtData. } #endregion Page 132 of 225 . protected DatasetParser getdata. if (_ITerr) _TargetError = -1. #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public TrainingAlgorithm(double Target_Error. int Reports. bool ITerr) { _TargetError = Target_Error. so the //network will loop to completion. _ReportInterval = Reports.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 protected Random Rand = new Random(). BestErrList = new PointPairList(). //If the ignore target error is true //then set the target error to -1.0 //this is impossible to reach.

} } Page 133 of 225 . } #endregion #region external /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public abstract bool Train(). } public double TargetError { set { _TargetError = value. public PointPairList getGraphData() { return BestErrList. } get { return _TargetError. public abstract string network_details().William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 #region internal /********************\ |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ protected void Report(string output) { _ReportData += output. public abstract bool Test().

} } public int IterMax { get { return _IterMax. } } public string ReportData { get { return _ReportData. } } public bool Trained { get { return _Trained. } set { _Trained = value. } } public bool Tested { get { return _Tested. } } #endregion } Page 134 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 } public int ReportInterval { get { return _ReportInterval.

Forms.4 .“Algorithms\CascadeCorrelation.Text. System.Controller.1. FANN_Wrapper. System. System. FANN_Cascade CCNet.Collections.Windows.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 using using using using using using using using using using System.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9.Linq. System.IO. ZedGraph. private double _OutputL.Generic. System.Collections. _05025397. private double _LearnRate. #endregion #region constructor Page 135 of 225 .2. namespace _05025397.Algorithms { public class CascadeCorrelation : TrainingAlgorithm { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ private double _InputL. System.

bool ITerr. getdata. RichTextBox te) { Page 136 of 225 . RichTextBox txtData. int Reports.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public CascadeCorrelation(double LearnRate. base. double TargetError. base. base. Iter_Max. saveDllData(txtData.ReportInterval. int Iter_Max.IterMax). (int)_OutputL. } #endregion #region internal_functions /********************\ |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private void saveDllData(RichTextBox tr. txtData. double iterations. _LearnRate. CCNet = new FANN_Cascade((int)_InputL.GetStructure(out iterations. Reports. ITerr) { _LearnRate = LearnRate. out _InputL. RichTextBox txtTest) : base(TargetError. txtTest. out _OutputL). txtTest).TargetError.

Append( string.Append( string.00000}". tw = new StreamWriter("dlltedata. (int)_InputL)). tw.Close().Format ("\nLearning Rate: {0:0. tw.Format ("Network Details: \n Input Layer: {0:d}".Format ("\t\t\t\t\tOutput Layer: {0:d}". tw. _LearnRate)).Write(te. tw.dat").Text).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 TextWriter tw = new StreamWriter("dlltrdata.Text). output.Append( string. output. output.Write(tr. } #endregion #region external_functions /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public override string network_details() { StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder(). output.dat").Close(). (int)_OutputL)).Append( Page 137 of 225 .

ToString().Format ("\t\tMaximum Nodes: {0:d}". } catch { Page 138 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 string. base. return output. output. } public override bool Train() { bool success = true.". try { success = CCNet.00000}".IterMax)).TargetError)).Append( string. base.Append( string.Format ("\t\t\tTarget Error: {0:0.ReportInterval)).Format ("\t\t\t\t\t\tIgnore target error " + "(process all iterations): {0}".Format ("\nReport every {0:d} generations._tr_output). Report(CCNet. _ITerr)).Append( string. base.Train(). output. output.

i++) { base. i < besterrlist.OK. try { double[] besterrlist = CCNet.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 MessageBox. } success = getGraphDataFromDll(). base. for (int i = 0. return success. MessageBoxIcon.Add((double)i.besterrorlist.Length. } Page 139 of 225 . } } catch { MessageBox.Show("Error running Cascade training!".Error). } public bool getGraphDataFromDll() { bool success = true. "Error"._Trained = success. "Error".BestErrList.Error). MessageBoxButtons.Show("Error getting graph data from DLL". MessageBoxButtons. MessageBoxIcon. success = false. success = false.OK. besterrlist[i]).

Error). } #endregion } Page 140 of 225 . success = false. } base.Show("Error running Cascade testing!".William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 } return success. } public override bool Test() { bool success = true. return success. Report(CCNet._Tested = success. } catch { MessageBox. MessageBoxButtons.Test(). "Error". MessageBoxIcon._te_output). try { success = CCNet.OK.

System. ZedGraph.Collections.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9.5 .Windows. private int _HiddenL. //Network Data private double _InputL.Algorithms { public class GeneticAlgorithm : TrainingAlgorithm { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //GA Data private int _PopSize.1.Controller.Linq. private double _OutputL.Forms. private int _Crossover.“Algorithms\GeneticAlgorithm. System.Collections.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 using using using using using using using using System. System.2. System. namespace _05025397. _05025397.Text. //Population Page 141 of 225 . System.Generic. private int _Mutation.

out _InputL. RichTextBox txtTest) : base(TargetError. out _OutputL). bool ITerr. _Mutation = Mutation. txtData. //Init Network params double iterations. int HiddenL. ITerr) { _PopSize = PopSize. #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public GeneticAlgorithm(int PopSize. txtTest. RichTextBox txtData. _Crossover = Crossover.GetStructure(out iterations. //Create new population references Population = new ArrayList(_PopSize).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 ArrayList Population. for (int i = 0. int Crossover. int Mutation. int Reports. _HiddenL = HiddenL. i++) { Population.Add Page 142 of 225 . double TargetError. getdata. int Iter_Max. Reports. Iter_Max. i < _PopSize.

Page 143 of 225 . } //Sort the functions according to fitness now. for (int i = 0. success = sort_fitnesses(). i < base. getdata. i++) { //Get the msqe for (int j = 0.getMsQE(inputs.GANetwork) Population[j]). Rand.GANetwork( (int)_InputL. double[][] results.IterMax. double[][] inputs. _HiddenL. } } #endregion #region internal_functions /********************\ |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private bool run() { bool success = true. j++) { ((Model. results).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 (new Model.GetScaledTrainingData(out inputs. out results).Next())). j < _PopSize. (int)_OutputL.

MSqE).\n"). break.").CurIt++. base.MSqE <= base.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 //Report if we're at a report iteration //Also update the besterrlist (for graphing) if (base.Report("Best error at iteration [ " + i + " ] was " + ((Model. } private bool sort_fitnesses() { Page 144 of 225 . } base.MSqE + ".Add ((double)i.GANetwork)Population[0]). } success = build_generation(). } return success.TargetError) { Report("\nNetwork matching or improving upon target error"+ "found at iteration [ " + i + " ]. ((Model.GANetwork)Population[0]).CurIt = 0. base.CurIt == ReportInterval) { base.GANetwork)Population[0]). //Check for having reached the target if (((Model.BestErrList.

1). try { Population. } private bool build_generation() { bool success = true. double[] weightarray2. int selection1.OK. i > (int)(_PopSize / 2). i--) { //This algorithm is altered from previous versions. selection2. for (int i = (_PopSize . MessageBoxButtons.Show("Error sorting population". double[] weightarray1. MessageBoxIcon. } catch { MessageBox. } return success. success = false. double[] weightarray_f.Sort(). "Error".Error).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 bool success = true. //It selects two points from the start of the population //Then applies crossover if necessary (based on probability) Page 145 of 225 .

MessageBoxIcon.GANetwork)Population[selection1]). weightarray1 = ((Model. //Then it replaces the last position in the population //(ie. selection1 = Rand. the least fit) with this new string. all the way to the middle of the population. if (Rand.Length != weightarray2. MessageBoxButtons.getWeights(). weightarray2 = ((Model.Error). and //so on.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 //applies mutation if necessary (same again) //then if neither mutation or Xover have been applied //chooses position 1 or 2.Next((int)_PopSize / 2). "Error". //Next iteration it replaces the next to last. success = false.GANetwork)Population[selection1]).getWeights().".Show("Error: 2D weight array length unequal.OK.Next(100) < _Crossover) { //Choose a random position in the weight array //to be our crossover point Page 146 of 225 . selection2 = Rand. } try { weightarray_f = new double[weightarray1.Length) { MessageBox. //Just a quick error check if (weightarray1.Length].Next((int)_PopSize / 2).

GANetwork)Population[i]).5. } } //Set the weights of the current member of the //population we're on ((Model. j < weightarray_f.Length. } Page 147 of 225 . j++) { if (j < XPos) { weightarray_f[j] = weightarray1[j]. j++) { weightarray_f[j] += Rand. } } } if (Rand.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 int XPos = Rand. (weightarray1. } else { weightarray_f[j] = weightarray2[j].NextDouble() .Length .Length.Next(100) < _Mutation) { //Jiggle the weights in the array //up or down by 0.setWeights(weightarray_f). //Simple single point crossover of the weights for (int j = 0.5 for (int j = 0. j < weightarray1.Next(1.0.1)).

} } return success.Show("Error building new generation". success = false. output.Append( Page 148 of 225 .Format("\t\t\tCrossover Probability: {0:d}". output.Append( string.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 00000217 00000218 00000219 00000220 00000221 00000222 00000223 00000224 00000225 00000226 00000227 00000228 00000229 00000230 00000231 00000232 00000233 00000234 00000235 00000236 00000237 00000238 00000239 catch { MessageBox. MessageBoxButtons. _PopSize)).Append( string.OK. output.Format("Network Details: \n Population: {0:d}". _Crossover)).Error). MessageBoxIcon. output. _Mutation)).Append( string. "Error". } #endregion #region external_functions /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public override string network_details() { //Add stringbuilder for efficiency here StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder().Format("\t\t\tMutation Probability: {0:d}".

".ToString().Format("\nHidden layer: {0:d}".Format("\t\t\tMaximum Generation: {0:d}".Append( string. success = run(). output. } public override bool Test() Page 149 of 225 .Format("\nReport every {0:d} generations. _HiddenL)). base.IterMax)).Append( string.TargetError)). output.Append( string. base.00000}". base.Format("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tIgnore target error (process all iterations): {0}". return success. output. output. base.Format("\t\t\tTarget Error: {0:0.Append( string. return output.ReportInterval)).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000240 00000241 00000242 00000243 00000244 00000245 00000246 00000247 00000248 00000249 00000250 00000251 00000252 00000253 00000254 00000255 00000256 00000257 00000258 00000259 00000260 00000261 00000262 00000263 00000264 00000265 00000266 00000267 00000268 00000269 string. } public override bool Train() { bool success = true._Trained = success. _ITerr)).

Format(" [{0:g}] ". StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder(). for (int j = 0.Append("\nOutput achieved was:"). j < tstinput[i]. double[] netoutput. Page 150 of 225 . try { for (int i = 0. j++) { output. output.Length.Append(string.Run(tstinput[i]). double[][] tstoutput. i++) { ((Model. j++) { output. tstinput[i][j])).Format(" [{0:g}] ". for (int j = 0.Length.Append("\nWith inputs:"). out tstoutput). getdata. } output.Length. netoutput = ((Model. output.GANetwork)Population[0]). i < tstinput.GetOutput(). netoutput[j])).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000270 00000271 00000272 00000273 00000274 00000275 00000276 00000277 00000278 00000279 00000280 00000281 00000282 00000283 00000284 00000285 00000286 00000287 00000288 00000289 00000290 00000291 00000292 00000293 00000294 00000295 00000296 00000297 00000298 00000299 { bool success = true. j < netoutput.Append("\n\n\t\t\t~~Network Testing~~").GetScaledTestingData(out tstinput.Append(string.GANetwork)Population[0]). double[][] tstinput.

output. } base. j < tstoutput[i]. MessageBoxIcon.Show("Error Running Test.Append("\nOutput Desired was:").getMsQE(tstinput.GANetwork)Population[0]).Append(string. } catch { MessageBox. } } output.OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000300 00000301 00000302 00000303 00000304 00000305 00000306 00000307 00000308 00000309 00000310 00000311 00000312 00000313 00000314 00000315 00000316 00000317 00000318 00000319 00000320 00000321 00000322 00000323 00000324 00000325 00000326 00000327 00000328 } } output. for (int j = 0. return success.". tstoutput[i][j])).MSqE)).GANetwork)Population[0]). "Error"._Tested = success. base.ToString()). j++) { output. (double) ((Model. ((Model.Append( string.Append("\nMean Squared Error with these inputs and outputs is:").Format ("{0:g}". } #endregion } Page 151 of 225 .Length.tstoutput). MessageBoxButtons.Format(" [{0:g}] ".Report(output.Error). success = false.

System. private int _HiddenL.1. _05025397.Controller.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. private double _LearnRate.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 using using using using using using using using using using System.Generic.Collections.Windows.2.6 .Forms. System. System. namespace _05025397. System.“Algorithms\BackProp. System. System. ZedGraph.IO. FANN_Wrapper.Linq. FANN_BackProp BPnet.Text. #endregion #region constructor Page 152 of 225 . private double _OutputL.Algorithms { public class BackProp : TrainingAlgorithm { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ private double _InputL.Collections.

saveDllData(txtData. double iterations. base. double TargetError. bool ITerr. RichTextBox txtTest) : base(TargetError.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public BackProp (int HiddenL. out _InputL. double LearnRate. int Iter_Max. } #endregion #region internal_functions /********************\ Page 153 of 225 . Reports. getdata. int Reports. BPnet = new FANN_BackProp((int)_InputL. Iter_Max.ReportInterval. txtTest. RichTextBox txtData.GetStructure(out iterations. (int)_OutputL. _LearnRate = LearnRate. txtData. //Copy the training and testing data to the dat files //ready for the DLL's to access. HiddenL. base. out _OutputL). ITerr) { _HiddenL = HiddenL. _LearnRate.TargetError. base. txtTest).IterMax).

(int) _OutputL)). tw.Close().Text).Append( string.Write(te.dat"). output.Close().Text). output. (int) _InputL)).dat"). RichTextBox te) { TextWriter tw = new StreamWriter("dlltrdata. } #endregion #region external_functions /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public override string network_details() { StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder(). tw. tw = new StreamWriter("dlltedata.Format ("\t\t\tOutput Layer: {0:d}". tw.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private void saveDllData(RichTextBox tr. output.Write(tr. tw.Append( Page 154 of 225 .Append( string.Format ("Network Details: \n Input Layer: {0:d}".

Format ("\t\t\tTarget Error: {0:0.Format ("\nLearning Rate: {0:0. base.00000}". (int) _HiddenL)).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 string.Format ("\t\tMaximum Epoch: {0:d}".ToString(). return output. _LearnRate)).ReportInterval)). output.Append( string.Format ("\t\t\tHidden Layer: {0:d}".Append( string. } public override bool Train() { Page 155 of 225 .Append( string. _ITerr)).Append( string.Format ("\nReport every {0:d} generations. output.IterMax)).Append( string. base.TargetError)).". output.Format ("\t\t\t\t\t\tIgnore target error " + "(process all iterations): {0}". output. base.00000}". output.

for (int i = 0. besterrlist[i])._tr_output).Add((double)i. try { double[] besterrlist = BPnet. Page 156 of 225 . } catch { MessageBox. } public bool getGraphDataFromDll() { bool success = true.Train(). return success. Report(BPnet. } success = getGraphDataFromDll(). i++) { base.Error).Length. base. try { success = BPnet.Show("Error running Backprop training!".besterrorlist. i < besterrlist. MessageBoxIcon.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 bool success = true. "Error".OK. MessageBoxButtons. success = false._Trained = success.BestErrList.

MessageBoxIcon.Error). success = false. MessageBoxButtons. } base. } return success.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 } } catch { MessageBox. "Error". success = false.Show("Error getting graph data from DLL".OK. return success. try { success = BPnet. MessageBoxButtons. MessageBoxIcon.Show("Error running Backprop testing!". "Error".OK._te_output).Error).Test(). Report(BPnet._Tested = success. } public override bool Test() { bool success = true. } catch { MessageBox. } #endregion Page 157 of 225 .

Text. _05025397.Collections.Model { public class Network { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //[layer][node][input] protected double[][][] _inputs.cs” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 using using using using using using System. System.3 .“Network.Generic. System.1.1 . protected int _numinputs. protected double[][] _outputs.Windows. protected double[][][] _weights.Forms.1. System.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000180 00000181 } } 9. System. namespace _05025397.Linq. Page 158 of 225 .Model 9. protected int _hiddennodes.3. protected int _numoutputs.

i < _numinputs. for (int i = 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 protected Random Rand. _weights[1] = new double[_hiddennodes][]. for (int i = 0. i < _hiddennodes. _weights[0] = new double[_numinputs][]. Page 159 of 225 . _weights[0][i] = new double[2]. i++) { _inputs[1][i] = new double[_numinputs + 1]. _outputs[0] = new double[_numinputs]. } } private void init_hiddenlayer() { _inputs[1] = new double[_hiddennodes][]. #endregion #region init /********************\ |* INIT *| \********************/ private void init_inputlayer() { _inputs[0] = new double[_numinputs][]. i++) { _inputs[0][i] = new double[2]. _weights[1][i] = new double[_numinputs + 1]. _outputs[1] = new double[_hiddennodes].

i < _hiddennodes.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 } } private void init_outputlayer() { _inputs[2] = new double[_numoutputs][]. _weights[1][i][_numinputs] = 1. } } private void init_bias() { //Input bias for (int i = 0. _outputs[2] = new double[_numoutputs]. _weights[0][i][1] = 1. i < _numoutputs. i++) { _inputs[2][i] = new double[_hiddennodes + 1].0. } //Hidden layer bias for (int i = 0. i++) { _inputs[0][i][1] = 1. i < _numinputs. i++) { _inputs[1][i][_numinputs] = 1. Page 160 of 225 . _weights[2][i] = new double[_hiddennodes + 1]. for (int i = 0. _weights[2] = new double[_numoutputs][].0.0.0.

} } } private void init_outputweights() Page 161 of 225 . i < _numoutputs.0.NextDouble(). _weights[2][i][_hiddennodes] = 1. } } private void init_inputweights() { for (int i = 0. i++) { for (int j = 0. j < _numinputs.0. i < _numinputs. j++) { _weights[1][i][j] = Rand. i++) { _inputs[2][i][_hiddennodes] = 1. } } private void init_hiddenweights() { for (int i = 0. i < _hiddennodes.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 } //Output layer bias for (int i = 0. i++) { _weights[0][i][0] = Rand.NextDouble().

try { //Calculate results for this layer for (int i = 0. } private bool Runinput() { bool success = true.Pow(Math. j++) { _weights[2][i][j] = Rand. -input))).NextDouble(). i++) { Page 162 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 { for (int i = 0. j < _hiddennodes.E. i < _numoutputs. i++) { for (int j = 0.0. i < _numinputs. double sum = 0. } } } #endregion #region internal /********************\ |* INTERNAL *| \********************/ private double sigmoid(double input) { return (1 / (1 + Math.

try { //Feed forward the results from input layer for (int i = 0. MessageBoxIcon. sum = 0.0. Page 163 of 225 . j < 2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 for (int j = 0. } } catch { MessageBox. i < _hiddennodes. success = false. "Error". MessageBoxButtons. j++) { sum += (_inputs[0][i][j] * _weights[0][i][j]).0.Error). } _outputs[0][i] = sigmoid(sum).Show("Error processing input layer". } private bool Runhidden() { bool success = true. j++) { _inputs[1][i][j] = _outputs[0][j]. } return success. j < _numinputs. double sum = 0.OK. i++) { for (int j = 0.

Error). } _outputs[1][i] = sigmoid(sum). j++) { sum += (_inputs[1][i][j] * _weights[1][i][j]).Show("Error processing hidden layer". try Page 164 of 225 . } } catch { MessageBox.0. i++) { for (int j = 0. "Error".0. MessageBoxIcon.OK. j < _numinputs + 1. double sum = 0. MessageBoxButtons. } return success. success = false. i < _hiddennodes. sum = 0. } private bool Runoutput() { bool success = true.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 } } //Calculate results for this layer for (int i = 0.

} } catch { MessageBox. j < _hiddennodes. success = false. } return success.Show("Error processing output layer". i++) { for (int j = 0. sum = 0. "Error". MessageBoxIcon.Error). j < _hiddennodes + 1. } } //Calculate results for this layer for (int i = 0. j++) { sum += (_inputs[2][i][j] * _weights[2][i][j]). j++) { _inputs[2][i][j] = _outputs[1][j]. MessageBoxButtons. } Page 165 of 225 . i < _numoutputs. i++) { for (int j = 0. } _outputs[2][i] = sigmoid(sum).0. i < _numoutputs.OK.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 00000217 00000218 00000219 00000220 00000221 00000222 00000223 00000224 00000225 00000226 00000227 00000228 00000229 00000230 00000231 00000232 00000233 00000234 { //Feed forward the results from hidden layer for (int i = 0.

MessageBoxButtons. if(success) success = Runinput(). success = false.Error). //The numbers of inputs must match up if (inputs. } if (success) for (int i = 0. Page 166 of 225 .Show("Error: Incorrect number of inputs supplied to NN". _inputs[0][i][0] = inputs[i].Length != _numinputs) { MessageBox.OK. i < _numinputs.the number of nodes corresponds //to the number of inputs accepted. i++) //Each input node has only one real input //and a bias . "Incorrect number of inputs". MessageBoxIcon. if(success) success = Runhidden().William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000235 00000236 00000237 00000238 00000239 00000240 00000241 00000242 00000243 00000244 00000245 00000246 00000247 00000248 00000249 00000250 00000251 00000252 00000253 00000254 00000255 00000256 00000257 00000258 00000259 00000260 00000261 00000262 00000263 00000264 #endregion #region external /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public bool Run(double[] inputs) { bool success = true.

//Set network structure descriptors _numinputs = numinputs. return success. } public double[] GetOutput() { //Return the outputs from the //output layer return _outputs[2]. } #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public Network(int numinputs. int SetRandom) { //Set random number generator Rand = new Random(SetRandom). int numoutputs. int hiddennodes.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000265 00000266 00000267 00000268 00000269 00000270 00000271 00000272 00000273 00000274 00000275 00000276 00000277 00000278 00000279 00000280 00000281 00000282 00000283 00000284 00000285 00000286 00000287 00000288 00000289 00000290 00000291 00000292 00000293 00000294 if(success) success = Runoutput(). //We'll always have 3 layers Page 167 of 225 . _hiddennodes = hiddennodes. _numoutputs = numoutputs.

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000295 00000296 00000297 00000298 00000299 00000300 00000301 00000302 00000303 00000304 00000305 00000306 00000307 00000308 00000309 00000310 } //Input, Hidden, and Output _inputs = new double[3][][]; _weights = new double[3][][]; _outputs = new double[3][]; init_inputlayer(); init_hiddenlayer(); init_outputlayer(); init_bias(); init_inputweights(); init_hiddenweights(); init_outputweights(); } #endregion }

9.1.3.2 - “GANetwork.cs”
00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 using using using using using using using System; System.Collections.Generic; System.Linq; System.Text; System.Windows.Forms; _05025397; System.Collections;

//This class contains Genetic Algorithm specific functions //in addition to the basic feed foward neural net functionality. namespace _05025397.Model

Page 168 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000013 { 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042

public class GANetwork : Network, IComparable { #region data /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ double _MSqE; #endregion #region .NET /********************\ |* .NET *| \********************/ //Interface_Implementation //Return Value Meanings: //-<Zero: x < y //-Zero: x == y //->Zero: x > y public int CompareTo(object a) { GANetwork b; if (a is GANetwork) { b = a as GANetwork; return _MSqE.CompareTo(b.MSqE); }

Page 169 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 return 0; } #endregion #region external /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ public void getMsQE(double[][] inputs, double[][] outputs) { double sum = 0.0; int counter = 0; double[] netoutputs = new double[_numoutputs]; for (int i = 0; i < inputs.Length; i++) { base.Run(inputs[i]); netoutputs = base.GetOutput(); for (int j = 0; j < netoutputs.Length; j++) { sum += (outputs[i][j] - netoutputs[j]) * (outputs[i][j] - netoutputs[j]); counter++; } } _MSqE = (sum / counter); }

Page 170 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 public double[] getWeights() { ArrayList collater = new ArrayList(); //Collect all the weights in an array list //then spit them out as a 1D array of doubles try { for (int i = 0; i < _weights.Length; i++) { for (int j = 0; j < _weights[i].Length; j++) { for (int k = 0; k < _weights[i][j].Length; k++) { collater.Add(_weights[i][j][k]); } } } } catch { MessageBox.Show("Fatal Error collating weights to 1D array", "Error", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error); Application.Exit(); } return (double[])collater.ToArray(typeof(double)); } public void setWeights(double[] weights)

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OK. i++) { for (int j = 0. k++. j < _weights[i]. MessageBoxButtons.Length. Application.Length. } } /********************\ |* GETTERS/SETTERS *| \********************/ public double MSqE { Page 172 of 225 . MessageBoxIcon.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 { //Take a 1D array of doubles and apply //to the correct positions in our weights //array try { for (int i = 0. i < _weights. } } } } catch { MessageBox.Error).Show("Fatal Error adding 1D weight array to 3D weight array".Exit(). j++) { for (int k = 0. wc = 0. k < _weights[i][j]. wc++) { _weights[i][j][k] = weights[wc]. "Error".Length.

} } #endregion #region constructor /********************\ |* CONSTRUCTOR *| \********************/ public GANetwork(int Ninputs. } #endregion } Page 173 of 225 .0. Nhnodes. } set { _MSqE = value. int Nhnodes. Noutputs.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 00000150 00000151 } get { return _MSqE. SetRandom) { MSqE = 0. int Noutputs. int SetRandom) : base(Ninputs.

int OutputL.1.h" using namespace System.“FANN_Wrapper. double TargetErr.h" #include "UnManaged_FANN_CasC.4. public: /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ FANN_Cascade(int InputL. using namespace System::Runtime::InteropServices. double LearnRate.4 . Page 174 of 225 .DLL Wrapper for FANN functions 9.h” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 #pragma once #include "UnManaged_FANN_BackProp.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9.1. { public: /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ UnManaged_FANN_CasC* UMWrapper. namespace FANN_Wrapper { public ref class FANN_Cascade //Managed wrapper for UnManaged_FANN_CasC //which is a C++ interface to the C programmed //FANN dll.1 .

int ~FANN_Cascade(void). public: /********************\ |* GETTERS/SETTERS *| \********************/ property String^ _te_output { String^ get() { return gcnew String((wchar_t *) UMWrapper->get_report_test()). bool Test(void). bool Train(void). } } property array<double>^ besterrorlist { array<double>^ get() MaxNeurons). Page 175 of 225 . } } property String^ _tr_output { String^ get() { return gcnew String((wchar_t *) UMWrapper->get_report_train()).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000027 00000028 00000029 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 int ReportInterval. !FANN_Cascade(void).

{ public: /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ UnManaged_FANN_Backprop* UMWrapper. i < size. const double *ar = UMWrapper->get_besterrs(size). public: Page 176 of 225 . array<double>^ arout = gcnew array<double>(size). } } }.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000057 00000058 00000059 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 { int size. public ref class FANN_BackProp //Managed wrapper for UnManaged_FANN_Backprop //which is a C++ interface to the C programmed //FANN dll. } return arout. i++) { arout[i] = ar[i]. for(int i = 0.

double LearnRate. double TargetErr.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000087 00000088 00000089 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 /********************\ |* EXTERNAL *| \********************/ FANN_BackProp(int InputL. } Page 177 of 225 . !FANN_BackProp(void). int HiddenL. int OutputL. } } property String^ _tr_output { String^ get() { return gcnew String((wchar_t *) UMWrapper->get_report_train()). int MaximumIteration). public: /********************\ |* GETTERS/SETTERS *| \********************/ property String^ _te_output { String^ get() { return gcnew String((wchar_t *) UMWrapper->get_report_test()). bool Test(void). ~FANN_BackProp(void). int ReportInterval. bool Train(void).

const double *ar = UMWrapper->get_besterrs(size). i < size. i++) { arout[i] = ar[i]. for(int i = 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000117 00000118 00000119 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 } } property array<double>^ besterrorlist { array<double>^ get() { int size. Page 178 of 225 . array<double>^ arout = gcnew array<double>(size). } return arout. } } }.

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3

9.1.4.2 - “FANN_Wrapper.cpp”
00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 #include "stdafx.h" #include "FANN_Wrapper.h" namespace FANN_Wrapper { /********************\ |* FANN_BackProp *| \********************/ //Constructor FANN_BackProp::FANN_BackProp(int InputL, int HiddenL, int OutputL, double LearnRate, double TargetErr, int ReportInterval, int MaximumIteration) { UMWrapper = new UnManaged_FANN_Backprop( InputL, HiddenL, OutputL, LearnRate, TargetErr, ReportInterval, MaximumIteration); } //Destructor FANN_BackProp::~FANN_BackProp(void) { if (UMWrapper) { delete UMWrapper; UMWrapper = 0; } }

Page 179 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059

//Finalizer FANN_BackProp::!FANN_BackProp(void) { if (UMWrapper) { delete UMWrapper; UMWrapper = 0; } }

//Train bool FANN_BackProp::Train(void) { return UMWrapper->Train(); } //Test bool FANN_BackProp::Test(void) { return UMWrapper->Test(); } /********************\ |* FANN_Cascade *| \********************/ //Constructor FANN_Cascade::FANN_Cascade(int InputL, int OutputL,

Page 180 of 225

William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 double LearnRate, double TargetErr, int ReportInterval, int MaxNeurons) { UMWrapper = new UnManaged_FANN_CasC( InputL, OutputL, LearnRate, TargetErr, ReportInterval, MaxNeurons); } //Destructor FANN_Cascade::~FANN_Cascade(void) { if (UMWrapper) { delete UMWrapper; UMWrapper = 0; } } //Finalizer FANN_Cascade::!FANN_Cascade(void) { if (UMWrapper) { delete UMWrapper; UMWrapper = 0; } } //Train

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William Sayers

05025397

Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
Milestone 3
00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 } bool FANN_Cascade::Train(void) { return UMWrapper->Train(); } //Test bool FANN_Cascade::Test(void) { return UMWrapper->Test(); }

Page 182 of 225

double _Momentum. //Output for C# Page 183 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9.h> class UnManaged_FANN_Backprop //An interface to the C programmed //FANN dll. int _MaximumIteration.4. int _OutputL.“UnManaged_FANN_BackProp. int _HiddenL. { private: /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //Network Structure int _InputL.h” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 #pragma once #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <sstream> #include <vector> #include <doublefann. int _ReportInterval.h> #include <fann_cpp. double _TargetErr. //Training Parameters double _LearnRate.1.3 .

00000047 double LearnRate. 00000036 00000037 //FANN Data 00000038 struct fann *ann. 00000032 wchar_t *wchoutput. int OutputL. 00000048 int ReportInterval. int HiddenL. 00000052 00000053 //Interface functions 00000054 //accessed from C# 00000055 bool Train(void). 00000035 double *bsterr. 00000056 bool Test(void). 00000039 struct fann_train_data *data. 00000033 00000034 std::vector<double> vecbsterr. 00000057 00000058 public: 00000059 /********************\ Page 184 of 225 . int MaximumIteration).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 std::wstringstream tr_output. double TargetErr. 00000049 00000050 //Destructor 00000051 ~UnManaged_FANN_Backprop(void). 00000031 std::wstringstream te_output. 00000040 00000041 public: 00000042 /********************\ 00000043 |* EXTERNAL *| 00000044 \********************/ 00000045 //Constructor 00000046 UnManaged_FANN_Backprop(int InputL.

const wchar_t* get_report_test(void). |* GETTERS/SETTERS *| \********************/ const wchar_t* get_report_train(void). const double* get_besterrs(int &size). Page 185 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 }.

_OutputL = OutputL. ann = NULL. data = NULL. int MaximumIteration) { _InputL = InputL. _LearnRate = LearnRate.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. int HiddenL.cpp” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 #include "StdAfx. wchoutput = NULL. _TargetErr = TargetErr.4. double TargetErr.h" //Constructor UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::UnManaged_FANN_Backprop (int InputL. Page 186 of 225 .4 .“UnManaged_FANN_BackProp. bsterr = NULL. _MaximumIteration = MaximumIteration. _HiddenL = HiddenL. int ReportInterval. _ReportInterval = ReportInterval. int OutputL. } //Destructor UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::~UnManaged_FANN_Backprop() { fann_destroy_train(data).h" #include "UnManaged_FANN_BackProp. double LearnRate.1.

delete wchoutput.. try { data = fann_read_train_from_file("dlltrdata.. _HiddenL. int reportcounter = 0.dat"). } //Train bool UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::Train(void) { static int firstrun = false. success = false. wchoutput = NULL.) { throw("").William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 delete bsterr. } if (fann_num_input_train_data(data) != _InputL) Page 187 of 225 . bsterr = NULL. bool success = true. ann = fann_create_standard(3. double error. _InputL. _OutputL). } catch(.

} fann_set_activation_steepness_hidden(ann. FANN_TRAIN_BATCH). 1). fann_set_activation_function_hidden (ann. } if (fann_num_output_train_data(data) != _OutputL) { throw(""). success = false. 1). //Set the learning rate fann_set_learning_rate(ann. fann_set_activation_steepness_output(ann. //Sigmoid Activation Functions (the same one //the GA uses). //Same range the GA's weights are //initialised too Page 188 of 225 . FANN_SIGMOID). FANN_SIGMOID). (float) _LearnRate). success = false. //Standard backprop fann_set_training_algorithm(ann. fann_set_activation_function_output (ann.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 { throw("").

0. } reportcounter++.". i++) { //Train one epoch then check the //mean squared error error = (double) fann_train_epoch(ann. i < _MaximumIteration. reportcounter = 0. vecbsterr. 0. i = _MaximumIteration + 1. data). } } fann_destroy_train(data). if (error < _TargetErr) { tr_output << "\nNetwork matching or improving upon target error" << "found at iteration [ " << i << " ]. if (reportcounter == _ReportInterval) { tr_output << "Best error at iteration [ " << i << " ] was " << error << ".0).\n".push_back(error). 1. Page 189 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 00000091 00000092 00000093 00000094 00000095 00000096 00000097 00000098 00000099 00000100 00000101 00000102 00000103 00000104 00000105 00000106 00000107 00000108 00000109 00000110 00000111 00000112 00000113 00000114 00000115 00000116 00000117 00000118 00000119 fann_randomize_weights(ann. //Training Loop for (int i = 0.

j++) { te_output << " [" << data->input[i][j] << "] ". j < _OutputL. } //Test bool UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::Test(void) { fann_type *calc_out = NULL. return true. i < fann_length_train_data(data). data = fann_read_train_from_file("dlltedata. } te_output << "\nOutput achieved was". fann_scale_train_data(data. 1). te_output << "\nWith inputs". for (unsigned int i = 0. for (int j = 0. j++) { Page 190 of 225 . data->input[i]). i++) { calc_out = fann_run(ann. error = new double[fann_length_train_data(data)].dat"). 0. for (int j = 0. double *error = NULL. j < _InputL.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 00000122 00000123 00000124 00000125 00000126 00000127 00000128 00000129 00000130 00000131 00000132 00000133 00000134 00000135 00000136 00000137 00000138 00000139 00000140 00000141 00000142 00000143 00000144 00000145 00000146 00000147 00000148 00000149 firstrun = true. te_output << "\n\n\t\t\t~~Network Testing~~".

data). delete error.c_str()). wchoutput = NULL. } wchoutput = new wchar_t[tr_output. } //get_report const wchar_t* UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::get_report_train(void) { if (wchoutput != NULL) { delete wchoutput. Page 191 of 225 .str().William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 te_output << " [" << calc_out[j] << "] ". tr_output.str(). wcscpy(wchoutput. j < _OutputL. return true.length() + 1]. delete calc_out. } } te_output << "\nMean Squared Error with these inputs and outputs is:". j++) { te_output << " [" << data->output[i][j] << "] ". for (int j = 0. te_output << fann_test_data(ann. } te_output << "\nOutput Desired was".

} //get_besterrs const double* UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::get_besterrs(int &size) { if (bsterr == NULL) { delete bsterr. } const wchar_t* UnManaged_FANN_Backprop::get_report_test(void) { if (wchoutput != NULL) { delete wchoutput.length() + 1].str(). size = vecbsterr. te_output. wchoutput = NULL. } wchoutput = new wchar_t[te_output.size().c_str()).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 return wchoutput.str(). } bsterr = new double[vecbsterr. wcscpy(wchoutput. Page 192 of 225 . return wchoutput.size()]. bsterr = NULL.

1.h” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 #pragma once #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <sstream> #include <vector> #include <doublefann.clear().William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 00000216 00000217 00000218 00000219 } for (unsigned int i = 0.5 . return bsterr. i++) { bsterr[i] = vecbsterr[i].size().“UnManaged_FANN_CasC. int _OutputL.4. 9. } vecbsterr. i < vecbsterr.h> class UnManaged_FANN_CasC { public: /********************\ |* DATA *| \********************/ //Network Structure int _InputL. //Training Parameters Page 193 of 225 .

Page 194 of 225 . 00000034 struct fann_train_data *data. double TargetErr. 00000022 int _MaxNeurons. 00000023 00000024 //Output for C# 00000025 static std::wstringstream tr_output. int MaxNeurons). 00000028 00000029 static std::vector<double> vecbsterr. int OutputL. 00000035 00000036 public: 00000037 /********************\ 00000038 |* EXTERNAL *| 00000039 \********************/ 00000040 00000041 //Destructor 00000042 ~UnManaged_FANN_CasC(void). 00000030 double *bsterr. 00000026 std::wstringstream te_output. 00000047 double LearnRate. 00000031 00000032 //FANN Data 00000033 struct fann *ann. 00000048 int ReportInterval.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000019 double _LearnRate. 00000027 wchar_t *wchoutput. 00000043 00000044 //Constructor 00000045 UnManaged_FANN_CasC 00000046 (int InputL. 00000021 int _ReportInterval. 00000020 double _TargetErr.

00000065 const wchar_t* get_report_test(void). Page 195 of 225 . unsigned int epochs_between_reports. 00000059 00000060 public: 00000061 /********************\ 00000062 |* GETTERS/SETTERS *| 00000063 \********************/ 00000064 const wchar_t* get_report_train(void). struct fann_train_data *train. 00000054 00000055 static int FANN_API Report_Callback 00000056 (struct fann *ann. unsigned int epochs). 00000057 unsigned int max_epochs. 00000058 float desired_error. 00000066 00000067 const double* get_besterrs(int &size). 00000053 bool Test(void). 00000068 }.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000049 00000050 //Interface functions 00000051 //accessed from C# 00000052 bool Train(void).

cpp” 00000001 00000002 00000003 00000004 00000005 00000006 00000007 00000008 00000009 00000010 00000011 00000012 00000013 00000014 00000015 00000016 00000017 00000018 00000019 00000020 00000021 00000022 00000023 00000024 00000025 00000026 00000027 00000028 00000029 #include "StdAfx. ann = NULL.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. int MaxNeurons) { _InputL = InputL.h" //Static variable declarations std::wstringstream UnManaged_FANN_CasC::tr_output. _OutputL = OutputL. _LearnRate = LearnRate. int ReportInterval.4. _MaxNeurons = MaxNeurons.h" #include "UnManaged_FANN_CasC. //Constructor UnManaged_FANN_CasC::UnManaged_FANN_CasC (int InputL.6 . double TargetErr. int OutputL. wchoutput = NULL. _ReportInterval = ReportInterval. _TargetErr = TargetErr. bsterr = NULL. std::vector<double> UnManaged_FANN_CasC::vecbsterr.1. data = NULL.“UnManaged_FANN_CasC. } //Destructor UnManaged_FANN_CasC::~UnManaged_FANN_CasC(void) Page 196 of 225 . double LearnRate.

length() + 1]. bsterr = NULL. fann_destroy_train(data).c_str()).str(). delete wchoutput. Page 197 of 225 . wcscpy(wchoutput. } const wchar_t* UnManaged_FANN_CasC::get_report_test(void) { if (wchoutput != NULL) { delete wchoutput. tr_output. wchoutput = NULL.str(). wchoutput = NULL. return wchoutput. } //get_report const wchar_t* UnManaged_FANN_CasC::get_report_train(void) { if (wchoutput != NULL) { delete wchoutput.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000030 00000031 00000032 00000033 00000034 00000035 00000036 00000037 00000038 00000039 00000040 00000041 00000042 00000043 00000044 00000045 00000046 00000047 00000048 00000049 00000050 00000051 00000052 00000053 00000054 00000055 00000056 00000057 00000058 00000059 { delete bsterr. } wchoutput = new wchar_t[tr_output.

length() + 1]. } vecbsterr. } Page 198 of 225 .size()]. } wchoutput = new wchar_t[te_output. return wchoutput. return bsterr. } bsterr = new double[vecbsterr. wcscpy(wchoutput.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000060 00000061 00000062 00000063 00000064 00000065 00000066 00000067 00000068 00000069 00000070 00000071 00000072 00000073 00000074 00000075 00000076 00000077 00000078 00000079 00000080 00000081 00000082 00000083 00000084 00000085 00000086 00000087 00000088 00000089 wchoutput = NULL. i++) { bsterr[i] = vecbsterr[i].str().str(). size = vecbsterr. te_output. i < vecbsterr.size().c_str()). for (unsigned int i = 0. } //get_besterrs const double* UnManaged_FANN_CasC::get_besterrs(int &size) { if (bsterr == NULL) { delete bsterr.size().clear(). bsterr = NULL.

0. 00000108 00000109 if (fann_num_output_train_data(data) != _OutputL) 00000110 throw(""). 00000094 00000095 ann = fann_create_shortcut(2.) 00000102 { 00000103 throw(""). Page 199 of 225 . 00000118 00000119 fann_set_quickprop_mu(ann.. 00000113 00000114 //Some more network customisation here 00000115 //might be nice in future.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000090 //Train 00000091 bool UnManaged_FANN_CasC::Train() 00000092 { 00000093 int reportcounter = 0.. _OutputL). 00000096 00000097 try 00000098 { 00000099 data = fann_read_train_from_file("dlltrdata. 00000100 } 00000101 catch(.dat"). 2. 00000111 00000112 fann_set_learning_rate(ann. 00000116 00000117 fann_set_quickprop_decay(ann. 00000104 } 00000105 00000106 if (fann_num_input_train_data(data) != _InputL) 00000107 throw("").0). _InputL. (float)_LearnRate).0).

UnManaged_FANN_CasC::Report_Callback).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000120 00000121 fann_set_cascade_weight_multiplier(ann. FANN_SIGMOID). FANN_STOPFUNC_MSE). 1). 00000133 00000134 fann_set_activation_function_output(ann. 150). 1). 1). 00000129 00000130 fann_set_training_algorithm(ann. 00000127 00000128 fann_set_learning_rate(ann. 00000144 00000145 return true. data. _ReportInterval. (float) _LearnRate). 0. (float) _TargetErr). 00000139 fann_set_train_stop_function(ann.01f). _MaxNeurons. 00000146 } 00000147 00000148 //Callback for reporting 00000149 int FANN_API UnManaged_FANN_CasC::Report_Callback Page 200 of 225 .0). 1. 0. 0.0. 00000126 fann_set_activation_steepness_hidden(ann. FANN_TRAIN_QUICKPROP). 00000140 00000141 fann_set_callback(ann. 00000137 fann_set_cascade_output_change_fraction(ann.01f). FANN_SIGMOID). 00000131 00000132 fann_set_activation_function_hidden(ann. 00000135 00000136 fann_randomize_weights(ann. 00000122 00000123 fann_set_cascade_max_out_epochs(ann. 00000124 00000125 fann_set_activation_steepness_output(ann. 00000138 fann_set_cascade_candidate_change_fraction(ann. 00000142 00000143 fann_cascadetrain_on_data(ann.

". 1). unsigned int epochs_between_reports. } //Test bool UnManaged_FANN_CasC::Test() { fann_type *calc_out = NULL.\n". tr_output << "Best error at node [ " << node << " ] was " << MSqE << ". vecbsterr.dat"). unsigned int epochs) { double MSqE = fann_get_MSE(ann). double *error = NULL. struct fann_train_data *train. return 0.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000150 00000151 00000152 00000153 00000154 00000155 00000156 00000157 00000158 00000159 00000160 00000161 00000162 00000163 00000164 00000165 00000166 00000167 00000168 00000169 00000170 00000171 00000172 00000173 00000174 00000175 00000176 00000177 00000178 00000179 (struct fann *ann. float desired_error. } node++. if (MSqE <= desired_error) { tr_output << "\nNetwork matching or improving upon target error" << "found at node [ " << node << " ]. 0. unsigned int max_epochs. fann_scale_train_data(data.push_back(MSqE). static int node = 1. data = fann_read_train_from_file("dlltedata. Page 201 of 225 .

i < fann_length_train_data(data). te_output << "\nWith inputs:". data). } te_output << "\nOutput Desired was:". j < _OutputL. j++) { te_output << " [" << calc_out[j] << "] ". NULL). j < _OutputL. te_output << "\n\n\t\t\t~~Network Testing~~". for (int j = 0. Page 202 of 225 . for (unsigned int i = 0. j++) { te_output << " [" << data->output[i][j] << "] ". j++) { te_output << " [" << data->input[i][j] << "] ". } } te_output << "\nMean Squared Error with these inputs and outputs is:". error = new double[fann_length_train_data(data)].William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000180 00000181 00000182 00000183 00000184 00000185 00000186 00000187 00000188 00000189 00000190 00000191 00000192 00000193 00000194 00000195 00000196 00000197 00000198 00000199 00000200 00000201 00000202 00000203 00000204 00000205 00000206 00000207 00000208 00000209 fann_set_callback(ann. } te_output << "\nOutput achieved was:". te_output << fann_test_data(ann. for (int j = 0. i++) { calc_out = fann_run(ann. for (int j = 0. j < _InputL. data->input[i]).

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 00000210 00000211 00000212 00000213 00000214 00000215 } delete error. delete calc_out. return true. Page 203 of 225 .

Page 204 of 225 .UML Class Diagram The class diagram on the following pages represents the structure of the various classes within the program and how they are combined together to create a whole.2 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9.

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Page 205 of 225 .

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Page 206 of 225 .

edu/ga/ o Accessed: 31/10/2008 Page 207 of 225 .3 .mit.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 -BackProp Previous Page -CascadeCorrelation 1 FANN_Cascade -UMWrapper +FANN_Cascade(in AllDataToFillAttributes) +Train() : bool +Test() : bool 1 -UMWrapper 1 FANN_BackProp +FANN_BackProp(in AllDataToFillAttributes) +Train() : bool +Test() : bool 1 1 1 UnManaged_FANN_BackProp -_InputL : int -_HiddenL : int -_OutputL : int -_LearnRate : double -_TargetErr : double -_ReportInterval : int -_MaximumIteration : int -_Momentum : double -tr_output -te_output -wchoutput -vecbsterr -bsterr -ann -data +UnManaged_FANN_Backprop(in AddDataToFillAttributes) +~UnManaged_FANN_Backprop() +Train() : bool +Test() : bool UnManaged_FANN_CasC -_InputL : int -_OutputL : int -_LearnRate : double -_TargetErr : double -_ReportInterval : int -_MaxNeurons : int -tr_output -te_output -wchoutput -vecbsterr -bsterr -ann -data +UnManaged_FANN_CasC(in AllDataToAFillAttributes) +~UnManaged_FANN_CasC() +Train() : bool +Test() : bool +Report_Callback(in Attributes) : int 1 1 1 1 FANN_Library 9.Libraries Researched • GALib o Matthew Wall o http://lancet.

nongnu.sourceforge.org/libann/index.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 • Libneural o D.com/flood/ o Accessed: 31/10/2008 • Annie o Asim Shankar o http://annie.html o Accessed: 31/10/2008 • Flood o Roberto Lopez o http://www. Franklin o http://ieee.cimne.uow.edu/au/~daniel/software/libneural/ o Accessed: 31/10/2008 • Libann o Anonymous o http://www.net/ o Accessed: 31/10/2008 • FANN (Fast Artificial Neural Network Library) o Steffen Nissen Page 208 of 225 .

math.dk/fann/index.html Page 209 of 225 .edu/stat/data/Fisher.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 o http://leenissen.4 .uk/pub/PRNN/README.xhtml Virus Classification o http://www.ac.ox.php o Accessed: 31/10/2008 9.stats.Datasets • XOR 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 • • Fishers Iris Data o http://www.uah.

Deliverable three: A document detailing and explaining the evaluation of different training techniques. and the conclusions derived from that evaluation. Using above application. and in which cases these methods are suitable. and a document describing its implementation and usage.Objectives FINAL YEAR DEGREE PROJECT Project Objectives & Deliverables • • • • • • Research the fields of genetic algorithms and neural networks.5 . evaluate training methods for neural networks. as well as previous research. • • • Deliverable one: A research document describing and detailing the research done for objectives one and two. Page 210 of 225 . and that allows manual adjustment of relevant variables. Research current information on training neural networks using genetic algorithms. Deliverable two: An application meeting the requirements of objectives three and four. Build a user-interface for the aforementioned application allowing for easy alteration of appropriate variables.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 9. Identify the most effective ways of training neural networks using genetic algorithms. Build an application that is capable of training a neural network with a genetic algorithm and with a backpropagation system.

& Seeman.com/KB/recipes/NeuralNetwork_1. An Empirical Study of Learning Speed in Back-Propagation Networks. (2001). Retrieved April 13. G. J. In D. 2009.aspx Page 211 of 225 . M.edu/user/sef/www/publications/qp-tr.gz Darwin. C. (2006).pdf Fahlman. (2007. Seeman.com/UploadFile/scottlysle/PassData01142007013005AM/PassData. & G. Carnegie Mellon: http://www-2. from http://www. S. Passing Data between Windows Forms. AI: Neural Network for Beginners pt. from C# Corner: http://www.edu/afs/cs. (1988). E.unm.unikarlsruhe. AI for Game Developers (pp.edu/user/sef/www/publications/cascor-tr. The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture.edu/afs/cs. Retrieved April 16. & Lebiere.cmu. 2009. Branke. from School of Computer Science. (1995). 2009. D. S. Retrieved April 13. On the origin of the species by means of natural selection. Wiley Professional Computing. from School of Computer Science.de/~jbr/Papers/GaNNOverview.Works Cited Barber. C. Graphics processing unit computation of neural networks.aifb. 1. Retrieved April 16. 2009. from http://www.ps Fahlman. A.cmu. Davis.cs. E. (1859).csharpcorner. (1992). January 16). Carnegie Mellon: http://www2. Retrieved April 13.cs. Bourg. London: John Murray.cmu. (1991). Chapter 14: Neural Networks.edu/~chris2d/papers/CED_thesis. Neural Network in C++.aspx Blum. 2009. E.ps. C.. O'Reilly. Retrieved April 16.cmu. 356-358).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 10 .cs. 2009. (2004). S. or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. M.. S.codeproject. Curved trajectory prediction using a self-organizing neural network. from Codeproject: www.ps Lysle. Bourg.

unc. from Artificial Neural Networks: http://www. & Pitts. 65. Retrieved 21 01. 5. Stanford University. Invention Report S81-64. 2009. Robot Control. Retrieved April 15.edu/~marshall/WWW/PAPERS/curve9912.learnartificialneuralnetworks. An introduction to genetic algorithms.. from MSDN: http://msdn. J.aspx Microsoft.com/faqs/genalg/genalg. Psychological Review .asp McCulloch. The perceptron: A probabilistic theory for information storage and organization in the brain. Office of Technology Licensing.cs. M. 2009. 2009.backgroundworker. D. (2002). Microsoft.generation5. Retrieved April 15. from Computer Science . Massachusetts: MIT Press. (2008).com/en-us/library/system.aspx Mitchell. S. 2009. A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. (1999).d. F. (1996). (n. (2009). Retrieved April 15.UNC-Chapel Hill: http://www.componentmodel.com/en-us/library/2x8kf7zx.org/content/2002/bp.html Marshall. A. V. Retrieved April 13. Page 212 of 225 . Back-propagation for the Uninitiated.com/robotcontrol. BackgroundWorker Class. from generation5: http://www.. (1943). 2009. from http://www. (2004). 115-133. Genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation. Curved trajectory prediction using a selforganizing neural network. Retrieved April 16.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Marczyk. Learning Logic. (2009).microsoft.htm Rosenblatt. Nissen.).microsoft. Retrieved April 16. from MSDN: http://msdn.ps. & Srikanth. W. 386-408. W. 2009.gz Matthews.dk/fann/ Parker. from FANN: http://leenissen. J. 2009. A. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics . (1958). Using C++ Interop (Implicit PInvoke). (1982). B.talkorigins.

).html#Contents Werbos. & Dimitrios.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Stergiou.php?title=Main_Page Page 213 of 225 . P.. (n. Harvard University. C.doc. (1997). S. 2009. from http://zedgraph. Beyond Regression: New tools for prediction and analysis in the behavioral sciences. (1974). from Imperial College London: http://www. Retrieved April 15. 2009. Neural Networks. PhD.d.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol4/cs11/report.ic.ac.org/wiki/index. ZedGraph. Retrieved 21 01.

gz Darwin. (2006). & Seeman. 356-358).codeproject. Chapter 14: Neural Networks. G. from MSDN: http://msdn.Bibliography Barber.com/KB/recipes/Backprop_ANN. Retrieved April 13. In D. 2009. Call Unmanaged DLLs from C#. AI: Neural Network for Beginners pt. E. from Codeproject: http://www. & G. 3. S.aifb.aspx Barber.codeproject. P. C. Bourg. London: John Murray. Killing Processes Cleanly. 2009. D. A. C. M.unikarlsruhe. Graphics processing unit computation of neural networks. (1992).ps. (2006). August 6). 2009. (2001). AI: Neural Network for Beginners pt. Retrieved April 13.aspx Blum.com/KB/cs/GA_ANN_XOR. Retrieved April 13.microsoft.com/KB/recipes/NeuralNetwork_1. M. from http://www. Retrieved April 13.unm.codeproject. Seeman. (2004). Neural Network in C++. Davis. (1859).aspx Barber. Wiley Professional Computing.codeguru. (2006). Retrieved April 13. from Codeproject: www. (2002). from Codeproject: http://www. 2009.php/c9855/ Page 214 of 225 .de/~jbr/Papers/GaNNOverview. Bourg. AI: Neural Network for Beginners pt.com/enus/magazine/cc301501. AI for Game Developers (pp. O'Reilly. 1. 2.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 11 . Curved trajectory prediction using a self-organizing neural network. Branke. (2007. J. (1995). or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. Retrieved April 13.pdf DiLascia.cs.com/Cpp/Cpp/cpp_mfc/tutorials/article.edu/~chris2d/papers/CED_thesis. Retrieved April 13.aspx DLL Tutorial for Beginners. 2009. 2009. S. from http://www. S. 2009.. On the origin of the species by means of natural selection. from Codeguru: http://www.

com/faqs/genalg/genalg.edu/user/sef/www/publications/cascor-tr. Curved trajectory prediction using a selforganizing neural network. from generation5: http://www. 115-133.asp Matthews. Passing Data between Windows Forms. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics . E.cmu..org/content/2000/xorga. C.org/content/2002/bp.ps Fahlman.cmu.cmu.talkorigins.edu/~marshall/WWW/PAPERS/curve9912. J. 2009.d. A.csharpcorner.cs. S.gz Matthews.generation5.ps GoogleChartSharp. Retrieved 21 01. (2004). Page 215 of 225 .unc. S.generation5.edu/user/sef/www/publications/qp-tr.).asp Matthews. (n. from http://www.edu/afs/cs. Genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation. Retrieved April 15. 5. & Lebiere. Retrieved 26 01.org/content/2000/cbpnet. 2009. 2009.ps.cmu. A. Retrieved April 16. (1999). The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated. 2009. 2009. S. 2009. (n. J. 2009. (1943). Retrieved April 15.UNC-Chapel Hill: http://www. generation5.google. Carnegie Mellon: http://www2. from C# Corner: http://www. V.aspx Marczyk. Retrieved April 16. 2009. from generation5: http://www. E. W.com/UploadFile/scottlysle/PassData01142007013005AM/PassData.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Fahlman. & Pitts. January 16). W.d. 2009. from Computer Science .html Marshall. Retrieved April 16. from School of Computer Science.).asp McCulloch.cs.generation5. (1988). Back-Propagation: CBPNet.. (2007.edu/afs/cs. (2000). from http://code. An Empirical Study of Learning Speed in Back-Propagation Networks. Carnegie Mellon: http://www-2. (2002). Retrieved April 15. from XORGA: http://www. A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. (1991). J. J. & Srikanth. Retrieved April 13. from School of Computer Science.com/p/googlechartsharp/ Lysle.cs..

learnartificialneuralnetworks. Massachusetts: MIT Press.com/robotcontrol.backgroundworker. D. (2008).William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Microsoft. Reference Manual.htm Page 216 of 225 . 2009. Learning Logic. S. 2009. Retrieved April 16.d. struct fann_train_data. An introduction to genetic algorithms.).dk/fann/html/files/fann-h. S.d.componentmodel. Retrieved 21 01. (n. from MSDN: http://msdn. Invention Report S81-64.dk/fann/fann_1_2_0/r1597.aspx Mitchell. Retrieved 21 01.html#fann_train_enum Nissen. M.html Nissen. from FANN: http://leenissen. 2009. 2009.html Nplot Charting Library for . (n.NET. Retrieved 21 01.com/en-us/library/system.dk/fann/fann_1_2_0/r1837. Nguyen. Retrieved 21 01. Retrieved April 16.org/nplot/wiki/ Parker. (n. B. (1990). from FANN: http://leenissen. (1996). S.html Nissen. (2009). Office of Technology Licensing. BackgroundWorker Class. Retrieved 21 01. from Datatypes: http://leenissen.microsoft. B. S.dk/fann/ Nissen. Retrieved 26 01. from MSDN: http://msdn.d. 1990 IJCNN International Joint Conference on . Improving the learning speed of 2-layer neural networks by choosinginitial values of the adaptive weights. Retrieved April 15. & Widrow.. Using C++ Interop (Implicit PInvoke).). (2009). 2009.). S.microsoft. 2009.d. 2009. from Artificial Neural Networks: http://www.). Nissen. Stanford University. from FANN: http://leenissen. D.d.).aspx Microsoft.d.). (1982).dk/fann/html/files/fann_data-h.. 1990. (n. (n. Neural Networks. 21-26. 2009. from http://netcontrols.com/en-us/library/2x8kf7zx. (n. 2009. from FANN: http://leenissen. Robot Control. struct fann.

....................................................doc.... & Dimitrios....... from Imperial College London: http://www........................ 27 Figure 5 ....................... S....Tables 12...............ic...... 13 Figure 4 . The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture.......... Beyond Regression: New tools for prediction and analysis in the behavioral sciences.. 12 Figure 3 ......org/wiki/index. 386-408........... 1991)... 2009.....).......... (1997)..........1 .............. F....d................... Retrieved 21 01... (n... 10 Figure 2 ....uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol4/cs11/report........William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Rosenblatt...........The initial state of a cascade correlation neural network...... PhD................ 2009...html#Contents Werbos... C.. Neural Networks....... The perceptron: A probabilistic theory for information storage and organization in the brain.. 65............. P. Stergiou......................... .... ZedGraph.... Retrieved April 15........local optimum (units are undefined in this case)..........An artificial neuron ...Table of Figures Figure 1 ......A human neuron .......... 30 Figure 6 ...ac.. from http://zedgraph.......... Harvard University..................................php?title=Main_Page 12 ........... .......A feed-forward neural network .. 35 Page 217 of 225 ........ (1974)............ Psychological Review ............... (1958)....... The circular connections are adjustable weights (Fahlman & Lebiere....................The sigmoid function shape ...............

...............................Network Settings tab....................................... The square connections are locked weights(Fahlman & Lebiere. 36 Figure 9 – Network and output tab design (Main form) ......................... 1991)............. 49 Figure 22 .....................Mean squared error graph tab ........... 46 Figure 18 ...Network and Output tab................................. ............................. 45 Figure 16 ...................... 44 Figure 15 . 51 Page 218 of 225 . 41 Figure 10 .............................................Dataset selection tab design (Wizard form).Learning Algorithm tab .... 48 Figure 21 .....................................................Mean squared error tab design (Main form) ....................... 42 Figure 11 ...About form design (About form) .. The CascadeCorrelation Learning Architecture..................................The second state of a cascade correlation neural network..................................... 43 Figure 13 ........... 45 Figure 17 .................................Licenses display design (About form) ................................................................................ 42 Figure 12 ...................Dataset tab design (Main form) ................................ 47 Figure 20 ......................The dataset tab .. 46 Figure 19 ................................................................................. 1991).......................................................... with two nodes added (Fahlman & Lebiere....William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 7 .. 35 Figure 8 ..................... 44 Figure 14 .................Working form design (Working form) .............................................................Design of the network settings tab (Wizard form) ..................Design of the training algorithm tab (Wizard form) ................. A first node has been added...........Dataset display design (About form) ............. The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture......................The third state of a cascade correlation neural network......................................... 50 Figure 23 .........................................................

....................Mean squared error at testing (Viruses)......... 67 Figure 36 .............Number of iterations to achieve target (Iris data) .Mean squared error upon last training test (XOR) .. 12 Equation 2 ........................ 65 Figure 35 ............................ 51 Figure 25 .................................................. 13 Equation 3 – The delta rule(Matthews....About form. In this example “y” is the function output and “t” is the function input.......About form......William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Figure 24 . 64 Figure 34.................. as defined in the graph above.................. Licenses view .............. ........................................................... 68 12............. 62 Figure 32 .. 61 Figure 31 ....... main view .................... 54 Figure 28 ..............Summation of the inputs and weights ............. 67 Figure 37 .........Dataset tab ...........................Working form ...................Number of iterations to achieve target (XOR) .............2 ......................................... 21 Page 219 of 225 ...................................................................................Number of iterations to achieve target (Viruses) ...............About form...........The mean squared error at testing (XOR)..The mean squared error at testing (Iris data) ..............................Table of Equations Equation 1 .... 61 Figure 30 ................................. 64 Figure 33...........................Mean squared error upon last training test (Iris data) ........ 52 Figure 26 ...Mean squared error upon last training test (Viruses)............................................................................................................................ Datasets view ........ 53 Figure 27 ..................................A sigmoid function(Bourg & Seeman....................... Back-propagation for the Uninitiated............................ 2002) ................... 2004). 54 Figure 29 ...............

....Back-propagation testing data (XOR)...........Altered perceptron learning rule (Matthews.............. ...... 34 Equation 10 .............. ‘f'p’ is the derivative for pattern 'p' of the candidate unit's activation function with respect to the sum of it’s inputs and ‘Ii........differentiated sigmoid function (Matthews............ .....................Altered delta calculation rule for the hidden layer(s) (Matthews.......... where ‘oo’ is the sign of the correlation between the candidates value output ‘o’................ 33 Equation 9 ...............The partial derivative of ’s’ (Fahlman & Lebiere...................The statistical approach to deciding relevant data .................................... 34 12........................................... 2002) ...................3 .................... the quantities ‘`v ’ and ‘`Eo’ are the values of v and Eo averaged over all patterns (Fahlman & Lebiere. The Cascade-Correlation Learning Architecture................................................................. Backpropagation for the Uninitiated........ The CascadeCorrelation Learning Architecture............Table of tables Table 1 .................. Back-propagation for the Uninitiated... 2002)............. 21 Equation 6 ........ 1991)................................The definition of 's' given that 'o' is the network output at which the error is measured........................ Backpropagation for the Uninitiated............... 2002).................William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Equation 4 ...........p’ is the input the candidate receives from unit ‘i’ for pattern ‘p’......................................................................... 59 Table 3 ................................... Back-propagation for the Uninitiated.....Genetic Algorithm testing data (XOR) .................... 'p' is the training pattern........... 21 Equation 5 ............................................ 2002) ... 15 Table 2 .......... 1991).......................... 22 Equation 8 ........The partial derivative of ‘s’ with respect to each of the candidates incoming weights ‘wi’.......................................................... 21 Equation 7 ........................................ 'v' is the candidate unit's value...................Altered delta calculation rule for the output layer(Matthews........................ 59 Page 220 of 225 ................................

............. 66 Page 221 of 225 .........William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 Table 4 .........Cascade Correlation testing data (Viruses) .............................................................. 63 Table 6 ........................Cascade Correlation testing data (XOR) .................Genetic algorithm testing data (Iris data) ............ 60 Table 5 .. 66 Table 9 ............... 63 Table 8 ..........Cascade correlation testing data (Iris data) .......................... 63 Table 7 ...........................................................Back-propagation testing data (Viruses) ......Back-propagation testing data (Iris data) ......................................... 66 Table 10 ..................Genetic Algorithms testing data (Viruses) .....................................................................

o Agreed on further investigation into GALib and genetic algorithms. • 31/10/2008 o First presentation complete and ready o References building up o Project plan complete • 10/11/2008 o Presentation went well o Progress satisfactory • 14/11/2008 o Discussed document formatting and layout Page 222 of 225 . however.Diary • 01/10/2008 – Research progress satisfactory. o Decision made to adjust the weights of the neural network during training as opposed to using a genetic algorithm to establish network structure.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 13 . o Submitted objectives. back-propagation network was running and learning XOR. • 10/10/2008 o GALib decided as a genetic algorithm starting point o Further non-web references as a goal • • 16/10/2008 o Investigation into various neural network libraries taking place. • 24/10/2008 o University computers were down so code demo was impossible. o Decided on XOR as a starting point. 17/10/2008 o Investigating more deeply into journals based on research already conducted.

13/02/2009 o Have decided to extend the project by including cascade correlation learning algorithm and comparison to genetic algorithms. o Progress satisfactory • 20/02/2009 o Progress satisfactory Page 223 of 225 . • • 06/02/2009 o Still exploring extra areas for project to cover.William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 o Progress satisfactory. 21/11/2008 o Progress satisfactory 28/11/2008 o Progress satisfactory 05/12/2008 o Progress satisfactory 12/12/2008 o Progress satisfactory 09/01/2009 o Progress satisfactory 16/01/2009 o Progress satisfactory 23/01/2009 o Progress satisfactory 30/01/2009 o Milestone two has been successfully submitted o Started investigating other areas to explore outside of project requirements. • • • • • • • • • 19/11/2008 o Milestone one submitted successfully.

have decided to implement in managed language (C#) to try to solve this o Report continues satisfactorily • 04/04/2009 o To do: About box Add dataset notes Decided on virus classification as a third dataset via the custom dataset functionality. o Have started report • 02/04/2009 o Main problems experienced with genetic algorithm seem related to memory leaks. Page 224 of 225 .William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 • • • • 27/02/2009 o Progress satisfactory 06/03/2009 o Project progress delayed by other coursework 13/03/2009 o Project progress delayed by other coursework 20/03/2009 o Project progressing. catch-up time for previous two weeks will be used over Easter break. is much faster (fixed several bugs along the way) and retains none of the problematic memory leaks. o Report satisfactory • 05/04/2009 o Further work on user interface needed o Finish C# genetic algorithm code (C++ code does work but is very slow) o Report satisfactory • 06/04/2009 o C# genetic algorithm code is complete.

William Sayers 05025397 Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks Milestone 3 o Report satisfactory • 10/04/2009 o Fully functional project – commencing report. o Report satisfactory. Page 225 of 225 .

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